Publications

Found 5762 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is K  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J [K] L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
K
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Management of hepatic metastases: hope for the hopeless.Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jul-Sep;15(3):119-20.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jul-Sep;15(3):119-20. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) was tested for in a group of 16 defined non-B chronic hepatitis patients using specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These were chosen from amongst 56 biopsy proven cases of chronic hepatitis of which majority (40) were positive for hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis C virus RNA could be demonstrated in 12 (75%) of remaining 16 cases. These include all seven patients positive for antibody to HCV. Two of these patients had past history of blood transfusion and in another two the clinical course started with severe acute liver disease. This study establishes the association of HCV with severe liver disease. The clinical and biochemical profiles are also discussed. In view of limited sensitivity of the antibody assays it is justified to develop diagnostic testes based on local strains.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Mishra A, Durgapal H, Manivel V, Acharya SK, Rao KV, Panda SK.Immune response to hepatitis B virus surface antigen peptides during HBV infection.Clin Exp Immunol. 1992 Nov;90(2):194-8.". In: Clin Exp Immunol. 1992 Nov;90(2):194-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Antibody responses of patients with acute (n = 73), fulminant (n = 30) and chronic (n = 51) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as well as recovered individuals (n = 7) were studied against three synthetic peptides, Pre-S1 amino acids (aa. 12-32), Pre-S2 amino acids (aa. 120-145), and S amino acids (aa. 124-147) of the envelope region (HBsAg). T cell blastogenic response was investigated in a proportion of the patients (27 acute, nine fulminant, 13 chronic hepatitis and seven recovered individuals) along with seven HBV vaccinated and three normal individuals. The presence of T cell response against S peptide was observed in all the cases (9/9, 100%) during early acute hepatitis. This was suppressed during late stages (8/18, 44%) followed by partial reversal during recovery (5/7, 71%). T cell response and antibodies to Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 peptides were present only in one-third of the patients throughout these periods. The T cell blastogenic response as well as antibody reactivity against these peptides were absent and minimal in chronic hepatitis. Immune response against envelope protein appears to play a major role in acute hepatic injury due to HBV infection and help in virus clearance.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Paul SB, Sreenivas V, Gulati MS, Madan K, Gupta AK, Mukhopadhyay S, Panda SK, Acharya SK.Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma among Indian patients with cirrhosis of liver: an experience from a tertiary care center in northern India.Indian J Gastroentero.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2007 Nov-Dec;26(6):274-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2007. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite bearing the main burden of HCC, prospective studies from developing countries are lacking. This prospective observational study was designed to estimate the incidence of HCC among Indian patients with hepatic cirrhosis. METHODS: Between April 2001 and November 2004, we enrolled 301 patients with liver cirrhosis. Patients found to be free of HCC using baseline abdominal ultrasound, triple-phase computed tomography (TPCT) and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were followed up prospectively for detection of HCC using ultrasound and AFP every 6 months, and TPCT annually. RESULTS: Among the 194 patients (mean age [SD] 45.1 [+/-13.1] years; male:female 6.1:1.0) followed up, 154 had Child's A and 40 had Child's B disease. The causes of cirrhosis were: hepatitis B-71 (36.6%), hepatitis C-54 (27.8%), dual infection with hepatitis B and C-12 (6.2%) and others including autoimmune, alcoholic and cryptogenic cirrhosis 57 (29.4%). During a cumulative follow up period of 563.4 person-years, 9 cases of HCC were detected, with an incidence rate of 1.60 per 100 person-years. CONCLUSION: In our study, the incidence of HCC among patients with liver cirrhosis was intermediate, being lower than that in Japan but higher than that reported from Europe.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Acharya SK.Prediction of severity of acute pancreatitis.Gut. 1990 Dec;31(12):1419.". In: Gut. 1990 Dec;31(12):1419. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
Nutritional Status of 89 patients was assessed during their course of hospitalisation. All patients consumed diet deficit in protein and calories. The mean daily intake of calories was 819 +/- 425 Kcals and of protein was 22 +/- 19 g per day. 74.13 per cent patients lost weight while 31.25 per cent gained. 50% patients had fall in SKFT values during their hospital stay.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Prasad HK, Singhal A, Mishra A, Shah NP, Katoch VM, Thakral SS, Singh DV, Chumber S, Bal S, Aggarwal S, Padma MV, Kumar S, Singh MK, Acharya SK.Bovine tuberculosis in India: potential basis for zoonosis.Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2005 Sep-Nov;85(5-6):421-8. Ep.". In: Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2005 Sep-Nov;85(5-6):421-8. Epub 2005 Oct 25. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
Our laboratory has designed a specific nested-PCR (N-PCR) assay, based on the hupB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv2986c) and Mycobacterium bovis (Mb3010c) as a method to differentiate these closely related species. The present paper deciphers the utility of this assay for identification of pathogenic Mycobacteria in clinical samples. Extra-pulmonary clinical samples obtained from cattle and humans were investigated. Pre-dominance of M. tuberculosis (15.7%) and M. bovis (26.8%) was seen in humans and cattle, respectively. However, more importantly, both mycobacterial pathogens (mixed infection) were identified in a number of samples. In humans 8.7% of the samples and 35.7% in cattle were classified as mixed infection. The detection of mixed infection with the mycobacterial pathogenic duo in humans and bovines denotes the prospect of potential transmission of these pathogens from humans to cattle (zoonosis) and vice versa (reverse zoonosis).
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Irshad M, Gandhi BM, Acharya SK, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.Anti-pre-S antibodies in different groups of patients with hepatitis B virus infection.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1989 Jan-Feb;4(1):25-32.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1989 Jan-Feb;4(1):25-32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract

The anti-pre-S antibody in the samples of sera from normal healthy persons and patients with different clinical types of liver diseases due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was detected by a newly established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. This test is a blocking assay where anti-pre-S antibody in the patient's serum blocks subsequent addition of horse radish peroxidase-labelled polymerized human serum albumin (pHSA) to the pHSA-receptor site of HBsAg molecules fixed on a solid surface. Anti-pre-S activity was not detected in any from 95 healthy persons who were negative for all HBV-markers or from 105 healthy HBV carriers. In 12 sera from HBV vaccine recipients, anti-pre-S activity was noted in higher proportions compared with anti-HBs, after both the second and third doses of vaccine. Anti-pre-S activity was detected in small proportions of HBsAg positive sera from acute viral hepatitis (4.2%) and chronic active hepatitis (10%). In subacute viral hepatitis patients, the anti-pre-S antibody was totally absent. However, anti-pre-S activity was recorded in high proportions of HBsAg-positive sera from patients with cirrhosis of liver (57.2%) and fulminant hepatitis (41.6%). The anti-pre-S antibodies were assumed to be implicated in the clearance of HBV particles from circulation without causing tissue damage.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bose B, Chugh DA, Kala M, Acharya SK, Khanna N, Sinha S.Characterization and molecular modeling of a highly stable anti-Hepatitis B surface antigen scFv.Mol Immunol. 2003 Dec;40(9):617-31.". In: Mol Immunol. 2003 Dec;40(9):617-31. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract

We raised a mouse monoclonal antibody (5S) against the 'a' epitope of the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by selecting for binding of the hybridoma supernatant in conditions that usually destabilize protein-protein interactions. This antibody, which was protective in an in vitro assay, had a high affinity with a relative dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. It also displayed stable binding to antigen in conditions that usually destabilize antigen-antibody interactions, like 30% DMSO, 8 M urea, 4 M NaCl, 1 M guanidium HCl and extremes of pH. The variable regions of the antibody were cloned and expressed as an single chain variable fragment (scFv) (A5). A5 had a relative affinity comparable to the mouse monoclonal and showed antigen binding in presence of 20% DMSO, 8 M urea and 3 M NaCl. It bound the antigen in the pH range of 6-8, though its tolerance for guanidium HCl was reduced. Sequence analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the frequency of somatic replacement mutations in CDRs over framework regions in the light but not in the heavy chain. A comparison of the molecular models of the variable regions of the 5S antibody and its germ-line precursor revealed that critical mutations in the heavy and light chains interface resulted in better inter-chain packing and in the movement of CDR H3 and CDR L1 from their germline positions, which may be important for better antigen binding. In addition to providing a reagent for neutralizing for the virus, such an antibody provides a model for the evolution of stable high affinity interaction during antibody maturation.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Irshad M, Gandhi BM, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.Pre-S proteins–a new marker for the hepatitis-B virus.Trop Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr-Jun;8(2):91-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr-Jun;8(2):91-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
A simple and sensitive ELISA was developed to characterize the interaction between polymerised human serum albumin (pHSA) and HBsAg, using pHSA-coated polyvinylmicrotitre plates as solid phase and anti-HBs-coupled HRPO as the conjugate. The interaction was found to be specific and dependent on the size of albumin polymer. pHSA-binding activity (pHSA-BA) was studied in both HBsAg-negative and HBsAg-positive sera from various liver diseases including acute viral hepatitis, fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver, chronic active hepatitis, and healthy HBsAg carriers. pHSA-BA was detected only in HBsAg-positive sera. Analysis of HBsAg-positive sera indicated pHSA-BA in high proportions of patients sera as compared to sera from healthy HBsAg carriers. pHSA-BA was detected both in the presence and absence of HBe markers, though the mean BA was relatively high in presence of HBeAg. The effect of human serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) on the BA was investigated and a correlation between pHSA-BA and HBsAg-IgM complex positivity in sera was established. Finally, the probable role of human serum IgM in facilitating the binding process was discussed.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 May-Jun;21(3):93-5.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 May-Jun;21(3):93-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: To improve the survival rate of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in whom surgery is not possible, various methods have been developed employing angiographic and percutaneous techniques. We analyzed our experience with various percutaneous therapeutic interventional techniques done for HCC in our center. METHODS: Sixty-one patients with inoperable HCC (mean age 48.9 [SD 13.8] y; 47 men) were treated between January 1997 and December 2000 by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone (22), TACE with percutaneous alcohol injection (PEI) (20), transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with steel coils and gel foam for gastrointestinal bleed (7), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (1), percutaneous preoperative right portal vein embolization (3) and percutaneous preoperative tumor embolization to reduce blood loss at surgery (8). RESULTS: In 42 patients treated by TACE and PEI and TACE alone, tumor necrosis was scored; over 50% necrosis was seen only after six and nine months in both treatment groups. The survival rates after six and nine months and the median survival were similar in the two groups. Of 7 cases treated with TAE with steel coils and gel foam, the gastrointestinal bleeding stopped in four; in the other three, bleeding did not stop completely although less transfusion was required. In the patient treated by radiofrequency ablation, follow-up contrast-enhanced CT did not show enhancing tumor mass. We noted left lobe enlargement after percutaneous preoperative right portal vein embolization, prior to right hepatectomy. CONCLUSION: In patients with HCC not amenable to surgical intervention, a variety of percutaneous therapeutic interventional techniques may be used.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK.Immunology of giardiasis.Indian J Pediatr. 1983 May-Jun;50(404):319-24.". In: Indian J Pediatr. 1983 May-Jun;50(404):319-24. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1983. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Magnitude of hepatitis C virus infection in India: prevalence in healthy blood donors, acute and chronic liver diseases. J Med Virol. 1997 Mar;51(3):167-74.". In: J Med Virol. 1997 Mar;51(3):167-74. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed in-house for the detection of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody against the prevailing genotypes in India. The specific reactivity of the test was compared with commercial second and third-generation EIAs and reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). Fifteen thousand nine hundred twenty-two healthy blood donors at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, were screened for anti-HCV antibody. Two hundred ninety-five (1.85%) of these donors were positive. The screening was also used to determine how many patients with acute hepatitis and chronic liver diseases were positive for anti-HCV antibody. Five hundred sixty-four chronic liver disease patients were screened for anti-HCV antibody and 78 (13.83%) were found positive. Two hundred forty-seven sporadic acute viral hepatitis patients were screened for viral infection markers. Hepatitis B and E viruses (HBV and HEV) were the major etiologic agents. HCV was associated with 9% of the acute cases. Anti-HCV core IgM with HCV RNA detection were found to be helpful for the diagnosis of acute HCV infection.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Panigrahi AK, Nanda SK, Dixit RK, Acharya SK, Zuckerman AJ, Panda SK. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus-associated chronic liver disease in India: comparison of HCV antibody assay with a polymerase chain reaction for the 5' noncoding region.J Med Virol. 1994.". In: J Med Virol. 1994 Oct;44(2):176-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract

The relative value of an anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) serological assay and reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction assays (RT-PCR) were investigated for the constant 5' putative noncoding region of HCV for the diagnosis of HCV-associated chronic liver diseases in India. One hundred fifteen patients with biopsy proven chronic active hepatitis and 140 cases of cirrhosis of the liver were investigated for anti-HCV antibody using a second generation commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A proportion of these patients: 42 with chronic hepatitis and 27 with cirrhosis of the liver were analysed further for HCV RNA in the serum using RT-nested PCR assay. Thirty-three (12.9%) of the 255 patients were positive for anti-HCV antibody and 23 of 69 (33.3%) patients were positive for HCV RNA in serum. Fifteen of the 33 (45.5%) anti-HCV positive patients had HCV RNA in the serum. Eight of 36 (22.2%) HCV seronegative patients tested were found with HCV RNA. This indicates that the diagnosis of HCV infection is not possible if it is based solely on the available serodiagnostic tests. Inclusion of both assays improved the diagnostic efficiency, 18.8% (13/69) were negative for all virological markers associated with HBV and HCV infection. Since a majority of the chronic liver disease patients (143/255 [56%]) were seronegative for either HBV or HCV infection, it is significant that HCV RNA was detected in 38% (8/21) of a randomly selected group from these patients. The antibody assay and PCR were compared using interclass correlation (kappa statistics).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Seth S, Acharya SK, Sharma MP.Hepatic coma as a presenting feature of constrictive pericarditis.Am J Gastroenterol. 1993 Mar;88(3):430-2.". In: Am J Gastroenterol. 1993 Mar;88(3):430-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
The efficacy of the interferon stimulator named Stronger Neo Minophagen-C (SNMC) derived form the plant G. glabra was studied at a dose of 40 or 100 ml daily for 30 days followed by thrice weekly intravenously for 8 wk in 18 patients of subacute hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis. The survival rate amongst these patients was 72.2 per cent, as compared to the earlier reported rate of 31.1 per cent in 98 patients who received supportive therapy (P < 0.01). Death in four of the five patients was due to associated infections leading to hepatorenal failure and terminal coma. Further studies are necessary to standardize the dose and duration of therapy with SNMC in subacute hepatic failure.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Madan K, Chalamalsetty SB, Srivastava S, Gupta SD, Mirdha BR, Makharia GK, Samataray JC, Acharya SK.Tropical mayhem: a chronic viral disease with superadded parasitic infection.J Med Microbiol. 2008 Feb;57(Pt 2):232-5.". In: J Med Microbiol. 2008 Feb;57(Pt 2):232-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
Coexistence of two illnesses in the same patient may result in atypical manifestations of either or both diseases. A case of hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis in a patient who presented with a pharyngeal mucosal mass lesion as a manifestation of superadded Leishmania infection is presented here. The clue to the diagnosis was the origin of the patient from an area highly endemic for leishmaniasis and the presence of unexplained polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia. The patient responded very well to therapy with amphotericin B with complete disappearance of the mucosal lesion.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Tandon RK, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.The role of sustained achlorhydria in bleeding peptic ulcer.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):147-53.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):147-53. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
Twenty-five patients with bleeding peptic ulcers were randomized to receive either ranitidine 50 mg 8 hourly i.v. (control group) or a continuous nasogastric antacid infusion at the rate of 0.5 ml/min along with an i.v. injection of cimetidine 100 mg/h (treatment group). Twelve patients were included in the control group and 13 in the treatment group. The mean gastric pH on therapy was significantly higher in the treatment group (7.88 +/- 0.37) than in the control group (5.00 +/- 0.55) (p less than 0.001), and the gastric pH was noted to be greater than 7 on 95% of the occasions in the treatment group and on 8.6% of the occasions in the control group. An overall control of bleeding was achieved in 92.3% of the patients in the treatment group and 50% of the patients in the control group (p less than .05). Thus, the failure of therapy was significantly more common in the control group than in the treatment group (p less than 0.05), and more patients of the control group had to undergo emergency surgery than that in the treatment group. None of the patients in the treatment group, but 16.6% of the patients in the control group, died during the study period in the hospital stay. We conclude that in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer an intensive medical therapy comprising hourly injections of cimetidine (or presumably of other H2 blockers) and continuous nasogastric antacid infusion can achieve sustained achlorhydria, better control of bleeding, and reduce the need for emergency surgery.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.Management of chronic hepatitis B: the Indian perspective. Trop Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct-Dec;26(4):171-2.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct-Dec;26(4):171-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
AIM: Passive immunotherapy using antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been advocated in certain cases of Hepatitis B infection. We had earlier reported on the cloning and expression of a high affinity scFv derived from a mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes as it may elicit anti-mouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody. METHODS: We cloned the V(H) and V(L) genes of this mouse antibody, and fused them with CH1 domain of human IgG1 and C(L) domain of human kappa chain respectively. These chimeric genes were cloned into a phagemid vector. After initial screening using the phage display system, the chimeric Fab was expressed in soluble form in E. coli. RESULTS: The chimeric Fab was purified from the bacterial periplasmic extract. We characterized the chimeric Fab using several in vitro techniques and it was observed that the chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal. This chimeric antibody fragment was further expressed in different strains of E. coli to increase the yield. CONCLUSION: We have generated a mouse-human chimeric Fab against HBsAg without any significant loss in binding and epitope specificity. This chimeric Fab fragment can be further modified to generate a full-length chimeric antibody for therapeutic uses.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dwivedi M, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.The ultrasonographic "common channel" sign: a characteristic feature of malignant obstruction of the lower end of common bile duct.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1989 Apr;11(2):233-5.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1989 Apr;11(2):233-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
We describe an ultrasonographic "common channel" sign as the characteristic sonographic feature of malignant distal common bile duct (CBD) obstruction. Of 24 patients with obstructive jaundice due to distal CBD obstruction (pancreatic carcinoma 8, periampullary cancer 5, choledocholethiasis 10, CBD stricture due to pancreatitis 1) in whom the final diagnosis was proven at laparotomy, ultrasonography revealed 11 patients to have a thin-walled distended gallbladder continuous with a dilated CBD, which was termed the "common channel" sign. In all 11 patients, the cause of obstruction of the lower end of CBD proved to be malignant (pancreatic carcinoma 6, periampullary 5). In contrast, only 2 of the other 13 patients with obstructive jaundice with distal CBD obstruction, but without the "common channel" sign, had a malignant lesion at the lower end of CBD. The positive and the negative predictive values of the common channel sign were 100% and 85%, respectively. Thus, the ultrasonographic common channel sign is a reliable and characteristic feature of distal CBD obstruction due to malignant pathology.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A virus infection among school children in Delhi and north Indian patients with chronic liver disease: implications for HAV vaccination. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Jul;18(7):822-7.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Jul;18(7):822-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Universal vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been recommended for children because of the changing epidemiological pattern of HAV. Vaccination has also been advised for patients with chronic liver disease as HAV superinfection in these patients can result in severe or even fatal disease. In India, the indications for HAV vaccination are not clear due to contradictory seroepidemiological data in children and lack of data on HAV seroprevalence in patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: Sera were collected from children studying in two government-run schools and from patients with chronic liver disease attending the Liver Clinic at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). The sera were tested for anti-HAV antibodies. The incidence of HAV-induced acute hepatitis and acute liver failure at AIIMS over the last 10 years was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 93.2% (1328/1424) of the school children between 4-18 years of age who were included in the study had anti-HAV antibody in their sera. Eighty percent of the children had antibodies against HAV in their sera by the age of 5 years, whereas all the children above 16 years were positive for anti-HAV antibody. A total of 256 patients with chronic liver disease (94 with cirrhosis of the liver, 160 with chronic hepatitis) were tested for the presence of anti-HAV antibody. Of them, 97.6% (248/254) had anti-HAV antibody in their sera. The annual frequency of HAV-induced acute viral hepatitis and acute liver failure at AIIMS during the last 10 years did not show any change. CONCLUSION: Mass vaccination against HAV is not required in north India because of the presence of protective antibodies against HAV in the majority of the population. Copyright 2003 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Jain R, Batra Y, Acharya SK.Post cholecystectomy hemobilia: transcatheter embolization of pseudoaneurysms with homemade steel coils.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 Jul-Aug;21(4):161-2.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 Jul-Aug;21(4):161-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
Two patients presented with hemobilia, one and two months following cholecystectomy. Angiography demonstrated pseudoaneurysms arising form the gastroduodenal and right hepatic arteries. Percutaneous transcatheter embolization of the pseudoaneurysms was successfully performed in both patients using homemade steel coils.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Mishra PK.Chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics.Trop Gastroenterol. 1984 Jul-Sep;5(3):124-34.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1984 Jul-Sep;5(3):124-34. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Portal hypertensive gastropathy in noncirrhotic patients. The effect of lienorenal shunts. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998 Jan;26(1):64-7;.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998 Jan;26(1):64-7;. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
To evolve a simple oxygen electrode-based method to estimate alternative respiration, one needs to develop a procedure to prevent switch-over of electrons to either pathway upon inhibition by cyanide or salicylhydroxamic acid. It was hypothesized that the inclusion of appropriate electron acceptor, possessing redox potential close to one of the electron transport carriers in between ubiquinone (branch point) and cytochrome a-a3, should be able to stop switch-over of electrons to either pathway by working as an electron sink. To test the hypothesis, 2,6-dichloro-phenol indophenol (DCPIP; redox potential +0.217 V), an artificial electron acceptor having a redox potential quite similar to the site near cytochrome c1 (redox potential +0.22 V) on the cyanide-sensitive pathway, was used with isolated mitochondria and leaf discs in the absence and presence of inhibitors (potassium cyanide, antimycin A, and salicylhydroxamic acid). Polarographic data confirmed electron acceptance by DCPIP only from the inhibited (by cyanide or salicylhydroxamic acid) mitochondrial electron transport chain, hence preventing switch-over of electrons between the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathway of respiration. Results with antimycin A and reduction status of DCPIP further confirmed electron acceptance by DCPIP from the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Possible implications of the results have been discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis B: more information but clarity eludes.Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Oct-Dec;15(4):177-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Oct-Dec;15(4):177-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Plasma fibronectin is an opsonic glycoprotein, normally synthesized by the liver, which decreases subsequent to severe liver damage and low levels of which may contribute to reticuloendothelial system dysfunction by compromising opsonic activity. This may result in an increased frequency of infection and death. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association of plasma fibronectin activity with infection and mortality in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. METHODS: Plasma fibronectin was estimated serially in 69 consecutive patients with fulminant hepatic failure, nine patients with uncomplicated acute viral hepatitis and 32 normal volunteers. RESULTS: Plasma fibronectin levels in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (85.6 +/- 75.8 micrograms/ml) were significantly lower than in patients with uncomplicated acute viral hepatitis (295.5 +/- 88.5 micrograms/ml) and healthy volunteers (362.6 +/- 69.2 micrograms/ml). Forty-nine (72%) patients with fulminant hepatic failure died. The initial values of fibronectin in fulminant hepatic failure did not correlate with mortality. Patients with fulminant hepatic failure who survived showed a progressive rise in the fibronectin levels compared to the absence of an increase in fibronectin levels in the non-survivors. The mortality in patients with fulminant hepatic failure with infection (24/27) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to those without infection (25/42). Initial fibronectin levels in patients with infection (70.3 +/- 54.2 micrograms/ml) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in those without infection (92.3 +/- 64.4 micrograms/ml). We conclude that plasma fibronectin levels in patients with fulminant hepatic failure are decreased compared to healthy subjects and the absence of an increase in levels indicates a poor prognosis. Low levels of fibronectin are associated with an increased incidence of infection, which increases the mortality in these patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotics: explosion of information.Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jul-Sep;14(3):77-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jul-Sep;14(3):77-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
PCR was used to demonstrate the presence of a conserved region and to clone novel members of the cytochrome P-450 4A gene family from guinea pig, human and mouse cDNAs. This strategy is based on the sequences at nucleotides 925-959 and at the haem binding domain (nucleotides 1381-1410) of the rat CYP4A1 gene. Murine Cyp4a clones showed high sequence identity with members of the rat gene family, but CYP4A clones from human and guinea pig were equally similar to the rat/mouse genes, suggesting that the rat/mouse line had undergone gene duplication events after divergence from human and guinea-pig lines. The mouse Cyp4a-12 clone was localized to chromosome 4 using interspecific backcross mapping, in a region of synteny with human chromosome 1. The assignment of the human CYP4A11 gene to chromosome 1 was confirmed by somatic cell hybridization. An RNAase protection assay was shown to discriminate between the murine Cyp4a-10 and Cyp4a-12 cDNAs. Treatment of mice with the potent peroxisome proliferator methylclofenapate (25 mg/kg) induced Cyp4a-10 RNA in liver, and to a lesser extent in kidney; there was no sex difference in this response. Cyp4a-12 RNA was present at high levels in male control liver and kidney samples, and was not induced by treatment with methylclofenapate. However, Cyp4a-12 RNA was present at low levels in control female liver and kidney RNA, and was greatly induced in both organs by methylclofenapate. Guinea pigs were exposed to methylclofenapate (50 mg/kg), but there was no significant induction of the guinea-pig CYP4A13 RNA. These findings are consistent with a species difference in response to peroxisome proliferators between the rat/mouse and the guinea pig.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Madan K, Batra Y, Jha JK, Kumar S, Kalra N, Paul SB, Singh R, Duttagupta S, Panda SK, Acharya SK.Clinical relevance of HBV DNA load in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection.Trop Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr-Jun;29(2):84-90.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr-Jun;29(2):84-90. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection and quantification are now playing an increasing role in the assessment of disease activity and response to therapy. However, viraemia levels which define various stages of HBV infection have not yet been established. AIM: To define viraemia levels which describe various stages of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. METHODS: In a retrospective study, stored sera samples of chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients registered at AIIMS liver clinic, from January 1996 to June 2005 were subjected to competitive, quantitative PCR analysis. RESULTS: The median HBV DNA load was lowest among carriers and highest among patients with chronic hepatitis B [0 (0-8) vs. 7 (0-12) log10 copies/ml, respectively; p<0.05]. As compared to chronic hepatitis patients the DNA load was also lower among cirrhotics [7 (0-12) vs. 4.5 (0-8) log10 copies/ml, respectively; p<0.05] and hepatocellular cancer patients [ 7(0-12) vs. 0 (0-8) log10 copies/ml, respectively; p<0.05]. Patients with carriers had a DNA load which was significantly lower than e antigen negative CHB [0 (0-8) vs. 6 (0-10) log10 copies/ml; p<0.05] or e antigen positive CHB [0 (0-8) vs 8 (0-12) log10 copies/ml; p<0.05]. A threshold of 3.5 log10 copies/ml had sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 58% respectively in differentiating carriers from e antigen negative CHB. There was a strong positive correlation of HBV DNA load with inflammatory grade (R=0.334; p=0.0001), fibrosis stage (R=0.276; p=0.001) and ALT levels (R=0.378; p=0.0001). 82% (9/11) of those who lost e antigen had a decline in HBV DNA levels to <5 log10 copies/ml, whereas only 12.5% (1/8) of those who did not lose e antigen had a decline in DNA load below this level. CONCLUSIONS: HBV DNA viraemia levels correlate positively with the inflammatory grade, fibrosis stage and ALT levels. Most patients who loose e antigen have a decline in DNA load to below 5 log10 copies/ml. Further prospective studies employing repeated measurements are required to define a threshold to differentiate between HBV carriers and e antigen negative CHB.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Panda SK, Berry M.Diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction in a tropical country.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991 Jul-Aug;6(4):368-73.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991 Jul-Aug;6(4):368-73. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
The present study was undertaken to define the role of ultrasonography (US) in screening and diagnosis of hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction. Forty-five consecutive patients clinically suspected to have hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction were included in the study for screening by US and for assessment of patency or block in the hepatic vein (HV) and/or inferior vena cava (IVC). Four patients were excluded from the study. Eleven patients had a diagnosis other than hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction and all these patients were found to have patent HV and IVC. Thirty patients were finally diagnosed to have hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction. Using US, as a screening test 27 (90%) out of 30 such cases were correctly identified as cases of hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction and in these cases the site of block in hepatic venous outflow tract (major HV and/or IVC) was correctly diagnosed in 90% of the cases. Our results indicate that US is a sensitive and accurate test and should be the initial investigation for screening and identifying the site of obstruction in patients with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Seth S, Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Mukhopadhayaya S.Case report: unusual CT appearances in a case of Budd-Chiari syndrome.Clin Radiol. 1991 Jun;43(6):431-2.". In: Clin Radiol. 1991 Jun;43(6):431-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
We describe a case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome due to hepatic venous blockage in which there were multiple space-occupying lesions on CT simulating tumour deposits. Ultrasound directed liver biopsy and laparoscopy proved these to be areas of haemorrhagic necrosis consistent with Budd-Chiari Syndrome without any evidence of malignancy. The CT finding of multiple large focal non-enhancing areas in liver does not always indicate tumour deposits in a patient suspected to have Budd-Chiari Syndrome.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Kumar A, Bal C, Srivastava DN, Thulkar SP, Sharma S, Acharya SK, Duttagupta S.Management of multiple intrahepatic recurrences after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma with rhenium-188-HDD-lipiodol.Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Feb;18(.". In: Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Feb;18(2):219-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
We tried to evaluate the role of dosimetry-guided transarterial radionuclide therapy (TART) with rhenium-188 (Re-188)-4-hexadecyl 1-2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol (HDD)-lipiodol in a patient with multiple intrahepatic recurrences after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The dosimetry helped in delivering the maximum possible activity of Re-188, thus the radiation-absorbed dose, safely to the tumour without jeopardizing other organs. There was no procedure-related complication and the patient tolerated therapy well with no adverse effects. The lesions were completely ablated with a single dose of Re-188 and the patient has been disease free for the past 18 months. TART with Re-188-HDD-lipiodol appears to be a promising therapeutic option in patients with HCC who experience recurrence after percutaneous ablative therapy.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Nagabhusan G, Acharya SK, Joshi YK, Nundy S, Tandon BN.Ultrasonography in portal hypertension: a sensitive noninvasive test to demonstrate portal-vascular anatomy.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Aug;24(4):442-5.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Aug;24(4):442-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
The accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in delineating the portal vascular anatomy was assessed clinically by the clinician in 30 cases of portal hypertension due to noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and extra hepatic portal venous obstruction. Ultrasonography detected portal vein block in 19 and in 11 patients it was found to be patent. These ultrasonic diagnoses were confirmed by spleno-portovenography (SPV) in all, except in 2 cases due to technical failure. Ultrasononic assessment of the splenic vein was found to be accurate in 93.3% (28/30) of cases. SPV also had similar accuracy of splenic vein assessment when compared with the surgical findings. In one patient, intraperitoneal haemorrhage was encounted following SPV, necessitating emergency surgery. Thus, US was found to be as accurate as splenoportovenography in the assessment of portal vascular anatomy. The imaging technique is cheap, easy, safe, and can be repeated as often as necessary. It should be the procedure of choice in assessing the anatomy of portal vascular system.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Hasegawa I, Tanaka Y, Kramvis A, Kato T, Sugauchi F, Acharya SK, Orito E, Ueda R, Kew MC, Mizokami M.Novel hepatitis B virus genotype a subtyping assay that distinguishes subtype Aa from Ae and its application in epidemiological studies.J Virol. 2004 Jul;.". In: J Virol. 2004 Jul;78(14):7575-81. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
The eight genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have different geographical distributions, virological characteristics, and clinical manifestations. A unique subtype of HBV genotype A (HBV/A) was reported in sub-Saharan Africa, raising the possibility that patients infected with this subtype (HBV/Aa ["a" for African and Asian]) may have different clinical outcomes than other HBV/A isolates (HBV/Ae ["e" for European]). Comparison between 30 HBV/Aa and 30 HBV/Ae isolates indicated that almost all HBV/Ae isolates had G at nucleotide (nt) 1809 and C at nt 1812, whereas HBV/Aa isolates had T1809/T1812. Taking advantage of these two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a novel subtype-specific PCR assay in the X/precore/core region was developed. This assay was combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using BglII in a different region (nt 1984 to 1989), which has a SNP distinguishing HBV/Aa from HBV/Ae, resulting in 100% specificity for the combined assay. Application of the subtyping assay using sera from 109 paid donors in the United States indicated significantly different distributions of HBV/A subtypes among races; African-Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics had HBV/Ae, whereas Asians had mainly HBV/Aa, suggesting that the HBV/Aa isolates may have been imported by recent immigration from Asia. In conclusion, the specificity and sensitivity of the combined subtyping assay were confirmed, and its usefulness was demonstrated in a practical context.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Karmarkar MG.Hyperprolactinemia in portosystemic encephalopathy.Indian J Med Res. 1987 Sep;86:372-4.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1987 Sep;86:372-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
Twenty three patients with chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics in Northern India were prospectively studied. All had pancreatic calcification and ERCP changes typical of chronic pancreatitis, the most predominant being ductal dilatation which was detected in all patients by both ERCP and by ultrasonography. Pain was present in 19 (83%) patients and diabetes in 11 (48%) patients. Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction was uncommon, steatorrhoea being present in only 9% of patients. Ten of the 11 patients with diabetes required insulin for control and one case was able to be controlled by an oral antidiabetic agent. Two patients developed ketoacidosis during acute episodes of pancreatitis, 3 patients had peripheral neuropathy and one patient had visual changes. Recurrent severe pain was the reason for operation in 7 patients. All had a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. In order to obtain an objective assessment of pain, a scoring system was developed to grade its severity according to its intensity, frequency and consequences. Six patients who preoperatively had a pain score of 15 or more (out of a maximum score of 24) attained significant relief after the surgery. We feel this scoring system may provide an easy objective assessment of pain in the subsequent follow-up of these patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.Incidental detection of hepatitis B surface antigen: a growing concern for the Indian physician.Trop Gastroenterol. 2002 Apr-Jun;23(2):47-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2002 Apr-Jun;23(2):47-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis of Tropics is a disease of unknown aetiology and is characterised by chronic pancreatitis with calcification in young persons who present with pain, diabetes, and/or steatorrhoea. ERCP performed on 42 patients with this condition revealed changes compatible with chronic pancreatitis. These changes were however, more marked and somewhat different from those seen in the alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Cystic dilatation, tortuosity, and obstruction of the main pancreatic duct were similar to that in alcoholic pancreatitis. The features of CCPT that were different from those of latter, were large pancreatic calculi, absence of strictures/stenosis and absence of irregularity of the ductal wall. The calculi were predominantly in the head region of the pancreas causing maximal dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the head of pancreas. The secondary branches were stunted, short and scanty but revealed a lower grade of changes, than the changes documented in the main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic ductal changes in CCPT seems to be different from that seen in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and may be due to the difference in the pathophysiology of the underlying disease.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhargava DK, Acharya SK, Tandon BN, Nundy S.Endoscopic sclerotherapy for active variceal haemorrhage in patients not responding to balloon tamponade & vasopressin.Indian J Med Res. 1985 Feb;81:175-9.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1985 Feb;81:175-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Kumar S, Acharya SK.2,6-Dichloro-phenol indophenol prevents switch-over of electrons between the cyanide-sensitive and -insensitive pathway of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in the presence of inhibitors.Anal Biochem. 1999 Mar 1;268(1):89-93.". In: Anal Biochem. 1999 Mar 1;268(1):89-93. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999. Abstract
To evolve a simple oxygen electrode-based method to estimate alternative respiration, one needs to develop a procedure to prevent switch-over of electrons to either pathway upon inhibition by cyanide or salicylhydroxamic acid. It was hypothesized that the inclusion of appropriate electron acceptor, possessing redox potential close to one of the electron transport carriers in between ubiquinone (branch point) and cytochrome a-a3, should be able to stop switch-over of electrons to either pathway by working as an electron sink. To test the hypothesis, 2,6-dichloro-phenol indophenol (DCPIP; redox potential +0.217 V), an artificial electron acceptor having a redox potential quite similar to the site near cytochrome c1 (redox potential +0.22 V) on the cyanide-sensitive pathway, was used with isolated mitochondria and leaf discs in the absence and presence of inhibitors (potassium cyanide, antimycin A, and salicylhydroxamic acid). Polarographic data confirmed electron acceptance by DCPIP only from the inhibited (by cyanide or salicylhydroxamic acid) mitochondrial electron transport chain, hence preventing switch-over of electrons between the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathway of respiration. Results with antimycin A and reduction status of DCPIP further confirmed electron acceptance by DCPIP from the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Possible implications of the results have been discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Choudhry VP, Acharya SK.Hepatitis B, C & D viral markers in multitransfused thalassemic children: long-term complications and present management.Indian J Pediatr. 1995 Nov-Dec;62(6):655-68.". In: Indian J Pediatr. 1995 Nov-Dec;62(6):655-68. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995. Abstract

The average estimated carrier rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India is 4%, with a total pool of approximately 36 million carriers. Wide variations in social, economic, and health factors in different regions may explain variations in carrier rates from one part of the country to another. Professional blood donors constitute the major high risk group for HBV infection in India, with a hepatitis B surface antigen positivity rate of 14%. Blood transfusions represent the most important route of HBV transmission among adults. However, most of India's carrier pool is established in early childhood, predominantly by horizontal spread due to crowded living conditions and poor hygiene. Acute and subacute liver failure are common complications of viral hepatitis in India and HBV is reckoned to be the aetiological agent in 42% and 45% of adult cases, respectively. HBV is reported to be responsible for 70% of cases of chronic hepatitis and 80% of cases of cirrhosis of the liver. About 60% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are HBV marker positive. Small numbers of patients have been reported to be infected with the pre-core mutant virus but none with the S mutant. Coinfection with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis delta virus is comparatively uncommon. In conclusion, hepatitis B is a major public health problem in India and will continue to be until appropriate nationwide vaccination programmes and other control measures are established.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Nayak NC, Dutta Gupta S, Tandon A, Dasarathy S, Acharya SK.Pathology of subacute hepatic failure.Indian J Gastroenterol. 1993 Dec;12 Suppl 3:11-4.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 1993 Dec;12 Suppl 3:11-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract

J Hepatol. 1993 Sep;19(2):291-300.Click here to read Links A prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of propranolol in patients with portal hypertension undergoing long-term endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) for recurrent variceal bleeding. Consecutive patients with portal hypertension (Child's class A or B) due to cirrhosis (n = 72), non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (n = 29) and extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (n = 13) attending the liver clinic of a tertiary care center were included in the study. All patients had had at least one documented episode of variceal bleed in the previous 4 weeks. Fifty-eight patients received propranolol and 56 received placebo in addition to weekly EST. Rebleeding occurred in 12 (21%) patients in the placebo group and 10 (17%) patients in the propranolol group during a mean follow-up period of 24.4 +/- 10.4 months in the former and 23.8 +/- 9.2 months in the latter group (P > 0.1). The number of episodes of rebleeding (14 in the placebo and 12 in the propranolol group) were also similar (P > 0.1). The median bleeding-free period was more than 40 months in both treatment groups (P > 0.1). The mean transfusion requirements and the number of hospital admissions for rebleeding were also similar in the two treatment groups (P > 0.1). Complete obliteration of varices was achieved in 44 (78.9%) patients in the placebo group and 43 (75.5%) patients in the propranolol group (P > 0.1). Recurrence of new varices was seen in two patients in the placebo and in three of those in the propranolol group. Seven patients in the placebo group and five in the propranolol group died (P > 0.1). Complications related to EST were similar in the two treatment groups but additional adverse effects were observed in the propranolol group. The cumulative incidence of rebleeding in the placebo group was 12.7 and in the propranolol group it was 11.2 per 100 patient years of follow-up. It is concluded that the addition of propranolol in patients with portal hypertension and fair hepatic function on long-term EST does not confer any additional benefit.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Irshad M, Acharya SK.An update on viral hepatitis.Trop Gastroenterol. 1992 Jan-Mar;13(1):11-20.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1992 Jan-Mar;13(1):11-20. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
By means of simple and specific ELISA techniques, the plasma concentrations of soluble fibronectin and C3d, a breakdown product of C3 complement, were determined in patients with amoebic liver abscesses (ALA) and in healthy controls. The mean plasma fibronectin concentrations in 23 patients with ALA and in 20 controls were found to be 441 +/- 89 mg/l and 442 +/- 66 mg/l, respectively. The difference between these two values was not statistically significant. The mean C3d value in 21 patients with ALA, however, was found to be 84 +/- 14 AU/l which was significantly different from the value of 12 +/- 4.7 AU/l noted in 20 healthy persons. Plasma concentrations of these two proteins are discussed in relation to their possible implications in the immunopathogenesis of amoebic liver abscess.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sugiyama M, Tanaka Y, Kato T, Orito E, Ito K, Acharya SK, Gish RG, Kramvis A, Shimada T, Izumi N, Kaito M, Miyakawa Y, Mizokami M.Influence of hepatitis B virus genotypes on the intra- and extracellular expression of viral DNA and antigens.Hepatology. 200.". In: Hepatology. 2006 Oct;44(4):915-24. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Various genotypes of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) induce liver disease of distinct severity, but the underlying virological differences are not well defined. Huh7 cells were transfected with plasmids carrying 1.24-fold the HBV genome of different genotypes/subgenotypes (2 strains each for Aa/A1, Ae/A2, Ba/B2 and D; 3 each for Bj/B1 and C). HBV DNA levels in cell lysates, determined by Southern hybridization, were the highest for C followed by Bj/Ba and D/Ae (P < .01), and the lowest for Aa (P < .01), whereas in culture media, they were the highest for Bj, distantly followed by Ba/C/D and further by Ae/Aa (P < .01). The intracellular expression of core protein was more than 3-fold lower for Ae/Aa than the others. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was excreted in a trend similar to that of HBV DNA with smaller differences. Secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was most abundant for Ae followed by Aa, Ba, Bj/C and remotely by D, which was consistent with mRNA levels. Cellular stress determined by the reporter assay for Grp78 promoter was higher for C and Ba than the other genotypes/subgenotypes (P < .01). Severe combined immunodeficiency mice transgenic for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA/SCID), with the liver replaced for human hepatocytes, were inoculated with virions passed in mouse and recovered from culture supernatants. HBV DNA levels in their sera were higher for C than Ae by 2 logs during 4-7 weeks after inoculation. In conclusion, virological differences among HBV genotypes were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. These differences may influence HBV infections with distinct genotypes in clinical and epidemiological settings.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Rai RR, Acharya SK, Ray JC, Tandon BN.Needle aspiration of amoebic liver abscess.BMJ. 1989 Nov 25;299(6711):1308-9.". In: BMJ. 1989 Nov 25;299(6711):1308-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the value of needle aspiration in uncomplicated amoebic liver abscess. DESIGN–Randomised case-control study with a minimum follow up of one year, comparing patients treated with drugs alone with those treated with additional needle aspiration. SETTING–Referral based gastroenterology clinic. PATIENTS–39 Consecutive patients with amoebic liver abscess in the right lobe, of whom 37 completed the study. INTERVENTION–Metronidazole 2.4 g/day was given to all patients for 10 days. Needle aspiration of the abscess was performed in 19 patients on the day of admission to hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES–Abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, and hepatomegaly were measured. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum aspartate, and alanine aminotransferase activities, and alkaline phosphatase activity were also measured. RESULTS–Clinical improvement was similar in both groups of patients. Improvement in haematological and biochemical variables and rates of healing of cavities were also similar. CONCLUSIONS–Chemotherapy with potent tissue amoebicidal drugs such as metronidazole is optimally effective in treating amoebic liver abscess, and in uncomplicated cases routine aspiration is not required.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Tanaka Y, Hasegawa I, Kato T, Orito E, Hirashima N, Acharya SK, Gish RG, Kramvis A, Kew MC, Yoshihara N, Shrestha SM, Khan M, Miyakawa Y, Mizokami M.A case-control study for differences among hepatitis B virus infections of genotypes A (subtypes Aa and Ae.". In: Hepatology. 2004 Sep;40(3):747-55. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
There are two subtypes of hepatitis B virus genotype A (HBV/A) and they are provisionally designated Aa ("a" standing for Africa/Asia) and Ae ("e" for Europe). In a case-control study, 78 HBV/Aa, 78HBV/Ae, and 78HBV/D carriers from several countries were compared. The prevalence of HBe antigen (HBeAg) in serum was significantly lower in carriers of HBV/Aa than in carriers of HBV/Ae (31% vs. 49%; P = .033), with a difference more obvious in the carriers aged 30 years or younger (34% vs. 67%; P = .029). HBV DNA levels in the carriers of HBV/Aa (median, 3.46 log copies/mL; 95% CI, 2.93-3.95) were significantly lower than those of carriers of HBV/Ae (6.09 log copies/mL; 95% CI, 4.24-7.64) or of carriers of HBV/D (5.48 log copies/mL; 95% CI, 4.06-7.02), regardless of the HBeAg status (P < .001). The most specific and frequent substitutions in 54 HBV/Aa isolates were double substitutions for T1809 (100%) and T1812 (96%) immediately upstream of the precore initiation codon, which would interfere with the translation of HBeAg in HBV/Aa infections. They were not detected in 57 HBV/Ae or 61 HBV/D isolates examined. The double mutation in the core promoter (T1762/A1764) was more frequent in both HBV/Aa (50%) and HBV/Ae (44%) than in HBV/D isolates (25%; P < .01), whereas the precore mutation (A1896) occurred in HBV/D isolates only (48%; P < .0001). In conclusion, the clearance of HBeAg from serum may occur by different mechanisms in HBV/Aa, HBV/Ae, and HBV/D infections, which may influence clinical manifestations in the Western countries where both genotypes A and D are prevalent. Copyright 2004 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Karmarkar MG.Significance of prolactin levels in protosystemic encephalopathy.J Assoc Physicians India. 1988 Mar;36(3):207-9.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1988 Mar;36(3):207-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988. Abstract
Twenty three patients with chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics in Northern India were prospectively studied. All had pancreatic calcification and ERCP changes typical of chronic pancreatitis, the most predominant being ductal dilatation which was detected in all patients by both ERCP and by ultrasonography. Pain was present in 19 (83%) patients and diabetes in 11 (48%) patients. Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction was uncommon, steatorrhoea being present in only 9% of patients. Ten of the 11 patients with diabetes required insulin for control and one case was able to be controlled by an oral antidiabetic agent. Two patients developed ketoacidosis during acute episodes of pancreatitis, 3 patients had peripheral neuropathy and one patient had visual changes. Recurrent severe pain was the reason for operation in 7 patients. All had a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. In order to obtain an objective assessment of pain, a scoring system was developed to grade its severity according to its intensity, frequency and consequences. Six patients who preoperatively had a pain score of 15 or more (out of a maximum score of 24) attained significant relief after the surgery. We feel this scoring system may provide an easy objective assessment of pain in the subsequent follow-up of these patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Pati HP, Dayal S, Srivastava A, Pande GK, Acharya SK.Spectrum of hemostatic derangements, in Budd-Chiari syndrome.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2003 Mar-Apr;22(2):59-60.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2003 Mar-Apr;22(2):59-60. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hemostatic abnormalities have been reported in various hepatocellular diseases. We evaluated the hemostatic functions in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome. METHODS: Biochemical liver function tests, and measurement of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and plasma levels of anti-thrombin III (antigen) and activity of protein C were done in 36 patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome. RESULTS: Liver biochemistry was abnormal in 34 patients. Plasma prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in 17 (47%) and 23 (64%) patients, respectively. Antithrombin III antigen levels and protein C activity were reduced in 15 (50%) and 25 (83%) patients, respectively, among the 30 patients studied. Albumin levels showed significant correlation with coagulation test results, levels of anti-thrombin-III, and protein C activity. CONCLUSION: Hepatic synthesis of coagulation factors and anticoagulants is reduced in Budd-Chiari syndrome; this may play a role in recurrence of thrombosis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Choudhuri G, Tandon BN.Nitroblue tetrazolium test in the diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess. J Assoc Physicians India. 1986 Oct;34(10):711-3.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1986 Oct;34(10):711-3. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Modi GK, Shah P, Acharya SK, Guleria R.Portal systemic shunting of insulin does not lead to insulin resistance in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction.Horm Metab Res. 1999 Aug;31(8):462-6.". In: Horm Metab Res. 1999 Aug;31(8):462-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999. Abstract
There is no clear relation between portal systemic shunting, reduced hepatic insulin extraction leading to an increased systemic delivery of insulin, and, resultant peripheral hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a natural human model of portal systemic shunting with essentially normal liver function. To investigate the role of portal systemic shunting of insulin in creating systemic hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, we studied nine subjects with portal systemic shunting and nine controls matched for age (+/- 2 years), body weight (+/- 2 kg) and height (+/- 5 cm). We carried out an oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study at insulin infusion rate of 40 mU/m2/ min. Comparable (p = 0.61) basal insulin concentrations in the two groups (Mean (SE): 21.0 (3.98) vs. 24.1 (4.28) mU/L) demonstrated a lack of hyperinsulinemia in the presence of portal systemic shunting. The lower (p = 0.03) insulin area under curve on oral glucose tolerance test in presence of portal systemic shunting (7.40 (0.95) vs. 10.83 (1.15) U/L-min) indicated that lower extraction of insulin by the liver leads to a lower requirements in the periphery. The coefficient of variation for plasma glucose between 60 and 120 min of the clamps was 4.44 (0.55)%. Comparable (p = 0.82) M-values (6.21 (0.67) vs. 6.38 (0.45) mg/kg/min) in the two groups proved a lack of significant insulin resistance in the presence of portal systemic shunting. We conclude that isolated portal systemic shunting leads to neither hyperinsulinemia nor insulin resistance.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Panigrahi AK, Roca J, Acharya SK, Jameel S, Panda SK.Genotype determination of hepatitis C virus from northern India: identification of a new subtype.J Med Virol. 1996 Feb;48(2):191-8.". In: J Med Virol. 1996 Feb;48(2):191-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows substantial nucleotide sequence diversity distributed throughout the viral genome, with many variants showing only 68-79% overall sequence homology. This has led to problems in diagnosis of HCV using commercial immunoassays. Based on clustering of homologous sequences, various genotypes and subtypes of HCV have been described from different geographical regions. In the present study, 11 isolates from India were genotyped using sequence comparison for part of the non-structural (NS5) and structural (core) regions. Parts of the genome covering 451 bp (nt 9-459) of the core gene and a 249 bp fragment (nt 7959-8207) of the NS5 gene were reverse transcribed and amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced. The classification into genotypes was done on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Four isolates showed sequence homology to type 1b. Two of the isolates were classified as type 3a. One isolate was classified as type 3b and the remaining four isolates were found to be variants of type 3 but did not belong to any designated subtype. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis two of the unclassified isolates were put into a new subtype of 3 named as 3g. In one of these variants, parts of a 5'-noncoding (5' NCR; 204 bp), envelope-E1 (435 bp), and NS3 (502 bp) regions were also amplified, cloned, and sequenced. This study demonstrates the type 3 variants including a new subtype (3g) to be the major cause of HCV infection in India.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Pharmacotherapy in refractory ascites due to cirrhosis; the search continues.Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jan-Mar;15(1):1-2.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jan-Mar;15(1):1-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
The present study describes the frequency of hepatitis viral markers in patients with uncomplicated acute viral hepatitis (AVH; n = 32) and in patients with severe liver diseases, including those with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF; n = 110), subacute hepatic failure (SAHF; n = 65), and chronic active hepatitis (CAH; n = 33). The results indicate that hepatitis A virus infection is quite rare, whereas hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the predominant causes of acute and chronic liver failure in India. The incidence of HBV infection in AVH, FHF, SAHF, and CAH groups was recorded in 3.7, 19.1, 23.1, and 69.7% of the cases, respectively. Similarly, HCV infection in these four groups was noted in 12.5, 45, 44.6, and 48.5% of the cases, respectively. Further analysis of HCV infection demonstrated that it was as frequent as single infection in acute cases, but more commonly found in association with HBV infection in chronic liver failure cases. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection, as indicated by the presence of IgM anti-HDV antibodies, was recorded in 7.3% of the cases with AVH, in 7.3% of the cases with FHF, in 9.2% of the cases with SAHF, and in 6.1% of the cases with CAH. HDV was associated with HBV both as superinfection as well as coinfection. Interestingly, nearly 2-6% of the cases in each group showed the presence of simultaneous HBV, HCV, and HDV infection. 83.3% of the AVH, 42.1% of the FHF, 37.0% of the SAHF, and 15.1% of the CAH patients had unknown viral markers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Misra SC, Acharya SK, Irshad M, Joshi YK, Venugopal P, Tandon BN.Prospective controlled study of post-transfusion hepatitis after cardiac surgery in a large referral hospital in India.Liver. 1992 Jun;12(3):116-20.". In: Liver. 1992 Jun;12(3):116-20. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
We studied the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH) in recipients of blood collected from voluntary donors screened for HBsAg. Two hundred and fifty patients without any previous history of liver disease or transfusion were followed up for 12 months subsequent to cardiac surgery. Thirty-five of them had closed-heart surgery without receiving transfusion and served as controls. The remaining 215 patients received single-point transfusions (mean 4 +/- 2.4 units). None of the controls and 15 (6.9%) blood recipients developed PTH. Three (20%) patients had hepatitis-B-virus-induced hepatitis while the remainder (80%) had non A, non B (NANB) hepatitis. The number of units of blood transfused and surrogate markers for development of PTH (donor alanine aminotransferase, anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibody) were not associated with the occurrence of PTH (p greater than 0.05). Nine (60%) of the 15 patients developing PTH were asymptomatic. All the patients recovered from the PTH, except one who died of fulminant hepatitis. At the end of 1 year of follow-up, none of the patients had evidence of chronic hepatitis. Only three (25%) of the patients with NANB-PTH developed anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody during the follow-up. We conclude that the incidence of PTH in India is similar to other parts of the world and NANB virus was the major cause of the PTH. The absence of chronicity and lack of seroconversion to anti-HCV antibody in the majority of the patients after 1 year of follow-up may suggest the possibility of a NANB virus other than HCV as the major cause of PTH in India.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Viral hepatitis in India. Natl Med J India. 2006 Jul-Aug;19(4):203-17.". In: Natl Med J India. 2006 Jul-Aug;19(4):203-17. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a hepatitis registry and formulation of government-supported prevention and control strategies.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.Hepatitis B virus replication in patients with chronic liver diseases.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1990 Apr;25(2):258-64.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1990 Apr;25(2):258-64. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
One hundred and seventy five subjects with chronic liver diseases which included patients with chronic active hepatitis (90), liver cirrhosis (31) and asymptomatic hepatitis B carriers (54), were included in the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) specific DNA-polymerase activity and HBe-markers were tested as markers of HBV-multiplication. In HBsAg positive samples, DNA-P activity was positive in 44.4% of the HBV carriers, 52.9% of the patients with chronic active hepatitis and 81.8% of the patients with liver cirrhosis. The corresponding figures for the presence of HBeAg in these groups were 18.5, 26.5 and 45.5% respectively. Virus multiplication was also observed in 41.1 and 44.4% patients with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis respectively, in the absence of HBsAg. The results of the present study show that hepatitis B virus is the most important etiological factor of chronic liver diseases in India. Most of our patients of chronic liver diseases seems to have contacted HBV infection as young adults and the mode of transmission is likely to be horizontal rather than vertical. The virus replicating markers correlate well with the severity of the liver injury and decreased with the age. DNA-P activity is a more sensitive marker of viral multiplication than HBeAg. Viral multiplication was also found to occur in the absence of the usual HBV markers. Continued viral multiplication in patients with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis is implicated in continued liver injury and progressive liver disease.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Chaudhuri V, Tayal R, Nayak B, Acharya SK, Panda SK.Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic liver disease: full-length genome and analysis of mutant surface promoter.Gastroenterology. 2004 Nov;127(5):1356-71.". In: Gastroenterology. 2004 Nov;127(5):1356-71. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genome sequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from occult chronic infection is scarce. Fifty-six (9.4%) of 591 patients seronegative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with chronic liver disease were positive for HBV DNA. The complete HBV genome from 9 of these patients (S1-S9) and 5 controls positive for HBsAg (SWT.1-SWT.5) were analyzed. METHODS: Overlapping genome fragment amplification, cloning, and sequencing was performed on these cases. Functional analysis of surface promoter was conducted using fusion construct. RESULTS: All patients with occult infection except one (S8) had a low viral titer. Eight patients had infection with genotype A (S1-S5, SWT.1-2, SWT.5) and 6 had infection with genotype D (S6-S9, SWT.3-4). S4 and S5.1 of genotype A had the characteristic nucleotide deletions in core and pre-S1 region seen in genotype D. The major observations in patients with occult HBV infection were as follows: frequent quasispecies variation, deletions in pre-S2/S region affecting the surface promoters (nt 3025-54) and pre-S protein (S3, S5, S6, S8), truncated precore (S6, S8, S7.1) and core (S9) owing to stop signal, alternate start codon for the Polymerase gene (S3, S9), and YMDD mutation (S1, S4, S9) in patients not on antiviral therapy. HBsAg and core proteins could be shown immunohistochemically in 3 of 5 liver biopsy specimens available. The mutant surface promoters (pre-S2 and S) on functional analysis showed alterations in HBsAg expression. CONCLUSIONS: These changes in the regulatory region with possible alterations in the ratio of large and small surface proteins along with other mutations in the genome may decrease the circulating HBsAg level synergistically, making the immunodetection in serum negative.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.Amebic liver abscess and circulating immune complexes of Entamoeba histolytica proteins.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Nov;39(5):440-4.". In: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Nov;39(5):440-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988. Abstract
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect amebic antigen in polyethylene-glycol-precipitable circulating immune complexes. Seventy-nine percent of 191 patients with amebic liver abscesses and 46% of 26 Entamoeba histolytica cyst passers had positive tests. None of the samples from 43 apparently healthy controls, 8 patients with past amebic liver abscesses or 31 patients with Giardia lamblia infections were positive. One patient out of 32 with viral hepatitis and 1 patient out of 27 with intestinal tuberculosis had positive tests.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Duseja A, Nada R, Kalra N, Acharya SK, Minz M, Joshi K, Chawla Y.Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis-like syndrome in a hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus-negative renal transplant recipient: a case report with autopsy findings.Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 J.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 Jan-Mar;24(1):31-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
We report a patient with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH)-like syndrome in renal transplant recipient, who was negative for hepatitis-B and C-virus infection. The patient presented initially with extrahepatic biliary obstruction due to stricture at the lower end of the common bile duct. Cholestasis persisted inspite of effective biliary drainage. He was operated for empyema of the gallbladder and histological examination showed the presence of cytomegalovirus inclusions in the wall of the gallbladder. The patient died inspite of aggressive management; autopsy examination of the liver revealed evidence of FCH-like changes.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Irshad M, Gandhi BM, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.Relation between HBsAg binding with polymerized human serum albumin and HBV replication.Intervirology. 1987;27(2):91-4.". In: Intervirology. 1987;27(2):91-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
The binding between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and polymerized human serum albumin (poly-HSA) was studied in HBsAg-negative (25) and HBsAg-positive (92) sera by a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, and a correlation of binding activity was made with HBe-markers and hepatitis B virus-specific DNA polymerase. The binding could be detected only in HBsAg-positive sera and was found to be independent of the presence of HBe-markers and DNA polymerase activity. Further, binding was noted in significantly higher proportions of sera samples from the patient group compared with the healthy carrier group (p less than 0.01).
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Panda SK, Saxena A, Gupta SD.Acute hepatic failure in India: a perspective from the East.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 May;15(5):473-9.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 May;15(5):473-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
Acute hepatic failure (AHF) in India almost always presents with encephalopathy within 4 weeks of the onset of acute hepatitis. Further subclassification of AHF into hyperacute, acute and subacute forms may not be necessary in this geographical area, where the rapidity of onset of encephalopathy does not seem to influence survival. Viral hepatitis is the cause in approximately 95-100% of patients, who therefore constitute a more homogeneous population than AHF patients in the West. In India, hepatitis E (HEV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses are the most important causes of AHF; approximately 60% of cases are caused by to these viruses. Hepatitis B virus core mutants are very important agents in cases where hepatitis B results in AHF in this country. Half of the patients with AHF admitted to our centre are female, one-quarter of whom are pregnant. Therefore, pregnant females who contract viral hepatitis constitute a high-risk group for the development of AHF. However, the outcome of AHF in this group is similar to that in non-pregnant women and men. No association with any particular virus has been identified among sporadic cases of AHF. In our centre, approximately one-third of AHF patients survive with aggressive conservative therapy, whereas two-thirds of deaths occur within 72 h of hospitalization. Cerebral oedema and sepsis are the major fatal complications. Both fungal and gram-negative bacteria are major causes of sepsis. Among patients with AHF, despite the presence of sepsis, its overt clinical features (i.e. fever, leucocytosis) may be absent and objective documentation of the presence of sepsis in such patients is achieved by repeated culture of various body fluids. It should be possible to develop simple, clinical prognostic markers for AHF in this geographical region, in order to identify patients suitable for liver transplantation.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.Biennial meet of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. Cape Town, 18-24 February 1996.Trop Gastroenterol. 1996 Jul-Sep;17(3):193-6.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1996 Jul-Sep;17(3):193-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Preliminary reports indicate that hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection exists in India. However, its prevalence in patients with different types of liver diseases has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of HDV infection in severe types of liver disease in India. METHODS: Using commercial kits for various hepatitis viral markers, the present study was undertaken to determine the serological status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) markers in 208 patients with severe liver diseases. This total included 110 cases with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), 65 cases with subacute hepatic failure (SHF) and 33 cases with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). RESULTS: The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier population, indicated by the presence of HBsAg without IgM anti-HBc (hepatitis B core) in serum, was recorded in 23.6%, 24.6% and 60.6% cases of FHF, SHF and CAH groups, respectively. HBV infection, as indicated by serum positivity of IgM anti-HBc in the FHF and SHF groups and HBsAg and/or IgM anti-HBc in the CAH group, was detected in 19.1%, 23.1% and 69.7% of cases from these three groups, respectively. IgM anti-HDV, demonstrating active/recent HDV infection, was found in 8.1% cases of FHF and 9.2% cases of SHF patients. HDV as a superinfection in HBsAg carriers was noted in 4.5% and 4.6% cases, respectively of FHF and SHF groups. Similarly, HDV-HBV coinfection, diagnosed by simultaneous presence of IgM anti-HBc and IgM anti-HDV in the FHF and SHF groups, was recorded in 3.6% and 4.6% of cases from these two groups, respectively. In the CAH group, HDV infection was observed in 9.2% cases. CONCLUSION: HDV infection, recorded in less than 10% of patients with different liver diseases in India, seems to be an unimportant factor in inducing severe liver diseases in this country.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Liver failure; varied manifestation and confusing classification.Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Apr-Jun;15(2):43-4.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Apr-Jun;15(2):43-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) was tested for in a group of 16 defined non-B chronic hepatitis patients using specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These were chosen from amongst 56 biopsy proven cases of chronic hepatitis of which majority (40) were positive for hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis C virus RNA could be demonstrated in 12 (75%) of remaining 16 cases. These include all seven patients positive for antibody to HCV. Two of these patients had past history of blood transfusion and in another two the clinical course started with severe acute liver disease. This study establishes the association of HCV with severe liver disease. The clinical and biochemical profiles are also discussed. In view of limited sensitivity of the antibody assays it is justified to develop diagnostic testes based on local strains.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Mohapatra MK, Mohapatra AK, Acharya SK, Sahni P, Nundy S.Encephalopathy in patients with extrahepatic obstruction after lienorenal shunts.Br J Surg. 1992 Oct;79(10):1103-5.". In: Br J Surg. 1992 Oct;79(10):1103-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Thirty patients with portal hypertension resulting from extrahepatic portal vein obstruction were studied. Evidence of postshunt encephalopathy was sought using neurological and psychometric tests and visual evoked potentials. Eleven patients were studied before and after lienorenal shunt operations and 19 at varying intervals, from 6 to 123 (median 26) months, after the same procedure. All the shunts were patent and none of the patients developed clinical or subclinical encephalopathy. In patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction, a lienorenal shunt does not appear to be associated with postshunt encephalopathy.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Paul SB, Gulati MS, Sreenivas V, Madan K, Gupta AK, Mukhopadhyay S, Acharya SK.Evaluating patients with cirrhosis for hepatocellular carcinoma: value of clinical symptomatology, imaging and alpha-fetoprotein.Oncology. 2007;72 Suppl 1:117-23. Epub 2007 Dec.". In: Oncology. 2007;72 Suppl 1:117-23. Epub 2007 Dec 13. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the value of clinical symptomatology, abdominal ultrasound (US), triple-phase CT (TPCT) and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) estimation in predicting presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, Child's A/B cirrhosis patients were subjected to clinical evaluation, US, TPCT and serum AFP estimation. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical symptoms and of AFP at different cut-off levels were determined. Detection rate of HCC and agreement between US and TPCT was estimated. RESULTS: A high proportion of enrolled subjects had HCC at first presentation (40.7%). Significantly higher prevalence of abdominal pain, weight loss, and anorexia was seen in patients with cirrhosis with HCC compared to those without HCC. Sensitivity and specificity of any of these symptoms was 73 and 79%, respectively (positive and negative predictive values of 65 and 85%, respectively). A 100% agreement between TPCT and US was observed for diagnosing HCC cases. However, TPCT detected a greater number of smaller HCCs. Sensitivity of AFP at 400 ng/ml cut-off was only 25.7%, too low to be useful. Best mix of sensitivity (77.2%) and specificity (78.1%) of AFP was found to be at 10.7 ng/ml cut-off which falls within the conventional limits of normalcy. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the importance of symptomatology of weight loss, abdominal pain or anorexia as markers for HCC in patients with cirrhosis. AFP was not found to be a useful screening test. TPCT should be undertaken in all cirrhotics presenting to the hospital for the first time. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Verma N, Dasarathy S.Clinical profile of multiple amoebic liver abscesses.J Assoc Physicians India. 1990 Nov;38(11):837-9.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1990 Nov;38(11):837-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
Of 70 consecutive patients with amoebic liver abscess admitted over a 3 year period, 15 (21.4%) had multiple abscesses. This condition, like solitary abscess, was a disease of the 2nd to 5th decade with a male preponderance. Multiple abscesses were more frequently associated with fever, jaundice, upper abdominal pain, pneumonitis and tender hepatomegaly. The left lobe of the liver was always enlarged in patients with multiple abscesses and 86% of patients required drainage of an abscess cavity. The presence of more severe clinical course, jaundice and left lobe hepatomegaly should raise the suspicion of multiple abscesses. After confirmation of the diagnosis by imaging technique, the abscess cavity should be aspirated for quick relief and cure.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhatia V, Singh R, Acharya SK.Predictive value of arterial ammonia for complications and outcome in acute liver failure.Gut. 2006 Jan;55(1):98-104. Epub 2005 Jul 15.". In: Gut. 2006 Jan;55(1):98-104. Epub 2005 Jul 15. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In acute liver failure (ALF), the brain is exposed to high levels of ammonia. Human studies defining the clinical significance of ammonia in ALF are lacking. This prospective study evaluated the relationship of arterial ammonia levels at admission to complications and survival among patients with ALF. METHODS: Eighty consecutive ALF patients admitted from March 2001 to December 2003 were followed up until death or complete recovery. All had arterial ammonia estimation at admission (enzymatic method). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of mortality. RESULTS: Forty two (52.5%) patients died. Non-survivors had significantly higher median ammonia levels than survivors (174.7 v 105.0 micromol/l; p<0.001). An arterial ammonia level of > or = 124 micromol/l was found to predict mortality with 78.6% sensitivity and 76.3% specificity, and had 77.5% diagnostic accuracy. Patients with higher ammonia levels also developed more complications, including deeper encephalopathy (p = 0.055), cerebral oedema (p = 0.020), need for ventilation (p<0.001), and seizures (p = 0.006). Logistic regression analysis showed that pH, presence of cerebral oedema, and arterial ammonia at admission were independent predictors of mortality (odds ratios 6.6, 12.6, and 10.9, respectively). Incorporating these variables, a score predicting mortality risk at admission was derived: 2.53 + 2.91 ammonia + 2.41 oedema + 1.40 pH, where ammonia is scored as 0 (if <124 micromol/l) or 1 (if > or =124 micromol/l); oedema is scored as 0 (absent) or 1(present); and pH is scored as 1 (if < or =7.40) or 0 (if >7.40). Levels of partial pressure of ammonia were equally correlated with outcome. CONCLUSION: Arterial ammonia at presentation is predictive of outcome and can be used for risk stratification. Ammonia lowering therapies in patients with ALF should be evaluated.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Hepatitis G virus in multitransfused thalassaemics from India. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Sep;13(9):902-6.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Sep;13(9):902-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988. Abstract
Hepatitis G virus (HGV)/GB virus-C (GBV-C) has been identified as a blood-borne agent with disputed pathogenicity. This virus belongs to the flaviviridae with a distant relationship to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Genetically divergent HGV isolates have been reported from different parts of the world. This study describes the prevalence of HGV in multitransfused thalassaemic children in India and genomic sequence variations in 11 HGV isolates from the same geographical location. Hepatitis G virus RNA was detected in 39.7% multitransfused thalassaemic children. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV was 23.8% and 17.1%, respectively, and 11.4% had dual infection. The nucleotide sequence of a 166 bp HGV genomic segment from the putative capsid-envelope region (nucleotide; nt 578-743) from 11 Indian isolates was compared to the sequences available in the nucleotide databases. The isolates from India were 81.3-94.5% homologous to the isolates from other parts of the world. On phylogenetic analysis, it was observed that HGV isolates from India may belong to two genetically divergent types.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Tandon BN, Acharya SK.Viral diseases involving the liver.Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr;1(2):211-30.". In: Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr;1(2):211-30. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
Even though HAV, HBV and HNANB viruses are responsible for most of the viral hepatitis cases, many other viruses have been reported to cause hepatic injury. These viruses may involve the liver, either as part of a systemic illness (e.g. EBV, CMV, HSV) or as the primary target organ (e.g. yellow fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Ebola virus). Clinically overt hepatocellular dysfunction is rare in such viral infections. Biochemical disturbance of hepatic functions shown, for example, by rises in AST and ALT, is a frequent event and indicates hepatic damage. Morphological changes of the liver include varying degrees of hepatic necrosis with a paucity of inflammatory activities. Intranuclear or cytoplasmic inclusion bodies may be characteristic findings in these diseases. Laboratory diagnosis depends upon serology and liver histology. Treatment is still largely supportive in most of these diseases, although recent trials of antiviral agents show promise against some viruses. Chronic sequelae, such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer, are not encountered. More work is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of hepatic injury in these illnesses.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Agarwal N, Handa R, Acharya SK, Wali JP, Dinda AK, Aggarwal P.A study of autoimmune markers in hepatitis C infection.Indian J Med Res. 2001 May;113:170-4.". In: Indian J Med Res. 2001 May;113:170-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with several autoimmune markers. Despite HCV being common in India, no information on this aspect is available. This study was undertaken to ascertain the frequency and clinical significance of autoimmune markers like rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA), anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), anti smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), anti liver kidney microsomal 1 antibodies (anti LKM1), anti gastric parietal cell antibodies (anti GPCA), anti mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), anti cardiolipin antibodies (ACL) and cryoglobulins in HCV infection and to determine the effect of treatment on these markers. METHODS: Twenty five patients with chronic hepatitis C and 25 healthy controls were studied. Cryoglobulins were detected by cryoprecipitation, RF by latex agglutination, anti dsDNA and ACL by ELISA while indirect immunofluorescence was used to detect all other autoantibodies. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (72%) demonstrated autoimmune markers. RF, cryoglobulins and anti LKM1 antibodies were the most frequently detected markers (in 32% patients each). ASMA, perinuclear ANCA (pANCA), ANA and anti GPCA were seen in 24, 20, 12 and 4 per cent patients respectively. None of the patients exhibited ACL, AMA or antibodies to dsDNA. No antibodies were detected in healthy controls. Sixty per cent of the patients had rheumatological symptoms. Of the seven patients followed up after treatment with alpha interferon, only two exhibited persistence of RF, while symptoms and other markers disappeared. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Rheumatological symptoms and autoimmune markers are common in HCV infection and are usually overlooked. Patients with unexplained joint pains and/or palpable purpura should be screened for HCV. Further studies are needed to delineate fully the link between infection and autoimmunity.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Kapil A, Sood S, Das BK, Saxena S, Acharya SK.Blood culture for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Natl Med J India. 1997 Jan-Feb;10(1):47.". In: Natl Med J India. 1997 Jan-Feb;10(1):47. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed in-house for the detection of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody against the prevailing genotypes in India. The specific reactivity of the test was compared with commercial second and third-generation EIAs and reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). Fifteen thousand nine hundred twenty-two healthy blood donors at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, were screened for anti-HCV antibody. Two hundred ninety-five (1.85%) of these donors were positive. The screening was also used to determine how many patients with acute hepatitis and chronic liver diseases were positive for anti-HCV antibody. Five hundred sixty-four chronic liver disease patients were screened for anti-HCV antibody and 78 (13.83%) were found positive. Two hundred forty-seven sporadic acute viral hepatitis patients were screened for viral infection markers. Hepatitis B and E viruses (HBV and HEV) were the major etiologic agents. HCV was associated with 9% of the acute cases. Anti-HCV core IgM with HCV RNA detection were found to be helpful for the diagnosis of acute HCV infection.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Irshad M, Acharya SK, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.Role of fibronectin and complement in immunopathogenesis of acute and subacute hepatic failure.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1994 Jul-Aug;9(4):355-60.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1994 Jul-Aug;9(4):355-60. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
The present study describes the plasma levels of soluble fibronectin (FN), C3d, the breakdown product of C3 complement and Ba, the breakdown product of properdin factor B, in 30 patients of uncomplicated acute viral hepatitis (AVH), 64 patients of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and 29 patients of subacute hepatic failure (SAHF) with different hepatitis viral infections. Aetiological analysis of these patients demonstrated hepatitis B, hepatitis C and hepatitis non-A, non-B, non-C (NANB-NC) infections in 6.7, 13.3 and 80% cases, respectively, of the AVH group; 18.8, 42.2. and 39.0% cases, respectively, of the FHF group; and 31.0, 34.5 and 34.5% cases of the SAHF group. None of them had hepatitis A infection. The analysis of data showed that the plasma FN level was significantly reduced in patients with FHF and SAHF as compared to AVH patients and healthy persons. Fibronectin levels in AVH was comparable to that in the healthy group. Further, the FN level was not dependent on the nature of aetiological virus. The level of C3d in plasma was significantly high in all patients of FHF and SAHF, irrespective of their viral aetiology, compared to the AVH group and the healthy group. Like FN, the C3d level was comparable in the AVH and healthy groups. However, the Ba level was comparable to the normal value in all types of infections including the AVH, FHF and SAHF groups. These findings were used to explain the possible roles of fibronectin and complement in the immunopathogenesis of liver injury in patients of acute liver failure of viral aetiology.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Buch P, Saraya A, Acharya SK, Tandon RK. Pancreatic abscess: is there a role for conservative therapy?Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):28-32.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):28-32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract

Pancreatic abscess is a serious complication of acute pancreatitis and non-operative management has been reported to carry a mortality of nearly 100%. We present five patients with pancreatic abscess, who were successfully treated with antibiotics alone. All 5 patients had acute pancreatitis followed by prolonged fever and development of an abdominal mass. The diagnosis was confirmed in each of them by a contrast enhanced CT scan and an ultrasound guided aspiration of pus from the pancreatic mass. The choice of antibiotics was decided by the culture reports in two cases and by Gram's staining in the remaining three patients. We attribute the success of antibiotic therapy in our patients to early diagnosis by CT scan and guided aspiration as well as the absence of any unfavourable risk factors. This study suggests that a select group of patients with pancreatic abscess may be managed conservatively with antibiotics.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Role of surface promoter mutations in hepatitis B surface antigen production and secretion in occult hepatitis B virus infection. J Med Virol. 2007 Jan 23;79(3):220-228.". In: J Med Virol. 2007 Jan 23;79(3):220-228. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2007. Abstract
The production, secretion, and localization of surface proteins of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the ratio of large to small surface protein S was studied in HepG2 cells transfected with the wild-type and mutant pre-S1 and pre-S2/S promoters of HBV molecular clones 313.1 (GenBank accession no. AY161147) and 761.1 (GenBank accession no. AY161159) from two patients with occult HBV infection. Fusion constructs were made by in frame fusion of the wild-type surface gene to the mutant pre-S1 and pre-S2/S promoters and wild-type promoter so that the structural part of the small surface protein remains identical. HepG2 cells transfected transiently were used for analysis. HBV surface proteins production and secretion was determined by enzyme linked immuno assay (ELISA) and localization by immunofluorescence. Immunoprecipitation of the large, middle, and small surface protein was carried out in transient transfected and metabolically labeled cells to determine the ratio of the large to small surface protein. The results indicate that HepG2 cells transfected with mutant HBV promoters had reduced HBV surface proteins secretion compared to wild-type HBV. HepG2 cells transfected with mutant HBV pre-S1 and pre-S2/S promoters showed cytoplasmic aggregation of HBV surface proteins compared to wild-type HBV promoters, which showed diffuse cytoplasmic localization. In all cases, the HBV surface proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The ratio between the large and small surface protein was 1.89 and 0.56 with mutant HBV 313.1 and 761.1 pre-S1 and pre-S2/S promoters, respectively, compared to 0.17 in wild-type. Thus, the aggregation of surface proteins, altered ratio and secretion of surface proteins were possibly the causes of occult hepatitis B infection. J. Med. Virol. 79:220-228, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Kaul S, Kapil U, Joshi YK, Gupta MC, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.Hospital malnutrition: a prospective evaluation of patients during hospitalisation.Trop Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr-Jun;12(2):101-3.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr-Jun;12(2):101-3. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
Nutritional Status of 89 patients was assessed during their course of hospitalisation. All patients consumed diet deficit in protein and calories. The mean daily intake of calories was 819 +/- 425 Kcals and of protein was 22 +/- 19 g per day. 74.13 per cent patients lost weight while 31.25 per cent gained. 50% patients had fall in SKFT values during their hospital stay.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Madan K, Batra Y, Gupta DS, Chander B, Anand Rajan KD, Singh R, Panda SK, Acharya SK.Vitamin E-based therapy is effective in ameliorating transaminasemia in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov-Dec;24(6):251-5.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov-Dec;24(6):251-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Comparative trials of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), vitamin E and weight management programs among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are lacking. AIM: To find an effective single agent or combination of agents for management of NAFLD. METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive patient with histologically confirmed NAFLD with raised ALT were included. The patients received either weight management (exercise and therapeutic lifestyle changes [TLC] diet with a target to reduce body weight 10% in 6 months) (group I) ; weight management + UDCA (300 mg BID) (group II); or weight management + UDCA + vitamin E (400 mg OD) (group III). Outcome measure was normalization of ALT. RESULTS: 42 patients (18, 12 and 12 in groups I, II and III, respectively) were included between 1996 and 2004. All patients in group III normalized their ALT levels, which was significantly higher than numbers in group I (8/18) and group II (5/12); (p=0.003). Post treatment ALT was significantly lower in group III (28.6 [9.3]) as compared to group I (59.3 [32.2]) and group II (49.0[31.8]); (p=0.01). Type of therapy received was the only factor predictive of ALT normalization. CONCLUSION: Combination regimen containing vitamin E appears to be effective in normalizing ALT among NAFLD patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Vashisht S, Tandon RK.Primary sclerosing cholangitis in India.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Feb;24(1):75-9.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Feb;24(1):75-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
Six patients with PSC have been diagnosed and followed up at a centre in Northern India for periods up to 4 years. They all presented with cholestatic jaundice and cholangitis, but one of them subsequently presented with variceal haemorrhage. Cholangiographic features were the most characteristic and included irregular narrowing and segmental dilatation of the biliary radicles giving them a beaded appearance. Treating them was most frustrating. Two of them died of hepatic encephalopathy, others have also continued to be sick during the follow-up.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Batra Y, Acharya SK.Acute liver failure: prognostic markers.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2003 Dec;22 Suppl 2:S66-8.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2003 Dec;22 Suppl 2:S66-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract

Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined as liver failure occurring within one month of the occurrence of jaundice. The disease has a grim prognosis, with a mortality of 65% to 85%. The management of ALF has till recently been conservative, and newer therapeutic modalities like bioartificial liver, hepatocyte transplant, and extracorporeal liver assist devices have not yet been proven to be successful. Liver transplant has changed the gloomy outlook of the disease, and post-transplant survival rates of 60%-70% have been reported from most centers. However liver transplant is expensive, necessitates life-long immunosupression, and is limited by a global shortage of available organs. It is thus necessary to select patients who are at greatest risk of death for liver transplantation. Prognostic criteria are based primarily either on clinical and laboratory (coagulation tests, serum bilirubin) parameters, or on other parameters like liver volume. Prognostic criteria have been developed both from the East and the West; these are essentially similar except that the Western criteria take into account etiology (drug overdose being the main cause of ALF there) as well as jaundice-encephalopathy interval as factors for prognostication. The King's College criteria were one of the first prognostic systems; it has two parts for both paracetamol as well as non paracetamol ALF. The criteria from our institute found prothrombin time >25 s, serum bilirubin >15 mg/dL, age >40 years, and cerebral edema to be bad prognostic markers. Criteria from the PGIMER, Chandigarh found age >50 years, raised intracranial pressure, prothrombin time >100 s, and onset of HE more than seven days after the jaundice as poor prognostic markers. All these clinical criteria have similar sensitivity and specificity.

Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Impact of Mobile Phone-based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture: Evidence from Kenya."; 2012. Abstract

The recent introduction of mobile phone-based money transfer (MMT) services in developing countries has generated a lot of interest among development partners. It facilitates transfer of money in a quick and cost effective way. It also offers an easy and secure platform for small savings to majority of rural populations with no access to formal financial services. However, the impact of MMT services on smallholder agriculture has not been documented. This study therefore contributes to pioneering literature on the impact of MMT, especially in agriculture. It provides information regarding financial intermediation to the excluded through the use of new generation Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools especially the mobile phone. The study employs propensity score matching technique to examine the impact of MMT services on household agricultural input use, agricultural commercialization and farm incomes among farm households in Kenya. It uses cross-sectional data collected from 379 multi-stage randomly selected households in Central, Western and Nyanza provinces of Kenya. The study found that use of MMT services significantly increased level of annual household input use by $42, household agricultural commercialization by 37% and household annual income by $224. We conclude that MMT services in rural areas help to resolve an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face; access to financial services. We therefore recommend that other developing countries should follow the Kenyan model and provide an enabling environment that would facilitate entry and survival of MMT initiatives.

Kirui OK, Okello JJ, Nyikal R, Mbogoh SG. Impact of Mobile Money Transfer Services in Kenyan Agriculture. LAP LAMBERT ; 2013.
Kirui F, Oyoo GO, OGOLA EN, Amayo EO. "Elijah N. Ogola Elijah N. Ogola Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis at Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2013;1(1). Abstract

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This is predominantly due to accelerated coronary artery and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors as well as extra articular disease have been associated with occurrence of myocardial infarction.
Objective: To identify cardiovascular risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at Kenyatta National Hospital and compare with healthy controls.
Design: This was a comparative cross sectional survey.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital medical outpatient clinic. The study population were patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the controls were individuals without RA age and sex matched staff of KNH. All those who consented were enrolled and a clinical evaluation was done as per the study protocol.
Results: One hundred patients with RA were screened out of which 80 were enrolled. The prevalence of hypertension among RA patients was 41.3%, diabetes 6.3%, dyslipidemia 71.3%, smoking 5%, obesity 22.5%, abnormal WHR 33.8%, family history of sudden death 5%, no family history of stroke or heart attack was reported. In the control group one hundred and five were screened and twenty five were excluded. The prevalence of hypertension was 22.5%, diabetes 5%, dyslipidemia 73.8%, smoking 2.5%, obesity 32.5%, abnormal WHR 33.8% family history of sudden death 10%, stroke 1.3% no history of heart attack was reported. Eighty percent of patients with RA were on at least one DMARD, 57.5% were on steroids and 37.5% were on NSAIDS.
Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of hypertension among RA patients (41.3%) than in the controls (22.5%) and this was statistically significant (OR 2.42 (95 CI 1.22-4.81) P = 0.017). Hypertension was also significantly associated with the use of DMARDS OR 2.189 (95% CI 1.111-4.312) P= 0.022 and steroids OR 2.06(95% CI 1.008-4.207) P= 0.022. No significant difference between patients with RA and controls in other risk factors including diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, abnormal waist hip ratio and family history of cardiovascular events was found.
Recommendations: Clinicians should keenly look out for hypertension in patients with RA for early identification and if necessary aggressive management of hypertension. Screening of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with RA should be done routinely and a larger study with normal controls from the general population should be undertaken in order to measure this cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease in this population.

Key words: Cardiovascular, rheumatoid arthritis, Kenyatta National Hospital

Kirui G;, Abuom TO;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM;, Tsigadi SA;, Kitaa JMA;, Mande JD. "Radiographic Evaluation of Fractures and Postoperative Outcome in Small Animals Clinic (75 cases).".; 2005.
Kirui GK, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji, Amugune NO. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Kirui OK;, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA. "Awareness, use and effect of mobile phone-based money transfer in Kenyan agriculture."; 2010.
Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui G, Mande JD, Kitaa JMA. "Spectrophotometric analysis of cytoliths from a German Shepherd dog. .". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2005.
Kirui G;, Abuom TO;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM;, Tsigadi SA;, Kitaa JMA;, Mande JD. "Radiographic Evaluation of Fractures and Postoperative Outcome in Small Animals Clinic (75 cases).".; 2005.
Kirui GK, Misra AK, Olanya OM, Friedman M, El-Bedewy R, Ewell PT. "Glycoalkaloid content of some superior potato (Solanum tuberosum L) clones and commercial cultivars." Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2009;42(5):453-463.
Kirui G;, Abuom TO;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM;, Tsigadi SA;, Kitaa JMA;, Mande JD. "Radiographic Evaluation of Fractures and Postoperative Outcome in Small Animals Clinic (75 cases).".; 2005.
Kirui JK, Ngure R, Bii C, Karimi PN, Mutai C, Amugune BK. "Combined Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Eucalyptus citriodora and Syzygium aromaticum Essential oils." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(1):29-37.
Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui G, Mulei CM, Abuom TO. "Rabies in Donkeys-A Review.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association 45th Scientific Conference. Kisumu, Kenya; 2011.kirui_g._mulei_c._m._and_abuom_t._o._2011_rabies_in_donkeys-a_review_abstract_.docx
Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Impact of Mobile Phone-based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture: Evidence from Kenya."; 2012. Abstract

The recent introduction of mobile phone-based money transfer (MMT) services in developing countries has generated a lot of interest among development partners. It facilitates transfer of money in a quick and cost effective way. It also offers an easy and secure platform for small savings to majority of rural populations with no access to formal financial services. However, the impact of MMT services on smallholder agriculture has not been documented. This study therefore contributes to pioneering literature on the impact of MMT, especially in agriculture. It provides information regarding financial intermediation to the excluded through the use of new generation Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools especially the mobile phone. The study employs propensity score matching technique to examine the impact of MMT services on household agricultural input use, agricultural commercialization and farm incomes among farm households in Kenya. It uses cross-sectional data collected from 379 multi-stage randomly selected households in Central, Western and Nyanza provinces of Kenya. The study found that use of MMT services significantly increased level of annual household input use by $42, household agricultural commercialization by 37% and household annual income by $224. We conclude that MMT services in rural areas help to resolve an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face; access to financial services. We therefore recommend that other developing countries should follow the Kenyan model and provide an enabling environment that would facilitate entry and survival of MMT initiatives.

Kirui OK, Okello JJ, Nyikal RA. "Awareness of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya." International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. 2012;3(1):1-13. AbstractWebsite

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based money transfer services that started in Kenya urban centres have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds to invest in agricultural financial transactions. This study examines the awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services (MMT) among rural farmers in Kenya and examines the various uses of money transferred through such services. The study employs descriptive analysis and found a very high awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services among the smallholder farmers and found predominant use of remitted funds for agricultural related purposes (purchase of seed, fertilizer for planting and topdressing, farm equipment/implements, leasing of land for farming, wages for labour). The study concludes that there is need to expand the coverage of MMT services in rural areas since it resolves an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face namely access to financial services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui G, Gakuya DW, Abuom TO. "Challenges in food animal practice in the urban areas- Nairobi City and its environs.". In: The Kenya Veterinary Association, Commonwealth Veterinary Association and university Nairobi, Faculty of Veterianry Medicine Joint Scientific Conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
Kirui JW, Muthama JN, Opere AO, Ngaina JURI:N. "Influence of climate change on smallholder dairy productivity: A case of Kosirai, Kenya, and Namayumba, Uganda." Academe Research Journals. 2015. Abstractngaina_influence_of_climate_change_on_smallholder_dairy_productivity.pdf

Climate change influences dairy productivity in East Africa through impacts on fodder production and supply, livestock disease outbreak and water availability for livestock. This study assessed the influence of climate change on smallholder dairy farming in Kosirai, Nandi District of Kenya and Namayumba in Wakiso District of Uganda, in support of climate-smart agricultural practices. Observed (1973-2009) and model output (1950-2100) climate data comprising rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature and household survey were used. A simple random sampling technique, time series analysis, and descriptive statistics were used to achieve the objectives of the study. Mean rainfall in the two sites had progressively decreased over the last ten years. Conversely, there was a systematic rise in both the minimum and maximum temperature, both in historical and projected period in the two sites.

The weather variables namely rainfall, maximum and the minimum temperature had a positive correlation with fodder production and supply. Likewise, milk production that mainly depended on rainfed forages also correlated with the supply of feeds. There was increased milk production and supply during the wet season as compared to the dry spells. Climate change was linked to the emergence and rise of both the vector born and viral diseases in the two sites. There was a significant rise in outbreaks of foot and mouth disease and tick-borne diseases in Namayumba area. In Kosirai, there was an increase in outbreaks of tick-borne. The study recommended that dairy farmers be empowered to prepare effectively to climate change through adaptation and mitigation of the effect of extreme climate change. Farmers should also invest in the production and conservation of fodder for their dairy production.

Kirui G;, Abuom TO;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM;, Tsigadi SA;, Kitaa JMA;, Mande JD. "Radiographic Evaluation of Fractures and Postoperative Outcome in Small Animals Clinic (75 cases).".; 2005.
KIRUI G K, J. WANJARE, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F. "WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF SUGAR CANE OUTGROWER COMPANIES IN KENYA." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research. 2017;2(4):ISSN: 2455-8834.
KIRUKI PROFMUNYUAJUSTUS. "Fractionation by size of casein micelles on controlled-pore glass. Prep Biochem. 1977;7(1):1-7.". In: Prep Biochem. 1977;7(1):1-7. SITE; 1997. Abstract
Casein micelles have been separated from skim milk by chromatography on CPG-10 3000 glass beads. Fractionation of the micelles according to size has been demonstrated. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of urea treated micelles reveals that different relative amounts of the major casein components occur in the various micelle fractions. No discernible dissociation of the micelles into monomeric caseins has been observed.
KISAKA ES, MWASARU A. "The Causal Relationship between Exchange Rates and Stock Prices in Kenya." Research of Finance and Accounting, Vol 3, N0. 7, 2012. 2012;3(7):121-130. AbstractWebsite

This study examined the causal relationship between foreign exchange rates and stock prices in Kenya from November 1993 to May 1999. The data set consisted of monthly observations of the NSE stock price index and the nominal Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rates. The objective was to establish the causal linkages between leading prices in the foreign exchange market and the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). The empirical results show that foreign exchange rates and stock prices are non-stationary both in first differences and level forms, and the two variables are integrated of order one, in Kenya. Secondly, we tested for co-integration between exchange rates and stock prices. The results show that the two variables are co-integrated. Thirdly, we used error-correction models instead of the classical Granger-causality tests since the two variables are co-integrated. The empirical results indicate that exchange rates Granger-causes stock prices in Kenya.

Kisangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R. "Assessment of honey bee colony performance in the agro-ecological zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):1-6.
Kiseli J, Kitati EM. Factors That Affect Internal Control Systems In Public Institutions. Riga, Latv ia: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; Submitted. AbstractFactors That Affect Internal Control Systems In Public Institutions

Internal control is the process effected by an organization’s structure, to assist the organization to accomplish specific goals or objectives. It is a means by which an institution’s resources are directed, monitored and measured. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the organization’s resources. Internal Control mechanisms’ comprises of the control environment and control procedures. It includes all the policies and procedures adopted by the directors and management of an entity to help in achieving their objectives of ensuring, as far as practicable, the orderly and efficient conduct of its business, including adherence to internal policies, the safeguarding of assets, the prevention and detection of frauds and errors, the accuracy and completeness of the accounting records, and the timely preparation of reliable financial information. The internal control systems extend beyond those matters which relate directly to the accounting system. Internal control is concerned with the control operative in every area of corporate activity, as well as with the way in which individual controls interrelate.

Kishosha PA, Galukande M, Gakwaya AM. "Selenium deficiency a factor in endemic goiter persistence in sub-{Saharan} {Africa}." World journal of surgery. 2011;35:1540-1545. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Kisia SM, Hughes GM. "Routine oxygen consumption in different sizes of a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas) using the closed chamber respiratory method.". 1993. Abstract

Routine oxygen consumption (Vo2) measurements on 54 specimens (0.055-190.4 g) of a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas) were carried out using two different types of closed respirometers: a modified cuvette for fish weighing 0.055-0.91 g and ordinary closed chamber respirometer for fish weighing more than 1 g. Vo2 values over the weight range studied had a scaling value of 0.743 which relates closely to the values for the gill respiratory surface area and morphometric oxygen diffusing capacity of O. niloticus in a previous study /13/. This shows that a close relationship exists between changes in structural parameters involved in oxygen uptake and the routine metabolism of O. niloticus with development. The values for routine Vo2 of 1.38 and 7.65 ml/h for 10 g and 100 g fish, respectively (calculated from the regression equation) show that O. niloticus is a moderately active fish.

Kisia SM, Hughes* GM. "Red muscle fibre and capillary dimensions in different sizes of a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas).". 2006. Abstract

Measurements of muscle dimensions that affect respiration in relation to body weight were carried out in a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The fish used in all measurements weighed 0.65–812.3 g. The data were analysed with respect to body weight using logarithmic transformations (log Y=log a+blog W). The slopes (b) of the log/log regression lines for weight of body trunk red muscle, average cross-sectional area of muscle fibre, average number of capillaries in direct contact with a muscle fibre, average capillary contact length with a fibre as a fraction of average fibre circumference and number of capillaries mm2 of fibre cross-sectional area [NA(cƒ)] were 1.16, 0.221, 0.084, 0.015, and −0.137 respectively. These results show that there is an increase in muscle cross-sectional fibre area and number of capillaries in contact with muscle fibres whereas number of capillaries supplying a unit area of muscle fibre decreases during development. There is development of new capillaries with increase in cross-sectional area of red muscle fibres.

Kisipan ML. The morphology and morphometry of the male reproductive system of the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens).. Onyango DW, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, eds. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L.; 2009. Abstract

The Morphology of the male reproductive system of rufous sengi was studied using light and electron microscopy while the testicular morphometry was studied using stereology. The system consisted of the cylindrical-shaped testes, genital ducts, accessory sex glands and the penis.
The testes were intra-abdominal, located just caudal to the kidneys and comprised of a parenchyma bound by tunica albuginea. The parenchyma was composed of the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial tissue; the former being more predominant than the later and exhibiting complete spermatogenesis. The interstitial tissue occurred either between the seminiferous tubules, mainly in relatively larger spaces formed when three or four seminiferous tubules approximate or beneath the tunica albuginea. The Leydig cells were mainly polyhedral with irregular nuclei and numerous lipid droplets within the cytoplasm but, in cases where the interstitial tissue made extension into a narrow space between two adjoining seminiferous tubules, the Leydig cells therein were longate with rod-shaped nuclei.
The testicular arteries branched off from renal arteries and ran caudo-laterally to the testis without convolutions or intimate association with the vein. The testicular veins also followed a straight course, without pampiniform plexuses. These animals had separate right and left caudal vena cavae which received ipsilateral testicular and renal veins. After receiving the renal veins, the left caudal vena cava crossed to the right side to join the right one to form a common caudal vena cava which then extended cranially up to the right atrium.
The genital ducts were constituted by the rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis, and the urethra. The rete testis was made up of interconnecting channels located outside the testicular parenchyma while the efferent ductules connected the rete testis to the caput epididymis. The epididymis consisted of a highly coiled duct organized into three topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput epididymis was applied on dorso-lateral border, extending from cranial to the caudal pole of the testis. The corpus epididymis extended caudally from the caput to a position between the pelvic urethra and the rectum where it joined the cauda epididymis. The cauda epididymis was organized into a pear-shaped mass, located in a somewhat lateral position between the rectum and the pelvic urethra. The caput and corpus epididymis were lined by a tall pseudostratified columnar epithelium while the cauda epididymis was lined by cuboidal or low columnar epithelium. The ductus deferens was short and connected the cauda epididymis with the pelvic urethra. The urethra consisted of two parts; the pelvic and the penile urethra. The pelvic urethra, surrounded by a thick muscular coat, extended from the neck of the urinary bladder to the bulb of the penis and received the deferent ducts, uterus masculinus and the ducts of the accessory sex glands.The penile urethra extended from the bulb of penis to the tip of the penis.
The accessory sex glands consisted of the prostate and the bulbourethral glands. The prostate gland was composed of several paired lobes organized into two groups, the cranial and the caudal group of lobes, also referred to as the cranial and the caudal prostates respectively. The cranial prostate consisted of lobes organized around the neck of urinary bladder and included the ventral, laterodorsal and the medio-dorsal lobes. The caudal prostate consisted of a single pair of lobes located dorsal to the pelvic urethra.
The mean reference volume of the sengi testis was 0.089 ± 0.003 cm3, 98.3% of which was constituted by the parenchyma and the rest being contributed by the capsule. The seminiferous tubules occupied 90.94% of the testicular parenchyma, while the interstitial tissue on the other hand occupied about 9.07% of the parenchyma with 7.87% of its volume being contributed by the subcapsular interstitial tissue.

Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The Functional Morphology and Adaptations of the Epididymis in a Testicndid Mammal, The Rufous Sengi (Elephantulus rufescens). ." Keny Veterinarian. 2011;35(1):52-58.
Kisipan ML, Oduor-Okelo D, Makanya AN, Onyango DW. "The structure, morphometry and vascular perfusion of the testis in the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens)." Journal of Morphological Sciences . 2014;31:146-155.
Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The Functional Morphology and Adaptations of the Epididymis in a Testicondid Mammal, The Rufous Sengi (Elephantulus rufescens)." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35:52-58. AbstractWebsite

Sengis are testicondid African mammals that constitute order Macroscelidae. Epididymal morphology in the rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) was studied with focus on features and adaptations that make it suitable for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The three topographic regions were distinct with the caput and cauda epididymis placed further apart and the two are connected by a slender corpus. The caput occurred as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the testis while the caput occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells; the former exhibiting granules and apical blebing in the caput. The lumen of cauda was densely packed with spermatozoa, with occasional masses that appeared to engulf them, and its principal cells had numerous vacuoles. This study demonstrates that beside merocrine secretion, principal cells of the caput exhibit apocrine secretion as shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, with the vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid re-absorption and phagocytosis.

Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The epididymis of rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens): Structure, adaptations and role in sperm maturation and storage.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibitions. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L., Makanya, A.N., Oduor-Okelo, D. and Onyango, DW; 2010. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

Kisiroche. IR. : “Sauti ya mwanamke dhidi ya Ubabedume katika tamthilia tatu za Kiswahili’’ . E.M. DM, K.W PW, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2008.
Kisumbi B. PATIENT PERCEPTION OF THE IDEAL DENTIST. Department of Conservative and Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dental …; 2001. Abstract
n/a
Kisumbi BK, Kaimenyi JT, Wakiaga JM. "Knowledge on treatment modalities and attitude of Nairobi University students towards dental care." Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research. 1995;6:133-136. Abstract
n/a
Kisumbi BK, Simila OH, Omondi BI, Nyagah J. "Choice of Impression Materials and Techniques by Dentists.". In: 33rd Kenya Dental Association Annual Scientific Conference & Exhibition.; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Kisumbi BK, Watts DC. "Toothbrush/Abrasion rates of modified glass Ionomer Restoratives In-vitro.". 2000. Abstract

Modified glass ionomer restoratives are employed in conservation of abrasion cavities, and hence the characterisation of toothbrush abrasion is clinically important. The aim was to evaluate this parameter, for; resin, metal, and polyphosphonate modified glass ionomers, compomer, experimental composite and Perspex as control. Groups (n = 5) of cylindrical specimens (6mm

Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI. "Selection of impression materials and techniques by dentists in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(12):1040-1051.selectionofimpressionmaterialsandtechniquesemployedbydentists_kisumbietal2017.pdf
Kisumbi BK, Wakiaga JM. "Role of bitewing in caries management in a teaching dental hospital.". In: JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH. Vol. 82. INT AMER ASSOC DENTAL RESEARCHI ADR/AADR 1619 DUKE ST, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314 …; 2003:. Abstract
n/a
Kisumbi BK, Alubale EA, Simila HO, Arnisi SK, others. "Indications for Initial Placement and Replacement of Amalgam and Composite Restorations.". 2009. Abstract
n/a
Kisumbi BK, Toworfe GK, Watts DC. "Dimensional changes of resin/ionomer restoratives in aqueous and neutral media.". In: JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH. Vol. 77. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC 2455 TELLER RD, THOUSAND OAKS, CA 91320 USA; 1998:. Abstract
n/a
Kisumbi BK;, Alubale EA;, Simila HO;, W; GL, Arnisi SK;, W GL. "Indications for Initial Placement and Replacement of Amalgam and Composite Restorations.". 2009.
Kisumbi BK, Alubale EA, Simila HO, Gathece LW, Amisi SK. "Indications of initial placement and replacement of amalgam and composite restorations." AJOHS. 2011;6(1):15-19. Abstract

Indications of initial placement and replacement of amalgam and composite restoraions.

Kisumbi BK, Alubale EA, Simila HO, Gathece LW, Amisi SK. "Indications for initial placement and replacement of amalgam and composite restorations." African Journal of Oral Surgery. 2011.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI. "Selection of impression materials and techniques employed by dentists in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94:1040-1051. Abstract
n/a
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI, Nyagah J. "Choice of impression materials and techniques by dentists.". In: IADR ESAD. Eldoret, Kenya; 2015.
Kisumbi B, Wakiaga J, Chindia ML. "Discolouration of Teeth.". 1995. Abstract
n/a
Kisumbi BK. COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES SCHOOL OF DENTAL SCIENCES. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA. DENTAL BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE: MODULE II - AUXILLIARY DENTAL MATERIALS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013.
Kisumbi B.K, Simila O.H ONBIJ. "Choice of Impression Materials and Techniques by Dentists.". In: 33rd Kenya Dental Association Annual Scientific Conference & Exhibition. Boma Inn, Eldoret Kenya; 2015.
Kisuthi GG,.;Knapp M;, Shibario JK,; Nderitu JH;, Kiarie N. "Effects if four biopesticides on the spider mite tetranychanus evansi Baker and Pritchard in the laboratory.". In: European Association of Acarologists (EURAAC). Berlin germany; 2004.
Kit KR. Privatisation of public enterprises in COMESA: An exploration of approaches and strategies: the case of the privatization of Telkom Kenya. Durham; 2006. Abstract

This thesis investigates Kenya's approach to the privatization process through an exploration of Telkom Kenya's (TKL) unfolding privatization. The thesis research identifies outlines and documents the developments in Kenya's approach to the privatization programs in a developing economy of the COMESA region. In the process, the analysis contributes to an approach of privatizing and restructuring in Kenya. It has also helped explain new phenomena in privatizing in an environment with no institutional infrastructure and in the process has generated and contributed to new knowledge whose detail is discussed in chapter five. The research took an exploratory approach because there are few or no earlier studies in which a secondary data analysis solely was to be analyzed. The empirical data was based on observing and experiencing the real world with a focus to gain insights and familiarity on approaches to the privatization process. Although there is a variety of privatization literature and studies, these have tended to focus on developed and emerging economies and lately specific sectors of their interest. The analysis uses Field primary and Secondary data sources And an extensive Literature review on Privatization focusing on Specific elements Of approaches and Developments in The less developing Countries (LDCs) And in Kenya. The data Collection and analysis Focused on outlining Kenya's actual process Of choosing And implementing sectors, objectives, methods, techniques and strategies of transacting Telkom Kenya as a Strategic enterprise Under the GOK's Privatization program. In attempting to Respond to The central Research question raised In chapter one (page 9), the Thesis undertakes an in-depth mixed method analysis (majorly qualitative) ofapproaches to the privatization process. The research is driven by the central research question (s): "What are (why and how) the approaches and strategies of Kenya’s privatization program In a developing economy?" The research outcome identifies And outlines a 'sketch approach' to Kenya's privatization program and process. The Research analysis Concludes that Efforts to institutionalize (i.e. regulatory framework) The process, in order to make Kenya's approach more tangible, effective, efficient, and accountable need further attention. Evidence further shows that privatization of Kenya's strategic state enterprises (SSE, s) raises concerns of the socio-political dynamics of the management of the selected approaches, methods, processes, and objectives of privatization by GOK. Indeed 80 % of the respondents argued that privatization is crucial in enabling the government divest from business. However, the political control remains an impediment to Independent and fair strengthening and building of privatization institutions. In this regard, this thesis' major Contribution of Identifying Kenya's Approach provides a First attempt at a 'guide' to the Privatization process that Is clear, accountable and open to Checks and balances.

Kitaa, JMA MCMMJDWJMMAO, W N. "Polymerase chain reaction detection of Erlichia canis the causative agent of Canine Monocytic Erlichiosis in Kenya." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary. 2017;5:74-82. Abstract
n/a
Kitaa JMA, Abuom TO, Gitonga P, Muraya J. "Chronic pododermatitis in a Great Dane.". In: 44th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Almond Resort, Garissa Kenya; 2010.
Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM, Wabacha JK, Mande JD. "A retrospective study of clinical presentation of canine ehrlichiosis in the Small Animal Clinic of the University of Nairobi.". In: 47th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa Kenya; 2013.
Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM, Wabacha JK, Mande JD. "A retrospective study of clinical presentation of canine ehrlichiosis in the Small Animal Clinic of the University of Nairobi.". In: 47th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association.; 2013. Abstract
n/a
Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM, Mande JD, Wabacha J. "A retrospective study of canine ehrlichiosis in Kenya.". 2014. Abstract
n/a
Kitaa JMA, Abuom TO, Gitonga P, Muraya J. "Chronic demodecosis in a Great Dane." Kenya Veterinarian. 2012;36(1):1-5.
Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM, Mande JD, Wabacha J, others. "A retrospective study of canine ehrlichiosis in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3:122-124. Abstract
n/a
Kitabchi AE, Ayyagari V, Guerra SM. "The efficacy of low-dose versus conventional therapy of insulin for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1976;84:633-638. Abstract

The effect of low-dose intramuscular insulin therapy was compared with that of high-dose insulin therapy by intravenous and subcutaneous routes in 48 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. A simplified protocol was devised to compare efficacy of the two methods of therapy in a randomized manner. Plasma glucose dropped to less than 250 mg/dl in the low-dose group in 6.7 +/- 0.8 h and in the high-dose group in 4.5 +/- 0.8 h (P = not significant). The amount of insulin necessary to lower plasma glucose to 250 mg/dl was 263 +/- 45 U in the high-dose group and 46 +/- 5 U in the low-dose group. Twenty five percent in the high-dose group and none in the low-dose group developed hypoglycemia. Other biochemical and clinical variables in the two groups were comparable. No treatment complications were noted in the low-dose group. Our studies suggest that low-dose intramuscular insulin therapy is simple and as effective as high-dose therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis without the risk of hypoglycemia and with a diminished incidence of hypokalemia. Furthermore, the favorable response of these patients to low-dose insulin therapy suggests the absence of insulin resistance in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, Barrett EJ, Kreisberg RA, Malone JI, Wall BM. "Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2001;24:131-153. Abstract
n/a
Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Stentz FB. "Thirty years of personal experience in hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2008;93:1541-1552. Abstract

CONTEXT: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) cause major morbidity and significant mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. For more than 30 yr, our group, in a series of prospective, randomized clinical studies, has investigated the pathogenesis and evolving strategies of the treatment of hyperglycemic crises. This paper summarizes the results of these prospective studies on the management and pathophysiology of DKA. SETTING: Our earliest studies evaluated the comparative efficacy of low-dose vs. pharmacological amounts of insulin and the use of low-dose therapy by various routes in adults and later in children. Subsequent studies evaluated phosphate and bicarbonate therapy, lipid metabolism, ketosis-prone type 2 patients, and use of rapid-acting insulin analogs as well as leptin status, cardiac risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and the mechanism of activation of T lymphocytes in hyperglycemic crises. MAIN OUTCOME: The information garnered from these studies resulted in the creation of the 2001 American Diabetes Association (ADA) technical review on DKA and HHS as well as the ADA Position and Consensus Paper on the therapy for hyperglycemic crises. CONCLUSIONS: Areas of future research include prospective randomized studies to do the following: 1) establish the efficacy of bicarbonate therapy in DKA for a pH less than 6.9; 2) establish the need for a bolus insulin dose in the initial therapy of DKA; 3) determine the pathophysiological mechanisms for the absence of ketosis in HHS; 4) investigate the reasons for elevated proinflammatory cytokines and cardiovascular risk factors; and 5) evaluate the efficacy and cost benefit of using sc regular insulin vs. more expensive insulin analogs on the general ward for the treatment of DKA.

Kitabchi AE, Murphy MB, Spencer J, Matteri R, Karas J. "Is a priming dose of insulin necessary in a low-dose insulin protocol for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis?" Diabetes Care. 2008;31:2081-2085. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an insulin priming dose with a continuous insulin infusion versus two continuous infusions without a priming dose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective randomized protocol used three insulin therapy methods: 1) load group using a priming dose of 0.07 units of regular insulin per kg body weight followed by a dose of 0.07 unit x kg(-1) x h(-1) i.v. in 12 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); 2) no load group using an infusion of regular insulin of 0.07 unit . kg body weight(-1) x h(-1) without a loading dose in 12 patients with DKA, and 3) twice no load group using an infusion of regular insulin of 0.14 x kg(-1) x h(-1) without a loading dose in 13 patients with DKA. Outcome was based on the effects of insulin therapy on biochemical and hormonal changes during treatment and recovery of DKA. RESULTS: The load group reached a peak in free insulin value (460 microU/ml) within 5 min and plateaued at 88 microU/ml in 60 min. The twice no load group reached a peak (200 microU/ml) at 45 min. The no load group reached a peak (60 microU/ml) in 60-120 min. Five patients in the no load group required supplemental insulin doses to decrease initial glucose levels by 10%; patients in the twice no load and load groups did not. Except for these differences, times to reach glucose {\textless}or=250 mg/dl, pH {\textgreater}or=7.3, and HCO(3)(-) {\textgreater}or=15 mEq/l did not differ significantly among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: A priming dose in low-dose insulin therapy in patients with DKA is unnecessary if an adequate dose of regular insulin of 0.14 unit x kg body weight(-1) x h(-1) (about 10 units/h in a 70-kg patient) is given.

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, Fisher JN. "Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1335-1343. Abstract
n/a
Kitaka N, Harper DM, Mavuti KM. "Phosphorus inputs to Lake Naivasha, Kenya, from its catchment and the trophic state of the lake.". 2002. AbstractPhosphorus inputs to Lake Naivasha, Kenya, from its catchment and the trophic state of the lake

The main river supplying Lake Naivasha, Kenya, the Malewa, drains a catchment given over to largely subsistence cultivation and animal husbandry. The lake itself is the focus for an intensive horticultural industry based upon irrigation from the lake. The Malewa, however, is relatively independent of the impact of industry, and so its contribution to eutrophication of the lake was evaluated. Two periods of study, a very wet-dry and a `normal' wet-dry season showed that the river contribution of phosphorus led to a total phosphorus loading of 1.4 g m−2 lake surface ann−1 in the very wet period compared to 0.2 in the `normal'. Chlorophyll `a' in the open water of the lake was significantly related to soluble reactive phosphorus. The lake is now eutrophic by normal limnological criteria.

Kitala P, McDermott J, Dye C. "Transmission dynamics of dog rabies in Machakos district, Kenya.". 1997. Abstract

Rabies is still prevalent in most parts of the developing WOrld, with approximately 4 million people in Asia, Africa, and South America receiving post-exposure treatment and over 30 000 dying after being bitten by rabid dogs (WHO, 1992). In Kenya, rabies has been common in Machakos District for at least 40 years. We have undertaken several studies in recent years to collect information on dog ecology, dog population dynamics and rabies epidemiology required to improve rabies control in this district (Kitala et aI., 1993; Kitala and McDermott, 1995). Given this baseline data, mathematical models, often quite simple ones, can serve as a useful tool for predicting disease incidence under different natural and disease control scenarios (Anderson and May, 1991) and have been used to advantage in assessing rabies epidemiology, particularly in fox populations in Europe and North America (e.g. Anderson et al., 1981; Voigt et al., 1985). In this paper, we describe a simple deterministic model of rabies which incorporates both transitions between the main rabies disease states and dog populaton parameters. particularly thresholds for dog density. We compare model predictions to observed patterns of rabies in Machakos District and also explore the potential efficacy of different rabies control programmes.

Kitaoka M, Mitoma J, Asakura H, Anyenda OE, et al. "The relationship between hypertension and health-related quality of life: adjusted by chronic pain diseases, and life habits in the general middle-aged population in Japan." Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2016;21(4):193-214.
Kitata M. "The Problematics of Naming in Kenyan Creative Narratives." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020;6(1):1-15. Abstract

There is a tendency in Kenyan literature, which can be defined as ahistorical ethnopolitanism. In this approach the writer chooses to use names of characters and places that indicate an attempt to see the Kenyan community from a distance. The result is that, in the push for inclusivity in works of literature, the very idea an authentic record of history and self-knowledge is lost: Real actors are alienated from the story of the history of the country; the background loses its referential significance; fantasy contexts are created to overlay and erase the real; and an atmosphere of namelessness is prioritised. This paper is a preliminary critique of these traits in contemporary Kenyan creative narrative. It seeks to highlight how such an approach – whose aim is to create a text that sidesteps ethnic politics – paradoxically undermines the writers’ efforts.

Kitata M. Rhetorical Strategies in the Novels of Chinua Achebe. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Kitata M. "Re-narrating the Eastern Africa Coast through music on YouTube: Vitali Maembe’s Little Town Bagamoyo." African Identities. 2021:1-16. Abstract

The Eastern Africa coast has been a complex contact theatre between overseas peoples and the local population. These interconnections have over time produced mixed identities and cultural adaptation processes, expression, and transmission which are foundations of present-day Eastern Africa histories. The musician – historian’s account reflects the coastal identities as not simply painful and isolated historical creations upon a place, but also a part of global processes of cultural productions and affirmation. Through YouTube video, the coastal musician retells the coast’s history thereby preserving memory and lessons leant. The creative artist unveils the history – in an effort to gain inspiration from a cultural and commercial identity formation process. This paper, through Vitali Maembe’s YouTube music video, Little Town Bagamoyo, seeks to highlight the narrative that music exposes in retelling East African coast

Kitata M. "Sexualising the performance, objectifying the performer: The twerk dance in Kenya." Agenda. 2020;34(3):11-21. Abstract

Shifting arenas of dance performance and youths’ counterculture have brought the twerk to the internet, thus exposing it to the discourse of cultural imperialism, appropriation, and cultural resistance. This has changed the symbolism of the art form: from a performance meant for celebration, to a dance of sexual rage. The media associates the dance with bottom provocation, prostitution or celebrity achievement stories − rarely celebrating the intellect, aesthetics or the expression of freedom in it. From a western point of view, twerking is overly sexualised and the performers participants in a cultural notoriety – thus, objectifying it. However, in its original context it is primarily a dance for festive celebrations. As a form of artistic expression resisting cultural destruction in Kenya, twerk is a way of re-politicising the African female body, and decolonising it from the male, western influenced gaze. Sexual expression in it is …

Kithaka WM. ""Literature.". 1990.Website
Kithaka WM. "Language.". 1990.Website
Kithaka WM. "Kikuyu Belief System.". 1989.Website
Kithaka WM. "Fishing and Bee - Keeping .". 1990.Website
Kitheka JU, Mavuti KM. "Tana Delta and Sabaki Estuaries of Kenya: Freshwater and Sediment Input, Upstream Threats and Management Challenges." Estuaries: A Lifeline of Ecosystem Services in the Western Indian Ocean. 2016:89-109.
Kitheka JU, Mavuti KM, Nthenge P, Obiero M. "The turbidity maximum zone in a shallow, well-flushed Sabaki estuary in Kenya." Journal of Sea Research. 2016;110:17-28.
Kithiia SK, Krhoda G, Wambua BN. "Land Alienation, Livelihood and Integrated Water resources Management Strategy in Tana River County.". In: Tana River County Sustainable Resource Utilization and Environmental Management. Proceedings of the National Scientific Conference on the Tana River county; Nema/Wetlands International/UoN. Mombasa, Kenya; 2014.
Kithiia SM. "A Critical Analysis of the Water Quality Impacts on Water Resources in the Athi River Drainage Basin, Kenya.". In: Water Quaity-Factors and Impacts. Rijeka, Croatia: Intech Publishers; 2021.
Kithiia. "Water Quality Degradation Trends in Kenya over the Last Decade .". In: Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment. Rijeka: Intech Publishers; 2012.
Kithiia SM, Koech RK. "Impacts of Forest Resource Use Conflicts on Conservation Efforts within Enderit Forest Block in Mau Forest Complex, Kenya." European Journal of Geography . 2020;Volume 11(Issue 3,):153-163 .

UoN Websites Search