Bio

Publications


2017

Gitari, A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E.  2017.  Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya. Veterinary World. 10(10):1255-1263.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O.  2017.  Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 65:435-443.
Samuillah, MH, Varma V, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E.  2017.  Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014). International Journal of Veterinary Science. 6(2):81-85.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G.  2017.  Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows. International Journal of Veterinary Science. 6(2):64-69.
Nancy-Mills, A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M.  2017.  Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 4(2):1075.

2016

Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia, P.G., W O.  2016.  ): Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 51
Gitari, A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mwangi W, Konde A, Rashid F.  2016.  Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya. International Journal of Veterinary Science. 5(4):250-255.

2015

Nguhiu J, P M F M, Mbuthia P G.  2015.  Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Smallholder Zero-grazing Units. , Saarbrucken, Germany: Scholars' Press
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, P M, W O.  2015.  Prevalence of indigestible rumen foreign bodies in sheep and goats at Dagoretti and Kiserian abattoirs, Kenya. International Journal of Veterinary Science. 4(2):75-80.
J, M, E M, Nguhiu J.  2015.  complications associated with anaesthesia in small animal practice in Nairobi County, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian . 39(1):27-32.

2014

Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E MPGOW.  2014.  A retrospective study on the prevalence of plastic materials in the rumen of sheep and goats in Nairobi, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 62(3):197-205.
P, K, Nguhiu J, E M.  2014.  Awareness and practice of claw trimming in cows within smallholder zero-grazing dairy units in Kikuyu district, Kenya: a survey study. International Journal of Veterinary Science. 3(3):139-141.
and Mwangi W E, Mogoa E M, N-MMJCM.  2014.  Effects of epidural Ketamine, Xylazine and their combination on body temperature in acepromazine-sedated dogs. . International Journal of Advanced Research. 2(4):336-340.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, N-MMCMJ.  2014.  The hematological and cardiopulmonary effects of epidural xylazine, lidocaine and their combination in acepromazine sedated dogs.. International Journal of Veterinary Science. 3(2):46-51.

2013

Nguhiu J, JW A, E M, P M F M.  2013.  Indicators of poor welfare in dairy cows within smallholder zero-grazing units in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya. Insights From Veterinary Medicine. , Rijeka Croatia: InTech Open Science Publishers
Mbithi, PM;, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN.  2013.  Veterinary handbook on Routine Operative Surgical Procedures. Website

2012

Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G.  2012.  Risk factors for non-infectious claw disorders in dairy cows under varying zero-grazing systems. A Bird's-Eye View of Veterinary Medicine. , Rijeka Croatia: InTech Open Science Publishers
Aleri, JW;, Nguhiu JM;, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM.  2012.  Challenges In The Smallholder (zero - Grazing) Production Systems Of Nairobi And Its Environs: A Welfare Perspective..
Aleri, JW, Mogoa EM, Mulei CM.  2012.  Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

2011

2009

P M F, M, Nguhiu J, CM M.  2009.  Basic Principles of Veterinary Surgery. , Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press

2008

Nguhiu-Mwangi, J, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG, Mbithi PMF.  2008.  Retrospective study of foot conditions in dairy cows in urban and periurban areas of Kenya. Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to determine categories, patterns and outcomes of foot conditions in dairy cows from smallholder units in and around Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis was done on 625 hospital case records of dairy cows admitted and treated for foot conditions from 1981 to 2006 at the Large Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. The records were from cows that had been through one or more parities. Data included type of foot lesion, the affected limb and the claw, and the outcome of treatment. Relative percentages of the foot lesions were computed. Foot lesions with the highest percentages of occurrence were interdigital necrobacillosis (36%), interdigital fibroma (12%) and sole abscess (11%). Others with lower percentages included trauma (8%), claw overgrowth (7%), sole necrosis (severely eroded and necrotized horn of the sole) (6%), septic fetlock arthritis (6%) and septic pedal arthritis (5%). Laminitis and related claw lesions, such as double soles and heel erosion had less than 1% occurrence. The hind feet were affected in 75% of the cases, from which 83% of the lesions involved outer claws. The fore feet were involved in 16% of the cases, of which 57% of the lesions affected inner claws. Simultaneous involvement of both fore and hind feet occurred in only 2% of the cases and 6% of the cows had more than one foot lesion. A total of 90% of the cows were healed after treatment, 6% were slaughtered and 4% died. The results of this study indicated that a high percentage of cases of foot conditions referred to the Animal Hospital from smallholder dairy units in and around Nairobi were infective and a lower percentage was laminitic. We recommend that a farm-level prospective study be conducted in the same area to verify this status.

2007

J, N-M, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G.  2007.  Radiographic features of laminitic claws of dairy cows around Nairobi.. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the common radiographic features in laminitic claws from dairy cows using abattoir samples. A total of 192 claws were collected from Wangige slaughter slab and 126 claws from Kiserian abattoir. The claws were examined for gross lesions. Dorso-palmar/ dorso-plantar and lateral radiographic exposures of each clawwere taken and evaluated for radiographic changes. Subclinical and chronic laminitis was respectively present in 35% and 21% of the claws examined and 44% of the claws showed extreme deformities. Concurrent appearance of lesions was in 27% of the claws.Radiographic changes were observed in the pedal bones but not in the adjacent joints. Dilated vascular channels (61%) and prominently visible non-dilated vascular channels (24%) in the pedal bones were observed in subclinical and chronic laminitis. The most frequently observed radiographic changes in pedal bones were: irregular (serrated) margins (14%), exostoses (8%), and narrowing (6%), complete absence (3%) or partial absence (1%) of its apex.Other changes on the pedal bones were: rotation (4%), "dropping (sinking)" (3%), fissure fractures (2%), periostitis (1%) and osteolysis (1%). Most of these radiographic changes were seen in claws that had chronic laminitis with extreme deformities. It is concluded that radiographic changes in laminitis occur during the chronic phase and are most severe when concurrent extreme deformities of the claws are present.

2006

NGUHIU, DRMWANGIJAMESA.  2006.  J. Nguhiu-Mwangi; P.M.F. Mbithi; J.K. Wabacha; and P.G. Mbuthia. Sole haemorrhage is the most diagnostic sign of subclinical and chronic laminitis in cattle.Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2006 special. issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . : University of Nairobi Abstract
{ The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2
NGUHIU, DRMWANGIJAMESA.  2006.  Nguhiu-Mwangi, J. and Tsigadi, S.A. Categorizing Wounds to Improve Clinical Management and Prognostic Outcome: A Retrospective Study Kenya Veterinarian: vol 30 (issue 2), 2006).. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi.. : University of Nairobi Abstract
Trauma and surgeries are common causes of wounds that require proper management to prevent complications, economic losses, pain and suffering, death or euthanasia of the affected animals. A retrospective study of 243 wounds in cattle, sheep and goats treated between 1981 and 2006 is described. It describes practical clinical methods of categorizing and correlating wounds based on their management, complications, and prediction of prognosis. Location of a wound in the body is one of the most important factors that determine the mode of management, possible complications and anticipated outcome. Approximately 22% of the wounds were located on the ventral abdomen and thoracic regions and these healed rapidly due to good drainage of exudates. Periarticular and articular wounds constituted 17.3% and required protective and supportive bandages to prevent contamination and minimize movement. Wounds in areas prone to gross contamination constituted 14.3%, took long to heal and had a high incidence of suture dehiscence. The type of wound meant the state in which it was, while the level of tissues involved determined depth. About 46.1% of wounds involved areas with scarcity of tissue and healed slowly, while sepsis and abscessation formed 39.2% of the wounds and healed after prolonged treatment. Wounds involving dense muscular tissue were 23.6% and these healed within 3 weeks of treatment, but skin-deep wounds made 6.7% and healed within 2 weeks. Those involving the bone were 4.5% and took an average of 16 weeks to heal. Bites and gangrenous wounds were unmanageable and frequently resulted in high patient mortality, while partially granulating wounds healed rapidly. Wounds penetrating to any body cavity were best managed closed rather than open. Effective wound management-entailed debridement of deep-seated necrotic tissue, removal of foreign materials or special surgery to enhance drainage. The complicating factors included presence of subcutaneous emphysema, oedema, sepsis, foreign bodies, maggots and abscesses. Location, type and depth of wounds are therefore useful factors for categorizing wounds and these factors influence management and prognostic outcomes.

2004

Nguhiu-Mwangi, Mbithi PMF;, Mulei CM;.  2004.  Handbook of the Principles of General Veterinary Surgery. Website

2001

NGUHIU, DRMWANGIJAMESA.  2001.  Mogoa.E.G.M.;Mbithi,P.M.F.; Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.; Kihurani,D.O (2001):Alpha-2-Adreno captor agonists in veterinary practice. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 22(2001)82-89.. issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . : University of Nairobi Abstract
{ The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2

2000

Aloo, PA, Anam RO, Mwangi JN.  2000.  Metazoan parasites of some commercially important fish along the Kenyan coast. Abstract

The parasitic fauna of some commercial fish species along the Kenyan coast was investigated at four localities between August 2001 and March 2002. The study was carried out to establish the extent of parasitisation of different fish species and quantify the relationship between the parasites and their fish hosts. Fish samples were collected once a month from four landing beaches. Sixteen fish species were examined out of which only eight were infested with ecto-and endo parasites. The infested fish species included: the rabbitfish (Siganus sutor), the mackerels (Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus commerson and Rastrelliger kanarguta), parrot fish (Leptoscarus vagiensis), sardine (Sardinella gibbosa), tuna (Thunnus sp.) and needle fish (Hemiramphus far). Of the eight species, Si. sutor was most infested with parasites while Sardinella and Leptoscarus were primarily infested wit h ectoparasites (isopods). Intensity of infestation increased with age (size), especially in Si. sutor, where very young fish had a low infestation rate, while adults were heavily infested (P < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the intensity of infestation between sexes in Si. sutor (P > 0.05).

J, N-M, P.M.F M, J.K W;, P.G M.  2000.  Risk (Predisposing) Factors for Non-Infectious Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Varying Zero-Grazing Systems. Abstract

Lameness in cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in dairy production systems (Hernandez et al., 2005; Kossaibati & Esslemont, 1997). These losses occur through various negative impact directly on cattle and indirectly on the dairy production system. These include reduced milk yield (Hernandez et al., 2005), discarding of milk due to withdrawal period of drugs used to treat some of the lameness conditions, cost of veterinary drugs and professional services in managing the conditions (Enting et al., 1997), lowered conception rate and increased calving interval (Melendez et al., 2003; Sogstad et al.,2006), reduced ovarian activity during early postpartum period (Garbarino et al., 2004), as well as premature culling and occasional mortalities (Enting et al., 1997). Lameness has also been identified as a major welfare determinant in cattle because of discomfort and pain that it causes (Offer et al., 2000). Claw lesions account for between 60% and 90% of all lameness incidences in cattle in various countries of the world (Bergsten et al., 1994; Manske et al., 2002; Weaver, 2000). More than 60% of lameness in cattle is caused by lesions and disorders affecting the horn of the claw such as sole ulcers, heel erosion, sole bruising, white line separation and underrun (double) soles. All these claw disorders and lesions have a direct or indirect effect on the dermis (corium) of the claw and are associated with laminitis ( Belge & Bakir, 2005; Manske et al., 2002; Nocek, 1997). They are common in cattle raised under intense systems and feedlots (Smilie et al., 1991). Claw horn disorders in cattle are discernible at clinical level by lameness symptoms or at subclinical level by hoof trimming to reveal non-painful lesions within or under the horn (Clarkson et al., 1996; Nocek, 1997). However, adoption of confined housing in dairy cattle husbandry as is the practice in smallholder dairy production systems particularly in developing countries has led to higher incidences of claw disorders. This is mainly due to cattle spending long hours standing on confined hard floors that exposes claws to higher pressures which predispose them to circumscribed excessive local loading, thus stimulating more horn production and enlarging of the claws.

1994

NGUHIU, DRMWANGIJAMESA.  1994.  Kihurani,D.O.;Nantulya,V.M.;Mbiuki,S.M.;Mogoa,E.G.M.;Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A,; Mbithi,P.M.F.(1994):Trypanosome brucei, T.congolemse and T.vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. (1994) 26:95-101.. issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . : University of Nairobi Abstract
{ The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2

1993

NGUHIU, DRMWANGIJAMESA.  1993.  Mande,J.D.;Mbithi, P.M.F.; Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.; Mbiuki, S.M (1993): Cestrum poisoning in a young horse.A case report. Bull. Animl.Hlth.Prod.AFr. (1993) 41(2)139-141.. issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . : University of Nairobi Abstract
{ The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2

1991

Nguhiu-Mwangi, JA, Mbithi PMF, Mbiuki SM.  1991.  Necrosis and sloughing of skin associated with limb cellulitis in four cows and a calf: predisposing causes, treatment and prognosis. Abstract

Four cows and a calf with non-suppurative limb cellulitis were observed subsequently to suffer skin necrosis and sloughing in the affected limbs, either on or distal to the metacarpus or metatarsus. In comparison with six cows with suppurative Corynebacterium pyogenes limb cellulitis, topical therapy or the cases with skin necrosis and sloughing was adequate and the prognosis was good, when compared with the rigorous systemic therapy applied to the cows with suppurative cellulitis, some of which died. The skin necrosis and sloughing resulting from limb cellulitis seemed to be encouraged by the paucity of tissue between the skin and the bone, by the poor vascularity of the area, and by the causative bacteria.

NGUHIU, DRMWANGIJAMESA.  1991.  Munyua, S.J.M.; Nguhiu- Mwangi,J.A.; Njenga, J.; Karioki, D.I.(1991):An outbreak of foot and mouth disease and its socio-economic effects in a herd of pigs in Nairobi, Kenya. Bull.Anim. Hlth.Prod. Afr.(1991) 39(1)51-55).. issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . : University of Nairobi Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU, DRMWANGIJAMESA.  1991.  Nguhiu Mwangi,J.A.;Munyua,S.J.M;Mbithi,P.M.F.;Mbiuki,S.M.;Mogoa,E.G.M.(1991). How to improve the prognosis of ventral Abdominal hernias in large animals: . issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . : University of Nairobi Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU, DRMWANGIJAMESA.  1991.  Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.;Kihurani, D.O.;Mbithi, P.M.F.;Mbiuki,S.M.;Mogoa. E.G.M (1991): Factors used to predict prognosis and economic outcome of surgery for advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (1991) 39(4)435 -439.. issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . : University of Nairobi Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.

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