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Kanyinga K. "How Jubilee coalition is fast losing the plot." Daily Nation, May 9, 2015.
Kanyinga K. "Lessons from nominations." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "From speeches, Uhuru will focus on quick deliverables." Sunday Nation, April 21, 2013.
Kanyinga K. "Why protests are turning violent." Daily Nation, June 4, 2016.
Kanyinga K. "Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State." Special issue of African Development. 2004;XXVIII(1&2).
Kanyinga K. "Good leadership in counties is an important condition for development." Sunday Nation, December 17, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Manifestos rich on promises, vague on delivery strategies." Sunday Nation, July 1, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "We are a country of contradictions; although we ail, we still trudge on." Daily Nation, September 12, 2015.
Kanyinga K. "ICC may change the balance of power in 2012." Sunday Nation, January 8, 2012.
Kanyinga K. "Political Economy of Agriculture Policy Making in Kenya .". In: Preparatory regional research project on political economy of agriculture policies in Africa. Nairobi; 2011.
Kanyinga K. "Grand corruption is back, but no one is willing to rein it in." Daily Nation, January 31, 2015.
Kanyinga. "Devolution and New Politics of Development in Kenya." African Studies Review. 2016;59(3):155-167.
Kanyinga K. "An open letter to governors: How to get quick wins in first three months." Sunday Nation, August 27, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Let's strengthen the rule of law to crush impunity." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2012.
Kanyinga K, Poulton C. "The Politics of Revitalising Agriculture in Kenya." Development Policy Review. 2014;32(S2):151-172.
Kanyinga K. "Barack Obama visit was not by accident; China is just but an illusion." Daily Nation, August 15, 2015.
Kanyinga K, Winnie Mitullah. "The Non-profit Sector in Kenya: What We Know and what We Don't Know." Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies (IDS); 2007.
Kanyinga K, Walkers S. "Building a Political Settlement: The International Approach to Kenya's 2008 Post-Election Crisis." Stability: International Journal of Security and Development. 2013;2(2):1-21.
Kanyinga K. "Election or no election, the country is more polarised than ever before." Sunday Nation, October 21, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Politics and struggles for access to land: ‘grants from above’ and ‘squatters’ in coastal Kenya.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

In Kenya and sub‐Saharan Africa generally, there has been little systematic discussion of post‐colonial struggles for land rights. Studies have ignored the fact that the ‘land question ‘ is not about production alone and have, thus, failed to assess its wider consequences for society. This raises questions about the current socio‐political dimension of the land question and the consequences of the interplay between the ‘land question ‘ and other changes under way in the country. This study addresses these questions by discussing popular struggles of access to land in the coastal region of Kenya where the land question has a distinct political history. The analysis is based on a survey conducted in Kilifi district, Coast provinces, between September 1995 and November 1996.

Kanyinga K. "Why government and NGOs aren’t friends." Sunday Nation, January 15, 2017.
Kanyinga K. Fiscal Stability Conference. Lagos, Nigeria; 2018.
Kanyinga K. "Political Change In Kenya 1991 - 2002.". In: Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Sociodemographic characteristics, care, feeding practices, and growth of cohorts of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. Sherry B, Embree JE, Mei Z, Ndinya-Achola JO, Njenga S, Muchunga ER, Bett J, Plummer FA. Tr.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Oct;5(10):678-86. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "AntiRetroviral Treatment Adherence Among Adolescents.". In: MSc Thesis, University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Z. Muganzi & E. K. Muchunga. Some determinants of infant and child mortality in Kenya. A historical perspective: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol.15 1st December, 1988.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol.15 1st December, 1988. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1988. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Further Mortality declines in Kenya. Critical issues for 1990.". In: Journal of Healthline Vol.2 No. 4 October . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Reviewed a paper entitled ." African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "David F. Sly, Lenoir Becky, Florida University. Elisha K. Muchunga & Zibeon Muganzi, University of Nairobi.Stability and change in Family size Preference among Rural Youth in Kenya Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980.". In: Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1980. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Social Economic and Land use indicators. Chapter 9 pp. 113-132. National Land Degradation assessment and mapping in Kenya. Government of Kenya, Royal Netherlands Government and UNEP 1997.". In: Social Economic and Land use indicators. Chapter 9 pp. 113-132.Government of Kenya, Royal Netherlands Government and UNEP 1997. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "M. A Mwanthi, E. J. Essein, E.K. Muchunga, Y. E. Gamal and J. Austin.The Emerging effects of Industrialization on Health and Environment in Developing countries .". In: Journal of Healthline Vol.5 No 2 April . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 .". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1979. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Z. K. Muganzi & E. K. Muchunga. Some aspects of infant mortality in Kenya since 1948 The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol. 19 No 2 January .". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol. 19 No 2 January . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "S. Yide and T. Groenewegen, Luke's Gospel, Weekly Review.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. ""The Predicament of Man", in Presence, Nairobi, Vol. VI No. 1.".; 1973. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The Place of African Religion and Culture in Kenya's Education in Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. I No. 4.".; 1987. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "H. Odera Oruka, J.B. Ojwang' and J.Mugambi,The Rational Path, Nairobi.".; 1989. Abstract

African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1989

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Jesse Mugambi and N. Kirima, The African Religious Heritage, Nairobi Oxford University Press.".; 1976. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "J.N.K. Mugambi, God Humanity and Nature in Relation to Justice and Peace, Geneva: WCC/Church and Socity Documents, No. 2.".; 1989. Abstract

African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1989

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Edward Norman, Christianity and the World Order, in No. 1, Hekima, Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Nairobi, No. 1,pp. 149-50."; 1980. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Procedure of R.E. Curriculum Development in Kenya, Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. I No. 1.".; 1985. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. ""God Humanity and Nature in Ecumenical Discussion" Church and Society Report, Potsdam.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Ted Groenewegen, R. Githige and J. Mugambi, Christian Religious Education Book 1, Nairobi: Longman.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The African Experience of God, in Africa Thought and Practice, Nairobi, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 49-58.".; 1974. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi.".; 1988. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Research in the African Religious Heritage, Orientation, Nairobi, Vol. 1 No. 1.".; 1975. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "J.N.K. Mugambi, The Biblical Basis of Evangelization, Nairobi: Oxford University Press.".; 1989. Abstract

African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1989

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. ""Christian Response in Dehumanizing Situation", in The Churches Responding to Racism in the 1980s.".; 1980. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Jesse Mugambi, J. Mutiso-Mbinda and J. Vollbrecht, Ecumenical Initiatives in Eastern Africa, Nairobi: AACC/AMECEA, 188 pp.".; 1982. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. ""Justice, Peace and Integrity of Creation in Ecumenical Agenda", ibid.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Priciples and Methods of Teaching the African Heritage, Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. 1 No. 2.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "African Theology, in WSCF Dossier, Geneva, No. 5, pp. 33-49.".; 1974. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The Social Context of Christianity in Colonial and Post Colonial Africa, in Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. III Nos. 1 & 2.".; 1988. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Report of the Consultation on African and Black Theology Greenhill, Accra, Nairobi, AACC."; 1975. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "J.N.K. Mugambi, African Christian Rehology, Nairobi: Heinemann.".; 1989. Abstract

African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1989

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The African Heritage and Contemporary Christianity, Nairobi, Longman.".; 1989. Abstract

The African Heritage and Contemporary Christianity, Nairobi, Longman, 1989

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "African Christian Theology - A Reflection, in Salaam, Journal of the National Association of R.E. Teachers, Nairobi.".; 1981. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1997: Requirements for the Kenya Survey Licence.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1997. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK, 1973:Construction of a Gravity Map, partial fulfilment of B.Sc. Honors in Surveying and Photogrammetry.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1973. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1998: Report on the XXI FIG International Congress held at Brighton, U. K. The Kenya Surveyor Journal Vol. 7 No.1 May/June 1999.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1998. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK, 1977: Geoidal Heights with or without Vertical Angles, Partial fulfilment of M.Sc. Geodesy, University of Oxford.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1999: Implementation of the Sectional Properties Act in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., Musuva, J. K.; Maleche, Z.; Kingoriah, G. K., 1985: Report on the Guidelines for Appointments of Academic Staff in the College of Architecture and Engineering.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1985. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 2000: Agricultural Engineering Profession in the Third Millennium.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1986: The International Cooperation in Geodesy.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1986. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1987: Global Positioning Satellite System.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1996: The Impact of Push-Button Technologies on Surveying and Mapping.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1998: The Impact of GPS Technology on Surveying and Mapping.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1998. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1977: Land Surveying in Electronic Age.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1999: Geomatics in the Third Millennium.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1985: Future Strategies in Surveying and Mapping.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1985. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1999: Geomatics in the Third Millennium.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1986: Surveying Large Ranches in Kenya Using Doppler Satellite Techniques.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1986. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1987: The Revised Surveying Curriculum at the University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1995: Report on FIG/CASLE Technical Seminar, The Kenya Surveyor Journal Vol. 4 No. 2 March/April 1996.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1997: The Role of the Institution of Surveyors of Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1997. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK, de Souza, H. Kateregga J.K, Maleche Z.,Report on the Collaboration of IRCU and FPO, College of Architecture and Engineering.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1998: The Impact of Global Positioning System on Surveying and Mapping.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1998. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 2002: Business Management for Surveyors.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1981. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1999: Current Land Laws Governing Land Planning and Title Surveys in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1986: Technical Report on the Fourth International Geodetic Symposium on Satellite Positioning, Austin, Texas.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1986. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1987: Technical Report on the 1987 Conference of Commonwealth Surveyors, Cambridge, U.K.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1990: Surveying and Mapping Towards the Year 2000 and Beyond.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
Kanyugo MS, Ozwara HS, Mutahi WT, Yole DS. "Parasitological and Immunopathological Responses Balb/C Mice with Concomitant Schistosoma Mansoni and Plasmodium Berghei Infections." The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2009;vol. 5(No. 2).
Kaoga J, Ouma G, Olago D, Ouma G. "The Evidence of Changing Rainfall Patterns in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2018;7(6):223-228. Abstract137075-327682-1-pb.pdfWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists have in the past decade experienced disruptions as precipitation season shifts. These shifts have adversely affected their economies and livelihoods. Moreover, they have been losing up to 30 % of their herd annually to drought related disasters, yet the locals’ capacity on climate pattern shifts is inadequate. To address this gap, a study focused on Kajiado County due to its harboring large of livestock. The study aimed at determining the historical precipitation characteristics. To achieve this, the study utilized Climate Hazards group Infra-Red Precipitation with Stations data set (CHIRPS) for the period 1983-2014 for each of the five sub-counties within Kajiado County. The key findings, encompassed: declining trend in the average annual precipitation; shifting from the usual bi-modal rainfall seasons with March to May (MAM) experiencing worst failure compared to October to December (OND) and the shortening of the famine cycles.

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Long-term spatial-temporal temperature characteristics of a pastoral ecosystem in Kajiado County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(6):896-906.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractenieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

Kaoga J, Ouma G, Olago D, Ouma G. "The shrinking grazing fields of the Maasai land under the changing climate system in Kajiado County, Kenya. International Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development.". 2018. Abstract137075-327682-1-pb.pdfWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists have in the last decade experienced disruptions in their economies and livelihoods following climate shifts. For instance, they have been losing up to 30 % of their herd annually to drought related disasters, yet information on the various land uses is still fragmented. This has been worsened by the shortening famine cycles which has impacted pastoral livelihood system as they highly depend on natural resource. Yet, these key resources have been dwindling over the past 30 years compromising their ability to meet basic need such as food. To address this gap, the study focused on long term evaluation of land use. The study’s objective was to determine land use transformations and their impacts particularly on the pastoral livelihood system.

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "The evolving cultural values and their implications on the Maasai Pastoralists, Kajiado County, Kenya.". 2021;13:e00881. AbstractWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists inhabiting Kajiado County have been known for their rich cultural values which have sustained their livelihoods. However, these cultural practices are evolving under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming more prevalent. Before these disturbances, customary land was available for the Maasai pastoralists to carry out traditional production systems. The disturbance in their social-cultural ways following land fragmentation has rendered their traditional governance system untenable. Moreover, the Maasai pastoralists have been dispossessed from their customary land and social institutions which have shaped their customs. Thus, concerns have been raised over the sustenance of pastoralism considering that the required resources are either unavailable or not enough. To address this gap, there was the need to understand cultural adjustments and their impacts on the Maasai pastoralists’ societal needs. The study employed a cross-sectional design which consisted of 195 Household survey questionnaires, 8 Focus Group Discussions and 18 Key Informant Interviews. The qualitative and quantitative data from the study were summarized and thematic perceptions generated. The results of this study revealed the uniqueness of the Maasai pastoralists’ traditional social structures. Also highlighted by the study was the erosion of the traditional social relations exposing the Maasai pastoralists to increasing vulnerability. These findings support the need for external support to supplement the traditional coping strategies to balance the ecological, social and economic systems of the Maasai pastoralists.

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractnieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "). Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186 .
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "The evolving cultural values and their implications on the Maasai Pastoralists, Kajiado County, Kenya." Scientific African. 2021;13(ISSN 2468-2276).
Kaoga J, Ouma GO, Abuom P. "The Effects of Farm Pesticides on Water Bird Numbers in Lake Naivasha, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources. 2013;2(7):203-209. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

Lake Naivasha and its environs usually experience increased levels of pesticide application due to the rapid increase in acreage under flower production in the catchment. Previous studies have shown detectable levels of organo-chlorines residues; which is an indication of contamination. Organochlorines persist in the environment and bio accumulates in the body tissue of living organisms while, the organophosphates which have been adopted as an alternatives are highly toxic. Such occurrences are linked to the declining trends in water bird numbers witnessed earlier. The objectives of the present study were to determine pesticide residue concentrations of organophosphates and organo-chlorines and determine their effects on water bird numbers. The Lake was subjected to a cross-sectional study between the months of February to July, 2011. The sampling sites were selected on the basis of their uniqueness in the nature of discharge released into the Lake. There was no mathematical formula applied to calculate sample size, due to the discrete nature of variables. The water bird counts were recorded on Microsoft excel spread sheet and subjected to analysis while applying statistical package of social science (SPPS) using one way ANOVA at p<0.05. The study showed an upward trend in the
water bird numbers while Gas Liquid Chromatography technique showed non detectable limits for the targeted analytes. These results were good signs indicative of the Lake being on its pathway to restoration to the previous state of non-contamination. The study further, recommends that the government through its enforcement agencies should continue to carry out regular inspections on the ongoing human activities in the Lake and its environs to prevent sporadic contamination and discourage any further discharge of contaminants into the Lake. Moreover, this will enable the government to generate useful information for decision making purpose as they formulate policy framework for the protection, conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources.
Key words: Organophosphates, organo-chlorines, Gas Liquid Chromatography, contamination.

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186.
Kaoki SM, Kariuki L, Owiti PO, Takarinda KC, Kizito W, Edwards JK, Ogutu O, Waqo E. "Intermittent Preventive treatment and Bed nets pregnant uptake among women in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Kara, A.M., Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Lecturer Quality in Public Universities in Kenya." European Journal of Education Studies. 2020;7(10).
Kara AM, Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Educational Service Quality and Students’ Satisfaction in Public Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Social Science . 2016;3:37-48.kara.pdf
Kara, A.M., Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Quality of Academic Resources and Students’ Satisfaction in Public Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2016;15(10):130-146.kara1.pdf
Karama M, Kambuyi K, Beniamino T, Ombui JN, Etter E, Kalake A. "Occurrence and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter upsaliensis in Beef Cattle on Cow–Calf Operations in South Africa." Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2019.2703. 2020.
Karama M, Beniamino T, Prosperi AC, Etter E, El-Ashram S, Ombui JN, McCrindle C, Karake A. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with campylobacter spp occurrence in healthy dogs visiting four rural community veterinary clinics in South Africa." Ondersport Journal of Veterinary Research,. 2019;86(1):a1673.
Karamshetty V, DeVries H, Wassenhove LVN, Dewilde S, Minnaard W, Ongarora D, Abuga K, Yadav P. "Inventory Management Practices in Private Healthcare Facilities in Nairobi County." Prod. Oper. Manag.. 2021;31(2):828-846. Abstract

Universal health coverage (UHC) is an integral part of the United Nations sustainable development goals. The private sector plays a prominent role in achieving UHC, being the primary source of essential medicines for many people. However, many private healthcare facilities in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) have insu_cient stocks of essential medicines. At the same time, these same facilities carry excessive quantities of certain drugs, leading to obsolescence. This suggests poor inventory control. To propose potential remedies it is vital to fully understand the underlying causes. In semi‐structured interviews with managers of private healthcare facilities in Nairobi, we asked them about their 1) inventory control systems, 2) inventory control skills, 3) time/human resource constraints, 4) budget constraints, 5) motivations for inventory control, and 6) suppliers. Our results suggest that the problems are driven by resource limitations (budget and time/human resources), managerial issues (relating to skills and systems), and market mechanisms that limit overage and underage costs. Unavailability at the supplier level and motivations for inventory control are relatively minor issues. We posit that the key causes are interlinked and stem from wider issues in the market and regulatory environment. Our results challenge prevalent beliefs about medicine supply chains in LMICs and lead to alternative hypotheses. Testing these hypotheses could improve our understanding of inventory management in private healthcare facilities and aid progress in achieving UHC.

Karani PF. "Opportunities and Constraints in teacher training.". In: Coordination of primary teacher training and University education. Multimedia University of Kenya, Mbagathi, Nairobi.; 2009.
Karani PF. "Position paper on Academic Staff Management in the University of Nairobi.". In: Institutional Management in Higher Education. Quatre-Bornes, Republic of Mauritius ; 1993.
Karani PF. "Conceptual Understanding and Current Policies and practice in Open Learning and Distance Education.". In: Education Consultative Forum on Open Learning and Distance Education (OL & DE). Windsor Country Club ; 2004.
Karani P. "“Kenya’s use of the Distance Education Mode of delivery to meet various educational needs”. ." Pan African Colloquium: Educational Innovation in Post Colonial Africa . 1995:18.
Karani A, Kigondu C, Karani A. "Research Activities in teaching and referral Hospital in a Developing Country, Kenya." International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP). 2013;1(1):21-24.
Karani PF. "Programme Planning and Implementation.". In: Women’s Workshop in Gambia. Gambia; 1984.
Karani PF. "Adult and Continuing Education in Kenya.". In: National Symposium on Adult and Continuing Education (ACE) in Kenya. Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Nairobi. Kenya.; 2003.
Karani PF. "Capacity Building and Women Empowerment, Towards realization of Kenya Vision 2030.". In: sensitisation of the public on the modernization of the public service Towards Realization of Kenya Vision 2030.; 2009.
Karani PF. "The Role of Women’s Bureau within an Institution of Higher Learning.". In: The Role of Women’s Bureau within an Institution of Higher Learning. Kabarnet Hotel, Kenya; 1996.
Karani A. K, Kazuko N JKWTSTP. "Strengthening masters of community health nursing in Kenya." Kenya Nursing journal. 2008;33(2).
Karanja NK, Kimenju JM, Esilaba AO, Jefwa, J., Ayuke FO. "Legume based cropping and soil biodiversity dynamics.". In: In: Bationo, A., Waswa, B., Okeyo, J.M., Maina, F., Kihara, J., Mokwunye, U (Eds), Fighting Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Multiple Roles of Legumes in Integrated Soil Fertility Management, 4:67-83. Springer Publishers; 2011. Abstract

The soil is home to an enormous diversity of organisms, many of which are benefi cial, while a small and equally diverse proportion contains harmful organisms. Legume cropping and husbandry practices impact negatively or positively on diversity. These changes in biodiversity may be quantitative and/or qualitative.
Sustainable management of diversity in soils involves an ecosystem approach which encourages the establishment of equilibria between the organisms in the soil. It is evident that the diversity of benefi cial organisms in the soil can be harnessed to improve and sustain crop productivity with minimal external inputs. Legumes will continue to play a central role in the supply of plant nutrients and in the establishment of a self-regulating ecosystem which is based on a diverse range of organisms.

Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja, N.K, Wachira, P.M, Muthomi, J.W, Phiri, I.K., Mutegi, C.K, Nzioki, H.S, Gikaru, A.K, Kanampiu F, Wagacha, J.M. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013.
Karanja NK, Wood M. "Selecting Rhizobium Phaseoli Strains For Use With Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) In Kenya . I. Ineffectiveness And Tolerance Of Acidity And Aluminium.". 1988. Abstract

Forty one strains of Rhizobium phaseoli were screened for the ability to multiply at high temperatures on yeast extract-mannitol agar. Most strains were tolerant of 30°C, eight strains were tolerant of 45°C and two of 47°C although the rate of multiplication was reduced at 45–47°C. The high temperature-tolerant strains were isolated from Kenyan soils and were fast-growing. Seven of the eight strains tolerant of 45–47°C lost their infectiveness after incubation at high temperature but four strains tolerant of 40°C remained infective after incubation at that temperature. Thirty six strains were resistant to 200 μg ml−1 streptomycin sulphate and 29 strains to 200 μg ml−1 spectinomycin dihydrochloride. Eight strains were resistant to both antibiotics each at 200 μg ml−1. Two of the double-labelled antibiotic-resistant mutants lost their infectiveness onPhaseolus vulgaris. The response to acidity was unaltered and two of the mutants showed a decrease in temperature tolerance. The doublelabelled mutants were recoverable from two Kenyan soils.

Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wandera JG;, Njomo. "Common Gastrointestinal Parasites In Donkeys In Kenya.".; 1993.
Karanja J, Mutung A, A. Kihara, Ndavi P, Kamau K. "Introducing pre-service training in comprehensive abortion care (CAC) in a situation of restrictive law ." International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;107(S2): S93-S396.
Karanja J, Amugune NO, Ininda, J., Kimatu JN, Danson JW. "Microsatellite analysis of the correlation between molecular and morphological traits in assorted maize inbred lines. ." African Crop Science Journal. 2009;17(3):133-144.
Karanja FN, Alegana VA, Musyoka SM. "The Use of GIS and Remote Sensing in mapping malaria prevalence: Case Study of Bondo and Kisii Districts, in Nyanza Province, Kenya. ." International Journal of Spatial Health. 2009;111(12):342-354.
Karanja F, et al. "Once Burned, Twice Shy.". In: Once Burned, Twice Shy. United Nations University; 2001.
Karanja DN, Wahome RG, Kunyanga CN, Onyango CM. "Perceptions and Attitudes of Academic Staff Towards Agricultural Training in Kenyan Universities." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2019;7(4):375-386.
Karanja LW, Wachira PM, Muthomi JW, Phiri NA, Mutegi CK, Kanampiu F, J.M.Wagacha, Nzioka HS, Gikaru AK, Mahuku G, Karanja DK, Otieno W. "Influence of weather on the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi at pre-harvest stage of maize value chain in Makueni, Kenya.". In: African Symposium on Mycotoxicology. Livingstone , Zambia; 2015.
Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Gathumbi JK. "Edema Disease Of Swine: A Major Disease Problem In Kenya. .".; 2002.
Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wabacha JK;, Bebora LC. "The Sensitivity And Specificity Of Clinical Signs, Post-mortem Findings And Isolation Of Escherichia Coli In Diagnosing Edema Disease Of Swine."; 2008. Abstract

Commonly used diagnost ic techniques for edema disease in Kenya were tested for their sensitivity and specificity on 84 pig carcasses submitted to Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology between June 2004 and June 2007. Clinical signs gathered from anamnesis, post - mortem lesions revealed at autopsy and E. coli isolated from intestinal contents and characterized using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reacti on were compared using receiver - operating characteristic analyses. A combination of clinical signs, post - mortem findings and isolation of E. coli carrying F18 and shiga - toxin type II variant genes were used as gold standard test. Forty nine (58.3%) cases w ere diagnosed as edema disease, based on clinical signs and post - mortem findings . Of these, thirty eight (77.6%) had variable amounts of edema in various body si tes and clinically, twenty six (53.1%) had neurological signs, 18 (36.7%) were found dead, 3 ( 6.1%) had swollen eyelids and 2 (4.1%) expressed respiratory distress. Hemolytic E. coli carrying the tested genes were isolated from thirty one (62.2%) of these cases. Presence of edema in various body cavities and observation of defined clinical signs h ad 75.3% and 57.4% sensitivity, respectively. Considered individually, the sensitivity was 64.7% for found dead, 50% for neurological signs and 84.4% for isolating hemolytic E. coli. All had a specificity of 81.3%. The results show that none of the diagnos tic techniques had the expected 100% sensitivity and specificity, but isolation of hemolytic E. coli may be an important screening test for suspected edema disease cases

Karanja NK;, Kimenju JW;, Macharia I;, Muiru DM. "Integrated Management Of Plant-parasitic Nematodes In Maize-bean Cropping Systems."; 2002. Abstract

A field study to determine the distribution and population densities of plant parasitic nematodes associated with beans was undertaken in Kakamega, Kiambu, Machakos and Siaya districts of Kenya. Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were the most predominant endoparasites, occurring in 86 and 61% of the root samples, respectively. Ectoparasitic nematodes in the genera Scutellonema and Helicotylenchus were recovered in 86 and 59% of the soil samples, respectively. Field experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of organic amendments (chicken manure, compost, neem leaves, baobab remains and farm yard manure) in the control of root-knot nematodes. The amendments showed varying levels of nematode suppression with chicken manure being rated as the most effective with galling index of 2.4 while sisal wastes were least effective with galling index of 5.1. Another study was undertaken to determine the reaction of 35 bean genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita. Ten genotypes were rated as susceptible while 3 and 22 genotypes were rated as resistant and moderately resistant, respectively. The potential of different Bacillus isolates to suppress galling by root knot nematodes in beans was investigated using sterile sand in Leonard jars under greenhouse conditions. The isolates had varying effect with the majority (93%) of the isolates causing a reduction in root galling when compared to the control (water). Twelve percent of the isolates were more effective than carbofuran (nematicide). In another greenhouse experiment investigating the interaction between Bacillus spp. and Rhizobium strain inoculations using N-free sterile sand, 4 out of the 20 Bacillus isolates significantly promoted nodulation in bean plants.

Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja DN, Ngatia TA, Wabacha JK, Bebora LC, Nganga CJ. "Pathogenic effects associated with natural gastrointestinal helminth infections in pigs in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2011;59:53-59.6_karanja_et_al_2011.pdf
Karanja J. "Misoprostol: the little pill that can avert thousands of women’sdeaths and disabilities." J. Obst Gynaecol East Cent Afr . 2008;20, (1,): i-ii.
Karanja NK, Kahindi JHP. "Agrotechnological Transfer Of Legume Inoculants In Eastern And Southern Africa.". 2002. Abstract

Legumes are an important component of smallholder farming systems in Eastern and Southern Africa and efforts are underway to improve legume yields and symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) for replenishment of N depleted soils. Seed inoculation with rhizobia is recommended and solid formulations are produced in Kenya, Uganda...

Karanja NK, Mutua GK, Ayuke FO, Njenga M, Prain G, Kimenju J. "Dynamics of soil nematodes and earthworms in urban vegetable irrigated with wastewater in the Nairobi River Basin, Kenya." Journal of Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2010;12:521-530. Abstract

The effects of heavy metals lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Cromium (Cr) on nematode communities and earthworm density and biomass were studied in the wastewater irrigated farms of the Nairobi river basin. The levels of Cr and Pb in the wastewater were below the threshold values considered to be toxic while those of Cd exceeded the permissible limit. Heavy metal accumulation in soils in the Kibera and Maili Saba farms were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1), Cr (9.7 mg kg-1) and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1) and 98.7 mg Cd kg-1, 4.0 mg Cr kg-1 and 74.3 mg Pb kg-1, respectively. High heavy metal concentrations as well as soil organic matter were negatively correlated with plant feeding nematodes in the genera Criconema, Meloidogyne, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus and Scutellonema. Bacterial feeding nematodes genera Rhabditis, Plectus, Cephalobus and Acrobeles were predominant in the gardens treated with wastewater. An average density of 198 m-2 earthworms and a biomass of 68 g m-2 and 102 earthworms m-2 with 33g m-2 biomass were recorded in Kibera and Maili Saba, respectively. The earthworms isolated from both sites were all epigeic with the metal content in Maili Saba suppressing their populations. This study has demonstrated that the use of untreated urban wastewater for irrigation has adverse effects on nematode and earthworm abundance and diversity and their potential as bioindicators of heavy metal presence.
Key words: Heavy metal accumulation; soil fauna; diversity

Karanja BW, Obura HO, Masinde P, Wamalwa D. "Risk Factors for Hearing Loss in Children following Bacterial Meningitis in a Tertiary Referral Hospital.". 2013. Abstractrisk_factors_for_hearing_loss_in_children_following_bacterial.pdf

This study aimed to examine hearing function in children admitted with bacterial meningitis to determine the risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss. Setting. The study was conducted in the audiology unit and paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects and Methods. The study involved 83 children between the ages of six months and twelve years admitted with bacterial meningitis. The median age for the children examined was 14. On discharge they underwent hearing testing to evaluate for presence and degree of hearing loss. Results. Thirty six of the 83 children (44.4%) were found to have at least a unilateral mild sensorineural hearing loss during initial audiologic testing. Of the children with hearing loss, 22 (26.5%) had mild or moderate sensorineural hearing loss and 14 (16.9%) had severe or profound sensorineural hearing loss. Significant determinants identified for hearing loss included coma score below eight, seizures, cranial nerve neuropathy, positive CSF culture, and fever above 38.7 degrees Celsius. Conclusions. Sensorineural hearing loss was found to be highly prevalent in children treated for bacterial meningitis. There is need to educate healthcare providers on aggressive management of coma, fever, and seizures due to their poor prognostic value on hearing.

Karanja JG;, Waweru MM;, Ojwang SB;, Kingondu CS;, Kamau RK;, Waweru W. A Review Paper of the Cervical Cytology Diagnosis Services at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Laboratories.; 2007. Abstract

Invasive cancer of the cervix is considered a preventable disease because cancers develop slowly through per-cancerous changes to invasive cancer in about 10 - 15 years. Pap smear screening for the early detection of cancer of the cervix contributes to early successful treatment

Karanja NK, Kimenju JM, Esilaba AO, Jefwa J, Ayuke F. "Legume Based Cropping and Soil Biodiversity Dynamics.". In: Springer Science+Business Media B.V.; 2011:. Abstract

The soil is home to an enormous diversity of organisms, many of which
are beneficial, while a small and equally diverse proportion contains harmful organisms.
Legume cropping and husbandry practices impact negatively or positively on
diversity. These changes in biodiversity may be quantitative and/or qualitative.
Sustainable management of diversity in soils involves an ecosystem approach which
encourages the establishment of equilibria between the organisms in the soil. It is
evident that the diversity of beneficial organisms in the soil can be harnessed to
improve and sustain crop productivity with minimal external inputs. Legumes will
continue to play a central role in the supply of plant nutrients and in the establishment
of a self-regulating ecosystem which is based on a diverse range of
organisms.

Karanja LW, Wachira PM, Muthomi JW, Phiri NA, Mutegi CK, Nzioki HS, Gikaru AK, Kanampiu F, J.M W. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013;Accepted.
Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Gathumbi JK. "Edema Disease Of Swine: A Major Disease Problem In Kenya. .".; 2002.
Karanja NK,; Kimenju JW;, Macharia I;, Muiru DM. "Integrated Management Of Plant-parasitic Nematodes In Maize-bean Cropping Systems."; 2002. Abstract

A field study to determine the distribution and population densities of plant parasitic nematodes associated with beans was undertaken in Kakamega, Kiambu, Machakos and Siaya districts of Kenya. Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were the most predominant endoparasites, occurring in 86 and 61% of the root samples, respectively. Ectoparasitic nematodes in the genera Scutellonema and Helicotylenchus were recovered in 86 and 59% of the soil samples, respectively. Field experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of organic amendments (chicken manure, compost, neem leaves, baobab remains and farm yard manure) in the control of root-knot nematodes. The amendments showed varying levels of nematode suppression with chicken manure being rated as the most effective with galling index of 2.4 while sisal wastes were least effective with galling index of 5.1. Another study was undertaken to determine the reaction of 35 bean genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita. Ten genotypes were rated as susceptible while 3 and 22 genotypes were rated as resistant and moderately resistant, respectively. The potential of different Bacillus isolates to suppress galling by root knot nematodes in beans was investigated using sterile sand in Leonard jars under greenhouse conditions. The isolates had varying effect with the majority (93%) of the isolates causing a reduction in root galling when compared to the control (water). Twelve percent of the isolates were more effective than carbofuran (nematicide). In another greenhouse experiment investigating the interaction between Bacillus spp. and Rhizobium strain inoculations using N-free sterile sand, 4 out of the 20 Bacillus isolates significantly promoted nodulation in bean plants.

Karanja P, Mbugua L, Riungu J, Mulaku M, Okalebo F. "Time series analysis of consumption and short term forecasting of female contraceptives in the Kenyan public health sector." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2020;9(1):9-17.
Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Swift MJ. "Organic Resource Quality and Soil Fauna: Their role on the microbial Biomass, Decomposition and nutrient release patterns in Kenya Soils ." Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2006;6:73-83. Abstract

Five organic resources commonly used for soil fertility maintenance in large parts of Kenya were selected for litter decay and nutrient mineralization studies that were conducted in three farms (Machakos, Kabete and Njabini) located at an elevational transect ranging from 1500 to 2800 m above sea level. These organic residues included: bean trash, maize stover, tree prunnings (Grevillea robusta), Senna spectabilis foliage, cow and poultry manures. Organic residues were either mulched or incorporated in the soil. Satellite experiments were also carried out in each of the three sites with one additional site at Maseno based in western Kenya. These experiments aimed at assessing the role of soil biota in the decomposition
and nutrient release. Soil fauna were excluded from control plots using 1-mm mesh litterbags. The organic residues were different in chemical composition i.e. nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), carbon (C), lignin (L) and polyphenol (PP) contents, which in turn influenced their rate of decomposition and nutrient release patterns. Bean trash decomposed and released N and P faster than either the maize stover or Grevillea prunings. The slowest rate of decomposition observed for Grevillea prunings could be attributed to the high lignin content (24%). The N release was influenced by (L+PP):N ratio. Bean trash having a ratio of 10 released N faster than either maize stover or Grevillea prunings whose respective ratios of 20 and 13. P release was influenced by both C:P and N:P ratios. Maize stover with C:P and N:P ratios that were higher than the critical levels of 123 and 10 respectively, mineralized and released P more slowly than either bean trash or Grevillea prunings. Incorporated materials decomposed and released nutrients faster than surface applied materials. For surface applied organic materials, the delay in litter decay ranged from 4.1 to 4.4 days for every 100 m increase in altitude, while for incorporated materials the delay in litter decay ranged from 1 to 3 days per 100 m increase in elevation. This implies that farmers at higher elevations would benefit more by incorporating residues before planting, while at low elevations post emergence surface application would lead to improved nutrient availability. Njabini and Kabete recorded significantly higher microbial biomass (C, N and P) than Machakos. This could be linked to the higher organic C, higher total N, higher moisture content but lower temperatures reported for Njabini and Kabete than Machakos. Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues, although their role in influencing nutrient availability to crops from the organic residues may depend on the nature of the material. Fauna had no significant influence on nutrient release patterns of Senna possibly due to secondary compounds present in Senna, which were lower than the critical levels of 15 for lignin and 4 for polyphenol respectively.

Key words: Resource quality, placement, soil fauna, decomposition, nutrient release, microbial biomass

Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wabacha JK;, Bebora LC. "The Sensitivity And Specificity Of Clinical Signs, Post-mortem Findings And Isolation Of Escherichia Coli In Diagnosing Edema Disease Of Swine.".; 2008. Abstract

Commonly used diagnost ic techniques for edema disease in Kenya were tested for their sensitivity and specificity on 84 pig carcasses submitted to Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology between June 2004 and June 2007. Clinical signs gathered from anamnesis, post - mortem lesions revealed at autopsy and E. coli isolated from intestinal contents and characterized using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reacti on were compared using receiver - operating characteristic analyses. A combination of clinical signs, post - mortem findings and isolation of E. coli carrying F18 and shiga - toxin type II variant genes were used as gold standard test. Forty nine (58.3%) cases w ere diagnosed as edema disease, based on clinical signs and post - mortem findings . Of these, thirty eight (77.6%) had variable amounts of edema in various body si tes and clinically, twenty six (53.1%) had neurological signs, 18 (36.7%) were found dead, 3 ( 6.1%) had swollen eyelids and 2 (4.1%) expressed respiratory distress. Hemolytic E. coli carrying the tested genes were isolated from thirty one (62.2%) of these cases. Presence of edema in various body cavities and observation of defined clinical signs h ad 75.3% and 57.4% sensitivity, respectively. Considered individually, the sensitivity was 64.7% for found dead, 50% for neurological signs and 84.4% for isolating hemolytic E. coli. All had a specificity of 81.3%. The results show that none of the diagnos tic techniques had the expected 100% sensitivity and specificity, but isolation of hemolytic E. coli may be an important screening test for suspected edema disease cases

Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja, N.K, Wachira, P.M, Muthomi, J.W, Phiri, I.K., Mutegi, C.K, Nzioki, H.S, Gikaru, A.K, Kanampiu. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya.". In: 13th ARI Conference: Agricultural innovation system for improved productivity and competitiveness in pursuit of vision 2030”. KARI HQs; 2012.
Karanja BW, Oburra HO, Masinde P, Dalton Wamalwa. "Prevalence of hearing loss in children following bacterial meningitis in a tertiary referral hospital." BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:138. Abstract

This study aimed to examine hearing function in a group of children aged between the ages of six months and twelve years admitted with bacterial meningitis so as to determine the prevalence and degree of sensorineural hearing loss in them. This prospective study was conducted in the audiology unit and paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital, KNH.

Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Muya EM, Musombi BK, Nyamasyo GHN. "Soil macrofauna community structure across land use systems of Taita, Kenya." Journal of Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2009;11(2):385-396. Abstract

This paper presents data on diversity and abundance of soil macrofauna in various land use systems in Taita (natural forest, plantation forest, fallow, coffee, napier, and maize, Horticulture. Each was sampled for
macrofauna using three sampling methods (monolith, transect and pitfall trapping). Seventy eight (78)
genera/species were recorded across the different land use systems of Taita. Rényi diversity profile indicated
no significant differences in species richness across land use systems as reflected by the very close
diversity profiles at α = 0. However, the two diversity indices (Shannon index: α = 1 and Simpson’s index: α
= 2) indicated that plantation forest was the most diverse of the land use systems, while fallow and maize were least diverse. Rényi evenness profile indicated that the plantation forest was most even in terms of species distribution which was least in maize. However because some of the profiles for some land
use systems cross each other, they could not be ranked. The major macrofauna groups recorded in the Taita
benchmark site included: Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Coleoptera, Oligochaeta and Orthoptera and Arenae.
Generally Hymenoptera were the most abundant of the macrofauna groups constituting about 36% of the total followed by Isoptera (22%), Oligochaeta (16%), Coleoptera (10%). The other macrofauna (Arenae,
Diplopoda, Diptera, Orthoptera, Blattidae, Isopoda, Chilopoda- Geopholomorpha, Hemiptera, Opiliones,Chiopoda-Scolopendromorpha, Lepidoptera, Dermaptera, Phasmidae, Blattelidae and Mantodea
each constituted <10% of the total macrofauna recorded. Hymenoptera was ranked 1st as it had the
highest total abundance (59,440 individuals m-2), while Mantodea was ranked 18th and had the lowest total
abundance (6 individuals m-2). Generally macrofauna density was higher in arable systems than forests,
although the differences were not always significant. Except for Chilopoda-Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda-
Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda, all the other macroafauna groups were not significantly different
across land use systems. The three groups (Chilopoda-Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda- Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda) were significantly highest in the forests than in all the other land use systems. These variation
appear to be associated with management practices that consequently results in the destruction of nesting
habitats, modification of soil microclimate within these habitats and removal of substrate, low diversity
and availability of food sources for the associated macrofauna groups. The significant correlations between some soil macrofauna groups with selected soil chemical properties too show that, soil chemical characteristics may indirectly play a role in influencing the density, distribution and structure of macrofauna
communities. This indicates the potential of using these fauna groups as bio-indicators of soil productivity.

Key words: Macrofauna; community structure; diversity; abundance; land use systems.

Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja BW, Oburra HO, Masinde P, Wamalwa D. "Risk Factors for Hearing Loss in Children following Bacterial Meningitis in a Tertiary Referral Hospital.". 2013. Abstractrisk_factors_for_hearing_loss_in_children_following_bacterial.pdf

This study aimed to examine hearing function in children admitted with bacterial meningitis to determine the risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss. Setting. The study was conducted in the audiology unit and paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects and Methods. The study involved 83 children between the ages of six months and twelve years admitted with bacterial meningitis. The median age for the children examined was 14. On discharge they underwent hearing testing to evaluate for presence and degree of hearing loss. Results. Thirty six of the 83 children (44.4%) were found to have at least a unilateral mild sensorineural hearing loss during initial audiologic testing. Of the children with hearing loss, 22 (26.5%) had mild or moderate sensorineural hearing loss and 14 (16.9%) had severe or profound sensorineural hearing loss. Significant determinants identified for hearing loss included coma score below eight, seizures, cranial nerve neuropathy, positive CSF culture, and fever above 38.7 degrees Celsius. Conclusions. Sensorineural hearing loss was found to be highly prevalent in children treated for bacterial meningitis. There is need to educate healthcare providers on aggressive management of coma, fever, and seizures due to their poor prognostic value on hearing.

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