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K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Politics and Struggles for Access to Land: .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Sustainable Development in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) of Kenya: The Role of NGOs, A perspective on Local Capacity Building Strategies", A paper prepared for the Workshop on NGOs/Community Leadership Working Improved Network in the Nomadic Pasto.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991.
K. KJ, O. OP, SO. ML, O. AE, O. OE. "Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients." East African Medical Journal, 86 (9): 435 . 2009;86(9):435-441. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To describe the incidence of renal dysfunction, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia in AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis and on amphotericin B treatment. Secondary objective was to determine all-cause mortality in the same group.

Design: Prospective, observational study.

Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: Seventy consecutive patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis on amphotericin B.

Results: About 58.6% of the patients had at least 100% rise in the creatinine level. Thirty eight point six per cent of patients experienced a rise in serum creatinine of at least 50%. Ninty three per cent of the patients developed hypokalaemia and 80% had hypomagnesaemia at trough magnesium level. Only 54.3% of patients completed the intended 14-day treatment. Thirty point five per cent of patients died within the two week follow-up period.

Conclusion: The incidences of amphotericin B associated nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia and hypomagnesaemia were high in this studied population.

K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection upon acute salpingitis: a laparoscopic study.J Infect Dis. 1998 Nov;178(5):1352-8.PMID: 9780255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: a laparoscopic study.J Infect Dis. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract
Cohen CR, Sinei S, Reilly M, Bukusi E, Eschenbach D, Holmes KK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Grieco V, Stamm W, Karanja J, Kreiss J. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. crohen@u.washington.edu To determine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection upon pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a laparoscopic study of acute PID was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, HIV-1 serology, and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Of the 133 women with laparoscopically verified salpingitis, 52 (39%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) were found in 33% of HIV-1-infected and 15% of HIV-1-uninfected women (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-6.5). Among seropositive women, TOA was found in 55% of those with CD4 cell percent <14% vs. 28% with CD4 cell percent>14% (OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.6-15.3). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in 37 women (28%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in 12 (9%); neither was significantly related to HIV-1 seropositivity. Length of hospitalization was not affected by HIV-1 serostatus overall but was prolonged among HIV-1-infected women with CD4 cell percent <14%. Among patients with acute salpingitis, likelihood of TOA was related to HIV-1 infection and advanced immunosuppression. In general, HIV-1-seropositive women with acute salpingitis responded well to treatment. PMID: 9780255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K. A. Sinei, J.W.Mwangi, R. W. Munenge, Mwaura AM. "The contractile action of Adenia Globosa Engl. on mammalian smooth muscle." Kenya Science, Technology and Innovation Journal . 2015;4 and 5:53-64._the_contractile_action_of_adenia_globosa_engl._on_mammalian_smooth_muscle.pdf
K. NGUGI and, MASWILI R. "PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY IN SORGHUM LANDRACES FROM KENYA." African Crop Science Journal,. 2010;18(4):165-173.phenotypic_diversity_in_sorghum_landraces_from_kenya.pdf
K. V. O. Rabah, Mito CO, and Sathiaraj TS. Passive Solar Energy – Efficient Building Design in Kenya. Elsevier Science,; 1998.
K.B. E, M.K. A, A V. "Surgical management of aggressive jaw central giant cell granuloma case report." East Africa Medical Journal. 2013;Vol. No. 1 January 2013.
K.C C, P.W W, E.T O. "Computer based Medical Diagnostic decision assistant.". In: Workshop on Application of ICT in enhancing Higher learning education . Tanzania; 2004.
K.C C, Mugwanya R, G M, E. B. ICTD Interventions: Trends over the Last Decade. Atlanta, USA: ACM; 2012.
K.C C, E. B, G M. Software design for informal setups: Centring the benefits. East London, SA: Telecom SA; 2011.
K.C C, S. N. "The Possibility of One Size Fits all in ICT4D Design: Not even when they have the Same Shape and Size—a Case Study of the Day-Labour Organisations- ." International Journal of Information Communication Technologies and Human Development (IJICTHD) . 2015;Volume 7 (1).
K.C C, E. B, Marsden G. ICTs and Survival Tactics for the Day-labour Workers: Implications for Design. Nairobi, Kenya: IST-Africa; 2013.
K.C C. "Importance of Participant Characteristics in Software Systems Design In the Informal Sector." IEEE African Journal of Computing & ICTs (AJCICT) . 2014;7(2).
K.Gakunga D. Comparative Education TFD 401 E-learning Module uploaded in the University of Nairobi E-learning Portal . Nairobi: University of Nairobi e-Learning Portal; 2010.
K.Gakunga D, makatiani M. Foundations of Comparative Education TFD 616. Nairobi: University of Nairobi e-Learning Portal; 2012. Abstract
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K.Gakunga D, makatiani M. Foundations of Comparative Education TFD 616. Nairobi: University of Nairobi e-Learning Portal; 2012.
K.M.Mavuti &, E.N.Kimani, T.Mukiama. "Growth patterns of the pearl oyster Pinctada margarifera in Gazi Bay, Kenya." African Journal of Marine Sciences . 2005;27:567-575.
K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "Public and Private Transfers.". In: NTA Meetings. University of Cape Town, South Africa; 2010.
K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "Impact of Educational Policies on Access to Education in Kenya.". In: NTA Meetings. Dakar, Senegal; 2016.
K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "Counting Women’s Work”. The gendered economy in the market and at home.". In: NTA Meetings. University of Cape Town, South Africa; 2014.
K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "The Effect of Educational Policies on Kenyan Education Profile.". In: NTA Meetings. Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2011.
K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "Counting unpaid work in Kenya: Gender and age profiles of hours worked and imputed wage incomes." The journal of the Economics Aging. 2017.
K.Njunge, G.Muriuki, Mwangi JW, Kuria KAM. "Analgesic and antipsychotic effects of myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae)." Phytother Res. 2002;16:573-574.
K.O. ABUGA*, B.K. AMUGUNE NDWIGAHKAMAUTHOITHIOGETOOKARUNGUYOKING’ONDUMUGOSNFN. "Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the Period 2006-2010." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;Vol. 16(33). Abstractfull_paper.pdfWebsite

The quality of a drug product is determined by product design, manufacturing process as well as storage and distribution practices [1]. Effective quality control testing entails use of compendial or validated in-house methods [2]. The Frost and Sullivan report of 2008 revealed that 72% of the drug products in the Kenyan market were imported and majority (58.7%) of the drugs in circulation were generics [3]. The limited investment in the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry is mainly attributable to the high cost of production which undermines competitiveness in the market [4].
Market authorization for pharmaceuticals in Kenya is granted by the national drug regulatory authority, the Pharmacy and Poisons Board after requisite evaluation of drug registration applications. The applicants are required to submit a certificate of analysis from a recognized independent laboratory operating within Kenya or the East African Community. The three Kenyan laboratories accredited to carry out pre-registration analysis for this purpose are the National Quality Control Laboratory (NQCL), Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) and Mission for Essential Drugs and Supplies (MEDS) laboratory [5].
Drug quality control in DARU has been conducted since 1980 [6]. The laboratory has published periodic reports on the quality performance of drug samples analyzed therein. Previous reports have shown a continued improvement in the quality of products analyzed in DARU. In the 1980s the overall failure rate ranged from 21.6% to 31.4%, dropping to 17.6-21.1% in the 1990s and 6.1% in the years 2001-2005 [6-16]. The number of samples submitted to the DARU laboratory has gradually increased over the years due to enhanced consumption by the growing Kenyan population and drive for enhanced exports [17,18]. This paper reports on the quality performance of samples analyzed in DARU during the period 2006-2010.

K.Tum P, Kasha GM, Kithure JGN, Mwazighe FM. "Optimization of Essential Oil Extraction from Eucalyptus grandis Leaves By Clevenger Distillation. ." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society . 2016;9(1):91-102.
K.V T, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology . 2012.
K.W S, P.B G, M.N K, L.W K, J.N O. "Toxin production and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli river water isolates.". 1998. Abstract

To establish the types of E. coli isolates that are found in river water around Nairobi and to assess the potential risk of use of this water to human health. Design: Multiple stratified sampling was carried out. Surface sampling was used in the entire study. Setting: The study was carried out on river waters surrounding Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Forty Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Main outcome measures: Serotyping, toxin gene tests and susceptibility to tetracyclines, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin were analysed. Results: None of the isolates could be specifically serotyped using the available antisera. Toxin gene production tests using the colony hybridisation technique revealed that nine (22.5 %) of the strains were positive for heat stable (ST) toxin, seven (17.5 0/0) to the heat labile (L T) toxin and two (5 0/0) to both. Using the Agar Disk Diffusion technique, eighty per cent of the strains were susceptible to all four antibiotics, while twenty per cent of the strains showed multiple resistance. None of the strains was resistant to all four antibiotics while no strain showed resistance to kanamycin. Conclusion: None of the E. coli isolates was serotypable and it was therefore not possible to determine whether serologically identical strains of ETEC were haboured by man or animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhoea causing ETEC to man and animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhoea causing ETEC to man and animals if they consume this water untreated and there is evidence to show resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, hence appropriate health measures should be adhered to.

K.W. M, R.M. W, J.W. M, Mbuthia PG, R.H. M. "Comparative management practices and parasitic infestations of farmed tilapia in Kiambu and Kirinyaga counties, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. 2018;5(3):156-161.
K.W. E-PW. "''Jiji Juani'' in Tamthilia ya maisha a poetry anthology." Nairobi: Vide Muwa Publishers; 2005.
K.Z. Mganga, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Mwang`ombe AW. "Improving Hydrological Responses of Degraded Soils in Semi Arid Kenya." Journal of Environmental Science and Technology . 2010;3(4):217-225. Abstract

A study was conducted to establish the contribution of reseeding using indigenous perennial grasses; Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass) in improving soil hydrological properties and thus controlling soil erosion in the degraded areas of Kibwezi district, Kenya. The experiment was carried out using simulated rainfall, Kamphorst simulator, on bare ground and at different grass stubble heights. The experimental plots were set up under sprinkler irrigation controlled conditions to ensure availability of sufficient moisture for seed germination and subsequent establishment. Results showed that sediment production as a function of runoff and infiltration capacity was significantly different (p<0.05) at different grass stubble heights. Cenchrus ciliaris had the greatest influence on improving soil hydrological properties. Enteropogon macrostachyus and Eragrostis superba were ranked second and third, respectively. This was attributed to the growth characteristics of the perennial grasses. Generally, an increase in grass height increased infiltration capacity, reduced runoff and sediment production.

K; M, Beniamino T, Cenci-Goga, Prosperi A, Eric Etter, El-Ashram S, McCrindle C, N OJ, Karake A. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter spp. occurrence in healthy dogs visiting four rural community veterinary clinics in South Africa." Ondersport Journal of Veterinary Research, . 2019.
KA S, Mwangi JW, Mwaura AM, Munenge RM. "Potentiation of uterine stimulatory action of Adenia globosa Engl, by oxytocin in vitro." Afr. J. Health Sci. . 1994;4:191-3.
KA W, A V, DO A, EAO D, A M, AK L, J G, chindia ML. "Burning mouth syndrome presenting with oral lichen planus – A case report." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2014.
Kaaria LM, Oduma JA, Kaingu CK, Mutai PC, Wafula DK. "Effect of Asparagus racemosus on selected female reproductive parameters using Wistar rat model.". 2019;6(4):199-204.
KAAYA GP. "Humoral immunity in tsetse.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Molecular Insect Science. Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A; 1989.
KAAYA GP, RATCLIFFE NA. "Comparative study of haemocytes and the associated cells of some medically important Dipterans." Journal of Morphology . 1982;173:351-365.
KAAYA GP, Seshu‐Reddya KV, KOKWARO ED, Munyinyia DM. "Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Serratia marcescens to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.". 1993. AbstractPathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Serratia marcescens to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

Two exotic fungal isolates, one of Beauveria bassiana (268–86) and another of Metarhizium anisopliae (100–82), three local isolates of B. bassiana (isolates I, II, III) and one of the entomogenous bacteria Serratia marcescens, were tested for pathogenicity against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. All four isolates of B. bassiana and the one of M. anisopliae were found to be pathogenic to third—instar larvae of C. sordidus, causing mortalities of 98–100% by 9 days post—exposure to dry fungal spores. M. anisopliae was the least pathogenic to larvae with LT50 of 4.2 days, compared to 3.5, 3.3, 3.6 and 4.0 respectively for isolates I, II, III and 268–86. B. bassiana was also pathogenic to adult C. sordidus, causing mortalities varying from 63–97% by 35 days post—exposure depending on isolate. As for larvae M. anisopliae exhibited low pathogenicity for the adult C. sordidus. In general, all the fungi tested were less pathogenic to adult weevils (LT50 = 17.5; 12.5; 8.0 and 22.0 days) for isolates I, II, III and 268–86 respectively, while isolate 100–82 failed to kill 50% of adults even by 35 days post—exposure. Incubation of dead weevils in a moist environment led to development of surface mycelia starting from intersegmental junctions. Histopathology revealed extensive destruction of internal organs by hyphae which invaded most of the organs. The LT50 for S. marcescens against C. sordidus larvae was 2.8 days. However, the bacterium did not kill adult C. sordidus even at 10 times the concentration applied on larvae.

KAAYA GP. "Pathogenicity and biocontrol potentials of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for tsetse Glossina morsitans morsitans.". In: Proceedings of Vth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial control. Adelaide, Australia; 1990.
KAAYA GP. "Mortality and pathology in tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) treated with Neem extracts." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 1996;16:58-65.
KAAYA GP. "Biological control agents and other natural factors as regulators of tick populations.". In: Proceedings of 9th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference. Arusha, Tanzania; 1991.
KAAYA GP, SAMISH M, ITAMAR G. "Laboratory Evaluation of Pathogenicity of Entomogenous nematodes to African tick species. ." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci . 2000;916:303-308.
KAAYA GP, DARJI N. "The humoral defense system in tsetse: Differences in response due to age, sex and antigen types." Developmental and Comparative Immunology . 1988;12:255-268.
KAAYA GP. "Prospects for innovative methods of tick control in Africa." Insect Science and Its application. 2003;23 (1):59-67.
KAAYA GP. "Biological Control: An environmentally safe alternative to chemical Pesticides.". In: In "community-based environmentally-safe Pest Management". Eds. R.K. Saini and P.T. Haskell.; 1993.
KAAYA GP, DARJI N. "Mortality in adult tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans caused by entomopathogenic bacteria." Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 1989;54:32-38.
KAAYA, G.P., VALLI, V.E.O., MAXIE MG. "Bovine erythrocytic, granulocytic and macrophage colony formation in culture." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1978;42:322-326.
KAAYA GP, MWANGI EN. "The potential of indigenous botanicals for tick control in Africa.". In: Proceedings of 12th Tanzania Veterinary Association scientific conference. Arusha, Tanzania; 1994.
KAAYA GP. "Antibiotic properties of insect antibacterial factors.". In: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Joint Scientific Conference. Arusha, Tanzania; 1989.
KAAYA GP. "Humoral antibacterial immunity in tsetse.". In: In "Molecular and Physiological Basis of Vector Parasite Interactions and Its Epidemiological Implications". Dormy House Hotel, Broadway, Worcestershire; 1990.
KAAYA GP, ALEMU P. "Further observations on survival and fertility of Glossina morsitans morsitans maintained on immunized rabbits. ." . Insect Science and Its Application. 1984;5:443-446.
KAAYA, G.P. AND SESHU-REDDY KV. "Pathogenity and biocontrol potentials of entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Serratia marcescens for the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus.". In: Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology. Flagstaff, Arizona, USA; 1991.
KAAYA GP, HASSAN SM. "Entomogenous fungi as promising biopesticides for tick control." Experimental and Applied Acarology. 2000;24:913-923.
KAAYA GP. "Development of innovative method based on fungal entomopathogens for control of the economically-important African ticks.". In: 22nd World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP, 2009) Conference. Calgary, Canada; 2009.
KAAYA, G.P., DARJI N, OTIENO LH. "Effects of bacteria, antibacterial compounds and trypanosomes on tsetse reproduction and longevity." Insect Science and Its Application . 1987;8:217-220.
KAAYA GP. "The potential of anti-tick plants as components of integrated tick control strategy." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., . 2000;916 :576-582.
KAAYA, G.P. ANDMWANGIEN. "Biocontrol potentials of Entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for livestock ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum.". In: Proceedings of 9th International Congress of Acarology. Columbus, Ohio, USA; 1994.
KAAYA, G.P. BOMANFLYGANDOTIENOHGCL. "Characteristics of acquired humoral immunity in tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans.". In: Proceedings of the 4th International colloquium of Invertebrate pathology. Veldhoven, The Netherlands; 1986.
KAAYA, G.P., TIZARD, I.R., MAXIE MG, VALLI VEO. "Inhibition of leukopoiesis by sera from Trypanosoma congolense infected calves: Partial characterization of the inhibitory factor." Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie . 1980;31:232-238.
KAAYA, G.P. WINGVISTANDJOHNSONGLW. "Clinico-pathological aspects of Trypanosoma congolense infection in goats." Bulletin of animal Health and production in Africa. 1977;25:397-408.
KAAYA, G.P. AND DARJI N. "Pathogenicities of different entomopathogenic bacteria for adult tsetse Glossina morsitans morsitans.". In: Proceedings of the XVIII International Congress of Entomology. Vancouver, BC. Canada; 1988.
KAAYA, G.P., OTIENO LH. "Haemocytes of Glossina: I. Morphological classification and the pattern of change with age of the flies." Insect Science and Its Application. 1981;2:175-180.
KAAYA, G.P., SESHU REDDY KV, KOKWARO ED. "Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Serratia marcescens to the banana weevil,Cosmopolites sordidus." Biocontrol science and technology. 1993;3:177-187.
KAAYA, G.P., MAXIE, M.G., VALLI VEO, LOSOS GJ. "Bovine granulocyte/macrophage and erythroid colony culture: Characteristics of the colonies and the assay systems." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1979;43:448-457.
KAAYA, G.P., SAXENA RC, SOLOMON G. "Evaluation of Neem products for control of the major African tick species.". In: Proceedings of International Neem Conference. ICIPE, Mbita Point Field Station, Kenya; 1999.
KAAYA GP. "Laboratory evaluation of biocontrol potentials of entomopathogenic fungi for tsetse.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference. Arusha, Tanzania; 1989.
KAAYA GP, OKECH MA. "Microorganisms associated with tsetse in nature: Preliminary results on isolation, identification and pathogenicity." Insect Science and Its Application. 1990;11:443-448.
KAAYA, G.P., SAXENA RC, GEBRE S. "The potential of Neem products for control of economically-important African ticks." Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia. 2007;4 (1):95-104.
KAAYA GP, ALEMU P. "Fecundity and survival of tsetse maintained on immunized rabbits." Insect Science and Its Application . 1982;3:237-241.
KAAYA, G.P., MWANGI EN, Malonza MM. "Acaricidal activity of Margaritaria discoidea plant extracts against the ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma varigatum." International journal of Acarology. 1995;21:123-129.
KAAYA GP. "Microorganisms associated with tsetse in nature and their pathogenicity tests.". In: Proceedings of Annual Meeting of Society for Invertebrate Pathology. Flagstaff, Arizona, USA; 1991.
KAAYA GP, SAMISH, M., HEDIMBI, M., GINDIN G, GLAZER I. "Control of tick populations by spraying Metarhizium anisopliae conidia on cattle under field conditions. ." Experimental and Applied Acarology. 2011;55:273-281.
KAAYA GP, MWANGI EN. "Control of livestock ticks in Africa: Possibilities of biological control using the entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium ." PERSPECTIVE”, (Eds. Coons, L. and Rothschild, M.), . 1998;1:5-16.
KAAYA, G.P. AND MWANGI EN. "Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for tsetse Glossina morsitans and ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus.". In: Proceedings of Society for Invertebrate pathology conference. Heidelberg, Germany; 1992.
KAAYA GP, HEDIMBI M. "The use of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, as bio-pesticides for tick control." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2012;2(6):245-250.
KAAYA GP. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomogenous fungi for tick control." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2000;916 : 559-564.
KAAYA, G.P. OTIENOANDDARJILHN. "Cellular and humoral immunity in Glossina.". In: Proceedings of ISDCI invertebrate immunology conference. Montpellier, France; 1985.
KAAYA GP, ODUOR-OKELLO D. "The Effects of Trypanosoma congolense infection on the testis and epididymis of the goat." . Bulletin of animal Health and production in Africa. 1980;28:1-5.
KAAYA GP. "Inducible humoral antibacterial immunity in insects.". In: In "INSECT IMMUNITY" Ed. Pathak, J.P.N. New Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta.: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Ltd; 1993.
KAAYA GP, LOSOS GJ, MAXIE MG, VALLI VEO. Effect of bovine trypanosomiasis on hematopoiesis.; 1979.
KAAYA GP. "Future prospects of biological control of tsetse.". In: Proceedings of Scientific Meeting of Nairobi Cluster and Kenya Veterinary Association. ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya; 1986.
KAAYA GP. "An assessment of antibiotic potentials of insect antibacterial factors." Insect Science and Its Application . 1989;10:341-346.
KAAYA, G.P., MAXIE MG, VALLI VEO. "Cryopreservation of bovine hemopoietic progenitor cells in liquid nitrogen." Cryobiology. 1981;18:119-124.
KAAYA GP. "Non-chemical agents and factors capable of regulating tick populations in nature: A mini Review." Insect Science and Its Application. 1992;13:587-594.
KAAYA GP, SAXENA RC. "Prospects for the control of ticks using Neem compounds.". In: Proceedings of Uganda Veterinary Association Annual Conference. Kampala; 1997.
KAAYA G.P. "The role of parasitic wasps in integrated tick management.". In: Proc. PARSA Conference. Magoebaskloof Hotel, Limpopo Province, RSA; 2006.
KAAYA G.P., KADHILA-MUANDINGI, P.N., LOTFY HR, MSHIGENI K. "Incorporation of seaweed in mushroom cultivation substrates and mushroom iodization." . African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(25):3673-3676.
KAAYA G.P., KANDILA-MUANDINGI, P.N., LOTFY EL-SAYED, H.R, MSHIGENI K. "Determination of optimum ratios of seaweed in mushroom cultivation substrates and ability of mushrooms to absorb iodine.". In: Proc. AGRISSON Congress. Oshakati Country Hotel; 2009.
KAAYA G.P., HEDIMBI M. "Evaluation of fungal entomopathogens as a component of integrated tick management.". In: Proc. AGRISSON Congress. Oshakati Country Hotel; 2009.
KAAYA G.P. "Neem (Azadirachta indica): Its potential for control of African ticks of economic importance.". In: 22nd World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP, 2009) Conference. Calgary, Canada; 2009.
Kabaka JM, Wachira BM, Mang'era CM, Rono MK, Hassanali A, Okoth SO, Oduol VO, Macharia RW, Murilla GA, Mireji PO. "Expansions of chemosensory gene orthologs among selected tsetse fly species and their expressions in Glossina morsitans morsitans tsetse fly." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(6):e0008341. Abstract

Tsetse fly exhibit species-specific olfactory uniqueness potentially underpinned by differences in their chemosensory protein repertoire. We assessed 1) expansions of chemosensory protein orthologs in Glossina morsitans morsitans, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina austeni, Glossina palpalis gambiensis, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina brevipalpis tsetse fly species using Café analysis (to identify species-specific expansions) and 2) differential expressions of the orthologs and associated proteins in male G. m. morsitans antennae and head tissues using RNA-Seq approaches (to establish associated functional molecular pathways). We established accelerated and significant (P<0.05, λ = 2.60452e-7) expansions of gene families in G. m. morsitans Odorant receptor (Or)71a, Or46a, Ir75a,d, Ionotropic receptor (Ir) 31a, Ir84a, Ir64a and Odorant binding protein (Obp) 83a-b), G. pallidipes Or67a,c, Or49a, Or92a, Or85b-c,f and Obp73a, G. f. fuscipes Ir21a, Gustatory receptor (Gr) 21a and Gr63a), G. p. gambiensis clumsy, Ir25a and Ir8a, and G. brevipalpis Ir68a and missing orthologs in each tsetse fly species. Most abundantly expressed transcripts in male G. m. morsitans included specific Or (Orco, Or56a, 65a-c, Or47b, Or67b, GMOY012254, GMOY009475, and GMOY006265), Gr (Gr21a, Gr63a, GMOY013297 and GMOY013298), Ir (Ir8a, Ir25a and Ir41a) and Obp (Obp19a, lush, Obp28a, Obp83a-b Obp44a, GMOY012275 and GMOY013254) orthologs. Most enriched biological processes in the head were associated with vision, muscle activity and neuropeptide regulations, amino acid/nucleotide metabolism and circulatory system processes. Antennal enrichments (>90% of chemosensory transcripts) included cilium-associated mechanoreceptors, chemo-sensation, neuronal controlled growth/differentiation and regeneration/responses to stress. The expanded and tsetse fly species specific orthologs includes those associated with known tsetse fly responsive ligands (4-methyl phenol, 4-propyl phenol, acetic acid, butanol and carbon dioxide) and potential tsetse fly species-specific responsive ligands (2-oxopentanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-heptanone, caffeine, geosmin, DEET and (cVA) pheromone). Some of the orthologs can potentially modulate several tsetse fly species-specific behavioral (male-male courtship, hunger/host seeking, cool avoidance, hygrosensory and feeding) phenotypes. The putative tsetse fly specific chemosensory gene orthologs and their respective ligands provide candidate gene targets and kairomones for respective downstream functional genomic and field evaluations that can effectively expand toolbox of species-specific tsetse fly attractants, repellents and other tsetse fly behavioral modulators.

Kabaka WM, Gitao CG, Kitala PM, Maingi N, Vanleeuwen JA. "Risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in Nakuru and Mukurueini districts, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2013;60:413-419.
Kabaka WM, Kitala PM, Gitao CG, Maingi N, Vanleeuwen JA. "The efficacy of albendazole and moxidectin in the control of nematode infection in cattle." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 2013;60:393-397.
Kabaka WM, Gitau GK, Kitala PM, Maingi N, Vanleeuwen JA. "Risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infections of cattle in Nakuru and Mukurweni districts in Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

A study was carried out in Nakuru and Mukurweini districts of Kenya to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in cattle on 128 dairy farms between June 16th 2010 and August 30th 2010. Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 419 heads of cattle that were above three months of age on the selected farms, refrigerated and delivered to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, for GIN analyses (McMaster method) within 7 days. Questionnaires were administered on every farm to collect individual animal and farm management data. Logistic regression analysis was carried out (univariable and multivariable), and a model developed using a backward elimination method. The univariable analysis revealed that animal age, district, time to last deworming, frequency of manure removal, source of forages, and the type of dewormer used last as the factors associated with GIN infections in cattle. The final regression model indicated that animal age, farm district, time to last deworming, and the type of dewormer used last as the factors associated with nematode infections in cattle. The study concluded that grazing management and the deworming management, particularly among young animals, were the main factors associated with cattle GIN infections.

KABARA M, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Global Warming in the 21st Century: The Impact on Agricultural Production in Kenya. In J.M. Cossia (Ed.). Chapter 8 (199-214) .". In: Global Warming in the 21st Century. NEW YORK: Nova Science Publishers; 2011.
kabare N, Kibera FN, Munyoki JM. "The Mediation Effect of Customer Perception on the Relationship Between Quality Drivers and Customer Satisfaction in Large Maize Flour Mills in Nairobi, Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2014;14(1): 17-34. Abstractthe_mediation_effect_of_customer_perception_on_the_relationship_between__quality_drivers_and_customer_satisfaction.pdf

This study sought to establish the influence of quality drivers on the satisfaction of direct
business customers within large Maize Flour Mills in Nairobi and assess the mediation effect of
customer perception on this relationship. The quality drivers studied were product quality,
service quality, complaints handling, ease of doing business and product price. Customer
perception constructs studied were customer’s desire for features critical to quality, brand
imagery, firm imagery and reference to competitive substitutes. Primary data were collected in
February 2013 by use of questionnaires from 81 direct Business Customer firms randomly
selected from 13 Maize Flour Mills in the study area grinding at least 15 MT of maize per day.
Results showed that the influence of quality drivers on customer satisfaction is both direct and
partially mediated by customer perception, both influences being positive and statistically
significant (p< 0.01). Quality of service significantly influenced customer satisfaction (β= 0.441,
p< 0.01) and most of the other quality drivers and intention to recommend. Brand imagery
significantly influenced satisfaction (β= 0.531, p< 0.01) followed by desire for features critical to
quality (β= 0.259, p< 0.01). These results have implications for marketing theory. The finding
that customer perception partially mediated the process of customer satisfaction agrees with the
consumer attitude theories which postulate that attitude and subjective norms in conjunction
with cognitive and emotional considerations influence intentions which in turn give impetus for
action. The study contributes to the evolution and adaptation of customer satisfaction models by
adding customer perception as mediator variables. Further, the results have implications useful
at national policy level. Kenya’s strategy for revitalizing agriculture and vision 2030 both aspire
to increase the country’s regional and global trade through improved efficiency and
competitiveness at firm level, agro-processing and the marketing system including the wholesale
and retail sectors. The volume of trade within the East African Community is expected to
increase as member states reduce trade barriers. This will open new trade opportunities but
could increase competition. Training local firms on the issues of quality drivers and customer
perception can help to improve their regional and global competitiveness. For managerial
practice, the results demonstrate that frequent feedback on customer perception is necessary
and that improvements in the quality of service go a long way in improving customer perception
concerning other quality drivers and satisfaction. It is concluded that customer satisfaction
enhancement programs and evaluation models need to integrate primary drivers of quality with
key drivers of customer perception. The study was limited in a number of ways. Due to time,
cost and other constraints a cross-sectional research design was used and focused on firms in
Nairobi. Data were collected from respondents once to get their views and perceptions concerning a limited number of variables and constructs. However, perceptions vary over time and across markets or regions as influenced by changes in consumer preferences or economic changes that influence purchase and consumption patterns. Opportunities therefore exist for longitudinal and wider studies in the same area of research. Key Words:Quality drivers, customer perception, customer satisfaction (CS), Nairobi, Kenya

Kabaru JM, Njogu RM. "A survey of amino acid activities in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei brucei." Acta Tropica. 1988;45:189-190.
Kabaru JM, Njogu RM. "A survey of amino acid activities in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei brucei." Acta Tropica. 1988;45:189-190.
Kabaru JM, Yenesew' A. "Plant derived larvicides as a tool to manage malaria in Kenya.". 2003. AbstractPlant derived larvicides as a tool to manage malaria in Kenya

Malaria remains a serious parasitic disease killing over one million people annually. One of the strategies to manage the malaria problem is to control the population of mosquito at larval or adult stages of their life cycle. However with. the appearance of insect resistance to conventional insecticides together with the growing environmental concern on the use of many synthetic insecticides, in particular halogenated compounds such as DDT, the search for effective and environmentally friendly insecticidal agents is intensifying. In this effort some East African plant extracts and pure compounds have been tested for larvicidal activities (Muwangi and Mukiama, 1988; Mwangi and Rembold, 1988; Gikonyo et aI., 1998).

Kabaru JM, Mwangi RW. "Effect of post-treatment temperature on the insecticidal activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts." Insect Science and its Application. 2000;20(1):77-79.
Kabinga SK, KAYIMA JK, MCLIGEYO SO, Ndungu J. "Hemodialysis vascular accesses in patients on chronic hemodialysis at the Kenyatta national hospital in Kenya." Journal of Vascular Access . 2019;20(6):697-700. Abstract

Introduction: The objective of our study was to document the level of preparedness for renal replacement therapy assessed by incident hemodialysis vascular access and the access at least 3 months after initiation of hemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

Methods: Between June and July 2018, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study on the preparedness for hemodialysis by patients who were on chronic hemodialysis in the Kenyatta National Hospital Renal Department. Sociodemographic, medical history, duration of follow-up, and state of preparedness parameters were obtained through interview and entered into the questionnaire. The data were entered in preprogrammed format in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for analyses.

Results: Eighty-two patients were enrolled. Males were 50% (41). The mean age was 45.39 ± 15.96 years but females were 5 years younger than their male counterparts. About 85.4% of the patients were drawn from the hypertension and diabetes clinics, and the mean, mode, and median of the duration of follow-up were 41, 0, and 0 months, respectively, in these clinics. Almost three in every four patients (74.4%) were initiated on hemodialysis as emergency (p value < 0.001). About 80% were initiated hemodialysis via acute catheters placed in the jugular and subclavian veins (p value < 0.001). At least 3 months later, 40% still had acute catheters on the same veins (p value < 0.001). Acute venous catheters in the femoral veins were in 9.2% at initiation and 6.6% of the patients at least 3 months later. Less than 2% of the patients had arteriovenous fistulae at initiation, which rose to 14.5% in 3 months. Tunneled catheters were placed in 11.8% initially and at least 3 months, were almost in 40% of the patients.

Conclusion: In conclusion, our young hemodialysis population mainly drawn from hypertension and diabetes clinic requires more input in hemodialysis vascular access planning. Focused individualized follow-up and early referrals to nephrologists are required. Uptake of arteriovenous grafts for hemodialysis might reduce the prevalence of hemodialysis catheters. As it is, this population is threatened with iterative vascular accesses complications as well as real danger of exhaustion of their vascular capital. There is real danger of increase in mortality from access complications.

Keywords: Hemodialysis; arteriovenous fistula; arteriovenous graft; end-stage renal disease; tunneled catheter; vascular access.

Kabinga SK, Kayima J, MCLIGEYO SO, Wambugu B, NGIGI J, Chege R, Mutiso J. "Vascular thrombosis in patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis using indwelling venous catheters: Case reports and literature review." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2017;36(1):110-117. Abstract

Vascular access is key in patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. Thrombosis is a
significant contributor of access – associated morbidity. There are several documented risk factors that
predispose to thrombosis in patients with end stage renal disease. These include: inflammation, erythropoietin
therapy, hypotension, diabetes and old age among others. Treatment of thrombosis in these patients is
challenging. We present three cases of acute vascular thrombosis attended to in the Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi-Kenya, East Africa, renal department in one week and literature review.
Keywords: Vascular thrombosis; Haemodialysis catheter; endstage renal disease.

Kabinga DSK, O DAJ, Bhatt PKM, Kayima PJK, McLigeyo PSO. "Human Leucocyte Antigens (DRB1 *03, DRB1*04 and DQB1*02) Associated with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among 269 Kidney Graft Donors and Recipients in Kenya." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2016:57-63. Abstract

This was a descriptive study which utilized the medical record
s for the kidney donors and recipients who had
been followed up
in
the kidney transplantation programme in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
Tissue typing is rarely performed routinely among our patients partially due to cost. It is with this in
mind that
we engaged in extraction of more information from the tissue typing data which have been used in kidney
transplantation programme in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi Kenya. The data were extracted from the
medical records of patients who had undergone tissue typing for renal transplantation and were on follow up at
Kenyatta National Hospital. The study had been cleared by the Kenyatta National Hospital/University of
Nairobi Ethics Research Committee, number, P485/9/2013.
The medical records had tissue typing done from 2008 and 2013.
A total of 269 individuals’ human leucocyte
antigen typing were
utilized
. They comprised 134 kidney graft recipients
and 135 donors records
. T
he typing
had been performed using
serology
for class I and polymerase chain reaction for Class II respectively. The data
were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Sciences, calculating the frequencies of each individual for
HLA specificity and expressing it as a percentage of the total popu
lation of 269 individuals. For s
ome genes and
alleles associated
with
type 1 diabetes (
DRB1
*03, DRB1*04 and DQB1*02)
, there were 184/269 (68.4%) of
individual
s who carried genes and al
leles.
Eighty four (84) individuals had HLA
-DRB1*03 allele, 22 had
DRB1*04 while 78 had DQB1*02. Among 135 kidney graft donors, 39 (28.90%) carried HLA
-DRB1*03 and
14 (10.40%) carried DRB1*04. Among 134 kidney graft recipients, 45 (33.57%) had HLA
-DRB1*03
and 13
(9.70%) had HLA
-DRB1*04. Thirt
y-six (26.87%) had HLA
-DQB1*02.
There is increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among other non
-communicable condition
s world over.
Diabetes has both nature and nurture as players for its causation. Genetics w
hich include human leucocyte
antigens have been liked with diabetes. Among our study population, HLA
-DRB1
*03, HLA
-DRB1*04 and
HLA-
DQB1*02 were prevalent and this may guide surveillance and care for both donors and recipients, as well
as inform the
care of our wider population.

Kabinga SK, KAYIMA JK, Ngigi JN, MCLIGEYO SO. "Predialysis care experience among CKD patients in Diabetes, Hypertension and Renal clinics at a teaching hospital in Kenya." Kidney International Reports. 2019;4(DOI:10.1016/j.ekir.2019.08.011):1638-1641. Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global healthproblem affecting more than 1 in every 10 of theadult population.1The leading causes of CKD are diabetesmellitus and hypertension. End-stage kidney disease(ESKD) requires kidney replacement therapy (KRT) forsustenance of bodily functions. The KRT includes kidneytransplantation and dialytic therapies. Dialytic therapiesinclude hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis. Inrecent years, the government of Kenya has set up at leastone HD unit in each of the country’s 47 counties. Pre-dialysis care is important. Lower mortality has been re-ported in people treated with dialysis for ESKD whoreceived at least one month of predialysis care comparedwith those with shorter or no predialysis care.2Theoptimal way of managing CKD prior to KRT has been afocus of intense investigation.3Referral to a nephrologist isrecommended for people with CKD who have either anestimated glomerular filtration rate of <30 ml/min per 1.73m2, a consistent finding of significant albuminuria, or signsof progressive disease.4Patient education requires theflexibility to individualize the delivery of a standardizedCKD curriculum in partnership with a patient–healthcareteam, to fulfill the goal of informed and shared decision-making.5We studied the predialysis experience among theambulant patients on maintenance HD at Kenyatta Na-tional Hospital (KNH) in Kenya during June and July 2018(Supplementary Methods). The study was approved bythe Kenyatta National Hospital–University of NairobiEthics and Research Committee, registration number P226/04/2018

Kabinga SK, KAYIMA JK, MCLIGEYO SO, Ndungu JN. "Preparedness for renal replacement therapy among ambulant adult patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis in a referral hospital in Kenya: Kenyatta National hospital experience.". 2018. Abstract

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise locally and globally. The care for patients
with chronic kidney disease is multifaceted and multidisciplinary. The study aimed to explore the state of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy for patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta
National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. This cross-sectional descriptive study was to document the level of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy by the time the patients were initiated on haemodialysis. Despite
this contact with health provider before development of end stage kidney disease, 74.4% of the patients were
initiated on haemodialysis as emergency (p value 0.001) and 29.3% knew of dialysis as the only modality of
renal replacement therapy (p value <0.001). Acute catheters were used by about 85.30% of the patients as the
vascular access for initiation of haemodialysis with tunneled catheters use in 13.40% and arteriovenous fistulae
use in 1.2% (p value <0.001). Counseling and other supportive services such as health education and
nutritional counseling were not optimal was at least 20% of patients gave responses indicating deficiency of
information or knowledge in these domains. More than 40% of the patients had not been counseled about kidney
transplantation

Kabinga DSK, Kayima PJK, Bhatt PKM, O. DAJ, McLigeyo PSO. "Human Leucocyte Antigens (DRB1*03, DRB1*04 and DQB1*02) Associated with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Among 269 Kidney Graft Donors and Recipients in Kenya." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2016;30(1):57-63. Abstract

This was a descriptive study which utilized the medical records for the kidney donors and recipients who had been followed up in the kidney transplantation programme in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Tissue typing is rarely performed routinely among our patients partially due to cost. It is with this in mind that we engaged in extraction of more information from the tissue typing data which have been used in kidney transplantation programme in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi Kenya.

Kabinga SK, KAYIMA JK, MCLIGEYO SO, Ndungu JN. "Preparedness for renal replacement therapy among ambulant adult patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis in a referral hospital in Kenya: Kenyatta National hospital experience.". 2018. Abstract

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise locally and globally. The care for patients
with chronic kidney disease is multifaceted and multidisciplinary. The study aimed to explore the state of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy for patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta
National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. This cross-sectional descriptive study was to document the level of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy by the time the patients were initiated on haemodialysis. Despite
this contact with health provider before development of end stage kidney disease, 74.4% of the patients were
initiated on haemodialysis as emergency (p value 0.001) and 29.3% knew of dialysis as the only modality of
renal replacement therapy (p value <0.001). Acute catheters were used by about 85.30% of the patients as the
vascular access for initiation of haemodialysis with tunneled catheters use in 13.40% and arteriovenous fistulae
use in 1.2% (p value <0.001). Counseling and other supportive services such as health education and
nutritional counseling were not optimal was at least 20% of patients gave responses indicating deficiency of
information or knowledge in these domains. More than 40% of the patients had not been counseled about kidney
transplantation

Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living-Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2017;32(2):134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related organ donation is practiced in Kenya. Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta national hospital from the 2010. The duration from 2010-2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this period but only 113 complete records were traceable. There were 113 medical records for both kidney graft donors and recipients from 2010-2015. Demographic characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor-recipient relationships. The mean donor age was 32.94

Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living -Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit ." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2015:134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related
organ donation is practiced in Kenya.
Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta National hospital from the 2010.
The duration from 2010-
2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones
done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation
was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were
extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this
period but only 113
complete
records were traceable.
There were 113 medical records for both kidney
graft donors and recipients from 2010-
2015. Demographic
characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor
-recipient relationships. The mean
donor age was 32.94±8.52 years, median age of 32years with minimum donor age of 20 yea
rs and maximum of
54 years. Fifty five percent (54.90%) of the donors were males. Among the recipients, the mean age was
39.15
±12.68 years, median age of 36 years with the minimum recipient age of 14 years and maximum age of 66
years. Three in every four (
74.30%) of recipients were males. First degree relatives contributed 85.60% of all
the donors, with brothers and sisters to the recipients contributing almost equally (31.9% and 29.2%)
respectively
. The recipients clinical characteristics include the prim
ary disease, where hypertension and
glomerular diseases contributed 85.0% while diabetes mellitus contributed 13.30% of the documented primary
morbidity. Haemodialysis was the only modality of renal replacement therapy with a mean duration of
2.39±1.63 yea
rs and modes of 2 and 3 years. The most popular vascular access for dialysis was permanent
catheter (58.40%) with arteriovenous fistu
lae at 25.70%. Blood group O Rhesus positive was the commonest
among donors and recipients (70.80% and 53.10% respectively
). Blood transfusion was very common among
the recipients before and around transplantation. (51% and 68% respectively). The HLA
-A,
-B,
-DRB1
first and
second loci
match between the donors and recipients were zero match at 5.30%, one match at 9.70%, two
ma
tches at 11.50%, three matches at 38.10%, four matches at 20.40% five matches at 2.70% and six matches at
12.40%. All the transplantations were first kidney transplants
apart fro
m one case.
In our living
-related kidney transplantation programme, the donor
s are younger than recipients with males being
transplanted more than females. First degree relatives dominate the donation
. The commonest cause of the
ESRD was glomerular diseases and hypertension. The program shows plausible feasibility of organ transpla
nt
where the most po
pular modality of renal replace
ment therapy
.

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Kabira WM. "Food Security Score for Kenya, Pathways to African Feminism and Development." Journal of the African Women Studies Centre, University of Nairobi. 2014.
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