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K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, Schulz KF, Lamptey PR, Grimes DA, Mati JK, Rosenthal SM, Rosenberg MJ, Riara G, Njage PN, Bhullar VB, et al. Preventing IUCD-related pelvic infection: the efficacy of prophylactic doxycycline at insertion.Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990 May;97(5):412.". In: Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990 May;97(5):412-9. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi Medical School, Kenya. Most of the small increased risk in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) associated with the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) appears to be caused by bacterial contamination of the endometrial cavity at the time of insertion. This randomized clinical trial of 1813 women in Nairobi, Kenya, assessed the effectiveness of 200 mg of doxycycline given orally at the time of insertion in reducing the occurrence of PID. The rate of this infection in the doxycycline-treated group was 31% lower than that in the placebo-treated group (1.3 and 1.9%, respectively; RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.5). The rate of an unplanned IUCD-related visit to the clinic was also 31% lower in the doxycycline-treated group (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91). Although the significance level (P = 0.17) for the reduction is PID does not meet the conventional standard of 0.05, the results may be suggestive of an effect. Moreover, the reduction in IUCD-related visits (P = 0.004) not only represents an important decrease in morbidity but also substantiates the reduction found for PID. Further studies are needed to corroborate these results. Consideration should be given to the prophylactic use of doxycycline at the time of IUCD insertion as an approach to preventing PID and other IUCD-related morbidity. PIP: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate whether the use of prophylactic doxycycline at intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) insertion can reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women. 1813 women in Nairobi, Kenya, were given 200 mg of doxycycline, taken orally at the time of IUCD insertion. Analysis of the data collected show that the rate of PID infection in the doxycycline-treated group was 31% lower than that in the placebo-treated group. The rate of an unplanned IUCD-related visit to the clinic was also 31% lower in the doxycycline-treated group. Although the significance level (P = 0.17) for the reduction in PID does not meet the conventional standard of 0.05, the results may be suggestive of an effect. In addition, the reduction in IUCD-related visits (P = 0.004) not only represents an important decrease in morbidity, but also substantiates the reduction found for PID. To conclude, the prophylactic use of doxycycline at the time of IUCD insertion appears effective, well tolerated, and cost-effective. Further studies are needed to corroborate these results and consideration should be given to the prophylactic use of doxycycline at the time of IUCD insertion as an approach in preventing PID and other IUCD-related morbidity.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu & Joseph Wang.". In: Population Research and Policy review, 17, 1998, pp55-70,. SITE; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Guthua SW, Njeru EK, Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK.Oral hygiene practices and risk of oral leukoplakia.East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):73-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):73-8. Kisipan, M.L.; 2006. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

K. MJ, O. KDB, A. OH. "A Hybrid MOM/FDTD Formulation for EMC/EMI Problems Of Metallic Enclosures with Apertures.". In: KSEEE-JSAEM 2010 International Conference. MMUCK, Nairobi: International Journal of Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE); 2010. Abstract

A HYBRID MOM/FDTD FORMULATION FOR EMC/EMI PROBLEMS OF METALLIC ENCLOSURES WITH APERTURES

Josiah K. Makiche1 Dominic B. O. Konditi2, Heywood A. Ouma3
jkmakiche@yahoo.co.uk konditi_dom@yahoo.co.uk houma@ieee.org

1Department of Telecommunication and Information Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. 2Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University College of Kenya. 3Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Nairobi

Abstract—In this work a hybrid Method-of-Moments/Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (MoM/FDTD) formulation for the analysis of a metallic enclosure with an aperture is developed. The equivalence principle is used to divide the problem into two regions, region 1 and region 2, each of which is treated separately. The induced aperture magnetic currents are obtained via a moments method solution of the mixed potential integral equation using the generalized network formulation and triangular patch modeling. The computed magnetic current is directly incorporated into FDTD formulations as a source to determine the fields in the interior of the enclosure (region 2). The formulations are implemented in a computer code and used to analyze a typical problem of a rectangular enclosure with an aperture. The results are validated using data available in literature.
Keywords: Shielding effectiveness, metallic enclosures, method of moments, finite difference time domain, EMI/EMC.

K. M, P.K. M. Gender Dimension s of Witch Burning and Women’ s Property Rights in Kisii County, Kenya. Nairobi: Coalition on Violence Against Women (COVAW); 2012.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Cost-Effective Provision of Non-Clinical Services in a Government District Hospital in Kenya, Paper presented at the Third Annual Meeting of the International Health Policy Program, Washington DC, 8-14 Oct. 1990.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1990. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. DRNJOROGEPETER. "Njoroge PK, Olenja J, Kibaru J. November, 2005. Obstetric Fistula: An Avoidable Outcome of the Three Classic Delays. Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa Vol. 19 No. 1:1-45 January 2006.". In: Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa Vol. 19 No. 1:1-45 January 2006. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2006. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo, E.O., Owade, J.N., Aluoch, J.R., Njeru, E.K. Neurological Complications of Sickle Cell Disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. A five-year Retrospective Study. East Afr. Med. J. 1992; 69:660-2.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1992; 69:660-2. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
In a five year retrospective study of 360 patients with homozygous (SS) sickle cell disease, eighteen (5%) were found to have neurological complications. Their ages ranged from 7 months to 21 years with a mean of 11.1 +/- 6 years. Of those with neurological complications, twelve (67%) of the patients had cerebrovascular accident, six (33.3%) convulsions, three visual disturbance; one sensorineural deafness, one cerebellar degeneration and the last one confusion and hallucinations. Four of the patients had multiple neurological complications. There was only one patient with recurrence of neurological complications. Two patients were hypertransfused and up to the end of the study period none of them had any recurrence. The pattern of neurological complications are similar to that observed in other studies. However, in this study, there were fewer recurrences of neurological complications.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Application of field calculations in optimization of insulator designs.". In: 4th International conference on properties and applications of dielectric materials" University of Queensland, Australia, July 1994. FARA; 1994. Abstract
When an insulator is placed in an electrode gap, its surface charge field distorts the geometric field, leading to a flashover at a voltage value dependent on the degree of the gap field distortion. This paper reports on studies conducted to determine the relationship between flashover voltages and electric filed distribution along solid insulator surfaces. The surface electric field distribution along different insulator profiles was determined using the Finite-Difference method, and the flashover of the actual profile model measured. The obtained results show that each profile had a peak surface electric field and the higher the peak value, the lower the flashover voltage. The correlation curve for peak electric field and flashover voltage was developed using a curve fitting technique based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Diploma in Adult Education in Kenya, Adult Education and Development, No. 15, Sept. 1980, German Adult Education Association, Bonn.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. PROFNYAMONGOISAAC, WANGARE MSGATUNEJANE. "An Ethnographic Study of Cervical Cancer Among Women in Rural Kenya: Is there a Folk Causal Model? International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, Vol. 15: 1049-1059.". In: Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1049-59. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract

Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. This article assesses knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer among rural women of Kenya. One hundred and sixty women (mean age 37.9 years) who sought various health care services at Tigoni subdistrict hospital, Limuru, Kenya, were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. In addition, three focus group discussions (25 participants) were held, five case narratives recorded, and a free list of cervical cancer risk factors obtained from a group of 41 women respondents. All women were aged between 20 and 50 years. About 40% knew cervical cancer, although many still lack factual information. A history of sexually transmitted diseases (61.5%), multiple sexual partners (51.2%), and contraceptive use (33%) were identified as risk factors. Other factors mentioned include smoking, abortion, and poor hygiene standards. High parity, early sexual debut, and pregnancy were not readily mentioned as risk factors. We propose a folk causal model to explain the link between these factors and cervical cancer. Lack of knowledge constrains utilization of screening services offered at the clinics. Consequently, respondents support educating women as a way to tackling issues on cervical cancer. It is recommended that an integrated reproductive health program that addresses comprehensively women's health concerns be put in place.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Governance and Leadership in Africa" in Bahemuka, J. and Brockington. J. East Africa in Transition: Communities, Culture and Change. Nairobi: Acton publishers.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Democratisation and Governance: Challenges and Prospects (Illustrated with a case study of NGOs in Kenya, A Paper prepared for a conference on "African Regional Consultation For Non-Governmental Organizations". Organized by the Conference of Non-governmen.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. K, M. MJ, LW K, M MG, M KP. "Pesticide Recording and Reporting in Floricultural Industry in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Education. 2015;3(9):4513-4521.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Creating Local Capacity for Development: The Case of Meru District, Kenya - A Research Note. (A Paper presented in a Workshop on "Into the Nineties: Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) During the Cur.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, Fortney JA, Kigondu CS, Feldblum PJ, Kuyoh M, Allen MY, Glover LH. Contraceptive use and HIV infection in Kenyan family planning clinic attenders.Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study of contraception and risk of HIV infection in women. We also measured risk factors for and occurrence of HIV infection in the participants. A cohort of 1537 seronegative women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya was enrolled and followed for up to 12 months per woman. HIV testing was done quarterly. A nested case-control analysis was done with seroconverting women (cases) and 3 matched controls per case, who had detailed interviews and received physical examinations and STD tests. The prevalence of HIV at enrollment was 6.1%; seropositive women were excluded from further analysis. The 12-month life-table cumulative incidence of HIV was 2.1 per 100 women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2). In the nested case-control analysis (17 cases and 51 controls), the crude odds ratio of HIV infection comparing oral contraceptive (OC) users with other women was 3.5 (95%) CI 0.8-21.5), which persisted after control for single confounders at a time. The putative association between OC use sand HIV infection is critical to public health policy, yet no study has been conducted specifically to measure it, yielding weak and conflicting evidence. We intend to conduct a larger study with a similar design as the current pilot study, which confirmed the feasibility of a more definitive project.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Cost Recovery Strategies, The Sub-Saharan Africa Experience, in Innovations in Health Care Financing, Proceedings of a World Bank Conference, Washington DC, March 1997.". In: Sustainable Health Care Conference, World Bank/EDI, USAID/REDSO/ECA, Nairobi, February 1997. SITE; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Book Review: Estimating costs for cost effectiveness analysis: guidelines for managers of diarrhoeal diseases, CDD-WHO, Geneva, 1988, appearing on Health Policy and Planning: A Journal In Health in Development, Vol. 6 #1, March 1991.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1991. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Moses S, Muia E, Bradley JE, Nagelkerke NJ, Ngugi EN, Njeru EK, Eldridge G, Olenja J, Wotton K, Plummer FA, et al. Sexual Behaviour in Kenya: Implications for sexually transmitted disease transmission and control. Soc. Sci. Med. 1994; 39:1649-56.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1994 Dec;39(12):1649-56. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
Sexual behaviour in Kenya in relation to STD transmission was investigated with a view to forming a basis for the more rational design of STD/HIV control interventions. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 762 men and women attending eight health facilities in two urban centres. Equal numbers of STD patients (cases) and non-STD related clinic attenders (clinic controls) were selected, matched by gender and clinic. Another sample of 427 men and women was obtained from a random sampling of households in a slum area in Nairobi (community controls). Male STD patients who were unmarried, or married but living apart from their wives, reported a higher mean number of sex partners in the previous three months than did male clinic or community controls. Unmarried female STD patients reported a higher mean number of sex partners in the previous three months than did unmarried female clinic or community controls. Both male and female STD patients were more likely to report having been involved in commercial sex transactions in the previous three months than clinic or community controls. Considerable heterogeneity in sexual behaviour was apparent. In multivariate analysis, the most important predictor of STD acquisition for both men and women was the number of reported sex partners in the previous three months. In addition, for men only, marital status (unmarried, or married but living apart from their wives) and purchasing sex were significant predictors of being an STD patient. These data confirm the importance of commercial sex in STD transmission, and suggest that men play a bridging role between female sex workers and the general population of women.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Design of Speech Database for Unit Selection in Kiswahili Text to Speech System.". In: E-Tech conference, Nairobi August 2004. FARA; 2004. Abstract
When developing a Concatenative Text to Speech System [1, 3, 4] (i.e. a form of synthesis where waveforms are created by concatenating parts of natural speech recorded from humans) it is necessary that all the acoustically and perceptually significant sound variations (allophones) in the language are recorded so that they are played back each time the system synthesises speech. Improvement on the system is made by assuming that co-articulation (mutual influence between adjoining sounds) does not extend beyond phone-phone boundary [1]. In this case all possible phone-phone combinations are read and recorded. Each unit of the two phone combination is referred to as the diphone. Synthesis is then based on concatenation of the diphones thus taking care of the overlap in the phone-phone boundary. An even better system can be realised when each diphone is captured within the context of several words and synthesis carried out by using the best selection from the recorded words. It is clear then that this procedure must use proper selection of the sentences from which the diphones are to be captured. In other words, such sentences must be phonetically balanced; implying that they must have the same phone distribution as used entirely in the language.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "The Economics of Tropical Disease Control in the context of PHC: a Methodological Approach with reference to Kenya (with Andrew Creese), presented at the IXth Scientific Meeting of the International Epidemiological Association, 22nd to 29th August, 1981 E.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1981. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "(co-author Michael Cowen) .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Struggles of Access to Land: the Squatter Question in Coastal Kenya", CDR Working Paper no. 98.7, Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "In Search of Debt Crisis' Solution: Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs); Re-colonization or Alternatives? A paper presented in a Workshop on `The Debt and Economic Crisis in Africa" organized by The National Council of Churches of Kenya, NCCK, Nairobi.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Allen M, Kokonya D. Complications of use of intrauterine devices among HIV-1-infected women.Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1238-41.". In: Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1238-41. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: A WHO expert group and the International Planned Parenthood Federation recommend against use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in HIV-1-infected women based on theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. We investigated whether the risk of complications after IUD insertion is higher in HIV-1-infected women than in non-infected women. METHODS: 649 (156 HIV-1 infected 493 non-infected) women in Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria for insertion of an IUD were enrolled. We gathered information on IUD-related complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, removals due to infection, pain, or bleeding, expulsions, and pregnancies at 1 and 4 months after insertion. Patients' HIV-1 status was masked from physicians. FINDINGS: Complications were identified in 48 of 615 women (11 [7.6%] HIV-1-infected women, 37 [7.9%] non-infected). Incident pelvic inflammatory disease (two [1.4%] HIV-1 infected, one [0.2%] non-infected) and infection-related complications (any tenderness, removal of IUD for infection or pain; ten [6.9%] HIV-1 infected, 27 [5.7%] non-infected) were also rare and similar in the two groups. Complication rates were similar by CD4 (immune) status. Multivariate analyses suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risks for overall complications (odds ratio 0.8 [95% CI 0.4-1.7]) or infection-related complications (1.0 [0.5-2.3]), adjusted for marital status, study site, previous IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse, but a slight increase cannot be ruled out. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that IUDs may be a safe contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-1-infected women with continuing access to medical services. PIP: Both the International Planned Parenthood Federation and the World Health Organization have warned against use of IUDs in HIV-infected women due to theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. No published studies have investigated this concern, however. The validity of this recommendation was investigated in a comparative study of 156 HIV-1-infected and 493 non-infected women from two public family planning clinics (Kenyatta National Hospital and Riruta City Clinic) in Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria for IUD insertion. At 1 and 4 months after insertion, information was collected from physicians–blinded as to the patient's HIV status–on IUD-related complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), removals, expulsions, and pregnancies. Complications were identified in 11 (7.6%) HIV-positive and 37 (7.9%) HIV-negative women. There were only 3 incident cases of PID, 2 of which occurred in HIV-infected women. IUD removal due to pain or infection occurred in 10 (6.9%) HIV-infected and 27 (5.7%) noninfected women. There were no differences in overall IUD complications in HIV-1-infected women by CD4 status (severely, moderately, or mildly immunocompromised). After adjustment for marital status, study site, previous IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse, multivariate analysis suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risks for overall IUD-related complications (odds ratio (OR), 0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-1.7) or infection-related complications (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-2.3). These findings suggest that the IUD may be a safe contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-infected women with continuing access to medical services.

K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Lee. K.Y.. Mangoli, M.K., Kirn, J.B., Kirn, J.B. , and Park. Y.M. "" An Operational Planning Tool for Real and Reactive Power Control"", IEE Proc., C.Cen., Trans. and Distrih. 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Benjamin Nganda and Octavian Gakuru, Financing Medical care through insurance: Policy lessons from Household-and Community-Level Analysis in Kenya, in African Development Review, African Development Bank, Vol. 14, No 1, 20.". In: African Development Bank, Vol. 14, No 1, 2002, pp 75-97. SITE; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. DRMARIARAJANEWANJIKU. "Kabubo-Mariara J. (2002). Labour Force Participation in Kenya." African Journal of Economic Policy. 2002;Vol 9, No. 2.Website
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Ohito F A, Opinya G N, Wang.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1992. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Jowi JO, Njeru EK.Migraine headaches in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):594-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):594-7. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
A survey was carried out on 711 medical students from both the medical school and the Kenya Medical Training Centre on headaches using a closed ended questionnaire. Six hundred and twenty five (88%) of the students reported to have at least one episode of headache in the last six months. Two hundred and forty (33.8%) of these were classified as migraine using the International Headache Society case definition. Seventy (29%) had migraine with aura, the rest being migraine without aura. The mean age was 22.7 +/- 5 years with a male to female ratio of 1:1.3. The majority of the respondents (43%) had an average of two to three headache episodes per month. The major triggering factors for the headache were physical activities, emotional disturbance and studying, each occurring in 21% of the student respondents. It was reported by 43.6% of the respondents that there was a member of their nucleus family with a similar headache. Only 40% of the respondents had sought medical attention for their headache in the last one year. The main reason for not seeking medical services was self medication in 56% of those who did not attend medical services. Only 27 (11%) of the respondents were currently on medication which consisted of simple analgesics and antimalarials. There were only two students who were on specific drugs for migraine. The majority of the respondents continued to be inadequately treated despite the development of wide range of effective treatment.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Kiswahili/English Voice Information Service for Banana growers in Kenya.". In: Workshop on Mobiles and Development: Contribution of Mobile Devices to Development, 16th may 2007, University of Manchester. FARA; 2007. Abstract
We describe the progress of the Local Language Speech Technology Initiative in Kenya, where since starting in 2003, technology and expertise have been successfully transferred to the Kenyan partners, culminating in the launch of the National Farmers Information Service (NAFIS) in April 2008. NAFIS is primarily a voice service accessed over the phone and offers a wide range of information in Kiswahili or Kenyan English, supplementing the existing agricultural extension services.
K. KANGETHEE, A. MUTWIRIS, W. KANJAL. "Investigation of the risk of consuming marketed milk with antimicrobial residues in Kenya.". In: journal.; 2005.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Economic Evaluation in PHC: presented at fourth Meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Social and Economic Research, Geneva 14th to 28th Nov. 1984.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30. SITE; 1984. Abstract
Essential drug schemes in the Third World countries face many problems. These include dependency on imported drugs in the face of chronic shortages of foreign exchange, inadequate manpower and technical capability for selection and procurement of drugs, competition between generic and brand drugs, weak local drug procurement and distribution systems and inability to commence local manufacturing even in situations where there may exist comparative advantage. Many of these problems relate to each other and are compounded by the domination of the pharmaceutical industry by multinational firms. Third World countries are in a very weak position in the international pharmaceutical industry. It is suggested that the essential drug situation would improve in Third World countries if certain strategies and policies were adopted. These include: intensification of personnel training in pharmaceuticals, deliberate use of generic drugs rather than brand name drugs, the involvement of the public sector in the procurement and distribution of drugs, buying drugs in bulk, changing drug prescription and consumption practices through continuous education, changing or instituting regulations to guard against unfavourable patents and commencing domestic production of essential drugs where this is not in conflict with the principle of comparative advantage.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "'Contradictions of Neo-liberalism: Human Rights NGOs, Donors and Governance in Kenya.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Ethnicity, Party Politics and Electoral Process in Kenya - The 1997 Multi-party General Elections (pp10-16). Contribution to Arne Tostensen et al (ed), Kenya.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Development Communication Needs for NGOs and Donors: An Overview of Issues (A paper presented in a symposium on Development Communication Needs, Organized by Development Horizons Trust, Fairview Hotel, Nairobi, 25th Feb.1992.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Human leukocyte antigen class II DQ alleles associated with Chlamydia trachomatis tubal infertility.Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jan;95(1):72-7.PMID: 10636506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):369-73. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Sinei SS, Bukusi EA, Bwayo JJ, Holmes KK, Brunham RC. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle 98104-6460, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To investigate epidemiologic tubal infertility risk factors and the relationship between HLA class II alleles and Chlamydia trachomatis tubal infertility. METHODS: Forty-seven women with tubal infertility and 46 fertile controls were studied in Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was administered and serum collected for measurement of C trachomatis antibodies. HLA class II molecular typing was done with DNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. The prevalence of C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody, chlamydia heat shock protein 60 antibody, and HLA class II alleles was compared among cases of tubal infertility and fertile controls. RESULTS: Women with tubal infertility more often had histories of pelvic inflammatory disease (15% versus 0%; odds ratio [OR] 16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5, 47) histories of spontaneous abortion (34% versus 7%; OR 6.7; 95% CI 2.8, 16), and antibodies to C trachomatis (53% versus 26%; OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3, 7.7) than controls. Among infertile women, DQA*0101 and DQB*0501 alleles were positively associated with C trachomatis tubal infertility (OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.3, 18.6, and OR 6.8; 95% CI 1.6, 29.2, respectively). DQA*0102 was negatively associated with C trachomatis tubal infertility (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.005, 0.6). CONCLUSION: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is an important cause of tubal infertility in Nairobi. The association of specific HLA class II alleles with C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositivity among women with tubal infertility suggests that the DQ locus might modify susceptibility to and pathogenicity of C trachomatis infection. PMID: 10636506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. Lee, K.Y.. and Park, Y.M. "Optimal Real and Reactive Power Control Using Linear Programming", Electric Energy Systems Research Journal 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Joseph Wang.". In: University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 22, pp 371- 383, 2004. SITE; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. DRMARIARAJANEWANJIKU. "Labour Market Outcomes, Poverty and the Role of Gender: The Case of Kenya. Chapter 10 in Mohammed Mwamadzingo and Ditiro Saleshando (Eds). ISBN no. 92-2-114143-8 2003.". In: "Trade Unions and Poverty Alleviation in Africa. Harare and Geneva;: ILO ; 2003.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Health Insurance in Kenya: A case study, by Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Gerishon Ikiara, Lawrence Muthami, Mutsembi Manundu, Dr. Simon Kiugu, ABT ASS, Washington, Consultancy report, August 1994.". In: AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5. SITE; 1994. Abstract
PIP: A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were–or were suspected to be–HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Snow, R.W., Omumbo, J., Lowe, B.S., Njeru, E.K., Hawley, W.A., Nahlen, B.L., and Marsh, K. Paediatric anaemia at community and hospital levels in high and low intensity P. falciparum transmission areas of Kenya. Acta Tropica 1997, 65:1-10.". In: Acta Tropica 1997, 65:1-10. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) that may influence health seeking behaviour of caretakers of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at Nyanza provincial hospital in Kenya between March and September 1993 to identify socio-demographic and economic factors that may influence health seeking behaviour of primary caretakers of children with SCD. All caretakers accompanying children under the age of 18 years to the Sickle Cell Clinic were eligible. Guardians accompanying children to the clinic were interviewed using pretested questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis method was used to categorise questionnaire items into domains (knowledge, attitude and belief) and to investigate for association between certain socio-demographic factors and KAB. Seventy five per cent of the 108 respondents interviewed were mothers and 16.7% fathers. Seventy eight percent knew SCD to be hereditary while 55% knew how the disease presents in childhood. Only 42% associated SCD with increased risk of infection. Many felt severe infections are largely preventable and that prevention would reduce their anxiety and illness related costs. In factor analysis, variables loaded almost exclusively on "Attitudes" and "Beliefs" factors. Only family size was found to influence caretaker attitudes (p = 0.0095) and beliefs (p = 0.0034). Education, monthly income, occupation and religion had no significant influence. The majority of caretakers had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards SCD in children. Interventions aimed at management of SCD or prevention of its sequelae would be well accepted. Factor analysis is recommended for statistical analysis of KAB data. The effect of family size on attitudes and behaviour needs further evaluation.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Development of a Kenyan English Text To Speech System: A Method of Developing a TTS for a previously undefined English Dialect.". In: Interspeech 2009, Bristol, UK, September 2009. FARA; 2009.
K. M, Owiti O, Winnie Mitullah, Kiai W, Karuru N, Mbugua J, Sihanya B, P.K. M. Gender Dimensions of Politics, Law and Violenc e.; 2001.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Agricultural and Land Use Patterns in Relation to Changing Malaria Conditions in Kenya (with Germano M. Mwabu), Paper presented at the WHO/TDR Meeting on Social Economic Determinants and Consequences of Malaria and its Control under Changing Conditions, S.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "'Civil Society Formations in Kenya: A growing Role in Development and Democracy.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Governance in contemporary Kenya: Politics of citizenship, leadership and security. A paper prepared for the Department of Sociology, University of Nairobi.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Non-Governmental Organizations in Kenya: NGO-State Relations in a Changing Society (A Paper, presented at the festival seminars on Images of Africa; Copenhagen, Denmark, 12 June to 3rd July.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993.
K. MJ, D.W. G, Mbaria JM, G. KP, N. MC, F.K. N. "Ethnobotanical Study of Antihelmintic and other Medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok District of Kenya. ." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;135(1): 15-21.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. "Control System Analysis and Design " in August 1995 at the 2nd conference of the Kenya Society for the Electrical Engineers - Sereiw Hotel, Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1995. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Benjamin Nganda, The demand for medical care in Kenya: An application of quantile regression, in Improving Health Policy inAfrica, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang.". In: University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 7, pp 121-132, 2004. SITE; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Mati JK, Sinei SK, Mulandi TN, Ndavi PM, Mbugua S, Mailu CK, Mungai JW. Oral contraceptive use and the risk of malaria.East Afr Med J. 1986 Jun;63(6):382-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1986 Jun;63(6):382-8. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1986. Abstract
PIP: The 1725 women presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital in 1984-86 for IUD insertion were screened for cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea before the IUD insertion. 207 (12%) cases of chlamydia trachomatis and 61 (3.5%) cases of Neisseria gonorrhoea were detected. There was no association between the ages of the women and the prevalence of these 2 sexually transmitted pathogens; however, there was a significant relationship between the prevalence of N gonorrhoea and marital status. N gonorrhoea was detected in 6.2% of never-married and 5.2% of formerly married women compared with 2.3% of currently married subjects (p0.001). Although there was no significant relationship between parity and the rate of isolation of the 2 pathogens, infection tended to be lower in women with 5 or more children. Educational attainment was significantly associated with N gonorrhoea infection: 5.1% in women who had 0-7 years of schooling compared with 3.0% in those with 8 or more years of education (p0.05). 12 women with C trachomatis infection were also positive for N gonorrhoea. There was no significant relationship between C trachomatis infection and any of the demographic variables examined. Given the finding that the greatest risk of pelvic inflammatory disease occurs in the 1st month of IUD use, it can be speculated that pathogens are inserted into the uterine cavity at the time of IUD insertion. It is therefore recommended that clients–especially the unmarried, the formerly unmarried, and those with low levels of education–be screened and treated for N gonorrhoea and C trachomatis before an IUD is inserted.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "The Permanent Project syndrome: A counter productive consequence of philanthropy Soc. Sc. & Med., Vol. 41, No.5, 1995, pp 604-605.". In: Soc. Sc. & Med., Vol. 41, No.5, 1995, pp 604-605. SITE; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Wafula, E.M., Ngamau, D.W., Onyango, F.E., Mirza, N.M. and Njeru, E.K. X-Ray diagnosable pneumonia in children with severe malnutrition at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1998 Oct;75(10):567-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Oct;75(10):567-71. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of radiologically evident pneumonia among children with severe malnutrition and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of commonly used clinical indicators of pneumonia among children with severe malnutrition. METHODS: All children with severe malnutrition and admitted at the then Paediatric Observation Ward without congestive cardiac failure, severe anaemia, or severe dehydration, were clinically evaluated and a posteroanterior chest X-ray taken for each child. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of radiological changes consistent with pneumonia as reported by an experienced radiologist. The performance of the various clinical parameters as diagnostic tests for pneumonia were also evaluated. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary level teaching institution for the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: One hundred and seven children comprising 68 males and 39 females were recruited into the study. Of these children, 38 had kwashiorkor, 40 had marasmus, while 29 had marasmic kwashiorkor. Radiological evidence of pneumonia was found in 58% of children with kwashiorkor, 75% with marasmic kwashiorkor, and 82% with marasmus. All the commonly used clinical parameters performed poorly as diagnostic tests for pneumonia among children with severe malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of pneumonia was very high among children with severe malnutrition. Available clinical parameters, singly or in combination, are poor diagnostic tools for pneumonia in children with severe malnutrition. It is advisable to treat children with severe malnutrition as if they had pneumonia, even in the absence of suggestive clinical signs.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Sustainability of Research and Development: A case of Successful Technology Transfer in Spoken Language Technology.". In: CHI Workshop on Human-centered Computing in International Development, Boston, 4-9 April, 2009. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2009. Abstract
We share our experience on how to establish sustainable research and development based on successful collaborative research between the Local Language Speech Technology Initiative of UK and Kenyan partner - Teknobyte Ltd. Starting in 2003 when we embarked on spoken language technology development, technology and expertise were successfully transferred to the Kenyan partners, culminating in the launch in April 2008 of the National Farmers Information Service (NAFIS), a voice service accessed over the phone which offers a wide range of information in Kiswahili or Kenyan English to supplement the existing agricultural extension services.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Choice Between The Human Capital Approach and Willingness To Pay Approach in Evaluation of Primary Health Care Programmes -A Kenyan Example, in Economics, Health and Tropical Diseases, ed. A.N. Herrin, P.L. Rosenfield, University of the Philippines, Schoo.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1988. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "'The Land Question and Sustainable Development in a Historical Context in Kenya.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005.
K. LP, Kevin O, Pamela M, Paul O. "Functional Adaptability of the Tunica Media of the Atriopulmonary Junction." Austin J Anat.. 2015;2(2):1034. Abstract

Introduction: The histoarchitecture of the tunica media of the Atriopulmonary Junction (APJ) has not been extensively studied and yet the tunica media is the backbone, which provides the structural strength for optimum function. This study therefore strives to unravel the structural components of the tunica media of the APJ.
Methods: The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Histological studies were done on tissues from the APJ of 20 hearts using light microscopy. The proportion of elastic fibers in the tunica media of the APJ was determined using the point intercept method by dropping a grid in ImageJ software.
Results: The smooth muscle cells were concentric and more prominent in males extending the entire extent of the tunica media compared to females where they were confined to the intimal side of tunica media. The collagen bundles were mainly longitudinal. The elastic fibers showed a diverse pattern of organization and side and sex differences in orientation and quantity.
Conclusion: Gender and regional variations in the histology of the tunica media of the pulmonary veins suggest a mechanism for controlling hemodynamic forces at the APJ.
Keywords: Tunica media; Atriopulmonary junction

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Beyond the Colonial Legacy: the land question, politics and constitutionalism in Kenya", in Wanjala, Smokin (ed.,). Essays on Land Law: the Reform Debate in Kenya. Nairobi: Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi, 2000.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Building Capacity for Democratic and Sustainable NGO's Work: Discussion Notes (A paper presented in a workshop on `Coordinated Civic Education for the 1997 General Election and Beyond,' organized by RECAP-ICJ; IED; 4Cs; KENFAD; and CRIC - Silver Springs H.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya.". In: IEK International Conference. IEK International Conference; 2009. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "F.M Thuita, R K Mwadime, JK Wang.". In: East African Medical Journal, Vol. 82, No 4, pp 209-215, 2005. SITE; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Braddick MR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mirza NB, Plummer FA, Irungu G, Sinei SK, Piot P. Towards developing a diagnostic algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis in pregnancy.Genitourin Med. 1990 Apr;66(2):62-5.". In: Genitourin Med. 1990 Apr;66(2):62-5. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. To identify characteristics predictive of cervical infection, we examined pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. C trachomatis was isolated from 14/178 (8%), and N gonorrhoeae from 17 (10%); cervical infection with either pathogen was present in 28 (16%). Two characteristics were independently predictive of cervical infection by logistic regression analysis; the presence of either endocervical mucopus or induced endocervical bleeding, relative risk 4.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 8.0) and having more than one sexual partner during pregnancy, relative risk 3.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 7.6). A screening programme for cervical infection which tested women with one or both risk markers would have a sensitivity of 68% (95% CI 51 to 85%) and a positive predictive value of 0.35 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.47). In countries where resources are limited, diagnostic algorithms incorporating clinical signs and behavioural characteristics may be useful in identifying pregnant women at high risk of cervical infection. PIP: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity in developing countries. 178 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, were therefore examined in the attempt to identify characteristics predictive of cervical infection. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 14 (8%) and Neisseria gonorrhoea from 17 (10%); cervical infection with either pathogen was present in 28 (16%). Logistic regression analysis found that the presence of either endocervical mucopus or induced endocervical bleeding and having more than 1 sex partner during pregnancy were independently predictive of cervical infection. A screening program for cervical infection which tested women with 1 or both risk markers wold have a sensitivity of 68% and a positive predictive value of 0.35. The authors conclude that countries with limited resources may use diagnostic algorithms and incorporate clinical signs and behavioral characteristics to help identify pregnant women at high risk of cervical infection.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu and Joseph Wang'ombe,Black Market Trade: An Example from a rural hospital in Kenya,1996 Applied Economics Letters, 3, pp 213- 215.". In: Applied Economics Letters, 3, pp 213- 215. SITE; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Jowi JO, Njeru EK.Headache associated disability in medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):519-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):519-23. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study headache associated disability in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. RESULTS: Between October 1994 and January 1995 we conducted a survey on headache characteristics on medical students at both the Kenya Medical Training Centre and the Medical School of the University of Nairobi. Six hundred and twenty-five (87%) of the 711 students surveyed admitted having had at least one episode of headache in the last six months. Using the International headache society (IHS) case criteria 314 students (50%) had tension type headache, 240 (38%) migraine headache and 71(12%) unclassified headache. Eighty-six percent of the students with headache had their working ability disturbed to various degrees. Eighty-five percent of the students reported that their social activities were interfered with by headache. Migraine headaches had the greatest impact on both the working and social activities at a p-value of 0.0005 and 0.0004 respectively. One hundred and forty-one students (23.6%) had missed at least one day of work or school in the last one-year as a direct result of the headache. There was an association between headache severity with working ability and social effect. There was no association between the days students missed work or classes with the severity of the headache. No gender difference was found in the headache associated disability. CONCLUSION: Headache is a prevalent condition with disability both in working and social activities.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Demand For Health Services in Rural Kenya, Germano M. Mwabu, Joseph K. Wang'ombe, and Violet Kimani, Paper presented at the Second Annual Meeting of Participants to the International Health Policy Program, Manila, Philippines, July/August 1989.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1989. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. DRNJOROGEPETER. "Audo MO, Ferguson A, Njoroge PK.Quality of health care and its effects in the utilisation of maternal and child health services in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):547-53.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):547-53. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of care provided by the Kisumu Municipal health facilities, with special reference to Maternal and Child health services (MCH). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Kisumu Municipal Health facilities. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and eighty two mothers were interviewed in a household survey. RESULTS: A total of 482 mothers were interviewed in the household survey. Out of these, only 40.4%, 53.7% and 45.7% had respectively used Municipal facilities for antenatal services (ANC), immunisation and treatment of their children the last time they required such a service. This translates to by-pass rates for Municipal health facilities of 59.5%, 46.3% and 54.3% respectively for the three services. By-pass was higher for the more central urban catchment areas than the more peripheral ones, a finding that was associated with the socio-economic status of the respondents and the relative location of the municipal facilities vis-a-vis competing facilities, mainly the District and Provincial hospitals. The main reasons cited for by-pass were poor care (21%), lack of drugs and supplies (17%) and lack of/poor laboratory services (12%). From the facility audit, most of the clinics had a reasonable capacity to offer basic health care with only three scoring less than 50% in the scale used. The worst areas were in availability of drugs, equipment and management issues. There was a strong relationship between the perceived quality of care and utilisation of MCH services as well as by-pass. The capacity of the facilities to offer care was however not associated with utilisation of MCH services or by-pass. CONCLUSION: There is under-utilisation of Municipal health facilities for MCH services. This is related to the perceived poor quality of care in the facilities. Perception of quality is influenced by a person's socio-economic status especially education.

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Pinner, R.W., Onyango, F., Perkins, B. A., Mirza, N.B., Ngacha, D.M., Reeves, M., DeWitt, W., Njeru, E., Agata, N.N., Broome, C.V. and the Kenya/CDC Meningitis study KNjeru cv 9 group. Epidemic Meningococcal Disease in Nairobi, Kenya, 1989. J. Infect. Dis.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 1992; 166:359-364. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
In a five year retrospective study of 360 patients with homozygous (SS) sickle cell disease, eighteen (5%) were found to have neurological complications. Their ages ranged from 7 months to 21 years with a mean of 11.1 +/- 6 years. Of those with neurological complications, twelve (67%) of the patients had cerebrovascular accident, six (33.3%) convulsions, three visual disturbance; one sensorineural deafness, one cerebellar degeneration and the last one confusion and hallucinations. Four of the patients had multiple neurological complications. There was only one patient with recurrence of neurological complications. Two patients were hypertransfused and up to the end of the study period none of them had any recurrence. The pattern of neurological complications are similar to that observed in other studies. However, in this study, there were fewer recurrences of neurological complications.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Modelling of Fields Interference on Dual Power System Communication Line.". In: Proc. 4th Electrical & Electronic Engineering seminar on innovations on electrical engineering technologies, JKUAT, Nairobi, August, 1994. FARA; 1994. Abstract
When an insulator is placed in an electrode gap, its surface charge field distorts the geometric field, leading to a flashover at a voltage value dependent on the degree of the gap field distortion. This paper reports on studies conducted to determine the relationship between flashover voltages and electric filed distribution along solid insulator surfaces. The surface electric field distribution along different insulator profiles was determined using the Finite-Difference method, and the flashover of the actual profile model measured. The obtained results show that each profile had a peak surface electric field and the higher the peak value, the lower the flashover voltage. The correlation curve for peak electric field and flashover voltage was developed using a curve fitting technique based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Cost Benefit Analysis in Adult Education. Kenya Journal of Adult Education, Vol. 7, No. 1, June 1979.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1979. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Politics of Land Rights in Kenya. A paper presented in .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Land Question and Politics of Tenure Reforms in Kenya, in IRDCurrents, No. 12, Department of Rural Development Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 1997.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) in Development with Special Reference to Local Capacity Creation in Meru District: A Research Proposal. Department of Government, University of Nairobi.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Temmerman M, Lopita MI, Sanghvi HC, Sinei SK, Plummer FA, Piot P. The role of maternal syphilis, gonorrhoea and HIV-1 infections in spontaneous abortion.Int J STD AIDS. 1992 Nov-Dec;3(6):418-22.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1992 Nov-Dec;3(6):418-22. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1992. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The role of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as risk factor for spontaneous abortion was investigated in a case-control study in Nairobi, Kenya. Cases (n = 195) were women admitted with clinical signs and symptoms of spontaneous abortion, before 20 weeks of gestation. Patients with induced or clinically septic abortion were excluded. Controls were unselected pregnant women in their second or third trimester (n = 195). Spontaneous abortion was independently associated with maternal HIV-1 antibody (14.4% versus 6.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.8), with maternal syphilis seroreactivity (6.8% vs 2.1%, adjusted odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-15.6), and with vaginal colonization with group B streptococci (15.6% vs 5.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-6.7). No significant association was found between maternal infections with gonococci and genital mycoplasmas, and spontaneous abortion.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu and Joseph Wang'ombe, Health Services pricing reform in Kenya, in International Journal of Social Economics, Vol 24, No 1/2/3, 1997, pp 282-293.". In: International Journal of Social Economics, Vol 24, No 1/2/3, 1997, pp 282-293. SITE; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Health Services Pricing Reforms and Health Care demand in Kenya, June 1989 to March 1991, Paper Presented at the Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Health Policy Program, Nyon, Switzerland, November 1991.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1991. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Moses S, Ngugi EN, Bradley JE, Njeru EK, Eldridge G, Muia E, Olenja J, Plummer FA.Health care-seeking behavior related to the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.Am J Public Health. 1994 Dec;84(12):1947-51.". In: Am J Public Health. 1994 Dec;84(12):1947-51. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
K. MJ, Mbui DN, G.N. K. "Adsorption of Dursban (Chlorpyrifos) Pesticide by Loam soil fro Limuru, Kenya: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;1(1):1-9.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Some essential features in developing a Text to Speech System in Kiswahili.". In: LLSTI workshop, www.llsti.org, Lisbon, Portugal, 2004. FARA; 2004. Abstract
This paper discusses the important aspects to be considered when developing A Text To Speech System (TTS) in Kiswahili. These include linguistic features such as the phoneset, stresses and intonation. The choice of the standard dialect is also discussed. TTS features such as the text normalisation and the lexicon for Kiswahili are discussed.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Adult Education and its effect on the economics of Primary Health Care. Kenya Journal of Adult Education, Vol. 8, No. 2, September 1980.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Youth and Urban politics in Kenya'. In International Journal of Sociology. Vol. 5 No. 1: Nov. 2002.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Contestation over political space: the state and demobilization of Party politics in Kenya" CDR Working Paper No. 98.12, Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen (Revised version published as a book chapter).". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. MJ, G. KS, M. M, M. NJ, M. MJ. " Evaluation of genotoxicity potential of plants traditionally used for mosquito control in Kenya’s South coast. ." Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2016;4 (4) (ISSN: 2354-323X):178-182.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "NGOs in Kenya: The Context of NGOs Coordination Act of 1990 in Kenya. (a paper co-authored with Dr. Njuguna Ng.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Complications of use of intrauterine devices among HIV-1-infected women.Sinei SK, Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Allen M, Kokonya D. Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1238-41.". In: Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1238-41. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: A WHO expert group and the International Planned Parenthood Federation recommend against use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in HIV-1-infected women based on theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. We investigated whether the risk of complications after IUD insertion is higher in HIV-1-infected women than in non-infected women. METHODS: 649 (156 HIV-1 infected 493 non-infected) women in Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria for insertion of an IUD were enrolled. We gathered information on IUD-related complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, removals due to infection, pain, or bleeding, expulsions, and pregnancies at 1 and 4 months after insertion. Patients' HIV-1 status was masked from physicians. FINDINGS: Complications were identified in 48 of 615 women (11 [7.6%] HIV-1-infected women, 37 [7.9%] non-infected). Incident pelvic inflammatory disease (two [1.4%] HIV-1 infected, one [0.2%] non-infected) and infection-related complications (any tenderness, removal of IUD for infection or pain; ten [6.9%] HIV-1 infected, 27 [5.7%] non-infected) were also rare and similar in the two groups. Complication rates were similar by CD4 (immune) status. Multivariate analyses suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risks for overall complications (odds ratio 0.8 [95% CI 0.4-1.7]) or infection-related complications (1.0 [0.5-2.3]), adjusted for marital status, study site, previous IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse, but a slight increase cannot be ruled out. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that IUDs may be a safe contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-1-infected women with continuing access to medical services. PIP: Both the International Planned Parenthood Federation and the World Health Organization have warned against use of IUDs in HIV-infected women due to theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. No published studies have investigated this concern, however. The validity of this recommendation was investigated in a comparative study of 156 HIV-1-infected and 493 non-infected women from two public family planning clinics (Kenyatta National Hospital and Riruta City Clinic) in Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria for IUD insertion. At 1 and 4 months after insertion, information was collected from physicians–blinded as to the patient's HIV status–on IUD-related complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), removals, expulsions, and pregnancies. Complications were identified in 11 (7.6%) HIV-positive and 37 (7.9%) HIV-negative women. There were only 3 incident cases of PID, 2 of which occurred in HIV-infected women. IUD removal due to pain or infection occurred in 10 (6.9%) HIV-infected and 27 (5.7%) noninfected women. There were no differences in overall IUD complications in HIV-1-infected women by CD4 status (severely, moderately, or mildly immunocompromised). After adjustment for marital status, study site, previous IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse, multivariate analysis suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risks for overall IUD-related complications (odds ratio (OR), 0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-1.7) or infection-related complications (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-2.3). These findings suggest that the IUD may be a safe contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-infected women with continuing access to medical

K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Lee. K.V.. Mangoli. M.K.. Kirn. J.B., Kirn, J.B. . and Park. Y.M. "" A Three Level Hierarchical Approach lorOptimal Reactive power Planning IEEProc., C. Cat. Trans. and Distrib. 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. AF, O. MW, F. OC. "“Transfusion haemosiderosis in spite of regular use of Desferrioxiamine-Case Report”." East. Afr. Med. J.. 2004;81:326-328.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Joseph K. Wang.". In: Consultancy report presented to the Health Sector Support Programme, Ministry of Health, Kenya, Nov. 1998. SITE; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Health Care Financing in Kenya: Policy Issues and Potential for Social Financing, in Proceedings of The First Social Science and Medicine Africa Network International Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, Aug 1992, SOMA-Net, 1993, pp 209.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1992. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Mbori-Ngacha, D.A., Otieno, J.A., Njeru, E.K., Onyango, F.E. Prevalence of Persistent diarrhoea in children aged 3-36 months at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. Med. J. 1995; 72:711-4.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1995; 72:711-4. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
{ Three hundred and eighty four children aged 3-36 months admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH) with diarrhoea were studied for persistent diarrhoea (PD), defined as diarrhoea lasting more than 14 days. To establish the duration of diarrhoea, the children were evaluated daily while in hospital and on days seven, fourteen, twenty one and twenty eight of the diarrhoea episode, if discharged. Of these children, 268 (69.8%) were less than 12 months. There was a slight male preponderance with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Twenty (5.4%) children presented with diarrhoea of more than 14 days at admission while of the 364 who presented with diarrhoea of less than 14 days at admission, 40 (11%) developed persistent diarrhoea, giving a total PD rate of 16.5%. The peak age for PD was nine months with no sex difference. Some possible risk factors for PD were identified as blood in stools, pneumonia, malnutrition, not breastfeeding, severe dehydration and antibiotic treatment. The total number of deaths in the study cases was 50, giving a case fatality rate of 13.6%. Of the children with PD, 19(31.7%) died. The children with PD were at a four times greater risk of dying (P<0.001
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Comparison of Participative Design Experience in UK and Kenya.". In: Designing human centred technologies for the developing word, HCI 2007, 3-4 September 2007, Lancaster University, U.K. FARA; 2007.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK.Economic Evaluation in Primary Health Care: The Case of Western Kenya Community Based Health Care Project,Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1984. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Civil Society and Politics of Democratisation in Kenya; the 1997 elections (pp 30-33). Contribution in Arne Tostensen et al (ed), Kenya.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. KJ. "Acute Renal Failure." NephroNurse Newsletter February (2014):8-9.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Debt and Development in Africa: Alternative Approaches to Adjustment and Debt relief ( A paper presented in a workshop on Churches and NGOs forum on Structural Adjustment Program and Debt in Kenya organized by the National Council of Churches of Kenya).". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991.
K. MJ, Ngeranwa J.J., Githinji C.G., Kahiga T., Kariuki H.N., Waweru FN. "Suppression of nociception by Solanum incanum (Lin.) Diclomethane root extract is associated antiinflammatory activity." The Journal of Phytopharmacology . 2014;3(3):156-162.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Richardson BA, Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Sinei SK, Overbaugh J, Panteleeff DD, Weiner DH, Kreiss JK. Effect of intrauterine device use on cervical shedding of HIV-1 DNA.AIDS. 1999 Oct 22;13(15):2091-7.". In: AIDS. 1999 Oct 22;13(15):2091-7. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1999. Abstract
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA. OBJECTIVE: Hormonal contraception has been associated with an increased prevalence of cervical shedding of HIV-1 DNA among infected women. We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of the use of an intrauterine device (IUD) on the detection of HIV-1 DNA in cervical secretions. DESIGN: A prospective study of HIV-1-seropositive women undergoing IUD insertion at two public family planning clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Cervical swab samples were collected before IUD insertion and approximately 4 months thereafter for the detection of HIV-1-infected cells using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of HIV-1 gag DNA sequences. RESULTS: Ninety-eight women were enrolled and followed after IUD insertion. The prevalence of HIV-1 DNA cervical shedding was 50% at baseline and 43% at follow-up [odds ratio (OR) 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.2]. There was no statistically significant difference between the baseline and follow-up shedding rates in a multivariate model that controlled for previous hormonal contraceptive use, condom use, cervical ectopy, friable cervix, cervical infections at an interim visit, and CD4 lymphocyte levels (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1). CONCLUSION: The insertion of an IUD did not significantly alter the prevalence of cervical shedding of HIV-1-infected cells. The use of IUDs, in conjunction with condoms, may be an appropriate method of contraception for HIV-1-infected women from the standpoint of potential infectivity to the male partner through exposure to genital HIV-1.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. I.cc. K.Y,. and Park, Y.M. ""Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques."", Electric Energy Systems Research Journal 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "B Nganda, J Wang.". In: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 7(9), 2003, pp 14 - 20. SITE; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK, Mwabu GM.Agricultural Land Use Patterns and Malaria Conditions in Kenya, Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1993. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Snow RW, Molyneux CS, Njeru EK, Omumbo J, Nevill CG, Muniu E, Marsh K.The effects of malaria control on nutritional status in infancy.Acta Trop. 1997 Apr 30;65(1):1-10.". In: Acta Trop. 1997 Apr 30;65(1):1-10. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Both malaria and undernutrition are major causes of paediatric mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITBN) during a randomized controlled trial on the Kenyan coast significantly reduced severe, life-threatening malaria and all-cause childhood mortality. This paper describes the effects of the intervention upon the nutritional status of infants aged between 1 and 11 months of age. Seven hundred and eighty seven infants who slept under ITBN and 692 contemporaneous control infants, were seen during one of three cross-sectional surveys conducted during a one year period. Standardized weight-for-age and mid-upper arm circumference measures were significantly higher among infants who used ITBN compared with control infants. Whether these improvements in markers of nutritional status were a direct result of concomitant reductions in clinical malaria episodes remains uncertain. Never-the-less evidence suggests that even moderate increases in weight-for-age scores can significantly reduce the probability of mortality in childhood and ITBN may provide additional gains to child survival beyond their impressive effects upon malaria-specific events.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Innovative Farmer Advisory Services Using ICT.". In: IIMC International Information Management Corporation, 2009 ISBN: 978-1-905824-11-3. FARA; 2009.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK, Mwabu GM. Economics of essential drug schemes : The perspectives of Developing countries, Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract
Essential drug schemes in the Third World countries face many problems. These include dependency on imported drugs in the face of chronic shortages of foreign exchange, inadequate manpower and technical capability for selection and procurement of drugs, competition between generic and brand drugs, weak local drug procurement and distribution systems and inability to commence local manufacturing even in situations where there may exist comparative advantage. Many of these problems relate to each other and are compounded by the domination of the pharmaceutical industry by multinational firms. Third World countries are in a very weak position in the international pharmaceutical industry. It is suggested that the essential drug situation would improve in Third World countries if certain strategies and policies were adopted. These include: intensification of personnel training in pharmaceuticals, deliberate use of generic drugs rather than brand name drugs, the involvement of the public sector in the procurement and distribution of drugs, buying drugs in bulk, changing drug prescription and consumption practices through continuous education, changing or instituting regulations to guard against unfavourable patents and commencing domestic production of essential drugs where this is not in conflict with the principle of comparative advantage.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Contributed Chapter three - .". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Into the new millennium in Kenya: Reconstructing civil society from below". A paper prepared with support from the Commonwealth and presented at a regional workshop on "Civil society in the New Millennium" organised by MWENGO and the National Council of .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "'The Politics of Development Space in Kenya: The state and NGOs in the Delivery of Basic Services in Kenya.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Sinei SK, Weiner DH, Kwok C, Kokonya D. Is the intrauterine device appropriate contraception for HIV-1-infected women?BJOG. 2001 Aug;108(8):784-90.". In: BJOG. 2001 Aug;108(8):784-90. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2001. Abstract

Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the risk of complications is higher in HIV-1-infected women compared with non-infected women in the two years following insertion of the intrauterine contraceptive device. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. POPULATION: Six hundred and forty-nine women (156 HIV-1-infected, 493 non-infected) in Nairobi, Kenya who requested an intrauterine contraceptive device and met local eligibility criteria. METHODS: We gathered information on complications related to the use of the intrauterine contraceptive device, including pelvic inflammatory disease, removals due to infection, pain or bleeding, expulsions, and pregnancies at one, four, and 24 months after insertion by study physicians masked to participants' HIV-1 status. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: Complications were identified in 94 of 636 women returning for follow up (14.7% of HIV-1-infected, 14.8% of non-infected). The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was rare in both infected (2.0%) and non-infected (0.4%) groups. Multivariate analyses suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risk of overall complications (hazard ratio = 1.0; 95% CI 0.6-1.6). Infection-related complications (e.g. any pelvic tenderness, removal for infection or pain) were also similar between groups (10.7% of HIV-1-infected, 8.8% of non-infected; P = 0.50), although there was a non-significant increase in infection-related complications among HIV-1-infected women with use of the intrauterine contraceptive device longer than five months (hazard ratio = 1.8; 95% CI 0.8-4.4). Neither overall nor infection-related complications differed by CD4 (immune) status. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1-infected women often have a critical need for safe and effective contraception. The intrauterine contraceptive device may be an appropriate contraceptive method for HIV-1-infected women with ongoing access to medical services.

K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. The Optimal Sources of Fncrgy in Kenya" in I. E. K National Engineering Seminar on Engineering for Self Reliance - March 23rd-25lh, 1994 at the KlCC, Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Rachel Gesami, Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe and Aloys Ayako, The Effects of Cost-Sharing on Health Services Utilization in Kenya: Evidence from Panel Data, in Improving Health Policy in Africa, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang.". In: University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 8, pp 133-143, 2004. SITE; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK.Public Health Crises of Cities in Developing Countries, Soc. Sc. & Med. Vol. 41, No. 6, 1995, pp 857-862.". In: Soc. Sc. & Med. Vol. 41, No. 6, 1995, pp 857-862. SITE; 1995. Abstract
During the decade and a half after Alma Ata hundreds of projects were started in developing countries to implement the principles of PHC and start community based health care programs in the rural areas of developing countries. Until the past five years urban health was not seen as a special health problem. Population pressure in the rural areas has created shortages of land, food and employment opportunities. These forces have generated major population movements to the urban centres. The population movements have encouraged unprecedented expansion of urban centres. This sudden concentration of large populations in small geographical areas has resulted in the urban health crises of the developing world. The poor who live in the slum areas have no access to adequate health services, they experience frequent epidemics of communicable diseases like cholera, they live within a heavily polluted environment, and their children have very poor health because they are not immunized and are malnourished. The paper agrees with approaches which have been championed by development agencies to address the urban health crises. These approaches propose the reorientation of urban health systems to include adoption of PHC for urban health programs, intersectoral collaboration and extra budgetary support. The paper argues for further strengthening of the reorientation approach by adjusting the development planning model. It is proposed that the urban plan be integrated into the national development plan so that emerging urban health crises can receive special attention in resource allocation.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Munyi, S.T., Macharia, W.M., and Njeru, E.K. Screening for urinary tract infections for children with cancers. East Afr. Med. J. 1998, 75:264-267.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 May;75(5):264-7. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Neutropaenia and immunosuppression place children on treatment for malignancies at a high risk for infections. We undertook to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children on treatment for cancer at the Kenyatta National Teaching and Referral hospital. With the understanding that many laboratories in the rural areas of the country lack appropriate facilities for confirmation of UTI, it was also important to evaluate simple and inexpensive screening methods against a "gold standard" in this cross sectional study. One hundred and eighty six children between the ages of five and 14 years admitted in Kenyatta hospital with leukaemia or lymphoma were enrolled. Besides clinical evaluation, urinalysis and culture and sensitivity were performed on all the subjects. Urine culture was considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis for UTI. The prevalence of UTI was 8.1% (CI = 6.1, 10.1). Only five out of 15 patients were symptomatic. E. coli and klebsiella spp. were responsible for 93.4% of the infections. Presence of pyuria, defined as five or more pus cells per high power field, had a sensitivity of 80.0%, specificity of 97.1% and a positive predictive value of 70.6% while comparative values associated with a positive nitrite test were 60%, 97.7% and 96%. Other clinical and laboratory tests had low sensitivity. UTI is a relatively frequent infection in children on cancer treatment. Screening for pyuria is simple, inexpensive and an accurate method of diagnosing UTI in children on treatment for lymphohaematopoietic malignancies in situations where facilities for urine culture are unavailable.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Farmers Information Matrix: Lessons Learnt from Deploying a Voice Information Service for Farmers in Kenya.". In: IST-Africa 2009 Conference, 06 - 08 May 2009, Uganda. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2009.
K. M, P.K. M. Women and property Rights in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA); 2002.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Socio-economic Development and its consequences on Health Indicators: A comparison of two districts in Kenya, a paper presented at the workshop on Intersectoral Cooperation in National Strategies of Health, Brazzaville, 17th to 20th Nov., 1987.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Civil Society and Democratization Process in Kenya.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Redistribution from above: The Politics of Land Rights and Squatting in Coastal Kenya. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Changing Development Space in Kenya: Socio-political Change and Voluntary Development Activities, in Gibbon, P., (ed)., Markets, Civil Society and Democracy in Kenya. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 1995.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995.
K. KM, Oleche OM. "Short and Long-Run Impact of Trade Liberalization on Agricultural Growth in Kenya." International Journal of Finance, Insurance and Risk Management. 2020;X(3).
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe and Tania Zaman, Introduction, to Improving Health Policy in Africa, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang.". In: University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 1, pp 1-12, 2004. SITE; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, Bhullah VB. The role of chlamydia trachomatis in the aetiology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in Nairobi area, Kenya: a preliminary report.East Afr Med J. 1989 Apr;66(4):264-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Apr;66(4):264-8. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1989. Abstract
A preliminary report of 50 cases of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) studied at the Kenyatta National Hospital to find out the role of chlamydia trachomatis in its aetiology is presented. Endocervical swab cultures were done. There were 2/50 (4.0%) cases positive for chlamydia trachomatis. The role of this pathogen in the aetiology of acute PID is discussed.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Ojwang SB, Makokha AE, Sinei SK. Ovarian cancer in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1980 Feb;57(2):131-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Feb;57(2):131-7. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1980. Abstract
PIP: The 1725 women presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital in 1984-86 for IUD insertion were screened for cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea before the IUD insertion. 207 (12%) cases of chlamydia trachomatis and 61 (3.5%) cases of Neisseria gonorrhoea were detected. There was no association between the ages of the women and the prevalence of these 2 sexually transmitted pathogens; however, there was a significant relationship between the prevalence of N gonorrhoea and marital status. N gonorrhoea was detected in 6.2% of never-married and 5.2% of formerly married women compared with 2.3% of currently married subjects (p0.001). Although there was no significant relationship between parity and the rate of isolation of the 2 pathogens, infection tended to be lower in women with 5 or more children. Educational attainment was significantly associated with N gonorrhoea infection: 5.1% in women who had 0-7 years of schooling compared with 3.0% in those with 8 or more years of education (p0.05). 12 women with C trachomatis infection were also positive for N gonorrhoea. There was no significant relationship between C trachomatis infection and any of the demographic variables examined. Given the finding that the greatest risk of pelvic inflammatory disease occurs in the 1st month of IUD use, it can be speculated that pathogens are inserted into the uterine cavity at the time of IUD insertion. It is therefore recommended that clients–especially the unmarried, the formerly unmarried, and those with low levels of education–be screened and treated for N gonorrhoea and C trachomatis before an IUD is inserted.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Mathew Roberts, Joseph Wang'ombe, Steven Forsythe; Business Responses to HIV/AIDS in the African Formal Sector Workplace: Findings of a Kenya Needs Assessment; in AIDS IN KENYA; Social Economic Impact and Policy Implications, Family Health International, .". In: Family Health International, 1996. Chapter 6, pp 87-110. SITE; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Macigo, F.G., Mwaniki, D.L., Guthua, S.W., Njeru, E.K. Influence of cigarette filter on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia in a Kenyan population. Oral Dis. 2001 Mar;7(2):101-5.". In: Oral Dis. 2001 Mar;7(2):101-5. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of cigarette filters and the effect of smoking Kiraiku (home processed, hand rolled tobacco) on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia among cigarette smokers. DESIGN: Case control using population-based study groups in a Kenyan rural community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 85 cases and 141 controls identified in a cross-section house-to-house screening of subjects aged 15 years and over and matched for sex, age (+/- 3 years) and cluster origin were compared for their use of filter and non-filter cigarettes as well as their history of smoking Kiraiku. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia was 9.1 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 4.1-20.2) in smokers of filter cigarettes and 9.8 (95% CI = 2.3-47.0) in smokers of non-filter cigarettes. The RR in the latter compared to the former was 1.1 and was not statistically significant. Regarding the influence of smoking Kiraiku, the RR of this lesion was 29.3 in smokers of both Kiraiku and filter cigarettes and 17.3 in smokers of both Kiraiku and non-filter cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference between the influence of filter and non-filter cigarettes on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. The effect of Kiraiku on the risk of this lesion was stronger in filter than in non-filter cigarettes. However, the confounding effect of tobacco dose response parameters could not be ruled out.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Financial information at district level: experience from five countries, (with others) Health Policy and Planning, Volume 4, 3 September 1989, pp 207.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1989. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. PROFNYAMONGOISAAC, A. MSBUKACHISALOMER, SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "The treatment pathways followed by cases of human African trypanosomiasis in western Kenya and eastern Uganda.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Taylor & Francis; 2009. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Moses, S., Ngugi, E.N., Bradley, J.E., Njeru, E.K., Eldridge, G., Muia, E.G., Olenja, J., Plummer, F.A. Health-care seeking behaviour related to the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. Am. J. Public Health 1994; 84:1947-1951.". In: Am. J. Public Health 1994; 84:1947-1951. Kisipan, M.L.; 1951. Abstract
In a five year retrospective study of 360 patients with homozygous (SS) sickle cell disease, eighteen (5%) were found to have neurological complications. Their ages ranged from 7 months to 21 years with a mean of 11.1 +/- 6 years. Of those with neurological complications, twelve (67%) of the patients had cerebrovascular accident, six (33.3%) convulsions, three visual disturbance; one sensorineural deafness, one cerebellar degeneration and the last one confusion and hallucinations. Four of the patients had multiple neurological complications. There was only one patient with recurrence of neurological complications. Two patients were hypertransfused and up to the end of the study period none of them had any recurrence. The pattern of neurological complications are similar to that observed in other studies. However, in this study, there were fewer recurrences of neurological complications.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "When Bullets begin to follower: the security question and the constitution in Kenya." Nairobi: Claripress Ltd ; 2005.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Finite-Element Analysis of High Frequency Axi-symmetric Device problems.". In: IEEE Trans. Magnetics, Vol. 28, No.2, March 1992. FARA; 1992. Abstract
When an insulator is placed in an electrode gap, its surface charge field distorts the geometric field, leading to a flashover at a voltage value dependent on the degree of the gap field distortion. This paper reports on studies conducted to determine the relationship between flashover voltages and electric filed distribution along solid insulator surfaces. The surface electric field distribution along different insulator profiles was determined using the Finite-Difference method, and the flashover of the actual profile model measured. The obtained results show that each profile had a peak surface electric field and the higher the peak value, the lower the flashover voltage. The correlation curve for peak electric field and flashover voltage was developed using a curve fitting technique based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Re-examining political change in Africa: The Politics of Transition and Constitutional Reforms in Kenya, A paper presented in .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Struggles of Access to Land: the Squatter Question in Coastal Kenya, CDR Working Paper no. 98.7, Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Ger JO, Rogo KO, Sinei SK. Cervical incompetence: assessment of a scoring system for patient selection for cervical cerclage.Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1991 Apr;34(4):325-9.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1991 Apr;34(4):325-9. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1991. Abstract
Kisii District Hospital, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty-seven antenatal patients with clinical diagnosis of cervical incompetence were subjected to a structured scoring system before insertion of McDonald Stitch. All other possible causes of midtrimester abortion were ruled out and the patients followed up to the end of their pregnancies. Significantly there were fewer preterm deliveries in the high score group (P less than 0.01) and no abortions. The mean cerclage-delivery interval was shown to rise with increasing scores. Significantly better fetal salvage ratio was also seen in the high score group (P less than 0.05). The scoring system shows promise as a selective and prognostic tool and is recommended for trial on a wider scale.
K. DRMARIARAJANEWANJIKU. "Kurukulasuriya, P., Mendelsohn, R., Hassan, R., Benhin, J., Deressa, T., Diop, M., Eid, H.M., Fosu, K.Y., Gbetibouo, G., Jain, S., Mahamadou, A., Mano, R., Kabubo-Mariara, J., El-Marsafawy, S., Molua, E.L., Ouda, S., Ouedraogo, M., S .". In: Ninth Annual Global Development Conference "Security for Development: Confronting Threats to Survival and Safety"; Brisbane, Australia. January 29-31, 2008. University of Nairobi Press; 2006.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Urban Environment and City Health Crisis in Kenya, Planning and Resource allocation Question, in Environment and Development, Public Lecture Series, Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, 1997, pp 112-126.". In: Public Lecture Series, Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, 1997, pp 112-126. SITE; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services: Results from two Rural Community Surveys in Kenya, Joseph K. Wang'ombe, Violet Kimani, Germano Mwabu, paper presented at the Technical Workshop on Demand Studies, International Health Policy Program, Lago.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1990. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Yonga, G.O., Oyuga, H.W.W., Njeru, E.K. Influence of Beta-blockade with Beta-1-selectivity or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity on some cardiorespiratory responses to exercise. East Afr. Med. J. 1993; 70:405-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):405-8. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Possession of beta-1-selectivity and intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) by beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been found to modify the effects of these drugs on heart rate, blood pressure and pulmonary airway resistance both at rest and during exercise. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial, 21 healthy male volunteers took placebo, propranolol (non-selective with no ISA), metoprolol (beta-1-selective with no ISA) and pindolol (non-selective with ISA) on separate occasions prior to an exercise test using the same protocol each time. Heart rate, blood pressure and peak respiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured before exercise and at exhaustion. No significant differences in percentage increase in heart rate after exercise were detected between placebo and all the three beta-blockers. All three drugs were associated with significantly lower percentage increases in systolic blood pressure with exercise compared to placebo; with metoprolol and propranolol causing lower increases than pindolol. The index of myocardial oxygen consumption, MVO2, was highest with pindolol. PEFR was reduced most by propranolol. Possession of beta-1-selectivity and ISA by beta-blocking drugs modifies their effects on cardio-respiratory responses to exercise amongst indigenous Kenyans.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Finite-element analysis of non-uniform, lossy transmission lines.". In: 2nd regional workshop on radio communication in Africa, 4-8th August 1997, KCCT, Nairobi, KENYA. FARA; 1997. Abstract
This paper discusses the important aspects to be considered when developing A Text To Speech System (TTS) in Kiswahili. These include linguistic features such as the phoneset, stresses and intonation. The choice of the standard dialect is also discussed. TTS features such as the text normalisation and the lexicon for Kiswahili are discussed.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Adult Education and Development in Kenya, the Experience of the Kenya Adult Education Association., Proceeding of African Adult Education Association Workshop for National Secretaries and Leaders of Voluntary Associations, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 26th to .". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Mix and Match them: Party, Persons and the 1997 General Elections in Meru and Embu Region of Kenya" in Marcel R, Mazrui, A., and Grignon, F (ed.,). Out of the Count: The 1997 General Elections and Prospectus for Democracy in Kenya. Kampala: Fountain Publ.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Land Question in Kenya: Struggles, Accumulation and Changing Politics. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, International Development Studies, Roskilde University, Denmark, 1998.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Creating Local Capacity for Development: The Case of Meru District, Kenya. Unpublished MA Dissertation, Department of Government, University of Nairobi, 1990.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection upon acute salpingitis: a laparoscopic study.J Infect Dis. 1998 Nov;178(5):1352-8.PMID: 9780255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: a laparoscopic study.J Infect Dis. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract
Cohen CR, Sinei S, Reilly M, Bukusi E, Eschenbach D, Holmes KK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Grieco V, Stamm W, Karanja J, Kreiss J. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. crohen@u.washington.edu To determine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection upon pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a laparoscopic study of acute PID was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, HIV-1 serology, and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Of the 133 women with laparoscopically verified salpingitis, 52 (39%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) were found in 33% of HIV-1-infected and 15% of HIV-1-uninfected women (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-6.5). Among seropositive women, TOA was found in 55% of those with CD4 cell percent <14% vs. 28% with CD4 cell percent>14% (OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.6-15.3). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in 37 women (28%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in 12 (9%); neither was significantly related to HIV-1 seropositivity. Length of hospitalization was not affected by HIV-1 serostatus overall but was prolonged among HIV-1-infected women with CD4 cell percent <14%. Among patients with acute salpingitis, likelihood of TOA was related to HIV-1 infection and advanced immunosuppression. In general, HIV-1-seropositive women with acute salpingitis responded well to treatment. PMID: 9780255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Sustainable Financing and the Non-Governmental Delivery of Health Care in Sub-Sahara Africa: An overview, Presented at the Sustainable Health Care Conference, World Bank/EDI, USAID/REDSO/ECA, Nairobi, February 1997.". In: Sustainable Health Care Conference, World Bank/EDI, USAID/REDSO/ECA, Nairobi, February 1997. SITE; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Essential National Health Research in Kenya: A situational Analysis, Germano Mwabu, Dr. Simon Kiugu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Francis Mworia, Prepared for Ministry of Health and Ministry of Research Science and Technology, April 1991.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1991. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Njeru, E.K., Eldridge, G., Ngugi, E.N., Plummer, F.A., Moses, S. STD Partner Notification and Referral In Primary Level Health Centers in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis. 1995 Jul-Aug;22(4):231-5.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 1995 Jul-Aug;22(4):231-5. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Controlling sexually transmitted diseases requires that partners of patients with a sexually transmitted disease be notified and treated. However, many countries in the developing world lack the infrastructure and resources for effective partner referral. GOAL OF THIS STUDY: To provide information on rates of partner referral in primary-level health centers in Kenya, to identify characteristics of patients with sexually transmitted diseases who inform their partners about the need for treatment, and to evaluate the impact of a brief counseling intervention on rates of partner notification. STUDY DESIGN: Two-hundred-fifty-four patients presenting for treatment of a sexually transmitted disease were given 5 to 10 minutes of additional counseling on the importance of referring partners for sexually transmitted disease treatment. All patients who returned for follow-up 1 week later were interviewed to determine whether they had notified their sex partners. RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of patients who returned for follow-up reported they had referred their partners for treatment of a sexually transmitted disease. The highest rates of partner notification occurred among women attending maternal child health/family planning clinics and married men and women attending general outpatient clinics. CONCLUSION: Strengthening and directing counseling toward women in maternal child health/family planning clinics and married men and women in general clinics may be an effective and inexpensive way to increase partner notification in the developing world. PIP: In developing countries, patient referral is a more feasible means of notifying partners of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clients than the costly, labor-intensive provider referral approach. However, enhancement strategies such as education and counseling, contact cards, educational materials, follow-up, and monetary incentives may be necessary. To assess the impact of brief counseling on patient referral rates, a study was conducted at five primary health care centers in low-income areas of Nairobi, Kenya. All 254 STD patients who attended the clinic in a two-week period in 1992 were enrolled in the study. Subjects were given 5-10 minutes of counseling, asked to identify their sexual partners, and given a return appointment for the following week. Of the 93 patients who returned to the clinic and provided partner referral data, 63 (68%) reported they informed their partner of the need for STD treatment and 54 (58%) claimed that their partners had been treated. Multivariate analysis indicated that partner notification rates were highest for females, married individuals or those with regular partners, and maternal-child health/family planning clinic patients. Although 84% of unmarried men, 66% of unmarried women, and 47% of married men were infected by a casual sex partner, only 35% of those in the casual partner group attempted notification. Before the study, only 15% of partners presented to the clinics for treatment as a result of partner referral. This provides some evidence of the effectiveness of the counseling strategy, at least for married men and women, although more detailed guidelines on methods of partner notification are recommended.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Development of a Kiswahili Text to Speech System.". In: Interspeech 2005, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2005. FARA; 2005. Abstract
This paper discusses how a concatenative Kiswahili Text to Speech System (TTS) was developed based on the Festival Unit Selection Speech Synthesiser. It explains how important Kiswahili linguistic features such as phones, stress and intonation were modelled as inputs to the Festival engine. It also discusses the design, recording and segmentation of the speech database, beginning with text corpus collection and transcription. The choice of the speaker, which is crucial to realising a good TTS is discussed and also how the system was tested.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Economics of Health (resources, strategies, constraints) in Kenya, paper presented at the Ministry of Health/UNICEF Workshop on Health and Nutrition, Kisumu, Kenya, July, 1984.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1984. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "With Aliber, M., Walkers, C., Machera, M., Kamau, P., and Omondi, C., The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Land Rights. Case Studies from Kenya. Rome: FAO.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003.
K. MEB, P OJ, C RR, K. TA. "Evaluation of Land Use Change in Kiboko Watershed, Kenya." African Journal of Education, Science and Technology. 2014;2(1):17-24.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Politics and Struggles for Access to Land: .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Sustainable Development in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) of Kenya: The Role of NGOs, A perspective on Local Capacity Building Strategies", A paper prepared for the Workshop on NGOs/Community Leadership Working Improved Network in the Nomadic Pasto.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991.
K. KJ, O. OP, SO. ML, O. AE, O. OE. "Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients." East African Medical Journal, 86 (9): 435 . 2009;86(9):435-441. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To describe the incidence of renal dysfunction, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia in AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis and on amphotericin B treatment. Secondary objective was to determine all-cause mortality in the same group.

Design: Prospective, observational study.

Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: Seventy consecutive patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis on amphotericin B.

Results: About 58.6% of the patients had at least 100% rise in the creatinine level. Thirty eight point six per cent of patients experienced a rise in serum creatinine of at least 50%. Ninty three per cent of the patients developed hypokalaemia and 80% had hypomagnesaemia at trough magnesium level. Only 54.3% of patients completed the intended 14-day treatment. Thirty point five per cent of patients died within the two week follow-up period.

Conclusion: The incidences of amphotericin B associated nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia and hypomagnesaemia were high in this studied population.

K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Use of sexually transmitted disease risk assessment algorithms for selection of intrauterine device candidates.Contraception. 1999 Feb;59(2):97-106.PMID: 10361624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. emorrison@fhi.org. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1999. Abstract
Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Miller WC, Weiner DH, Sinei SK. Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. emorrison@fhi.org Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are an important contraindication for intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Nevertheless, laboratory testing for STD is not possible in many settings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of risk assessment algorithms to predict STD and subsequent IUD-related complications among IUD candidates. Among 615 IUD users in Kenya, the following algorithms were evaluated: 1) an STD algorithm based on US Agency for International Development (USAID) Technical Working Group guidelines: 2) a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) algorithm for management of chlamydia; and 3) a data-derived algorithm modeled from study data. Algorithms were evaluated for prediction of chlamydial and gonococcal infection at 1 month and complications (pelvic inflammatory disease [PID], IUD removals, and IUD expulsions) over 4 months. Women with STD were more likely to develop complications than women without STD (19% vs 6%; risk ratio = 2.9; 95% CI 1.3-6.5). For STD prediction, the USAID algorithm was 75% sensitive and 48% specific, with a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 1.4. The CDC algorithm was 44% sensitive and 72% specific, LR+ = 1.6. The data-derived algorithm was 91% sensitive and 56% specific, with LR+ = 2.0 and LR- = 0.2. Category-specific LR for this algorithm identified women with very low (< 1%) and very high (29%) infection probabilities. The data-derived algorithm was also the best predictor of IUD-related complications. These results suggest that use of STD algorithms may improve selection of IUD users. Women at high risk for STD could be counseled to avoid IUD, whereas women at moderate risk should be monitored closely and counseled to use condoms. PIP: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using risk assessment algorithms in predicting sexually transmitted disease (STD) and subsequent IUD-related complications among IUD candidates. The study population was selected among women who desired an IUD insertion in Nairobi, Kenya. The following algorithms drawn from the study of IUD use and HIV infection among these 615 IUD users were evaluated: 1) an STD algorithm based on US Agency for International Development (USAID) Technical Working Group guidelines; 2) a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) algorithm for management of chlamydia; 3) a data-derived algorithm modeled from data. Algorithms were also evaluated for prediction of chlamydial and gonococcal infection at 1 month and complications (pelvic inflammatory disease, IUD removals, and IUD expulsions) at 4 months. Results showed that women with STDs were more likely to develop complications than women without STDs (19% vs. 6% risk ratio = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.5). In STD prediction, the USAID algorithm was 91% sensitive and 56% specific, with LR+ = 2.0 and LR- = 0.2. Category-specific LR for this algorithm identified women with very low (1%) and very high (29%) infection probabilities. Thus, sexually transmitted disease was associated with increased risk for complications after IUD insertion. Moreover, it may be concluded that simple risk assessment criteria can assist in the identification of women at high and low risk for STD among women presenting for IUD insertion; it may also be concluded that the use of simple risk assessment tools may facilitate the identification of women who require close observation, thus reducing the incidence of IUD-related complications. PMID: 10361624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. Lee, K.Y., and Park. Y.M. "Optimal Power Flow Using Linear Programming", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang.". In: African Development Bank, Vol 15, No 2/3, 2003 pp 439-543. SITE; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. JT, W M, F. A, Prabhu R, Shiferaw B, Gbegbelegbe S, Massawe S, Kyotalimye M, Wanjiku J, Macharia E. Responding to the food price crisis in Eastern and Southern Africa: Policy options for national and regional action. Entebbe: ASARECA; 2008.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Financing and Sustainability of FP Programs: Kenya Case Study, Consultancy Report submitted to UNFPA-Nairobi, May 1993.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1993. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Njeru, E.K. The Importance of Controlled Trials in Medicine. East Afr. Med. J. 1996; 73: 153-154 (Editorial).". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1996; 73: 153-154 (Editorial). Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Both malaria and undernutrition are major causes of paediatric mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITBN) during a randomized controlled trial on the Kenyan coast significantly reduced severe, life-threatening malaria and all-cause childhood mortality. This paper describes the effects of the intervention upon the nutritional status of infants aged between 1 and 11 months of age. Seven hundred and eighty seven infants who slept under ITBN and 692 contemporaneous control infants, were seen during one of three cross-sectional surveys conducted during a one year period. Standardized weight-for-age and mid-upper arm circumference measures were significantly higher among infants who used ITBN compared with control infants. Whether these improvements in markers of nutritional status were a direct result of concomitant reductions in clinical malaria episodes remains uncertain. Never-the-less evidence suggests that even moderate increases in weight-for-age scores can significantly reduce the probability of mortality in childhood and ITBN may provide additional gains to child survival beyond their impressive effects upon malaria-specific events.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Experience with developing and deploying an agricultural information system using spoken language technology in Kenya.". In: IEEE workshop on Spoken Language Technology Workshop, 2008. SLT 2008. IEEE , vol., no., pp.17-20, 15-19 Dec. 2008. FARA; 2008. Abstract
We describe the progress of the Local Language Speech Technology Initiative in Kenya, where since starting in 2003, technology and expertise have been successfully transferred to the Kenyan partners, culminating in the launch of the National Farmers Information Service (NAFIS) in April 2008. NAFIS is primarily a voice service accessed over the phone and offers a wide range of information in Kiswahili or Kenyan English, supplementing the existing agricultural extension services.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Kenya Expanded Programme on Immunization: Cost Analysis, Weekly Epidemiological Record. No. 25, 24th June, 1983, WHO, Geneva.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30. SITE; 1984. Abstract
Essential drug schemes in the Third World countries face many problems. These include dependency on imported drugs in the face of chronic shortages of foreign exchange, inadequate manpower and technical capability for selection and procurement of drugs, competition between generic and brand drugs, weak local drug procurement and distribution systems and inability to commence local manufacturing even in situations where there may exist comparative advantage. Many of these problems relate to each other and are compounded by the domination of the pharmaceutical industry by multinational firms. Third World countries are in a very weak position in the international pharmaceutical industry. It is suggested that the essential drug situation would improve in Third World countries if certain strategies and policies were adopted. These include: intensification of personnel training in pharmaceuticals, deliberate use of generic drugs rather than brand name drugs, the involvement of the public sector in the procurement and distribution of drugs, buying drugs in bulk, changing drug prescription and consumption practices through continuous education, changing or instituting regulations to guard against unfavourable patents and commencing domestic production of essential drugs where this is not in conflict with the principle of comparative advantage.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Kenya Country Case Study for 'The New Anti-Corruption Governments: The Challenge of Delivery.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Politics and Struggles for Access to Land: .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Mobilizing local resources for Sustainable Development in the ASALs: Discussion notes on the role of NGO's (A Paper presented at the third conference on the future of Maasai Pastoralists in Kajiado, 23 to 26 August 1992.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Kokonya DA, Sinei SK, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Morrison CS, Kwok C, Weiner DH. Experience with IUCD insertion outside of menses in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):369-73.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):369-73. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine if women receiving intrauterine devices (IUCDs) outside of menses have an acceptable rate of insertion problems and subsequent IUCD-related complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of insertions at times other than during menses. SETTING: The study was carried out in two government family planning (FP) clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: After appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counselling, 1686 women requesting IUCDs at two FP clinics between 1994 and 1995 in Nairobi were enrolled at baseline into a study examining the effect of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection on IUCD-related complications. Six hundred and forty nine women (156 HIV-infected and 493 HIV-uninfected) were selected for the four month follow up study. They were classified according to their menstrual cycle status at time of IUCD insertion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Problems at the time of insertion (pain, bleeding, immediate expulsion) and IUCD-related complications through four months. RESULTS: Rates of immediate insertion problems were low in the women who had insertions during menses (7.0%), outside of menses (4.0%) or had oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (2.6%). The adjusted odds ratios for IUCD insertion problems outside of menses and in oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (versus women with insertion during menses) were 0.54 (95 % CI 0.18-1.59) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29) respectively. IUCD-related complications were higher in the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (11.5%) or insertion outside of menses (6.9%), than the within menses (4.3%) groups. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios for IUCD outside of menses and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhea groups were 1.65 (95% CI 0.21-12.91) and 2.72 (95% CI 0.34-21.71) respectively. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that the IUCD can be safely inserted outside of menses with minimal insertion difficulties and subsequent complications. Availability of IUCDs outside of menses may enhance IUCD acceptance in Kenya and create better opportunity for visual screening of the cervix for sexually transmitted infections.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. "Optimal Power Flow in Kenya" on 4th August 1994 at the 4th JKUAT Annual Electrical and Electronic Engineering Seminar on Innovations in Electrical Engineering Technology.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMARIARAJANEWANJIKU. "Kiriti-Ng.". In: Ninth Annual Global Development Conference "Security for Development: Confronting Threats to Survival and Safety"; Brisbane, Australia. January 29-31, 2008. 2007; 2007.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Bejamin Nganda and Octavian Gakuru, Financing Medical Care Through Insurance: Results from a Facility and Household Survey in Kenya, in Improving Health Policy in Africa, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang.". In: University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 12, pp 181-195, 2004. SITE; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. W, S. M, J.W. M, Z. Q, J. B, P. V. "Depression among women with obstetric fistula in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;115(1):31-3. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To establish the prevalence of depression and describe associated factors among fistula patients attending an obstetric fistula surgical camp in Kenya.

METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted focusing on obstetric fistula patients attending a national fistula camp held in August 2008 at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data and medical histories for all consenting patients before surgery. Depression measures were obtained using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

RESULTS:
Of the 70 women interviewed, 2 (2.9%) and 12 (17.1%) reported a history of psychiatric illness and suicidal ideations, respectively. Depression was present in 51 (72.9%) patients, with 18 (25.7%) meeting criteria for severe depression. Depression was significantly associated with women older than 20 years of age (P=0.01), unemployment (P=0.03), lack of social support following fistula (P=0.04), and living with fistula for over 3 months (P=0.01).

CONCLUSION:
Women with obstetric fistula are predisposed to high levels of depression. A holistic management approach, including mental health care and family support, is recommended

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Assessing business responses to HIV / AIDS in Kenya. Roberts M, Wangombe J. AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5.". In: AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5. SITE; 1995. Abstract
PIP: A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were–or were suspected to be–HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Macharia, W.M., Shiroya, A. and Njeru, E.K. Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs of Primary Caretakers towards Sickle Cell Anaemia in Children. East Afr Med J. 1997 Jul;74(7):416-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Jul;74(7):416-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) that may influence health seeking behaviour of caretakers of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at Nyanza provincial hospital in Kenya between March and September 1993 to identify socio-demographic and economic factors that may influence health seeking behaviour of primary caretakers of children with SCD. All caretakers accompanying children under the age of 18 years to the Sickle Cell Clinic were eligible. Guardians accompanying children to the clinic were interviewed using pretested questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis method was used to categorise questionnaire items into domains (knowledge, attitude and belief) and to investigate for association between certain socio-demographic factors and KAB. Seventy five per cent of the 108 respondents interviewed were mothers and 16.7% fathers. Seventy eight percent knew SCD to be hereditary while 55% knew how the disease presents in childhood. Only 42% associated SCD with increased risk of infection. Many felt severe infections are largely preventable and that prevention would reduce their anxiety and illness related costs. In factor analysis, variables loaded almost exclusively on "Attitudes" and "Beliefs" factors. Only family size was found to influence caretaker attitudes (p = 0.0095) and beliefs (p = 0.0034). Education, monthly income, occupation and religion had no significant influence. The majority of caretakers had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards SCD in children. Interventions aimed at management of SCD or prevention of its sequelae would be well accepted. Factor analysis is recommended for statistical analysis of KAB data. The effect of family size on attitudes and behaviour needs further evaluation.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Inventory of Innovative Farmer Advisory Services using ICTs.". In: IST-Africa 2009 Conference, 06 - 08 May 2009, Uganda. FARA; 2009.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Developing a cost-effective strategy for PHC implementation at the district level (with J. Maneno and C. Thube) paper presented at the WHO meeting on Strengthening of District Health Systems Harare, July-August 1987.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. MS, G. MM. "CHALLENGES FACED IN SUCCESSION PLANNING IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN KENYA." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(6):25-39.succession_planning_challenges.pdf
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Kanyinga, K., Mitullah, W., Odhiambo., Wojciech, S., and Salamon., 2004. 'Dimensions of the Non-Profit Sector in Kenya.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Into the Land Question in Kenya: Alienation of Public Land and Intensity of Landlessness, in "Alienation of Public Land in Kenya" Seminar Series report, 3, 2000. Nairobi: Catholic University of East Africa, 2000.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Ethnicity, Patronage and Class in a Local Arena: "High" and "Low" politics in Kiambu, Kenya, 1982-92, in Gibbon, P., (ed) The New Local Level Politics in East Africa. Research Report No. 95. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 1994.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. The Kenya Power System " in August 1996 at the 2nd conference of the Kenya Society for the Electrical Engineers - Serena Hotel. Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe and Tania Zaman, Linking Research to Health Policy, in Improving Health Policy in Africa, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang.". In: University of Nairobi Press, Chapter3, pp 43-54. SITE; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, M'riara G, Schulz KF, Njage PN, Lamptey PR, Bhullar VB, Mati JK, Rosenthal SM. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis in intra-uterine contraceptive acceptors in Kenya. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1988;7(2):71-3.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1988;7(2):71-3. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1988. Abstract
PIP: The 1725 women presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital in 1984-86 for IUD insertion were screened for cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea before the IUD insertion. 207 (12%) cases of chlamydia trachomatis and 61 (3.5%) cases of Neisseria gonorrhoea were detected. There was no association between the ages of the women and the prevalence of these 2 sexually transmitted pathogens; however, there was a significant relationship between the prevalence of N gonorrhoea and marital status. N gonorrhoea was detected in 6.2% of never-married and 5.2% of formerly married women compared with 2.3% of currently married subjects (p0.001). Although there was no significant relationship between parity and the rate of isolation of the 2 pathogens, infection tended to be lower in women with 5 or more children. Educational attainment was significantly associated with N gonorrhoea infection: 5.1% in women who had 0-7 years of schooling compared with 3.0% in those with 8 or more years of education (p0.05). 12 women with C trachomatis infection were also positive for N gonorrhoea. There was no significant relationship between C trachomatis infection and any of the demographic variables examined. Given the finding that the greatest risk of pelvic inflammatory disease occurs in the 1st month of IUD use, it can be speculated that pathogens are inserted into the uterine cavity at the time of IUD insertion. It is therefore recommended that clients–especially the unmarried, the formerly unmarried, and those with low levels of education–be screened and treated for N gonorrhoea and C trachomatis before an IUD is inserted.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Germano Mwabu and Joseph Wang'ombe,Health Services Pricing Reforms in Kenya: 1989-93, Working Paper Series, International Health Policy Program, Washington D.C., February 1995.". In: International Health Policy Program, Washington D.C., February 1995. SITE; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "C.K Sigei and E.K. Njeru.Surveillance and Research in STI, In: A.P. Mwangi and J. Ndinya-Achola (ed), STI Control and Prevention. Ministry of Health and Belgian Development Cooperation, Nairobi, 1999.". In: A.P. Mwangi and J. Ndinya-Achola (ed), STI Control and Prevention. Ministry of Health and Belgian Development Cooperation, Nairobi, 1999. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of cigarette filters and the effect of smoking Kiraiku (home processed, hand rolled tobacco) on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia among cigarette smokers. DESIGN: Case control using population-based study groups in a Kenyan rural community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 85 cases and 141 controls identified in a cross-section house-to-house screening of subjects aged 15 years and over and matched for sex, age (+/- 3 years) and cluster origin were compared for their use of filter and non-filter cigarettes as well as their history of smoking Kiraiku. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia was 9.1 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 4.1-20.2) in smokers of filter cigarettes and 9.8 (95% CI = 2.3-47.0) in smokers of non-filter cigarettes. The RR in the latter compared to the former was 1.1 and was not statistically significant. Regarding the influence of smoking Kiraiku, the RR of this lesion was 29.3 in smokers of both Kiraiku and filter cigarettes and 17.3 in smokers of both Kiraiku and non-filter cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference between the influence of filter and non-filter cigarettes on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. The effect of Kiraiku on the risk of this lesion was stronger in filter than in non-filter cigarettes. However, the confounding effect of tobacco dose response parameters could not be ruled out.
K. M. "The Intrigues of Electoral Politics in South Chania, Kenya since 1992’.". In: The Moi Succession. Nairobi: IFRA; 2002.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Cost-Sharing: Issues Relating to the Financing of Health Services in Kenya, in Report of Proceedings of the workshop on COST-SHARING IN KENYA, UNICEF, Kenya Country Office, Nairobi, April 1989.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1989. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

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