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Gatumu J.C., Origa J.O. ME. "Kenya preschool curriculum on environmental conservation by young children." International Journal of Early Childhood Education and Care. 2012;Vo. 1.(ISSN 2289-3156):1-14.
Gatune JW, Nyamongo IK. "An Ethnographic Study of Cervical Cancer Among Women in Rural Kenya: Is there a Folk Causal Model? International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, Vol. 15: 1049-1059.". In: Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1049-59. Wiley Interscience; 2005. Abstract

This article assesses knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer among rural women of Kenya. One hundred and sixty women (mean age 37.9 years) who sought various health care services at Tigoni subdistrict hospital, Limuru, Kenya, were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. In addition, three focus group discussions (25 participants) were held, five case narratives recorded, and a free list of cervical cancer risk factors obtained from a group of 41 women respondents. All women were aged between 20 and 50 years. About 40% knew cervical cancer, although many still lack factual information. A history of sexually transmitted diseases (61.5%), multiple sexual partners (51.2%), and contraceptive use (33%) were identified as risk factors. Other factors mentioned include smoking, abortion, and poor hygiene standards. High parity, early sexual debut, and pregnancy were not readily mentioned as risk factors. We propose a folk causal model to explain the link between these factors and cervical cancer. Lack of knowledge constrains utilization of screening services offered at the clinics. Consequently, respondents support educating women as a way to tackling issues on cervical cancer. It is recommended that an integrated reproductive health program that addresses comprehensively women's health concerns be put in place.

Gaudence N, Aimable N, MBUYA TO, Mose BR. "Effect of Fe, Mn and Sr on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Secondary Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloys." Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. 2019;8(5):284-289. Abstracthttp://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV8IS050281

This paper presents results on the effect of Sr, Fe and combined additions of Fe and Mn on the microstructure and tensile properties of a secondary Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. The microstructure features of base alloy consisted mainly of a structure with primary Al-matrix, coarse acicular Si particles and intermetallic phases such as Al2Cu and AlCuNi. When 0.02%Sr was added to the base alloy, coarse acicular Si particles were modified to a fine fibrous form. With addition of 0.38%Fe, results in the formation of large eutectic silicon particles and Fe rich intermetallic. Moreover, when 0.45%Mn was added in combination with 0.9%Fe, the Al2Cu, and -AlFeMnSi with Chinese script morphology were identified. It is noticed that after T6 heat treatment, the Si particles are seen to spheroidize and fragment while the Al2Cu phases dissolve completely. These changes lead to improved mechanical performance of the alloy. The addition of strontium decreases the ultimate Tensile strength and increases percent elongation while addition of low iron and iron with manganese decreases UTS and percent elongation in the as cast condition. T6 heat treatment increases the ultimate tensile strength while ductility decreases due to the fragmentation and spheroidization of eutectic silicon particles.

Gaudensia Mutua, Gloria Omosa HPPBDLPAJL, Pat Fast, Jill Gilmour OABF. "Uptake and tolerability of repeated mucosal specimen collection in two Phase 1 AIDS preventive vaccine trials in Kenya." Retrovirology . 2012;9(Suppl 2):122.
Gausset Q, Nathan I. "Why combine private and communal tree management? A case-study based in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania).". 2007. Abstract

Despite the focus on the importance of trees in Africa and the many projects that try to improve their management, there is very little research and few development projects which address tree related problems in a holistic manner. With respect to forest management arrangements, focus tends to be either exclusively on community forestry, or on private tree planting. Such a divided focus makes it difficult to understand the complementarities and possible synergetic effects of these two approaches in solving common problems and improving local livelihoods. The present article argues that interdisciplinary projects are needed to develop a holistic approach to tree management and to improve the use of trees. This argument builds on the results from the PETREA (People, Trees and Agriculture) research programme in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania). In this village, private and collective tree management is characterized by very different uses, opportunities and problems. Common woodlands play an important role in providing villagers with Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) from indigenous species that are important for local livelihoods as they provide food, medicine, and grazing areas. The constraints linked to the management of common woodlands pertain to group dynamics and resemble, at first glance, a “tragedy of the commons” as described by Hardin (1968). Private tree planting, on the other hand, provides both local services (including providing fruits, firewood or securing boundaries between fields) and cash from the selling of poles. The constraints characterizing private tree management are linked to land-tenure, tree seedling cost and season for planting. Land tenure is of paramount importance as trees cannot be planted on borrowed or rented land, or at the expense of cropland needed to sustain the household. The season for planting seedlings is a constraint because of a conflict with labour demands for crops needed to survive. Despite being characterized by very different uses and constraints, the management of private and common trees also share common constraints as both require that grazing is under control and that there exist clear rules and efficient institutions able to solve management conflicts. Both types of management should therefore be analyzed together as improving one can help relieve the pressure on the other.

Gausset Q, Andersen SK, Hansen HH, Lund JF, Mugasha AG, Nathan I, Theilade I. "Opportunities and constraints for private and communal tree management in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania).". 2007.
Gavamukulya Y, Maina EN, Wamunyokoli F, Meroka AM, Madivoli ES, El-Shemy HA, Magoma G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles from Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Annona muricata: A Green Nanobiotechnology Approach." Biotechnol. J. Int. 2019;4:1-18. Abstract
n/a
Gavamukulya Y, El-Shemy HA, Meroka AM, Madivoli ES, Maina EN, Wamunyokoli F, Magoma G. "Advances in green nanobiotechnology: Data for synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles from ethanolic extracts of fruits and leaves of Annona muricata." Data in brief. 2019;25:104194. Abstract
n/a
Gavamukulya Y, Maina EN, El-Shemy HA, Wamunyokoli F, Magoma G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoparticles from Extracts of Fruits of Annona Muricata: A Green Nanobiotechnology Approach." AFRICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING (AJSTE). 2020;1:153-171. Abstract
n/a
Gavamukulya Y, Maina EN, Meroka AM, Madivoli ES, El-Shemy HA, Wamunyokoli F, Magoma G. "Green synthesis and characterization of highly stable silver nanoparticles from ethanolic extracts of fruits of Annona muricata." Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials. 2020;30:1231-1242. Abstract
n/a
Gawriluk TR, Simkin1 J, L K, K S, Thompson, K.L., Biswas1, Clare-Salzler Z, Kimani JM, Kiama SG, J. J. "Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals.". 2016.
Gawriluk, T. R., Simkin, J., Thompson, K.L., Biswas, S., Clare-Salzler, Z., Kimani, J.M., Kiama, S.G., Ezenwa V.O., Smith, M. "Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals. Nat. Commun. 7:11164 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11164.". 2016.
Gawriluk TR, Simkin J, Hacker CK, Kimani JM, Kiama SG, Ezenwa VO, Seifert AW. "Complex Tissue Regeneration in Mammals Is Associated With Reduced Inflammatory Cytokines and an Influx of T Cells." Front. Immunol.. 2020;11(1695):1-19.
Gayle H;, Ngugi E;, Berkley S;, Kimball AM. "International aspects of the AIDS/HIV epidemic." Annual review of public health ''.". 1995.
GB B, F B, JF O, FM M, E D. "Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Aerobic Bacterial Agents in Post-Surgical Orofacial Infections." The annals of African Surgery. 2015.
GBD VLEG. "Global Prevalence of Vision Impairment and Blindness: Magnitude and Temporal Trends, 1990-2010." Ophthalmology. 2013;120(12):2377-84. Abstract

PURPOSE:

Vision impairment is a leading and largely preventable cause of disability worldwide. However, no study of global and regional trends in the prevalence of vision impairment has been carried out. We estimated the prevalence of vision impairment and its changes worldwide for the past 20 years.

DESIGN:

Systematic review.

PARTICIPANTS:

A systematic review of published and unpublished population-based data on vision impairment and blindness from 1980 through 2012.

METHODS:

Hierarchical models were fitted fitted to estimate the prevalence of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; defined as presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥ 3/60) and the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) by age, country, and year.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Trends in the prevalence of MSVI and blindness for the period 1990 through 2010.

RESULTS:

Globally, 32.4 million people (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.4-36.5 million people; 60% women) were blind in 2010, and 191 million people (95% CI, 174-230 million people; 57% women) had MSVI. The age-standardized prevalence of blindness in older adults (≥ 50 years) was more than 4% in Western Sub-Saharan Africa (6.0%; 95% CI, 4.6%-7.1%), Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa (5.7%; 95% CI, 4.4%-6.9%), South Asia (4.4%; 95% CI, 3.5%-5.1%), and North Africa and the Middle East (4.6%; 95% CI, 3.5%-5.8%), in contrast to high-income regions with blindness prevalences of ≤ 0.4% or less. The MSVI prevalence in older adults was highest in South Asia (23.6%; 95% CI, 19.4%-29.4%), Oceania (18.9%; 95% CI, 11.8%-23.7%), and Eastern and Western Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa and the Middle East (95% CI, 15.9%-16.8%). The MSVI prevalence was less than 5% in all 4 high-income regions. The global age-standardized prevalence of blindness and MSVI for older adults decreased from 3.0% (95% CI, 2.7%-3.4%) worldwide in 1990 to 1.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-2.2%) in 2010 and from 14.3% (95% CI, 12.1%-16.2%) worldwide to 10.4% (95% CI, 9.5%-12.3%), respectively. When controlling for age, women's prevalence of blindness was greater than men's in all world regions. Because the global population has increased and aged between 1990 and 2010, the number of blind has increased by 0.6 million people (95% CI, -5.2 to 5.3 million people). The number with MSVI may have increased by 19 million people (95% CI, -8 to 72 million people) from 172 million people (95% CI, 142-198 million people) in 1990.

CONCLUSIONS:

The age-standardized prevalence of blindness and MSVI has decreased in the past 20 years. However, because of population growth and the relative increase in older adults, the blind population has been stable and the population with MSVI may have increased

GEBRE SOLOMON, MEKONNEN SILESHI, GODWIN KAAYA, TEKLE TILAHUN, JOBRE YILMA. "Prevalence of ixodid ticks and trypanosomosis in camels in southern rangelands of Ethiopia." Ethiopian Veterinary Journal . 2004;2:23-31.
Gebrekidan B, Wafula BM, Njoroge K. "Agro-ecological zoning in relation to maize research priorities in Kenya." Review of National Maize Research Programme. KARI/ISNAR. . 1992:1-4.
Gebreyesus G;, Wamalwa M;, Dessie T;, Agaba M;, Benor S;, Mwai OA. "Harnessing “ODK collect” on smartphones for on-farm data collection in Africa: The ILRI-BecA goat project."; 2013.
Gecaga W, Mwango G, Mutala T. "Knowledge on ionizing radiation among non-radiologist clinicians at Kenyatta National Hospital- Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(1):1108-1115.
Gecaga W, Mwango G MT. "Knowledge on ionizing radiation among non-radiologist clinicians at Kenyatta National Hospital – Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2018;95(1):1108-1115.
Geere JL, Gona J, Omondi FO, Kifalu MK, Newton CR, Hartley S. "Caring for children with physical disability in Kenya: potential links between caregiving and carers' physical health.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The health of a carer is a key factor which can affect the well-being of the child with disabilities for whom they care. In low-income countries, many carers of children with disabilities contend with poverty, limited public services and lack assistive devices. In these situations caregiving may require more physical work than in high-income countries and so carry greater risk of physical injury or health problems. There is some evidence that poverty and limited access to health care and equipment may affect the physical health of those who care for children with disabilities. This study seeks to understand this relationship more clearly. Methods  A mixed methods study design was used to identify the potential physical health effects of caring for a child with moderate-severe motor impairments in Kilifi, Kenya. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were thematically analysed and triangulated with data collected during structured physiotherapy assessment. Results  Carers commonly reported chronic spinal pain of moderate to severe intensity, which affected essential activities. However, carers differed in how they perceived their physical health to be affected by caregiving, also reporting positive benefits or denying detrimental effects. Carers focussed on support in two key areas; the provision of simple equipment and support for their children to physically access and attend school. Conclusions  Carers of children with moderate-severe motor impairments live with their own physical health challenges. While routine assessments lead to diagnosis of simple musculoskeletal pain syndromes, the overall health status and situation of carers may be more complex. As a consequence, the role of rehabilitation therapists may need to be expanded to effectively evaluate and support carers' health needs. The provision of equipment to improve their child's mobility, respite care or transport to enable school attendance is likely to be helpful to carers and children alike.

Genga EK, Otieno CF, OGOLA EN, Maritim MC. "Assessment of the Perceived Quality of Life of Non insulin Dependent D iabetic patients attending t he Diabetes Clinic in Kenyatta National H ospital." IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy. 2014;4(3):15-21. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a common and demanding health related problem that has a wide effect on every day’s life of the patients. It can have a profound effect on quality of life in terms of social and psychological well-being as well as physical ill-health. It is one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic diseases; with psychosocial factors pertinent to nearly every aspect of the disease and its treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To Assess the perceived Health-related quality of life of diabetic patients not on insulin therapy using the WHOQoL-Bref (World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.
STUDY SITE: The study was conducted on patients attending the Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
RESULTS: Study recruited 139 patients with type2 diabetes not on insulin therapy. The study population was predominantly female (61%) , majority were 40-60yrs, having had diabetes for less than 5yrs, 75% having more than one complication. Most (75%) of the study participants were poorly controlled with HbA1C mean score of 8.04% .Majority of the study participants( 84%) achieved a good score on the HRQoL scale using the WHOQoL-Bref tool. The determinants of HRQoL in our study were: age of study participants, duration of diabetes, presence of complications and income related factors. Age of the study subjects had significant association only in the social domain of HRQoL with a p-value of 0.037. Level of income had a significant association with overall HRQoL score (p-value of 0.029), psychological domain (p value of 0.023) and in the social domain (p-value of 0.029). Health care financing was significantly associated with psychological domain (p-value 0.006) and environmental domain (p-value 0f 0.04) and overall score (p-value 0.011). There was an association between employment status and HRQoL. Having a job improved the scores in physical domain (p-value of 0.013) and social domain (p value of 0.020). Duration with diabetes had significant association with physical domain where the p value was 0.007. The HRQoL of the study subjects was associated significantly with the number of complications. Indeed the association of complications with the HRQoL involved physical domain (p-value of <0.0001) and psychological domain (p-value of 0.041) which directly impacted on the overall total score (p value of 0.041).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that diabetes affected HRQoL of our study participants. There is a need for interventions programs to improve glycemic control and inclusion of HRQoL assessment as part of patients on follow up. Age and duration of disease are not modifiable but complications can be reduced by better health care initiaves. Income-related factors can be modifiable through poverty alleviation and pooled health care financing.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Otieno CF, OGOLA EN, Maritim MC. "Assessment of the Perceived Quality of Life of Non insulin Dependent D iabetic patients attending t he Diabetes Clinic in Kenyatta National H ospital.". 2014. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a common and demanding health related problem that has a wide effect on every day’s life of the patients. It can have a profound effect on quality of life in terms of social and psychological well-being as well as physical ill-health. It is one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic diseases; with psychosocial factors pertinent to nearly every aspect of the disease and its treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To Assess the perceived Health-related quality of life of diabetic patients not on insulin therapy using the WHOQoL-Bref (World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.
STUDY SITE: The study was conducted on patients attending the Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
RESULTS: Study recruited 139 patients with type2 diabetes not on insulin therapy. The study population was predominantly female (61%) , majority were 40-60yrs, having had diabetes for less than 5yrs, 75% having more than one complication. Most (75%) of the study participants were poorly controlled with HbA1C mean score of 8.04% .Majority of the study participants( 84%) achieved a good score on the HRQoL scale using the WHOQoL-Bref tool. The determinants of HRQoL in our study were: age of study participants, duration of diabetes, presence of complications and income related factors. Age of the study subjects had significant association only in the social domain of HRQoL with a p-value of 0.037. Level of income had a significant association with overall HRQoL score (p-value of 0.029), psychological domain (p value of 0.023) and in the social domain (p-value of 0.029). Health care financing was significantly associated with psychological domain (p-value 0.006) and environmental domain (p-value 0f 0.04) and overall score (p-value 0.011). There was an association between employment status and HRQoL. Having a job improved the scores in physical domain (p-value of 0.013) and social domain (p value of 0.020). Duration with diabetes had significant association with physical domain where the p value was 0.007. The HRQoL of the study subjects was associated significantly with the number of complications. Indeed the association of complications with the HRQoL involved physical domain (p-value of <0.0001) and psychological domain (p-value of 0.041) which directly impacted on the overall total score (p value of 0.041).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that diabetes affected HRQoL of our study participants. There is a need for interventions programs to improve glycemic control and inclusion of HRQoL assessment as part of patients on follow up. Age and duration of disease are not modifiable but complications can be reduced by better health care initiaves. Income-related factors can be modifiable through poverty alleviation and pooled health care financing.

Genga EK, Oyoo O, Espinoza LR, Adebajo A. "Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility of rheumatology in Africa.". 2017. Abstractajr_enhancing_the_visibility_of_rheumatology_in_africa_2017-clinical_rheumatology.pdf

Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility
of rheumatology in Africa
Eugene K. Genga1,2 & Omondi Oyoo1,2 & Luis R. Espinoza3 & Adewale Adebajo4
Received: 5 July 2017 /Accepted: 10 July 2017
# International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2017
Clinical Rheumatology welcomes the African Journal of
Rheumatology as an important development for the furtherance
of rheumatological scholarship and education on the
African continent and for rheumatology research in
Africans. It is hoped that this development will in turn raise
the profile of rheumatological conditions in Africa and among
Africans. In particular, it is hoped that this will lead to the
much needed collection of African musculoskeletal epidemiological
and health services data, assist in the training of
African rheumatologists, help to open up African rheumatology
to the global rheumatology community, and ultimately
improve the quality of care for myriads of Africans with rheumatic
disorders.
The current population of Africa is 1,241,858,354
which is equivalent to 16.36% of the total world population
based on the latest United Nations estimates [1].
There are many challenges facing Africa including limited
financial resources, misuse of finances, malnutrition, poor
water, and sanitation among others. Despite these many
challenges faced in Africa, in recent times, the continent
has undergone rapid economic growth and development.
The available healthcare resources are overburdened by
the high burden of communicable diseases and the rising
prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Rheumatic
diseases are therefore not considered a high priority by
the various African governments. Part of the reason for
this is due to the limited epidemiological data on rheumatic
diseases and their burden in Africa. Scientific
journals play a central role in the dissemination of research
results which will ultimately impact on policy
change. Horton et al. [2] noted that researchers and policy
makers in developing countries believe that the main way
to solve problems of developing countries is by using
information from Western research rather than using local
data to solve regional problems. He, however, noted that
in Africa “there is already a well-developed local information
culture that needs support, not swamping,” noting,
moreover, the lack of African journals in MEDLINE [2].
Researchers in Africa and the developing world require
access not only as readers but also as authors: for them
to feel part of the global science community, they need
not only to obtain information but also to be able to contribute
to it and take part in the global discourse. The
continent’s resources are prioritized towards infectious
diseases like HIV and malaria over the now increasing
non-communicable diseases. Data on rheumatic diseases
in Africa has been limited partly due to lack of infrastructure
thus under diagnosis but also due to low scholarly
output. Thus, the Africa Journal of Rheumatology was
born. Since its inception 5 years ago, it has provided an
uninterrupted forum through which medical practitioners
and scientists from Africa and beyond can publish their
rheumatology research. It has become a rich source of
information about rheumatic disorders in the continent
and a timely addition to our worldwide rheumatology
community [3]. The journal has published various research
articles on diseases once thought to be rare in Africa. They
* Adewale Adebajo
a.o.adebajo@sheffield.ac.uk
1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of
Health Sciences, University of Nairobi/Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi, Kenya
2 Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA,
USA
4 Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield,
Sheffield, UK
Clin Rheumatol
DOI 10.1007/s10067-017-3761-z
range from rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, gout, myositis to rheumatology
in HIV. Research articles published in the journal
shows rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic
lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome to
be increasing in frequency in the indigenous populations of
East, West, Central, and Southern Africa [4–7]. The HIV pandemic
has changed the epidemiological spectrum of diseases
in Africa. It has led to an increase in a variety of previously
rarely seen conditions like spondyloarthropathies, fibromyalgia,
pyomyositis, and scleroderma. Various scholars have
shared their experiences in the journal [8–12]. The journal
has also provided a forum through which scholars have been
able to share their experiences in management of the rheumatic
diseases with biologic therapy. The results have been similar
to data from around the world [13, 14]. Case reports of rare
diseases and review articles have not been left out and have
enriched the content of the journal bringing diversity in the
articles published.
The visibility of the journal is hampered by the low scholarly
output. This is in part due to severe limitations in the
overall economic development and especially in research infrastructure.
Researchers have limited access to funding for
research as most African countries have no national agencies
that are responsible for research. This is compounded by limitations
in scientific writing, designing, and conducting research
and in reporting the results. Partnership with international
journals like the African Journal Partnership Project is
welcome to bridge that gap by training African health researchers
to improve the quality and visibility of their research
and make the Africa journal of rheumatology a better resource
for local researchers and policy makers [15].
This journal has become a site for exchange of knowledge
of local rheumatic diseases, research, and debate and providing
a forum through which international research can be made
applicable to the African set-up. The Africa Journal of
Rheumatology encourages international agencies, which conduct
research in the region to support the journal through
submission of research and subscription to the publication. It
is our hope that this journal will provide a big step to bridge
the big gaps in rheumatology in Africa.
Compliance with ethical standards
Disclosures None.
References
1. Worldometers (2017) (www.Worldometers.info)
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among black Africans. Afr J Rheumatol 1(2):46–47
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in Kenya Nairobi. Afr J Rheumatol 4(2):66–71
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Genga EK, Otieno CF. "Case report of patient with pheochromocytoma presenting with gangrene and Diabetes." European International Journal of Applied Science and Technology . 2014;1 (2):74-84. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: A pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine-secreting tumour that may precipitate life-threatening hypertension. The tumour is malignant in 10% of cases but may be cured completely by surgical removal. Because of excessive catecholamine secretion, pheochromocytomas may precipitate life-threatening hypertension or cardiac arrhythmias. If the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma is overlooked, the consequences can be disastrous, even fatal; the diagnosis can be established by measuring catecholamines and metanephrines in plasma (blood) or through a 24-hour urine collection. The most common clinical sign of pheochromocytoma is sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, and the most common symptoms are headache, excessive truncal sweating, and palpitation. In some cases, the clinical symptoms are not clear. Roughly 70% of adrenal incidentalomas are non-functional. A small group of 5–7% of the functional ones (30%) may exist as pheochromocytoma. Ten percent of pheochromocytoma cases are diagnosed incidentally during computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screenings for other reasons.
CASE PRESENTATION: 21 year old female patient who was referred to Kenyatta National Hospital with diagnosis of gangrene in a young lady newly diagnosed with diabetes in a known hypertensive for three years. The gangrene was of a duration of two weeks. She was diagnosed with diabetes during work up for the cause of the gangrene. Investigations revealed a 24 hour-urine norepinephrine levels of 5085nmol, Normetanephrines excretion of 45213nmol over 24hoursShe tested negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C surface antigens, VDRL, ANA, C-Anca and P-Anca. Abdominal ultrasound showed normal sized kidneys with a suprarenal mass (80 *63) mm with ectopic right kidney in pelvis, ECG a sinus tachycardia, Echo cardiogram reported as normal with an LVEF of 54%. Arteriogram had a vaso- occlusive disorder at the digital femoral artery and CT abdomen showing a supra renal mass (8x6x5) cm border of head and body of pancreas displacing the right kidney inferiorly. The patient underwent an amputation of the limb and adrenelectomy. Following the surgery the blood pressure and the glucose has normalised and currently is of medication
CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of hypertension in a young patient should involve looking for secondary causes of the disease. A young hypertensive patient presenting with a triad of headaches, palpitations, and sweating was then investigated for pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma can present and occur as an emergency ranging from pheochromocytoma-related multisystem failure, cardiovascular emergencies, pulmonary emergencies, abdominal emergencies, neurologic emergencies, renal emergencies, and metabolic emergencies. This presentations are associated with a high morbidity and mortality if pheochromocytoma is unsuspected. This presentation was unique because it was none of the expected emergencies but a rapidly evolving asymmetrical gangrene of the right foot.
Key words: pheochromocytoma, gangrene
Abbreviations: ANA- Antinuclear antibody
C-Anca- Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
P-Anca- Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Shiruli BC, Odhiambo J, Jepkorir S, Omondi EA, Otieno FO, Oyoo GO. "Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2015;3(2):62-66.
Genga. E. K, Otieno. C.F. "Case report of patient with pheochromocytoma presenting with gangrene and Diabetes." European International Journal of Applied Science and Technology . 2014;Vol 1(2):74-84. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: A pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine-secreting tumour that may precipitate life-threatening hypertension. The tumour is malignant in 10% of cases but may be cured completely by surgical removal. Because of excessive catecholamine secretion, pheochromocytomas may precipitate life-threatening hypertension or cardiac arrhythmias. If the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma is overlooked, the consequences can be disastrous, even fatal; the diagnosis can be established by measuring catecholamines and metanephrines in plasma (blood) or through a 24-hour urine collection. The most common clinical sign of pheochromocytoma is sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, and the most common symptoms are headache, excessive truncal sweating, and palpitation. In some cases, the clinical symptoms are not clear. Roughly 70% of adrenal incidentalomas are non-functional. A small group of 5–7% of the functional ones (30%) may exist as pheochromocytoma. Ten percent of pheochromocytoma cases are diagnosed incidentally during computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screenings for other reasons.
CASE PRESENTATION: 21 year old female patient who was referred to Kenyatta National Hospital with diagnosis of gangrene in a young lady newly diagnosed with diabetes in a known hypertensive for three years. The gangrene was of a duration of two weeks. She was diagnosed with diabetes during work up for the cause of the gangrene. Investigations revealed a 24 hour-urine norepinephrine levels of 5085nmol, Normetanephrines excretion of 45213nmol over 24hoursShe tested negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C surface antigens, VDRL, ANA, C-Anca and P-Anca. Abdominal ultrasound showed normal sized kidneys with a suprarenal mass (80 *63) mm with ectopic right kidney in pelvis, ECG a sinus tachycardia, Echo cardiogram reported as normal with an LVEF of 54%. Arteriogram had a vaso- occlusive disorder at the digital femoral artery and CT abdomen showing a supra renal mass (8x6x5) cm border of head and body of pancreas displacing the right kidney inferiorly. The patient underwent an amputation of the limb and adrenelectomy. Following the surgery the blood pressure and the glucose has normalised and currently is of medication
CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of hypertension in a young patient should involve looking for secondary causes of the disease. A young hypertensive patient presenting with a triad of headaches, palpitations, and sweating was then investigated for pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma can present and occur as an emergency ranging from pheochromocytoma-related multisystem failure, cardiovascular emergencies, pulmonary emergencies, abdominal emergencies, neurologic emergencies, renal emergencies, and metabolic emergencies. This presentations are associated with a high morbidity and mortality if pheochromocytoma is unsuspected. This presentation was unique because it was none of the expected emergencies but a rapidly evolving asymmetrical gangrene of the right foot.
Key words: pheochromocytoma, gangrene
Abbreviations: ANA- Antinuclear antibody
C-Anca- Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
P-Anca- Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies
HIV- human immunodeficiency virus

Geno KPO, Ralwala AO. "Assessment of Heat Stress Exposure on Construction Workers in Hot and Humid Environments during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period.". In: (Re)Setting Built Environment Theory and Practice in a Post-pandemic World: Disrupted Buildings or Design for Disruption. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online (virtual) conference, JKUAT; 2021.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., J.P. Mbuvi, and F.N. Gichuki. 1999. Hydraulic properties of andosols following deforestation in the northern slopes of Mt. Kenya. East Africa Agricultural and Forestry Journal, Volume 65(2): 115-124.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Deterioration in soil hydraulic properties due to deforestation adversely affects the hydrology of catchments, especially those on mountain slopes. The effects of clearing natural forest (NF) for potato cultivation (PC) and livestock grazing (GL) on the hydraulic properties of an andosol (after 5 to 8 years) were investigated in the northern slopes of Mount Kenya. The two farming activities have resulted in deleterious changes in soil water flow and storage. Results obtained showed that steady infiltration rates were 65.7, 9.7 and 13.4 cm h-1 in NF, PC and GL, respectively. Sorpitivity decreased by 15% in PC and 22% in GL, while topsoil saturated hydraulic conductivity decreased by 62% in PC and 76% in GL compared to NF. Both PC and GL topsoil had higher volumetric water content at soil matric potentials (<-25cm) than NF. Cultivation and grazing in the area have led to compacted topsoil with lower (11%) total porosity and decreased plant available water holding capacity by 16 in PC and 19% in GL
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mbuvi, J.P and G. Kironchi. 1994. Reconnaissance soil survey of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin. Laikipia-Mt. Kenya Papers, Baseline Data Series, B-8.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
Physical and chemical properties of soil surface crusts formed on overgrazed bare ground, in Mukogodo catchment in Kenya were investigated. These were compared with those of underlying soils and of adjacent grass and bush covered topsoils. Crusting effects on infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and water content were also investigated. The crusts were moderately strong to strong with a thickness of 1-5 mm. Crusts had higher amounts of sand, silt and clay than the underlying layer, while their total N was lower and organic C content higher than the underlying layer. On average, the contents of Ca, Mg and Na were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layers. Similarly, soil pH, EC and ESP were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layer. Cation exchange capacity and K were slightly higher in the underlying layer than in the crusts. Infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and soil water content in both the rainy and dry seasons in bare ground were significantly lower than those of the bush and grass covered topsoils. Bare ground surface soil bulk density was higher compared to vegetated topsoils and subsurface layers
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Strengthening Agricultural and Environmental Capacities through Distance Education and Locally Relevant Research: Proceedings of the Pan Commonwealth Forum of Distance Education, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, 2006.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2006. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G. and J.P. Mbuvi. 1996. Effect of deforestation on soil fertility on the northwestern slopes of Mount Kenya. ITC Journal, 1996 (3/4): 260-263.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., H.P. Liniger and J.P. Mbuvi. 2000. Degradation of soil physical properties of overgrazed rangelands in Laikipia District. p. 5-10. In: Gichuki. F.N., D.N. Mungai C.K. Gachene and D.B. Thomas (eds). Land and Water Management in Kenya. English.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Infiltration rate, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, organic carbon content, particle size distribution and water content, for bush cover, grass cover and bare ground sites within four representative soil types of the overgrazed Mukogodo rangelands were assessed. All properties, except particle size distribution, differed significantly among soil cover types consistently, but rarely among soil types. Surface soil properties differed more often than those of the sub-surface layers. The infiltration rates of grass and bush cover sites were three to four times higher than bare ground. Consistently, bare-ground surface soils retained significantly less water than vegetated sites and also held the least amount of plant-available water. The results indicate that depletion of soil cover due to overgrazing has adversely affected the soil physical properties important for soil water intake, storage and availability to plants
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Gebremichael, M., G. Kironchi, D.M. Nyariki and E.K. Biamah, E.K. 2002. Soil and water conservation. p. 83-93. In: Managing Dryland Resource in Eastern and Southern Africa, International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
This book provides an overview of selected problems and issues in dryland agriculture in eartern and southern Africa, and the various attempts by individuals, communities and development organizations to overcome these problems. It provides specific examples of technologies and approaches, as well as selected experiences of individual farmers, organizations and communities
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., S.M. Kinyali and J.P. Mbuvi. 1993. Validity of Philip equation for infiltration into soils of Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District. East Africa Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 58(4): 155-160.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
The capability of the two-parameter Phiip equation to describe infiltration of water into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District was investigated. Field measurements of infiltration during dry and wet seasons were taken using a double cylinder infiltrometer on plots under four landuse/vegetation cover treatments within different soil types surveyed at detail level. The four treatments were: (i) tree/bush, (ii) open grass, (iii) bare ground, and (iv) cultivation. The infiltration rates predicted by the Philip equation after 180 minutes in the dry and the wet seasons for Mukogodo and the wet season for Sirima agreed with observed infiltration rates. However, the fit of the equation was inadequate in the early stages of infiltration in both areas and seasons. Equation parameters obtained by best fit of observed data significantly differed between the landuse /vegetation cover treatments and soil types within each area. Only Sirima soils yielded significantly different parameters in-between seasons
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mugendi, D.N., G.Kironchi, and P.T. Gicheru. 2005 (Eds). Capacity building for land resource management to meet the challenges of food security in Africa. Proceedings of the 21st Conference of the Soil Science Society of East Africa.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2005. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mbuvi, J.P, S.N. Wanjogu and G. Kironchi. 1995. Characteristics of soil crusts and their influence on some soil properties in Mukogodo catchment, Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 3 (4): 425-431.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
Physical and chemical properties of soil surface crusts formed on overgrazed bare ground, in Mukogodo catchment in Kenya were investigated. These were compared with those of underlying soils and of adjacent grass and bush covered topsoils. Crusting effects on infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and water content were also investigated. The crusts were moderately strong to strong with a thickness of 1-5 mm. Crusts had higher amounts of sand, silt and clay than the underlying layer, while their total N was lower and organic C content higher than the underlying layer. On average, the contents of Ca, Mg and Na were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layers. Similarly, soil pH, EC and ESP were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layer. Cation exchange capacity and K were slightly higher in the underlying layer than in the crusts. Infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and soil water content in both the rainy and dry seasons in bare ground were significantly lower than those of the bush and grass covered topsoils. Bare ground surface soil bulk density was higher compared to vegetated topsoils and subsurface layers
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mbuvi, J.P., G. Kironchi and P.M. Mainga. 1997. Effect of topography and climate on soils of the northwestern slopes of Mount Kenya. ITC Journal, 1997 (2): 154-159.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Ogara, W.O., D.M. Nyariki and G. Kironchi. 2001 (Eds). Food Security in Rural Development. Proceedings of the Seminar of Berlin Alumni Network, November 22-24, 2000, Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN 3-823613472. pp. 119. www.ban.fu-berlin.de.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
This book provides an overview of selected problems and issues in dryland agriculture in eartern and southern Africa, and the various attempts by individuals, communities and development organizations to overcome these problems. It provides specific examples of technologies and approaches, as well as selected experiences of individual farmers, organizations and communities
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., S.M. Kinyali and J.P. Mbuvi. 1992. Effect of soils, vegetation and land use on infiltration in a tropical semi-arid catchment. East Africa Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 57(3): 177-185.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
The capability of the two-parameter Phiip equation to describe infiltration of water into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District was investigated. Field measurements of infiltration during dry and wet seasons were taken using a double cylinder infiltrometer on plots under four landuse/vegetation cover treatments within different soil types surveyed at detail level. The four treatments were: (i) tree/bush, (ii) open grass, (iii) bare ground, and (iv) cultivation. The infiltration rates predicted by the Philip equation after 180 minutes in the dry and the wet seasons for Mukogodo and the wet season for Sirima agreed with observed infiltration rates. However, the fit of the equation was inadequate in the early stages of infiltration in both areas and seasons. Equation parameters obtained by best fit of observed data significantly differed between the landuse /vegetation cover treatments and soil types within each area. Only Sirima soils yielded significantly different parameters in-between seasons
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., S.M. Kinyali and J.P. Mbuvi. 1995. Environmental influence on water characteristics of soils in two semi-arid catchments in Laikipia District, Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 3 (4): 417-424.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
Physical and chemical properties of soil surface crusts formed on overgrazed bare ground, in Mukogodo catchment in Kenya were investigated. These were compared with those of underlying soils and of adjacent grass and bush covered topsoils. Crusting effects on infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and water content were also investigated. The crusts were moderately strong to strong with a thickness of 1-5 mm. Crusts had higher amounts of sand, silt and clay than the underlying layer, while their total N was lower and organic C content higher than the underlying layer. On average, the contents of Ca, Mg and Na were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layers. Similarly, soil pH, EC and ESP were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layer. Cation exchange capacity and K were slightly higher in the underlying layer than in the crusts. Infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and soil water content in both the rainy and dry seasons in bare ground were significantly lower than those of the bush and grass covered topsoils. Bare ground surface soil bulk density was higher compared to vegetated topsoils and subsurface layers
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Matuva, D, G. Kironchi and L. MacOpiyo. 1997. Environmental impact assessment for swamps drainage in Laikipia District. Technical Report. ASAL Programme, Laikipia District.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997.
Geoffrey Kipkoech Kirui, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji NOA. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
GEORGE O. "Employee Handbook for Rwanda Tea Board.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, . Nairobi: Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2004. Abstract

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This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

George N,(Eds) KW. Media Contents: Evolution, Effects and Challenges in the Kenyan Context.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2011.
George P, Ogot M. "A compromise method for the design of parametric polynomial surrogate models.". In: ASME 2005 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection; 2005:. Abstract

This study presents a compromise approach to augmentation of response surface (RS) designs to achieve the desired level of accuracy. RS are frequently used as surrogate models in multidisciplinary design optimization of complex mechanical systems. Augmentation is necessitated by the high computational expense typically associated with each function evaluation. As a result previous results from lower fidelity models are incorporated into the higher fidelity RS designs. The compromise approach yields higher quality parametric polynomial response surface approximations than traditional augmentation. Based on the D-optimality criterion as a measure of RS design quality, the method simultaneously considers several polynomial models during the RS design, resulting in good quality designs for all models under consideration, as opposed to good quality designs only for lower order models as in the case of traditional augmentation. Several numerical and an engineering example are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

George G, Samwel S, Joseph M, Japheth M, Wallace B. "Comparison of Selection Pressures on the Haemagglutinin (HA) Gene of Pandemic (2009) and Seasonal Influenza A Viruses in Kenya.". In: XIV International Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections. Istanbul, Turkey.; 2012. Abstract

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George P, Ogot MM. "A compromise experimental design method for parametric polynomial response surface approximations." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2006;33:1037-1050. Abstract

This study presents a compromise approach to augmentation of experimental designs, necessitated by the expense of performing each experiment (computational or physical), that yields higher quality parametric polynomial response surface approximations than traditional augmentation. Based on the D-optimality criterion as a measure of experimental design quality, the method simultaneously considers several polynomial models during the experimental design, resulting in good quality designs for all models under consideration, as opposed to good quality designs only for lower-order models, as in the case of traditional augmentation. Several numerical examples and an engineering example are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

Keywords: Response surface method, surrogate models

George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, Japheth. M, Wallace. B. "Analysis of Antigenic Drift in the Neuraminidase (NA) gene of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Kenya. .". In: 3rd Annual African Network for Influenza Surveillance and Epidemiology Meeting. Crowne plaza, Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract
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George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Wallace B. Changes in Haemagglutinin epitopes of human influenza B viruses in Kenya, 2005-2009. . Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Musa. N’ayo, Wallace. B. Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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Germain F, Pérez-Rico C, Vicente J, de la Villa P. Functional histology of the retina. Formatex; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Germain F, Pérez-Rico C, Vicente J, de la Villa P. Functional histology of the retina. Formatex; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Germaine KJ, Otieno N, Culhane J, Menton C, Keogh E, Brazil D, Dowling D. Microbial communities associated with the bio-energy plant Miscanthus. 18-21 May 2012, Aldemar Hotel, Rhodes, Greece: New Phytologist Organisation; 2012. Abstract

in improving the phytoremediation capacity of plants. This study investigated the
culturable-aerobic bacterial diversity associated with the bio-energy plant
Miscanthus giganteus. 250 bacterial strains were isolated from Miscanthus and 70 of
these strains were identified through 16S rDNA sequencing. Eleven different species
were identified in Miscanthus originating from the leaf, stem and rhizome tissues.
The majority of these isolates were gamma-Proteobacteria with Pseudomonas and
Acinetobacter species dominating. Many of these strains expressed plant growth
promotion traits such as phytohormone production and phosphate solubilisation
ability. The majority of the isolates were found to possess resistance to heavy
metals and 7-13% possessed inherent organic xenobiotic degradation abilities. A
number of these isolates were tagged with a gfp:kanamycin marker and were found
to colonise the rhizosphere of inoculated plants. These isolates may prove to be
useful inoculants for improving plant biomass and phytoremediation efficiency of
Miscanthus.

Gerrard CM, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya: A case of prisons in Meru region." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(3):185-209. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
The prisons departments have been working with Non-Governmental Medical Organizations to implement health projects within the prison’s facilities in Kenya in order to improve the health of prisoners. However, successful implementation of health projects is a common problem in the Kenya Prisons Service not only with an immeasurable cost to society who benefits from these projects within the prisons but also with debilitating effects on the inmates. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya, Meru region Prisons. The study sought to achieve the following objectives; to evaluate the extent to which technical capacity, stakeholders’ involvement, source of funding and prisons leadership influences implementation of prisons health projects in the Kenya, Meru Region Prisons. The study was grounded on resource base view theory, agency theory, stakeholder’s theory and strategic leadership theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design with the target population comprising of Kenya Prison Staff. Primary data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires while secondary data was obtained using data collection sheet. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23.0) which is the most recent version. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages were estimated for all the quantitative variables and information presented inform of tables. The qualitative data from the open-ended questions was analysed using conceptual content analysis and presented in prose. Inferential data analysis was done using multiple …

Gervasioh PG, Gatere R, Karani A. "Professional Ethics Among Nurse Educators in Diploma Nursing Training Colleges, Meru County." University of Nairobi. International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP) . 2014;2 (1):49-52.
Gervasioh GP, Kagure KA, Samuel K. "“ Physiological Basis of Empathy and Emotionality in Nursing Practice”. ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research -Research www.ijier.net . 2016;5(7 ):2016.
Gesare HL. A MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY OF EKEGUSII IN A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

Based on the structuralism theory which posits that language is structural and that each language must be described in terms of its own structure, this study attempts to typologize Ekegusii using morphology as its parameter. The study assigns Ekegusii language a morphological structure type mechanically by analyzing the nominal and the verbal forms. Thus, rather than provide a discreet typology where Ekegusii corresponds to one type of the four-fold morphological classification of languages: synthetic, fusional, analytic, or polysynthetic, the study ranks Ekegusii along the morphological typology continuum by determining its synthetic and fusional degree. The index of synthesis measures the number of morphemes per word and fusional measures the extent to which the morphemes are readily segmentable. The study demonstrates that both the nominal and verbal forms have several morphemes per a word. The morphemes are clearly segmentable, substitutable and unfused. They can be divided into prefixes, roots and suffixes and have a reasonably invariant phonetic shape. The study thus establishes that Ekegusii is polysystematic morphologically. It does not fall exclusively into one structure type. While it has a very high level of synthesis, it also has a low index of fusion.

Gesare HL. A MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY OF EKEGUSII IN A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

ABSTRACT.
Based on the structuralism theory which posits that language is structural and that each language must be described in terms of its own structure, this study attempts to typologize Ekegusii using morphology as its parameter. The study assigns Ekegusii language a morphological structure type mechanically by analyzing the nominal and the verbal forms. Thus, rather than provide a discreet typology where Ekegusii corresponds to one type of the four-fold morphological classification of languages: synthetic, analytic, or polysynthetic, the study ranks Ekegusii along the along the morphological typology continuum by determining its synthetic and fusional degree. The index of synthesis measure the number of morphemes per word and fusional measures the extent to which the morphemes are readily segmentable. The study demonstrates that both the nominal and verbal forms have several morphemes per word. The morphemes are clearly segmentable, substitutable and unfused. They can be divided into prefixes, roots and suffixes and have a reasonably invariant phonetic shape. The study thus establishes that Ekegusii is polysystematic morphologically. It does not fall exclusively into one structure type. While it has a very high level of synthesis, it also has a low index of fusion.

Gessaghi VC, Raschi MA, Larreteguy AE, y Perazzo CA. "Influence of arterial geometry on a model for growth rate of atheromas." Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2007;90:012046. AbstractWebsite

Atherosclerosis is a disease that affects medium and large size arteries and it can partially or totally obstruct blood flow through them. The lack of blood supply to the heart or the brain can cause an infarct or a stroke with fatal consequences or permanent effects. This disease involves the proliferation of cells and the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, cell debris, calcium and other substances in the artery wall. Such accumulation results in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques called atheromas, which may cause the obstruction of the blood flow. Cardiovascular diseases, among which atherosclerosis is the most frequent, are the first cause of death in developed countries. The published works in the subject suggest that hemodynamic forces on arterial walls have influence on the localization, initial development and growth rate of atheromas. This paper presents a model for this growth rate, and explores the influence of the bifurcation angle on the blood flow patterns and on the predictions of the model in a simplified carotid artery. The choice of the carotid bifurcation as the subject for this study obeys the fact that atheromas in this artery are often responsible for strokes. Our model predicts a larger initial growth rate in the external walls of the bifurcation and smaller growth area and lower growth rates as the bifurcation angle is increased. The reason for this seems to be the appearance of helical flow patterns as the angle is increased.

Getanda CM. • Fair Trial & The Rights Of The Accused . Aura Publishers; 2012.
Getanda CM. • Labour Law principles structures and practice . Aura Publishers; 2012.
Getange D, Bargul JL, Kanduma E, Collins M, Bodha B, Denge D, Chiuya T, Githaka N, Younan M, Fèvre EM, others. "Ticks and tick-borne pathogens associated with dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in northern Kenya." Microorganisms. 2021;9:1414. Abstract
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Getao KW, Miriti EK. "Computational Modelling in Bantu Language.". In: SPECIAL TOPICS IN COMPUTING AND ICT RESEARCH: Advances in Systems Modelling and ICT Applications. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2006.computational_modeling_in_bantu_language.pdf
Getao K, Miriti E. "Creation of a Speech to Text System for Kiswahili.". In: 5th World Congress of African Linguistics. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2006.wocal-swa-dict.pdf
Getenga ZM, Madadi VO, Wandinga SO. "Studies of degradation of 2,4-D and metribuzin in soil under controlled conditions." Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. . 2004;72(3):504-513. AbstractWebsite

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

Getuno PM, Awino ZB, Ngugi PK, Mwaura F. ") Implementation of The Public Procurement And Disposal Act, (2005)." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015;5(1):75-93.
Gewa CA, Weiss RE, Bwibo NO, Whaley S, Sigman M, Murphy SP, Harrison G, Neumann CG. "Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya." Br. J. Nutr.. 2009;101(9):1378-87. Abstractdietary_micronutrients.pdf

With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

Geyer. S and Wairire GG, Lombard A, Wairire GG. "A comparative content analysis of South African and Kenyan drug policies from a social development perspective." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. Forthcoming.
Gharial J, Laving A, Were F. "Racecadotril for the treatment of severe acute watery diarrhoea in children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Kenya." BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2017;4(1). AbstractWebsite

Background

Diarrhoea is the second most common cause of death in children under 5 years of age in Kenya. It is usually treated with oral rehydration, zinc and continued feeding. Racecadotril has been in use for over 2 decades; however, there is a paucity of data regarding its efficacy from Africa.
Objectives

The objectives of this study were: to compare the number of stools in the first 48 hours in children with severe gastroenteritis requiring admission and treated with either racecadotril or placebo, to study the impact of racecadotril on duration of inpatient stay as well as duration of diarrhoea and to describe the side effect profile of racecadotril.
Methods

This was a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. It enrolled children between the age of 3 and 60 months who were admitted with severe acute gastroenteritis. They received either racecadotril or placebo in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc and were followed up daily.
Results

120 children were enrolled into the study. There were no differences in the demographics or outcomes between the 2 groups. Stools at 48 hours: median (IQR) of 5 (3–7) and 5 (2.5–7.5), respectively; p=0.63. The duration of inpatient stay: median (IQR): 4 days (1.5–6.5) and 4.5 (1.8–6.3); p=0.71. The duration of illness: 3 days (2–4) and 2 days (1–3); p=0.77. The relative risk of a severe adverse event was 3-fold higher in the drug group but was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.63 to 14.7); p=0.16.
Conclusions

Racecadotril has no impact on the number of stools at 48 hours, the duration of hospital stay or the duration of diarrhoea in children admitted with severe gastroenteritis and managed with ORS and zinc

Gherardi, Britton FRJ, Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Grey J, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "A review of allodiversity in Lake Naivasha, Kenya: Developing conservation actions to protect East African lakes from the negative impacts of alien species. ." Biological Conservation.. 2011;(144):2585-2596.
Gherardi., Francesca., Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "The smell of Danger: Chemical recognition of fish predators by the invasive Crayfish Procambarus Clarkii." Freshwater Biology. 2011;56(8 ):1567-1578.
o. c. Ghibingal, Musimba NRK, Nyangito MM, Simbay J, Daural MT. "Climate variability; enhancing adaptive utilization of browse trees for improved livestock production among agro-pastoralists communities in Southern Zambia." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2012;6((7)):267-274. Abstract

Agro-pastoralists whose sources of livelihood depend on rain-fed agriculture are very vulnerable to
ecological disturbance due to increasing climate variability. They are unable to adequately feed their
animals in times of extreme weather conditions of floods and droughts thereby causing a disruption in
their maior source of (rve(ihood. fhfs study ana$zed (he feedrng s(ra(egies empfoyed by agropastoralists
in Southern Zambla and important browse species used in extreme weather conditions, in
order to improve their utilization for improved livestock production. The major feeding strategies during
droughts include browse utilization, dambo grazing, grazing along streams and supplementary feeding.
While during floods, upland grazing and browse grazing were the main strategies. However, most of the
agro-pastoralists do not practice pasture management and fodder conservation for their animals. Of the
21 lree browse species identified by the agro-pastoralists, 18 species were found to be important during
droughts and 8 during floods. Most of the agro-pastoralists neither knew how to plant these browse
species nor how to manage them for befter and sustainable use in feeding their animals. Therefore, the
agro-pastoralists in the study area need to take up management and feed conservation measures for
their animals. Deliberate effort should be made to teach the agro-pastoralists how to plant and manage
the important browse species that are suitable in extreme weather conditions. This will enhance
productive use of the browse species for improved animal feeding to ensure food security among the
pastoralists.

Key words: Extreme weather conditions, adaption, browse species, Agro-pastoralists.

Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Giangrande M, Kim YW, Mizukami H. "N-terminal spin label studies of hemoglobin, Ligand and pH dependence." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):187-93. Abstract

Human hemoglobin was spin labeled with 4-isothiocanato-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperdinooxyl, which is known to bind specifically to the N-terminal alpha-amino groups of proteins and slightly to the reactive sulfhydryl groups. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis indicated a partially resolved five-line spectrum, suggesting that the label was attached to at least two different binding sites. Using specific blocking reagents prior to spin labeling, the two binding sites were attributed to the sulfhydryl group of beta-93 (immobile) and the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal valines (mobile). The relative motion of the spin at one set of binding sites was restricted regardless of the state of ligation and pH, while the motion at the other site showed dependence on those parameters, e.g. the spin-labeled N-terminal ends of deoxyhemoglobin have restricted motion at all pH ranges studied, while those of oxyhemoglobin are relatively free to move at the basic pH range, but become more restricted in the acidic pH range.

Gichaga FJ. "Maintenance of Roads in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Cooperation between the Faculty of Engineering and the Kenyan Industry.". In: Seminar on Engineering Education – Industry Cooperation. University of Nairobi; 1985.
Gichaga FJ. "The Revival of the Numerical Machining Complex.". In: Consultative Workshop on the Revival of the Numerical Machining Complex. Naivasha; 2007.
Gichaga FJ, Sahu BK, Visweswaraiya TG. "Compaction and Compression Characteristics of Kenya Red Coffee Soils.". In: 8th Panamerican Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering . Castegena, Colombia.; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Pavement Design in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "University-Industry Collaboration in Kenya.". In: Institution of Engineers of Kenya Conference.; 2005.
Gichaga FJ, Misoi GK, Carson RN. Effect Of Vehicle Speeds On Corrugation Formation.; 1986.
Gichaga FJ. "Engineering Education as a Continuing Process of Development.". In: Seminar on Continuing Education for Mechanical Engineers. Nairobi; 1985.
Gichaga FJ, Bhogal BS. "Rebound Deflections Relationship with Repetititions of Wheel Loads for Typical Flexible Pavements in Kenya.". In: East African Institution of Engineers. Nairobi.; 1971.
Gichaga FJ. "Industrialization and Development in the 21st Century.". In: Institution of Engineers of Kenya Conference.; 2003.
Gichaga FJ. "Transportation in Large Towns of Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1985:29-31.
Gichaga FJ. "Strength of Flexible Road pavements in Kenya.". In: International Symposium on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields. The Norwegian Institute of Technology-Trondheim, Norway; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "The Engineer and the Vision 2030.". In: International Conference on the Engineer and Vision 2030. The Institution of Engineers of Kenya-Nairobi. ; 2008.
Gichaga FJ. "Research on Road Safety Measures." Ministry of Public Works; 1988.
Gichaga FJ. "Study of Structural Behaviour of Flexible Road Pavements with Thin Bituminous Surfacing in Kenya." Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. 1981;Series A(No. 2):105-115.
Gichaga FJ. "Pavement Design Considerations Under Tropical Climate.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi ; 1980.
Gichaga FJ. "Curriculum Development in Civil Engineering in Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya.. 1978.
Gichaga FJ, Rangasami KS. Introduction to Building and Civil Engineering Drawing. MacMillan Publishers; 1986.
Gichaga FJ. "Integrated Engineering Training for Civil Engineers in Kenya.". In: 13th Annual Conference on Engineering Education in East Africa. Nairobi; 1975.
Gichaga FJ, Mwea SK. "Structural Strength Condition for Some Flexible Road and Airfield Pavements Under Tropical Environment.". In: Third International Conference on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields. Trondheim, Norway; 1990.
Gichaga FJ. "Conducting Technical Research.". In: CIDA/Kenya Polytechnic/Mombasa Polytechnic Staff Development Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Gichaga FJ. "Transfer of Research Results to the Kenyan Industry.". In: Continuing Education Course for Mechanical Engineering Graduates. Nairobi; 1986.
Gichaga FJ. "Professional Ethics and Codes of Conduct in the Built Environment.". In: Workshop on Ethics and Integrity among Professionals. Nairobi; 2007.
Gichaga FJ. "The Engineer and the Vision 2030." Journal of the Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 2008;29(4):22-25.
Gichaga FJ. Structural Behaviour of Flexible Pavements in Kenya.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1979.
Gichaga FJ, Murunga PA, Atibu FS. "Design and Performance Of Flexible Pavements under Tropical Environment.". In: 9th Africa Regional Conference. Lagos, Nigeria.; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Red Clay Soils and Black Clays.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi,; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Essentials and Promotion of Linkage between Research and Development and Entrepreneurship.". In: National Workshop on Science and Technology Capacity in the Framework of Millennium Development Goals. The Kenya National Academy of Sciences; 2005.
Gichaga FJ. "Engineering and Economic Aspects of Highway Maintenance with reference to Kenya.". In: International Engineers Conference. Nairobi; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Industrial Training for Engineering Undergraduates.". In: Engineers Seminar. Nairobi; 1981.
Gichaga FJ. "A Transformation of Kenya through industrialization.". In: Professionals Forum.; 2004.
Gichaga FJ. "Distress Features of Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya.". In: Seminar on Maintenance and Drainage aspects of Road Pavements.Indian Road Congress. Bangalore - India; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Engineering Technologies for Production and Infrastructure.". In: Fourth JKUAT Scientific,Technological and Industrialization Conference.; 2008.
Gichaga FJ. "Flexible Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation.". In: Seminar. Department of Civil Engineering.University of Nairobi.; 1989.
Gichaga FJ. "Laboratory Study of Deformation Modulus/Time Relationship for Various Subgrade Soils Under Road Pavement Structure." Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. 1982;3(No. 2):63-74.
Gichaga FJ, Rangasami KS. "Introduction To Building And Civil Engineering Drawing."; 1985.
Gichaga FJ. "The role of Engineering in the Promotion of Health Care.". In: 9th Council Meeting of the Commonwealth Medical Association and 9th Annual Scientific Conference of Kenya Medical Association. Nairobi; 1980.
Gichaga FJ. "Research on Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. . 1978:3-5.
Gichaga FJ, Parker NA. Essentials of Highway Engineering.. MacMillan Publishers.; 1988.
Gichaga FJ. "Training of Engineers in a Developing country.". In: UNESCO International Group Meeting. Cairo.; 1978.
Gichaga FJ. "Deflections of Lateritic Gravel and Stone Base Pavements of Low Volume Tea Roads in Kenya.". In: Fifth International Conference on Low Volume Roads.; 1991.
Gichaga FJ. "Design Standards, Performance and Maintenance of Roads in Kenya." Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nairobi; 1986.
Gichaga FJ. "Training Professionals for Infrastructure Development: The Troika of Government, Industry and Academia.". In: Transformative and Effective Infrastructure Conference Report. Nairobi; 2010.
Gichaga FJ. "The Quality of Training for Civil Engineering graduates in Kenya.". In: 12th Annual Conference on Engineering Education in East Africa. Dar-es-Salaam. ; 1972.
Gichaga FJ, Visweswaraiya TG, Sahu BK. "Prediction of Swell of Black Cotton Soils in Nairobi.". In: International Symposium on Prediction and Performance in Geotechnical Engineering. Calgary. Alberta, Canada. ; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Storm Water Drainage Design for Roads.". In: TRRL/MOTC UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Slow Sand Filtration Pilot plant Construction.". In: IRC/MOH/MOWD/UON Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Gichaga FJ. "The Impact of Professional Ethics in the Built Environment in Kenya.". In: Workshop on Ethics and Integrity among professionals.; 2006.
Gichaga FJ. Evaluation of flexible road pavements in Kenya.; 1983. Abstract

Experience from some of the recently completed roads shows that road pavements have at times failed prematurely thereby leading to unplanned expenditure in the exercise of rehabilitating them. This paper outlines results of studies carried out to establish long-term behaviour of road pavements under tropical climatic conditions. The studies involved measurements of elastic deflections, pavement distortion and rutting, cracking as well as establishing traffic loading patterns for typical high standard trunk roads of varying design in Kenya. The results of the studies show that while pavements are weakened by repeated wheel load applications pavements also tend to develop strength with age. The results further showed that for a pavement approaching failure elastic deflections are a function of cracking and rutting; and that higher elastic deflections are obtained during the months of high rainfall and high temperatues. The paper recommends that there is need for road authorities to regularly monitor factors that relate to road pavement performance such as traffic loading, pavement condition, etc. in order to help in the financial planning for pavement strengthening and maintenance works and that the necessary funds should be set aside in the budget. (TRRL)

Gichaga FJ, Sahu BK, Visweswaraiya TG, Atibu FS. "Strength of Red Coffee Soils in Kenya.". In: 8th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics, and Foundation Engineering. Kyoto, Japan; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Urban Transportation in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Integration and outputs of Research, Science and Technology in Kenya’s Development.". In: National Workshop on Science and Technology. Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Nairobi.; 2004.
Gichaga FJ. "Behaviour of Flexible Road Pavements under Tropical Climate.". In: Fifth International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. Arnhem, Netherlands.; 1982.
Gichaga FJ, Bhogal BS. "Rebound Deflections of Flexible Pavements in Kenya.". Nairobi; 1971.
Gichaga FJ. "Revitalizing professionalism in engineers.". In: Engineers Conference. Nairobi; 2000.
Gichaga FJ. "Road/Railway Embankment Slide at Mikindani in Mombasa." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya.. 1984:35-39.
Gichaga FJ. "Evaluation of Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya.". In: Conference on Criteria for Planning Highway Investment in Developing Countries. Institution of Civil Engineers.London; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Bearing Capacity of Crushed Stone Embankment." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1979:14-16.
Gichaga FJ, Kipkore SK. "Violation of Traffic Laws in Selected Roads in Nairobi.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi; 1980.
Gichaga FJ. "Shelter, Transport, Water and Solid Waste Management.". In: Regional Workshop on the Role of Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST) in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Nairobi.; 2007.
Gichaga FJ. "The Trans-African highway – Mombasa/Lagos,." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1975:16-21.
Gichaga FJ. "Engineering Education and Related Development in Kenya.". In: Issues in Resource Management and Development in Kenya. East African Educational Publishers.; 2000.
Gichaga FJ. "Curriculum Development for Highway and Transportation Engineering. .". In: Subject Meeting in Civil Engineering. University of Nairobi; 1975.
Gichaga FJ, Atibu FS, Sahu BK. "Horizontal and Vertical Movements of Red Clay Highway Embankments.". In: Second International Conference on case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering. St. Louis. U.S.A.; 1988.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

The use of ICT in agriculture within developing countries has quickly gained
popularity among development agencies, the private sector and even the government. ICT
for agriculture (ICT4Ag) services such as trade platforms, notification platforms and
advisory/extension services have been developed. This has been catalyzed by the growing
number of farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile phones. Among the available
services, advisory/extension platforms have gained popularity among farmers an

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology . 2017;3(7):36-40. Abstractfull text link

The use of ICT in agriculture within
developing countries has quickly gained popularity
among development agencies, the private sector and
even the government. ICT for agriculture (ICT4Ag)
services such as trade platforms, notification platforms
and advisory/extension services have been developed.
This has been catalyzed by the growing number of
farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile
phones. Among the available services, advisory/extension
platforms have gained popularity among farmers and
agriculture stakeholders in the developing world. These
platforms have proven to be of importance to farmers
who are curious about new farming methodologies,
strategies to improve their yields, breeding techniques,
among other factors. The ICT platforms employed
include SMS, mobile applications, Interactive Voice
Response systems, social media platform such as
Facebook and Twitter, chat applications such as
Whatsapp, blogs, radio programs and tv programs. The
aim of this research was to assess the e-Extension
platforms used in Kenya, whose purpose is to advise
millions of farmers across different parts of the country
using ICT platforms. 28 government e-Extension officers
employed to advise farmers using ICT platforms were
interviewed. The officers represented 15 different
counties in Kenya. The study made important findings
that would inform the government, agriculture extension
content providers, and other stakeholders on critical
aspects to be considered in deploying and managing eextension
platforms among a population of diverse users
within a developing country.

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJISSET). 2017;3:36-40. Abstract

The use of ICT in agriculture within developing countries has quickly gained popularity among development agencies, the private sector and even the government. ICT for agriculture (ICT4Ag) services such as trade platforms, notification platforms and advisory/extension services have been developed. This has been catalyzed by the growing number of farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile phones. Among the available services, advisory/extension platforms have gained popularity among farmers and agriculture stakeholders in the developing world. These platforms have proven to be of importance to farmers who are curious about new farming methodologies, strategies to improve their yields, breeding techniques, among other factors. The ICT platforms employed include SMS, mobile applications, Interactive Voice Response systems, social media platform such as Facebook and Twitter, chat applications such as Whatsapp, blogs, radio programs and tv programs. The aim of this research was to assess the e-Extension platforms used in Kenya, whose purpose is to advise millions of farmers across different parts of the country using ICT platforms. 28 government e-Extension officers employed to advise farmers using ICT platforms were interviewed. The officers represented 15 different counties in Kenya. The study made important findings that would inform the government, agriculture extension content providers, and other stakeholders on critical aspects to be considered in deploying and managing eextension platforms among a population of diverse users within a developing country.

Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Dimba EAO. "Diagnostic Service Provision at the Nairobi University Oral Pathology Laboratory.". 2005. Abstract
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Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Dimba EAO. "Diagnostic Service Provision at the Nairobi University Oral Pathology Laboratory.". 2005. Abstract
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Gichangi P. "Cervical cancer in pregnancy." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 2006.
Gichangi EM, Karanja NK, Wood W. "The potential of agro-organic wastes to reduce nitrogen losses from cattle manure used by smallholder farmers in the central Kenyan highlands.". 2005. Abstract

Livestockmanure is a valuable source of plant nutrients for crop production in the Central Kenyan highlands but its quality in terms of available nitrogen is low due to considerable nitrogen losses through ammonia olatilization. This study aimed at assessing the potential of agro-organic wastes to reduce nitrogen losses from manure heaps during the storage period. Three organic amendments selected from a laboratory simulation experiment were evaluated under farmers' conditions based in Karura, Kiambu District for their ability to reduce nitrogen losses from cattle manure heaps. The effect of a polyethylene sheet covering of manure heaps on nitrogen retention was also determined. There were eight treatments that comprised three agro­organic amendments (maize stover, coffee pulp and sawdust) and the control. Agronomic effectiveness of the treated manure samples and N uptake by maize seedlings were evaluated in a glasshouse experiment. 19% and 46% of the initial nitrogen respectively. Maize growth improved significantly (p:s;0.05) with increasing rates of manure irrespective of the organic treatments except for manure amended with sawdust. Treatments that received the recommended rate of nitrogen at 100 kg N ha-' had significantly higher (p:S;0.05) biomass of 21.55 g/p1ant while the control produced 2.78 g/p1ant only. Nitrogen uptake increased with increasing rates of manure and was higher (p-;O.O5) with manure amended with coffee pulp. Covering manure heaps to reduce moisture loss would also be beneficial in reducing nitrogen losses.

Gichangi PB, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ombete J, Nagelkerke NJ, Temmerman M. "Antimicrobial prophylaxis in pregnancy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with cefetamet-pivoxil in pregnant women with a poor obstetric history." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1997;177(3):680-4. Abstract

This study was undertaken to measure the impact of a single oral dose of cefetamet-pivoxil on pregnancy outcome in a population with substantial rates of low birth weight and high prevalence rates of maternal infections.

Gichangi P, Apers L, Temmerman M. "Rate of caesarean section as a process indicator of safe-motherhood programmes: the case of Kenya." J Health Popul Nutr. 2001;19(2):52-8. Abstract

The study assessed the value of currently-available data on the rates of caesarean section as an indicator of safe-motherhood programmes. Data, collected through the routine health information system of the Ministry of Health, Kenya, were used for analyzing the available process indicators. The methodology of this study illustrates both usefulness and limitations of readily-available healthcare information. The rate of hospital-based caesarean section was 6.3% of all births (range 0.3-37%), whereas the rate of population-based caesarean section was 0.95% (range 0.1%-4%). The rate of population-based caesarean section indicates a significant unmet need for obstetric care in the rural areas and may be a useful tool for monitoring progress on safe-motherhood initiatives in poor settings. Rates of population-based caesarean section are low in Kenya, especially in the rural areas. The rate of caesarean section may be a valuable process indicator for identifying the gaps in obstetric care and may be used for advocating improvements for healthcare to the relevant authorities.

Gichangi P. "Traditional medicines and their potential teratogenic effects." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(1):212-214.
Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang S, Opiyo A, Temmerman M. "Knowledge and practice about cervical cancer and Pap smear testing among patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2003;13(6):827-33. Abstract

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in developing countries. Population-based cytologic screening and early treatment does reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. Some of the factors related to the success of such a program include awareness about cervical cancer and its screening. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and practice about cervical cancer and Pap smear testing among cervical cancer and noncancer patients using a structured questionnaire to obtain information. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were aware of cervical cancer while 32% knew about Pap smear testing. There were no significant differences in knowledge between cervical cancer and noncancer patients. Health care providers were the principal source of information about Pap testing (82%). Only 22% of all patients had had a Pap smear test in the past. Patients aware of cervical cancer were more likely to have had a Pap smear test in the past. The level of knowledge is low among ICC and noncancer patients. There is need to increase the level of knowledge and awareness about ICC and screening among Kenyan women to increase uptake of the currently available hospital screening facilities.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

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