ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF RENAL ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION: CORRELATION WITH MARKERS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

Citation:
Ogeng’o JA, Masaki CO, Malek AA, Were FN, Olabu BO, Misiani MK, Murunga AK. "ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF RENAL ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION: CORRELATION WITH MARKERS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2016;5(1):650-660.

Abstract:

Knowledge of anatomical features of the renal artery is important in prediction, management and control
of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. These features show population variations but data from black
African populations are scarce. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the anatomical features
of the renal artery in a black Kenyan population. Six hundred and ten (610) single renal arteries from
305 adult black Kenyans [206 males, 99 females; age range 22 – 79 years] were studied by dissection
at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Specimens with macroscopic features
of stenosis and dilatation were excluded. The implantation angle, length and branching pattern were
studied. These features were correlated with intima-media thickness and luminal diameter. The latter
were determined by micrometry on Eosin/hematoxylin stained 5 micron sections obtained from the
proximal segment of the renal artery. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16.0. Student’s t-test, was
used to test for statistical significance at 95% confidence interval where P value of < 0.05 was taken as
significant. The results are presented in a bar graph, tables and macrographs. The mean implantation
angle was 940±150 (range 580-1250). In 26.7% cases, the angle was more than 1000. Mean length was
34±1.4 mm with 21.6 % of arteries measuring ≤ 20 mm. Variant branching pattern was present in 40.5
% of cases. It comprised trifurcation (33 %), quadrifurcation (6.6 %) and pentafurcation (0.8 %). Higher
implantation angle, short arteries and variant branching were associated with statistically significant
higher intima - media thickness and luminal diameter. These results suggest that higher implantation
angle, shorter length and variant branching pattern constitute geometric risk factors for renal artery
atherosclerosis. Ultrasound screening for individuals with suboptimal geometric features for renal artery
atherosclerosis is recommended.

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