Bio

Publications


Submitted

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  Submitted.  Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M., Ochanda, J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O., Biodegradation of DDT(1,1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis)(4-Chlorophenyl) ethene by the white not fungus James Opiyo Ochanda, PhD 16 Pleurotus Luteoalbus .. First, Pan-African Conference on Bichemistry and Molecular Biology, September, 2-6, Nairobi, Kenya. Book of Abstract P. (181).. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  Submitted.  Ochanda, J. O., Oduori, E. A. C., Galun, R., Imbuga, O. M. and Mumcuoglu, K. Y. Partial purification of the aminopeptidase from the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. Physiol. Entomol.. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Jun;47(6):1319-22. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.

2012

  2012.  Evaluation of potency of native Bacillus thuringiensis against maize insect pests and aflatoxin producing fungi in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

Bacillus thuringiensis is the most used biological control agent to date. Among major constraints to maize production, safety and hence food sufficiency in Kenya is infestation, damage and contamination by insect pests. Maize grains are adversely damaged by Prostephanus truncatus which occasionally paves way for the growth of aflatoxin producing fungi. The focus of this study was to establish the toxicity of native Bt against adult P. truncatus, second instar larvae of Chilo partellus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Seven Bt isolates (i.e. KG 411, KG 12-0, KG 20, KG 420, KM 31, KM 12 and KM 24) caused over 50% mean mortality of P. truncatus at the first preliminary dose of 10mg/ml. With subsequent analysis of the efficacy of Bt against P. truncatus, isolate KG 411 was significantly more toxic to it at 95% confidence limit (p <0.001) than all the other Bt isolates. Bt isolate KG 411 had LD50 of 0.30mg/ml which caused 77.1% mean mortality of adult P. truncatus. Potency tests of the Bt isolates against the second instar larvae of C. partellus showed significant differences at 95% confidence limit (p<0.001), with isolate KM 12 causing the highest mean mortality of 76%. Evaluation of effects of spores and crystals produced by the Bt isolates on A. flavus and A. parasiticus showed that isolate KM 31 caused the highest inhibition of fungal growth. Only isolate KM 31 was potent against both P. truncatus and the two fungal species. However isolate KG 411 which was highly toxic against P. truncatus had no significant growth inhibition effect against the two fungal strains. This result demonstrates that native Bt could constitute an alternative biological control option for management of adult P. truncatus, A. parasiticus and A. flavus in maize protection.

Kheseli, PO, Ochanda JO, Okoth SA.  2012.  A Short Communication-Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis from coastal intertidal brackish sediments and from farmlands in Machakos District Kenya. Abstract

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxins represent the most successful use of biological control agents targeting crop pests to date. Studies have shown that Bt produces a wider range of toxins targeting a variety of unrelated pests than was initially documented. This further increases the prospects for its wider use as a microbial biopesticide. In this view the study sought to isolate and characterize native Bt from two different ecological regions; Kenya coastal intertidal brackish sediments and farmlands in Machakos district. Twenty eight Bt isolates were isolated and identified. Distinctions between the isolates were based on their morphological appearances, presence of parasporal inclusions and biochemical characteristics. Results for staining tests revealed that the isolates were Gram positive, rod shaped cells, with the spores terminally located. The cells from the two ecological regions did not have significant variation in average size. The rods had length ranging between 2.0 μm and 3.0 μm on average while the width was approximately 1 μm on average. Parasporal inclusions had varied shapes (i.e. bipyramidal, circular, squared, oval and rhomboid). Both biochemical tests (Proskauer (VP) test and catalase test) were positive. Average optimum temperature range for growth was between 28°C and 35°C while the optimal pH growth range was between 5.5 and 7.5. Both the morphological and biochemical results provided evidence that the isolates were different forms of Bacillus thuringiensis. Out of the fifty six soil and sediment samples, 28 samples (50%) yielded Bacillus thuringiensis. 53.6% of the isolates were recovered from samples from farms in Machakos district and 46.4% from the intertidal brackish sediments from the Gazi coastal mangroves of Kenya. This shows that Bt is also present in soils which are under constant cultivation and those lying fallow within the intertidal brackish sediments

2011

2009

2008

2004

2003

Ochanda, JO, Chassy M.  2003.  Trends in Food Science & Technology.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD.  2003.  Ogoyi DO, Achieng D, Nguu EK, Ochanda JO.Partial characterisation of a trypanosome-lysing factor from the midgut of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.East Afr Med J. 2003 Nov;80(11):575-80.. East Afr Med J. 2003 Nov;80(11):575-80.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  2003.  A member of International Council for Science (ICSU) task force that has produced an ICSU monograph on: Genetically Modified Foods for Human Health and Nutrition: The Scientific Basis for Benefit/Risk Assessment ( Published in Trends in Food Science and T. Trends in Food Science and Technology 14: 191 . : East African Medical Journal Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  2003.  Howarth E. Bouis, Bruce M. Chassy and James O. Ochanda. Genetically modified food crops and their contribution to human nutrition and food quality.. Trends in Food Science and Technology 14: 191 . : East African Medical Journal Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.

2002

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  2002.  A member of the National Biosafety Committee task force constituted by the National Council of Science and Technology to develop and produce the Biotechnology Policy document for Kenya.. East Afr Med J. 2003 Nov;80(11):575-80.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.

2000

Ochanda, JO, Oduor EAC, GALUN R, Imbuga MO, Mumcuoglu KY.  2000.  Partial purification of the aminopeptidase from the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. AbstractPartial purification of the aminopeptidase from the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus

The midgut of the human body louse Pediculus humanus humanus contains a thermally stable leucine aminopeptidase, which was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis using l-amino oxidase. Midgut extracts were homogenized in saline or in 1% Triton X-100 and the aminopeptidase was purified by Superose 6 gel filtration chromatography. A peak with enzyme activity that was extracted with or without Triton X-100 was eluted at a molecular weight 67–69 kDa. Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved one band of molecular weight of 69 kDa for samples that were extracted in a saline buffer. Two closely linked bands of molecular weight 67 kDa and 69 kDa were observed in samples that were extracted in 1% Triton X-100.

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  2000.  Ogoyi, D.O. and Ochanda, J.O. Bacillus thuringiensis: State of usage by small scale farmers in Kenya.. Presented at the PanAfrican hotel, Nairobi, Kenya (29th Feb to 3rd March, 2000). : East African Medical Journal Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.

1999

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1999.  Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M.,Ochanda,J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O. Biodegradation of DDT: The Role of Pleurotus sp., a lignicolous fungus. In Bioremediation of Nitroaromatic and Haloaromatic Compounds:. Proceedings of the fifth international in situ and on . : East African Medical Journal Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.

1998

Ochanda, JO, Oduor EAC, Galun R, Imbuga MO, Mumcuoglu KY.  1998.  Partial characterization and post‐feeding activity of midgut aminopeptidase in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. AbstractPartial characterization and post‐feeding activity of midgut aminopeptidase in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus

A leucine aminopeptidase was found in the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Anoplura: Pediculidae). The enzyme is activated by the bloodmeal with a pH optimum at 8. The enzyme is soluble in both aqueous and detergent-containing solutions. The two forms of the enzyme had the same Km but exhibited different catalytic activities with regard to Vmax values in these solutions. The enzyme is inhibited competitively by a substrate analogue 1,10-phenanthroline and by Mn2+ ions in the presence and absence of detergent.

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1998.  Ochanda, J. O. Containment specification for micro-organisms, plants and animals.. In proceedings of the National workshop on regulations and guidelines for safety in Biotechnology for. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1998.  Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M., Ochanda,J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O. Biodegradation of DDT(1,1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis)(4-Chlorophenyl) ethene by the white not fungus Pleurotus Luteoalbus leeli.. First Meeting of Federation of African Society Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Page (233-236). : East African Medical Journal Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1998.  Ochanda,J.O., Oduor, EAC.,Mumcuoglu,K.Y., Imbuga,M.O, Oduol,V.O BenYakir, and Galun, R. Characterization of body louse midgut proteins. Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Page (305-314). Proceedings of the fifth international in situ and on . : East African Medical Journal Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1998.  Ochanda,J.O., Oduor, E.A.C., Imbuga, M.O., Galun, R. and Mumcuoglu, K.Y. Partial characterization and post-feeding activity of midgut aminopeptidase in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. Physiol. Entomol. 23, 382-387.. Proceedings of the fifth international in situ and on . : East African Medical Journal Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.

1997

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1997.  Mumcuoglu KY, Ben-Yakir D, Ochanda JO, Miller J, Galun R.Immunization of rabbits with faecal extract of Pediculus humanus, the human body louse: effects on louse development and reproduction.Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8.. Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1997.  Mumcuoglu,K.Y., Ben-Yakir, D.,Ochanda,J.O., Miller,J. and Galun, R. Immunization of rabbits with a feacal extract of the human body louse,Pediculus humanus humanus :. the effect of induced resistance on the louse population: Med. Vet. Entomol. 11, 315-318.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.

1996

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1996.  Ochanda JO, Mumcuoglu KY, Ben-Yakir D, Okuru JK, Oduol VO, Galun R.Characterization of body louse midgut proteins recognized by resistant hosts.Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Jan;10(1):35-8.. Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Jan;10(1):35-8.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1996.  Mumcuoglu KY, Rahamim E, Ben-Yakir D, Ochanda JO, Galun R.Localization of immunogenic antigens on midgut of the human body louse Pediculus humanus humanus (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol. 1996 Jan;33(1):74-7. J Med Entomol. 1996 Jan;33(1):74-7. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
Immunogenic midgut antigens of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., were localized using rabbit antisera against a louse-midgut extract followed by a 2nd antibody conjugated to either fluorescein or colloidal gold. Strong fluorescence was observed on the outer membrane of the epithelial cell of the midgut. The immunogold technique revealed that most of the antigens were localized on the microvilli of the midgut cells. Small numbers of gold particles were also seen in the gut lumen and within the cell cytoplasm. Only a few gold particles were seen in the lumen of the gut sections incubated with control sera.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1996.  Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Proceedings of the First Pan-African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2nd-6th September, 1996, Nairobi, Kenya. Edited by J.O. Ochanda., J. K. Kiaira and D.W Makawiti. Published by Biochemical Society of Kenya. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1996.  Mumcuoglu,K.Y., BenYakir, D., Ochanda,J.O. and Galun, R. Immunogenic proteins in the body and feacal material of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus and their homology to antigens of other lice species: Medical and Veterinary Entomology.10, 10. Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1996.  Ochanda,J.O. Mumcuoglu,K.Y.,Ben-Yakir,D; Okuru,J.K. Oduol,V.O and Galun, R. Characterization and properties of louse midgut antigenic protein recognized by resistance host: Medical and Veterinary Entomology 10, 35-38.. Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.

1995

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1995.  Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M.,Ochanda,J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O., Biodegradation properties of white rot-fungi in Karura, Forest, Kenya- workshop on fungal diversity in Subsaharan ecosystems and their role in rural development. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 29th Novembe. Skin Research, January 19, Bellinson Hospital, Petach Tikva. Israel J. of Med. Science Vol 31,pp 66.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1995.  Mumcuoglu,K.Y., BenYakir, D., Ochanda,J.O. and Galun, R. Development of a vaccine against human lice . Ann. Meeting Israel Soc.. Skin Research, January 19, Bellinson Hospital, Petach Tikva. Israel J. of Med. Science Vol 31,pp 66.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

1994

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD.  1994.  Olembo NK, Nguu EK, Ochanda JO, Ochieng VO.Inhibition of bloodmeal digestion in glossina morsitans fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse midgut homogenate.East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):651-5. East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):651-5. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
The efficacy of bloodmeal digestion in teneral Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extracts was progressively monitored over a period of 96 hours. Flies fed on immunized rabbits showed reduced rate of bloodmeal digestion as compared to the controls. Although there was insignificant difference in the rate of bloodmeal digestion upto 24 hours post-feeding in later stages of digestion there was quite a significant difference. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of bloodmeal drawn from the posterior sections of the midgut demonstrated that, bloodmeal is completely degraded in the midgut after 96 hours in the control flies, while substantial amount is still undigested in the experimental flies. However, not much difference in the rates of digestion was observed with bloodmeal drawn from the anterior section of the midgut. These results suggests that when flies are fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extract, there is an impairment on the efficiency of digestion. The anti-midgut antibodies could be interfering with either the induction or proteolytic activity of the midgut enzymes.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1994.  Mumcuoglu,K.Y.,Ochanda,J.O.,Ben-Yakir,D.,Klaus,S.,Okuro,J.K., Oduol,V.O. and Galun, R. Characterization and properties of body louse midgut antigenic proteins recognised by resistant host.. Eighth International congress of parasitology. 10th-14th October, IZRMIR- TURKEY.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1994.  Ochanda,J.O., Mumcuoglu,K.Y., BenYakir,D., Okuro,J.K., Oduor,E.C.A., Oduol,V.O. and Galun, R. Characterization and properties of body louse midgut antigenic proteins recognized by resistant host.. The 2nd Federation of African Immunological Societies (FAIS) October, 23-27, Hotel Intercontinental Nairobi, Kenya (In Proceedings of, African Journal of Health Science. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1994.  Wamunyokoli F., Osir;E.O., Ochanda, J.O., and Olembo, N.K: Studies of Bacillus thuringiensis S- endo-toxin active against Aedes egypti larvae.. In Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium Biotechnology for Rapid Development in Africa held at ILRI Nairobi on 17-21 February 1992 PP 279-288.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1994.  Ben-Yakir,D; Mumcuoglu, K.Y;Manor, Ochanda,J.O;Okuro, and Galun, R. Immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus):. The effect of the induced resistance on the louse population: Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 8, 114-118.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

1993

O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1993.  Ochieng VO, Osir EO, Ochanda JO, Olembo NK.Temporal synthesis of cuticle proteins during larval development in Glossina morsitans. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jun;105(2):309-16. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jun;105(2):309-16. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
1. Larval development in Glossina species occurs in utero with the mature third instar larva being deposited after a developmental period of 7 days. 2. In this study, the patterns of cuticular protein synthesis during larval development were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 3. From the results, four types of cuticle proteins were identified: those specific to larval, pupal and adult cuticles, and others common to all the stages. 4. Few cuticular proteins were synthesized between the first and second larval instars. By the third larval instar (two days before larviposition), a large number of proteins (Mr < or = 30 kDa) were induced. These proteins persisted up to the brown pupal stage and showed a rapid decline thereafter. Most of the proteins with molecular weights Mr < or = 30 kDa were undetectable at apolysis (5 days after larviposition). 5. By day 15 of the pupal stage, the number of cuticle proteins was very small. The protein profile during the pupal stages remained relatively constant. This was probably due to the fact that the pupal cuticle does not provide any protection since it is itself enclosed at all times within the protective puparium.
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1993.  Ochanda,J.O., Ogema, M. and Thitai, G. Policy needs to increase Agricultural production through Biotechnology:. Proceedings of the National Agricultural Biotechnology Workshop; Kenya Agricultural Biotechnology Platform Ed. Wekundah J.M and Visser B: 99 107-116; 13th-16th September, 1993, SAFARI PARK HOTEL ,NAIROBI, KENYA.. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
Abstract in proceedings of Biotech SA 93 held at Rhodes University, 31 January-3 February 1993
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1993.  Ochanda, J.O., Okuro, J.K., Oduor, E.A.C., Mumcuoglu, K.Y.,Ben-Yakir,D. and Galun, R. Characterization of Louse gut antigenic proteins recognized by resistant laboratory hosts. Induction of resistance to lice by Immunization.. East African Medical Journal Vol. 71. No.10 Page, 35-39. James Opiyo Ochanda, PhD 14. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
Abstract in proceedings of Biotech SA 93 held at Rhodes University, 31 January-3 February 1993
O., PROFOCHANDAJAMES.  1993.  Olembo, N.K., Nguu, E.K., Ochanda,J.O. and Ochieng, V.O. Inhibition of bloodmeal digestion in tsetse fly Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse midgut proteins:. East African Medical Journal Vol. 71. No.10 Page, 35-39. James Opiyo Ochanda, PhD 14. : East African Medical Journal Abstract
The efficacy of bloodmeal digestion in teneral Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extracts was progressively monitored over a period of 96 hours. Flies fed on immunized rabbits showed reduced rate of bloodmeal digestion as compared to the controls. Although there was insignificant difference in the rate of bloodmeal digestion upto 24 hours post-feeding in later stages of digestion there was quite a significant difference. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of bloodmeal drawn from the posterior sections of the midgut demonstrated that, bloodmeal is completely degraded in the midgut after 96 hours in the control flies, while substantial amount is still undigested in the experimental flies. However, not much difference in the rates of digestion was observed with bloodmeal drawn from the anterior section of the midgut. These results suggests that when flies are fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extract, there is an impairment on the efficiency of digestion. The anti-midgut antibodies could be interfering with either the induction or proteolytic activity of the midgut enzymes.

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