Publications


2014

2013

Ongoma, V, Muthama NJ, Gitau W.  2013.  Evaluation of Urbanization Influences on Urban Winds of Kenyan Cities. AbstractWebsite

Most cities in Africa’s developing countries are evidently growing leading to significant modification on climate over the cities that affect human comfort and his environment. Proper urban atmospheric planning and management are thus key to making cities environmentally sustainable. To achieve all these, urban weather and climate needs continuous monitoring to offer accurate, reliable and timely update of any significant changes. This study examined the modification of wind speed and direction by urbanization process. There is need to understand the modification of wind since the wind spped and direction greatly affects dispersion of pollutants in the city and distribution of heat which affect human comfort. The study utilized land surface albedo, decadal population data and daily wind speeds and direction. The wind was analyzed using wind rose plot and the population and albedo analyzed by carrying out trend analysis. The urbanization is evidenced by the reducing urban land surface reflectivity and the increasing population. Wind direction does not show modification by urbanization, however, its magnitude has exhibited a reduction with time. The reduction in wind speed is harmful to human and animal comfort and the environment at large. Practical approaches such as proper planning of the cities to minimize further modification by urbanization have been made. The choice of residential and industrial places is also emphasized with regard to these findings. The findings of this work are thus important for multi-sectoral use in the urban centres in Kenya.

Manene, MM, Muthama NJ, Ndetei CJ.  2013.  Use Of Polynomial Fit To Predict Seasonal Rainfall In Nairobi, Kenya.
Ongoma, V, Muthama NJ, Gitau W.  2013.  Evaluation of urbanization influences on urban temperature of Nairobi City, Kenya. Global Meteorology. 2(e1):01-05.

2012

2011

2008

Muthama, NJ, Manene MM, Ndetei CJ.  2008.  Simulation of Decadal Precipitation over Nairobi in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

In investigating Kenya rainfall variability and its relationship to other climatic elements it has become imperative to analyze the irregularly distributed rainfall events in time. To meet this requirement, this study used a stepwise regression technique. The study seeks to improve existing rainfall monitoring and prediction in Nairobi. Monthly rainfall data was fitted to several mathematical functions. The best mathematical model which best simulated the March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall over the three stations of analysis was chosen using a stepwise regression technique. The value of R-squared for the best fit was computed to show the percentage of rainfall information that is explained by the variation in the independent (time) variable. From the results obtained, the stepwise regression technique selected the fourth degree polynomial as the best fit for analyzing the March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall data set. Solar cycle period of ten (10) years was employed to get the fourth degree polynomial variables. Hence from the study, it can be deducted that the 4th degree polynomial function can be used to predict the peak and the general pattern of seasonal rainfall over Nairobi, with acceptable error values. This information can be used in the planning and management of water resources over Nairobi. The same information can be extended to other areas.

2006

Muthama, N.  2006.  The Influence of weather on the Insurance industry in Nairobi. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science and Engineering Series Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 112 . : Eastern and South African Journal AbstractWebsite

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

2005

O., OUMAG, N MUTHAMAJ, O. OPEREA.  2005.  Validation of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates: The Ethiopian Case Study. Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

2004

N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2004.  Probability Modelling of climate Data. Importance of Mathematical modelling of Biological and Biomedical processes. African society of Biomathematics Series 1, edited by L. S. Luboobi, J.Y.T. Mugisha and J. Kasozi, Kampala:Makerere university press, ISBN 9970- 418-14-3, pp. 133-137, 2004.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

2003

Muthama, NJ, Oludhe C, Ouma. GO.  2003.  A simple model for determining the potential risks of lightning strokes over the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa. AbstractWebsite

environs. Ground based and Satellite-derived meteorological data were utilized in this study and included thunder events, total rainfall, number of rainy days, maximum rainfall in 24 hours, relative humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, wind speed and direction and Cold Cloud Duration (CCD). In the context of disaster management, the synergistic approach to risk management involves four closely related phases, one of which is the scientific analysis of specific hazard. This is the phase addressed in this study. A risk indicator based on physical and statistical characteristics of thunderstorms at the two locations was developed by examining the patterns of deviations from the mean thunderstorm events and their frequencies. Various aspects of the lightning risks at the two areas are described and discussed. Model results indicate that higher risks of lightning stroke occurred during the long rains season (March to May) as compared to the short rains (September to November) season. This was attributed to higher frequency of thunderclouds during the long rains season. The rain generating mechanisms during the long rains were observed to have higher frequencies of thunder events. The dry season (December to February and June to August) exhibits lowest lightning stroke risks. It is hoped that the results from this study may be of use to the various sectors of economy that need to take into account the dangers/risks of lightning strokes into their day to day operations so as to minimise or avert disasters from lightning strokes. Some of the sectors that may benefit from the results of this study include the Kenya Oil Refinery Depots, Kenya Power and Lighting Company, the Chemical and construction industries among others

N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2003.  Total Ozone Measurements during cloudy conditions using Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer at Nairobi. J. Afric.Met.Soc.Vol. 6. No.1., pp 14-22, 2003.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2003.  A simple atmospheric systems 'risk indicator' model: Application to fog hazards at Nairobi's Jomo Kenyatta International Airport:. International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol 11&12 (Nos. 1& 2) 2003.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
CHRISTOPHER, DROLUDHE, N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2003.  Equatorial Total ozone as a predictor of sea surface temperatures useful for East African seasonal rainfall prediction.. J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol. 6. No. 2, pp 1-10, 2003.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2003.  Equatorial Total ozone as a predictor of sea surface temperature. J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol. 6 . No. 2, pp 1-10,. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2003.  Towards estimating Ultraviolet Radiation using Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer.. J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol 6. No. 1, pp 43-49, 2003.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2003.  Chapter 4. Global ozone: Past and Future.. In UNEP/WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, pp. 4.1-4.9, 2003.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

2002

N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2002.  Muthama, N. J. Precipitation estimation based on satellite data.. Proceedings of the Pre-climate outlook Forum Capacity building, January - February 2002, Nairobi.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, O PROFOWINOJOHN.  2002.  Harmonization of climate outlooks in Africa: Verification of user products.. J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol.5. No. 2 pp 81-89, 2002.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

2001

N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2001.  Muthama, N. J.: Systematic errors in modelling total ozone over a locality in the tropics: Relationship between Ground based Dobson ozone data and TOMS total ozone over Nairobi.. Proceedings of Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) 2001 Symposium, Arcachon - France, 24-27 September 2001.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

2000

N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2000.  Muthama, :N. J, 2000: Lake Victoria basin air-pollution dynamics and related disease patterns: consideration on poverty alleviation.. Proceedings on the workshop on Sustainable Environmental Management for poverty alleviation in the Lake Victoria Basin 27-29 March 2000, Maseno College, Kisumu.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2000.  Muthama, N. J. Modelling Ultraviolet radiation using Dobson ozone spectrophotometer.. Proceedings of the quadrennial ozone symposium, Sapporo, July 2000.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2000.  Muthama, N. J.: A simple atmospheric systems risk indicator model: Application to fog hazards and exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation.. Proceedings of the Fifth Kenya Meteorological workshop on Meteorological research, application and services, Mombasa Kenya, 7-11 October, 2000.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2000.  Muthama, N. J.: A simple atmospheric systems risk indicator model: Application to fog hazards and exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation. Proceedings of the Fifth Kenya Meteorological workshop on Meteorological research, application and services, Mombasa Kenya, 7-11 October, 2000.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  2000.  Muthama, N. J. Total ozone as a Stratospheric indicator of climate variability and change over East African tropical region.. Proceedings of the SPARC 2000 2nd general assembly of the SPARC/WCRP PROJECT, Mar Del Plata - November 2000.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

1999

N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1999.  Muthama, N. J.: Atmospheric ozone, Science News ,Vol. 1 :No.. Proceedings of the IMTR/UON/WMO international workshop on Related Numerical Weather Prediction, 6-17 Dec., 1999, Nairobi, Kenya.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1999.  Muthama, N. J., Application models using Numerical Weather Prediction : Pollution models.. Proceedings of the IMTR/UON/WMO international workshop on Related Numerical Weather Prediction, 6-17 Dec., 1999, Nairobi, Kenya.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1999.  Muthama, N. J., Application models using Numerical Weather Prediction : Agricultural models.. Proceedings of the IMTR/UON/WMO international workshop on Related Numerical Weather Prediction, 6-17 Dec., 1999, Nairobi, Kenya.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

1998

N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1998.  Muthama, N. J., 1998: Estimation of ultraviolet radiation using Dobson spectrophotometer,. Proceedings of the Fourth Kenya Meteorological workshop on Meteorological research, application and services, Mombasa Kenya, 7-11 Sept. 1998.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

1996

N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1996.  Muthama N. J.: Impacts of ozone depletion, The Weatherman, No.18, pp1. Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Architecture and Environmentally Sensitive, Sustainable development, Nairobi, 25-26 July 1996. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1996.  Muthama N. J.: The threat to ozone layer, The Weatherman, No.16, pp1. Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Architecture and Environmentally Sensitive, Sustainable development, Nairobi, 25-26 July 1996. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1996.  Muthama N. J. and G. O. Ouma: An evaluation of atmospheric environmental quality of Nairobi for use in urban planning and architectural design. .. Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Architecture and Environmentally Sensitive, Sustainable development, Nairobi, 25-26 July 1996. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1996.  Mutemi, N. J. and N. J. Muthama: A simple atmospheric model for use in agroforestry research.. Proceedings of the, E.A. Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 1996.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

1995

1994

N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1994.  Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama, E. Piervitali and S. Palmieri: Solar ultra violet radiation measurements at Rome using Brewer MKIV spectrophotometer no. 67. .. Internal publication "Nota interna", Physics department, University of Rome "La Sapienza", January 1994. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N, PROFMUTHAMAJOHN.  1994.  Pilozzi, A., A.M. Siani, Palmieri, S., N. J. Muthama, Cross-relationship between a long series of rainfall and other parallel series of various meteorological parameters.. Proceedings of the International Conference on Contemporary Climatology, Brno, August, 1994.. : Eastern and South African Journal Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

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