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Publications


2014

Dr. Okeyo, JO.  2014.  The Impact of Water Sector Reforms on Women’s Access to Water Services in Lake Victoria Basin. Public Policy and Administration Review. 2( 3):65-82. AbstractThe Impact of Water Sector Reforms on Women’s Access to Water Services in Lake Victoria Basin

This paper assesses whether by commercializing the provision of water services as part of water
sector reforms, the government has reneged on its promise to provide water to its citizens as a
basic human right. The study used secondary data and primary data from a household survey of
288 respondents, seven Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), and 28 Key Informant interviews
from seven (7) WSPs, namely, Mogombet, Chemosit, Boya, KIWASCO, SNWSCO, MIKUTRA
and Nyasare of the Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB) umbrella. The study was
conducted through human rights approach under governance theory, positing that the
government in as much as it receives either resistance or competition from other interacting
actors, still has an obligation to provide basic services, water provision included, to its citizens.
The study used both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the collected data. The
techniques included use of content analysis of secondary data, frequency tables and cross
tabulations to measure the central tendencies and dispersions. The main findings were that water
sector reforms has not benefited the consumers of water services in general, and women in
particular. Instead it has impoverished the population further as expressed in the form of
increased proportion of household income on water expenses. Secondly the government has
concentrated more on regulatory and distributive aspects of water service provision than
producing more water for increased access to a greater number of population, implying that more
women still do not access quality water in the right quantity at the right time. The study
recommended that , the “Service Provider” role of the state should be changed to that of a
regulator and facilitator of services at the Counties’ level for increased popular participation in the
governance of water provision services through community and private operators as well. This
will therefore enhance the participation of women in the local level governance of water services,
hence, increased access to water by virtue of being active participants in the determination of
ownership, distributive, and management processes of water.

2013

Obosi, J.  2013.  The Public Service Delivery Challenge: A Public-Private Sector Partnership In Water Service Provision In The Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. , Nairobi: University of Nairobi Abstractphd_thesis.-_joseph_okeyo_obosi_.pdf

The study investigated how public-private partnership arrangements have perfomed in the provision of water services in Kenya. This is with a view to explain the extent to which this increasingly preferred public service delivery approach has improved access to water in terms of coverage, affordability, quality of water and customer service.

The broad objective of the study was to investigate outcomes of the Private -Public Partnership policy for provision of water as a public good as a challenge in Kenya. Specific objectives are as follows: First, to analyze the nature and scope of Public- Private Partnership arrangements in the water sector; secondly, to examine the gains from organizational managerial strategies in the provision of water services, and finally, to analyse appropriate interventions adopted to enhance the accessibility of water services notably by vulnerable consumers.

The study used secondary data and primary data from a household survey of 288 respondents, seven (7) Focus Group Discussions, and 28 Key informant interviews from seven (7) WSPs (Mogombet, Chemosit, Boya, KIWASCO, SNWSCO, MIKUTRA and Nyasare) of the Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB) umbrella. The study was conducted under two mutually reinforcing theories: governance theory and public choice theory. We used both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the data. The techniques included use of content analysis of secondary data, frequency tables and cross tabulations to measure the central tendencies and dispersions.

The main finding was that public institutions that have adopted more private sector participation have performed better than those that have not, hence the more the public private sector partnership, the better the quality of public service delivery.
Highlights of findings specificically include the following: that there are various stakeholders, both institutional and individual involved in water service provision either through interventions or as facilitators, for example, the government through WSTF provides funds to community water projects in the provision of water services.; there is more private participation independence as WSPs increasingly become less involved together with the government in service operations and management; the existing policy on organization of water resources management does not guarantee effective popular participation given the formal governance structure; community water projects with more public private sector participation implemented better, on average, the required managerial strategies such as Enterprise Design; Operational roles; Network management; and Human resource functions.

The study recommended first, a realignment of the national water regulatory agency (WSRB) to be in charge of both service provision and resource management. Secondly, the “Service Provider” role of the state should be changed to that of a regulator of services and facilitator. The idea is to make a shift which necessitates strengthening of institutions responsible for planning, implementation and management of water resources. Water service operation should be left to the community and private operators. Third, the Water Service Trust Fund (WSTF) funding level should be enhanced substantially to finance community or private water operators with viable proposals to provide water to the community without having to go through Water Service Boards.

2011

Obosi, OJ.  2011.  Public Private Partnetships in the Privatization of Water Service Delivery in Kenya. Current Issues of Water Management. , Rijeka: Intech Abstract

Key words: Public - Private Partnerships, Privatization, Water service delivery
The Government of Kenya has introduced several water reforms in the provision of
water services since independence in 1963. The Local Government Act Chapter 165
of the laws of Kenya granted local authorities powers to engage in water services
provision especially in urban areas (Republic of Kenya, 1986b). The Water Act of
2002 introduced far reaching reforms in the water sector in terms of management and
provision services. It commercialized the provision of water services by forming
Public Limited Companies (PLCs) owned by respective local authorities. It also
allowed private sector participation in the provision of services. Individual companies
and communities have also been permitted to seek license from Water Services
Regulatory Board (WSRB) to provide water services to the public. Among the
private sector actors are independent water service Providers in the form of
community water projects, Private bore-holes, Water tankers, and Water kiosks.
Community water projects request for funds for putting up water projects from a state
organ known as Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF), hence the Public –Private
Partnerships. The paper examines the effectiveness of the existing policy and
institutional framework for the management of privatized water service delivery.
The paper particularly examines institutional monitoring mechanisms in ensuring
clean quality water is supplied to the unsuspecting poor. Are there clear mechanisms
in which the public through the state institutions regulate the water service provision
by private actors, as a requirement, before water is released to the public? How can
the private sector be made accountable for offering public goods.
The study has drawn its data from secondary data of randomly selected ten (10)
independent water service providers registered under two of the eight (8) Water
Service Boards (WSBs) in Kenya, namely, Rift Valley Water Service Board
(RVVWSB), and Athi Water Service Board (AWSB). The data was drawn from the
existing secondary data and was analyzed through content Analysis.
The paper has utilized the World Bank framework for the provision of transaction
intensive services as its analytical framework where water is taken as a transactionintensive
service with ministry of Water Development and Irrigation being policy
maker. Provider organizations include Water Resource Management authority
(WRMA), Water Service Regulatory board (WSRB), and Water Service Boards
(WSBs) as water providers. Water Service Providers (WSPs) are agents of WSBs.
WSPs include PLCs registered by the respective local authorities, and independent
ones including Community Water projects, and Water Kiosks.
The paper is expected to among others, identify and explain some role overlaps
between WRMA and WSBs since both can set water tariffs and there are weak
institutional arrangements to monitor the effectiveness and efficiency in the
operations of the independent water service providers.

2003

Obosi, JO.  2003.  The provincial administration and the Democratisation of development process In kenya. , Nairobi: University of Nairobi Abstractmath.pdfma_thesis.pdf

This study is an attempt to investigate the emergence of the new actors such as Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and (Peoples Organizations) POs in the development space and their impact on the developmental role of the Provincial Administration in Kenya. The following objectives were formulated: First, to investigate the nature of the relationship between the civil society (NGOs and POs) as new actors in the development process, and the Provincial Administration (PA). Second, to examine the current development tasks of the Provincial Administration. Thirdly, to examine the impact of the democratization of the development process on PA with specific reference to the development activities of a given locality, and fourth, to investigate the impact of the emergence of the new actors (NGOs and POs) in the development space on popular participation.
This was done within the theoretical framework of development theories including statism and public or political choice. The study did not however lose sight of the fact that development still attracts both academic and policy debates that definitely have a bearing on the formulation of both development theory and/or policy in the light of the shifting world development thinking.

The study used both secondary data, and primary data obtained from surveys conducted in Nyamira, Nairobi and Migori districts in Kenya. The sample survey comprised a total of seventy-two respondents from all the three districts. The secondary data was analysed by use of content analysis. The survey data was coded and analyzed through cross tabulations of the frequencies and the results presented in table statistics form.

The main findings of the study were as follows: First, the increased democratization of the development process has called for a greater role for the Provincial Administration in development activities, especially in areas of security, advisory and mobilization of the local public. Secondly, it was found that an enhanced level of co-ordination of various project activities in the locality, liaison with other governmental agencies on behalf of local POs and NGOs are some of the new roles of the Provincial Administration. This is besides the traditional routine law and order roles of provision of security and mobilization of local population. Thirdly, the level of involvement of Provincial Administration is directly proportional to the level of popular participation in the development activities. Finally, the study found out that the level of involvement of civil society in the development activities is directly proportional to the level of popular participation in the development process provided the necessary level of party affiliation and involvement of Provincial Administration is sustained.

Finally, the study has recommended further research on the policy implementation consequences of liberalization of security arrangements and the role to be played by the Provincial Administration, and the need to investigate the impact of significant rise in the number of political parties on popular participation. The study recommended to the policy makers, especially government to consider: the training and retraining of Provincial Administrators to attain the required standards of professionalism; initiate and support policies to make development a shared responsibility of the PA and POs as the key players at the local level, and finally to formulate development policies tailored to different areas reflecting the socio-economic structural forms, wishes and needs of all the local stakeholders.

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