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In Press
2017
Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Kuete V. "Curcuma longa.". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa Therapeutic Potential against Metabolic, Inflammatory, Infectious and Systemic Diseases. Academic Press; 2017:. Abstract

Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as turmeric, is native to Southwest India with its rhizomes being the source of a bright yellow spice with various medicinal applications. It is widely cultivated throughout the tropics and similarly used for it medicinal value, in the cosmetic industry, and as a dye. Herein, the medicinal potentials of this plant as well as that of one of its bioactive constituents, curcumin, has been compiled. Turmeric can be regarded as a drug for the management of many diseases, such as cancer, inflammations, microbial infections, diabetes, arthritic, muscular disorders, biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, and sinusitis. Curcumin also displayed various pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anticoagulant, antifertility, cardiovascular protective, hepatoprotective, and immunostimulant activities in animals. This chapter provides baseline information to encourage the use of this plant in the management of various human ailments.

Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Samita F, Ochieng CO, Owuor PO, Manguro LOA, Midiwo JO. "Isolation of a new β-carboline alkaloid from aerial parts of Triclisia sacleuxii and its antibacterial and cytotoxicity effects." Natural product research. 2017;31(5):529-536. AbstractFull text link

A new β-carboline alkaloid named sacleuximine A (1) together with known compounds palmatine (2), isotetrandrine (3), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (4), trans-N-caffeoyltyramine (5), yangambin (6), syringaresinol (7), sesamin (8), (+) epi-quercitol (9), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), β-sitosterol (11), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (12) and myricetin 3-O-β-glucose (1→6) α-rhamnoside (13) have been isolated from methanol extract of Triclisia sacleuxii aerial parts. Compounds 1–10 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human hepatocarcinoma (Hep3B) and human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells lines and also for antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The cytotoxicity (IC50) values ranged between 0.15 and 36.7 μM while the minimum inhibitory concentrations were found to be in the range of 3.9 and 125 μM, respectively. This is the first report of antibacterial compounds and the isolation of lignans together with a β-carboline alkaloid from T. sacleuxii.
Keywords: Triclisia sacleuxii, Menispermaceae, secondary metabolites, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, aerial parts

Mota SF, Oliveira DF, Heleno VCG, Soares ACF, Midiwo JO, Souza EA. "Methyl and p-Bromobenzyl Esters of Hydrogenated Kaurenoic Acid for Controlling Anthracnose in Common Bean Plants." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2017;65(8):1489-1495. AbstractFull text link

Kaurenoic acid derivatives were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose disease in the common bean. The most active substances were found to be methyl and p-bromobenzylesters, 7 and 9, respectively, of the hydrogenated kaurenoic acid, which presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.097 and 0.131 mM, respectively, while the commercial fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) presented a MIC of 0.143 mM. Substances 7 (1.401 mM) and 9 (1.886 mM) reduced the severity of anthracnose in common bean to values statistically comparable to MT (2.044 mM). According to an in silico study, both compounds 7 and 9 are inhibitors of the ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) enzyme produced by other organisms, the amino acid sequence of which could be detected in fungal genomes. These substances appeared to act against C. lindemuthianum by inhibiting its KSI. Therefore, substances 7 and 9 are promising for the development of new fungicides.
Keywords: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; ent-kauran-18-oic acid methyl ester; ent-kauran-18-oic acid p-bromobenzyl ester; fungicide; ketosteroid isomerase

Soares ACF, Cabral MMW, Martins CHG, Ferreira AE, Bergamo PAS, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Parreira RLT, Heleno VCG. "Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Behaviour of Natural Kaurane and Trachylobane Diterpenes Compared with Structural Properties Obtained by Theoretical Calculations." Natural Product Communications. 2017;12(5):763-769. AbstractFull text

A set of seven diterpenes, three kauranes and four trachylobanes, isolated from the African plant Psiadia punctulata were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reached activity comparable with cycloserine, a second line drug used to treat tuberculosis (TB). Several structural properties of those diterpenes, such as lipophilicity, HOMO and LUMO energies, charge density, and intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) formation, were obtained by theoretical calculations and compared with their activities. Peculiar correlations were observed, especially between activity, lipophilicity and IHB formation.

Study of anti-tuberculosis activity behaviour of natural kaurane and trachylobane diterpenes compared with structural properties obtained by theoretical calculations (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317750342_Study_of_anti-tuberculosis_activity_behaviour_of_natural_kaurane_and_trachylobane_diterpenes_compared_with_structural_properties_obtained_by_theoretical_calculations [accessed Sep 25, 2017].

2016
Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Derese S, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial activities and structure–activity relationships of a panel of 48 compounds from Kenyan plants against multidrug resistant phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5(1):1-15. AbstractFull text link

In the current study forty eight compounds belonging to anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, benzoquinones, flavonoids (chalcones and polymethoxylated flavones) and diterpenoids (clerodanes and kauranes) were explored for their antimicrobial potential against a panel of sensitive and multi-drug resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations on the tested bacteria were conducted using modified rapid INT colorimetric assay. To evaluate the role of efflux pumps in the susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria to the most active compounds, they were tested in the presence of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN) (at 30 µg/mL) against selected multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria. The anthraquinone, emodin, naphthaquinone, plumbagin and the benzoquinone, rapanone were active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of bacteria with MIC values ranging from 2 to 128 μg/mL. The structure activity relationships of benzoquinones against the MDR Gram-negative phenotype showed antibacterial activities increasing with increase in side chain length. In the chalcone series the presence of a hydroxyl group at C3′ together with a methoxy group and a second hydroxyl group in meta orientation in ring B of the chalcone skeleton appeared to be necessary for minimal activities against MRSA. In most cases, the optimal potential of the active compounds were not attained as they were extruded by bacterial efflux pumps. However, the presence of the PAβN significantly increased the antibacterial activities of emodin against Gram-negative MDR E. coli AG102, 100ATet; K. pneumoniae KP55 and KP63 by >4–64 g/mL. The antibacterial activities were substantially enhanced and were higher than those of the standard drug, chloramphenicol. These data clearly demonstrate that the active compounds, having the necessary pharmacophores for antibacterial activities, including some quinones and chalcones are substrates of bacterial efflux pumps and therefore should be combined to efflux pump inhibitors in the fight against MDR bacterial infections.

Keywords:

Anthraquinones Benzoquinones Chalcones Antibacterial activities Multidrug resistance Efflux pump inhibitor

Langat MK, Crouch N, Ndunda B, Midiwo JO, Aldhaher A, Alqahtani A, Mulholland DA. "The Chemistry of African Croton species." Planta Medica. 2016;81(S 01):384. AbstractFull text link

The genus Croton is one of the largest of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto, and consists of over 1300 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that are distributed worldwide in the warm tropics and subtropics. It is reported that 124 Croton species occur in continental Africa whilst a further 156 species are endemic to Madagascar. Another 12 species occur in the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Sao Tome and Principe [1]. We discuss the chemistry, chemotaxonomic patterns and biological activities of selected compounds from ten African Croton taxa: C. alienus, C. dichogamus, C. gratissimus var. gratissimus, C. megalobotrys, C. megalocarpoides, C. megalocarpus, C. menyhartii, C. pseudopulchellus, C. rivularis and C. sylvaticus. Examples of compounds to be presented include cembranoids (1-3) from C. gratissimus var. gratissimus [2,3], ent-kauranes (4-5) from C. pseudopulchellus [4], ent-clerodanes (6-8) from C. sylvaticus, C. megalocarpus and C. megalocarpoidies, and both halimanes (9) and crotofolanes (10 – 11) from C. dichogamus. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and cyclohexanol derivatives from Croton will also be discussed. Selected cembranoids from C. gratissimus were tested against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and against the PEO1 and PEO1TaxR ovarian cancer cell lines [2]. Compound 1 showed moderate activity against the PEO1 (IC50= 132 nM) and PEO1TaxR (IC50= 200 nM) ovarian cancer cell lines. Selected ent-kauranoids were tested for their effects on Semliki Forest Virus replication and for cytotoxicity against human liver tumour cells (Huh-7 strain). Other Croton-derived compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities [5,6], antiplasmodial activity using two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovanii [5], and cytotoxic activity against NCI59 cancer cell panels, and colorectal and VERO cancer cell lines.
Keywords: Croton, Euphorbiaceae, ent-clerodanes, cembranoids, crotofolanes

Schrader KK, Cantrell CL, Midiwo JO, Muhammad I. "Compounds from Terminalli brownii Extracts with Toxicity against the Fish Pathogenic Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare." Natural Product Communications . 2016;11(11):1679-1682. AbstractFull text link

Interpretive Summary:

A rapid bioassay was used to evaluate extracts from the stem bark of plant found in Kenya for antibacterial activities against fish pathogenic bacteria. Two natural compounds were isolated from the extracts and discovered to possess antibacterial activities against a species of fish pathogenic bacteria which causes a common disease in pond-raised catfish and several other species of freshwater fish.

Technical Abstract:

The pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry in the United States of America can incur losses of over a $100 million annually due to bacterial diseases including columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare. One management approach available to catfish producers is the use of medicated-feed containing antibiotics. However, the negative attributes of antibiotic use in agriculture include public concerns and the potential development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the discovery of environmentally-safe natural compounds for use as therapeutants would greatly benefit the catfish industry. In this study, a rapid bioassay was used to evaluate crude plant extracts as the first step in the discovery of natural therapeutants. Plant extracts from Terminalia brownii were found to be inhibitory towards F. columnare. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the 5% water-methanol extract of T. brownii (stem bark) was 10 µg/mL and the 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 40 µg/mL. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation of the T. brownii ethanol extract using reverse phase C-4 chromatography revealed the highest level of activity in the aqueous:methanol (50:50) fraction. HPLC analysis and subsequent purification of this fraction provided two compounds identified as ellagic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'',4''-di-O-galloyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid (2). Compound 2 was the most active isolated compound, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 10±0 µg/mL and 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 31±1 µg/mL. Although 1 was more active according to a MIC of 6±5 µg/mL, its 24-h IC50 was >100 µg/mL, and, therefore, it was less active overall between the two most active isolated compounds.

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Tala VSR, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Swaleh S, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of plumbagin, rapanone and 12 other naturally occurring quinones from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;17(1):60. AbstractFull text link

Background
Cancer is a major public health concern globally and chemotherapy remains the principal mode of the treatment of various malignant diseases.

Methods
This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of 14 naturally occurring quinones including; 3 anthraquinones, 1 naphthoquinone and 10 benzoquinones against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts. The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspases activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by spectrophotometry.

Results
Anthraquinone: emodin (2), naphthoquinone: plumbagin (4), and benzoquinones: rapanone (9), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentadecyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (10), 5-O-methylembelin (11), 1,2,4,5-tetraacetate-3-methyl-6-(14-nonadecenyl)-cyclohexadi-2,5-diene (13), as well as doxorubicin displayed interesting activities with IC50 values below 100 μM in the six tested cancer cell lines. The IC50 values ranged from 37.57 μM (towards breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells) to 99.31 μM (towards small cell lung cancer A549 cells) for 2, from 0.06 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 1.14 μM (A549 cells) for 4, from 2.27 μM (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 46.62 μM (colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD-1 cells) for 9, from 8.39 μM (SPC212 cells) to 48.35 μM (hepatocarinoma HepG2 cells) for 10, from 22.57 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 61.28 μM (HepG2 cells) for 11, from 9.25 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 47.53 μM (A549 cells) for 13, and from 0.07 μM (SPC212 cells) to 1.01 μM (A549 cells) for doxorubicin. Compounds 4 and 9 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by increased ROS production and MMP loss, respectively.

Conclusion
The tested natural products and mostly 2, 4, 9, 10, 11 and 13 are potential cytotoxic compounds that deserve more investigations towards developing novel antiproliferative drugs against human carcinoma.

Keywords

Carcinoma cytotoxicity Mode of action Plumbagin Quinones Rapanone

Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Planta medica. 2016;82(11/12):1079-1086. AbstractFull text link

The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1–12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed.
Key words:
Croton megalocarpoides - Euphorbiaceae - abietane - ent-clerodane - ent-trachylobane - diterpenoids - electronic circular dichroism

Kama-Kama F, Midiwo J, Nganga J, Maina N, Schiek E, Omosa LK, Osanjo G, Naessens J. "Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the “Mycoplasma mycoides cluster”." Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2016;192:524-534. AbstractFull text link

Members of ‘Mycoplasma mycoides cluster’ are important ruminant pathogens in Africa. Diseases caused by these Mycoplasma negatively affect the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through losses in livestock productivity, mortality and international trade restrictions. There is therefore urgent need to develop antimicrobials from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb these diseases. In Kenya, smallholder farmers belonging to the Maasai, Kuria and Luo rely on traditional Kenyan herbals to treat respiratory symptoms in ruminants. In the current study extracts from some of these plants were tested against the growth of members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.
Aim

This study aimed at identifying plants that exhibit antimycoplasmal activities using an ethnobotanical approach.

Materials and methods

Kenyan farmers of Maasai, Luo and Kuria ethnic groups were interviewed for plant remedies given to livestock with respiratory syndromes. The plant materials were thereafter collected and crude extracts prepared using a mixture of 50% of methanol (MeOH) in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), neat methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and water to yield four crude extracts per plant part. The extracts were tested in vitro against five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and one strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capricolum using broth micro-dilution assays with an initial concentration of 1 mg/ml. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active extracts were determined by serial dilution.
Results

Extracts from five plants namely: Solanum aculeastrum, Albizia coriaria, Ekebergia capensis, Piliostigma thonningii and Euclea divinorum exhibited the highest activities against the Mycoplasma strains tested. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were more susceptible to these extracts than Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum susp. capricolum. The activities of the crude extracts varied with the solvent used for extraction. The MICs mean values of the active extracts varied from 0.02 to 0.6 mg/ml.
Conclusions

The results suggested that these plants could potentially contain antimicrobial compounds that might be useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases in ruminants. Future work should focus on the isolation and identification of the active compounds from the plant extracts that showed interesting activities and evaluation of their antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential.
Mycoplasma mycoidesEthnobotanyAntimicrobial activityLivestockEthno-medicinal from plants from Kenya

2014
Omosa LK, Amugune B, Ndunda B, Milugo TK, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO. "Antimicrobial flavonoids and diterpenoids from Dodonaea angustifolia." South African Journal of Botany. 2014. Abstract

The surface exudates of the leaves of Dodonaea angustifolia from Ngong forest population (6 km from Nairobi city center, Kenya) demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli), Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus) bacteria and the fungus Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Chromatographic separation of the exudates yielded eight methylated flavonoids; 5-hydroxy-3, 4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,5-dihydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxyflavone (2), santin (3), kumatakenin (4), rhamnocitrin (5), isokaempferide (6), 3,4′,5,7, tetrahydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (7), pinocembrin (8); two clerodanes, dodonic acid (9) and 2β-hydroxyhardwickiic acid (10) and one labdane; (ent-3β,8α)-15,16-epoxy-13(16),14-labdadiene-3,8-diol (11) diterpenoids. The flavonoid aglycones; 6, 7 and the clerodane diterpenoids; 9 and 10 and labdane diterpenoid, 11 were isolated for the first time from this plant species. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified using ultraviolet (UV), mass spectroscopy (MS), one dimension (1D) and two dimension (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by comparison of the spectral data with literature. The quercetin derivative, 3,4′,5-trihydroxy-3′,7-dimethoxyflavone (12) showed broad spectrum antibacterial activities against E. coli and B. pumilus with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values less than 31.25 μg/well and against S. aureus with MIC below 62.5 μg/well. This compound showed poor antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae (MIC < 500 μg/well). Good antifungal activities were observed for 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (13) and hautriwaic acid lactone (14) against S. cerevisiae with MIC values less than 7.8 μg/well. The most active antifungal compound was 5,7-dihydro-3,4′,6-trimethoxyflavone (3, santin) with an MIC value less than 3.9 μg/well against S. cerevisiae. The rest of the compounds exhibited weak to moderate activities. For comprehensive structure activity relationship studies (SAR), hautriwaic acid lactone (14), hautriwaic acid (15), penduletin (16) isolated from the surface exudates of D. angustifolia from Voi (200 km from Mombasa city center, Kenya) and 12 and 13 from Senecio roseiflorus isolated earlier were included in the bioassays.

2013
Machumi F, Midiwo JO, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Tekwani BL, Walker LA, Muhammad I. "Phytochemical, Antiparasitic and Antimicrobial Investigations of Terminalia brownii.". 2013. AbstractPhytochemical, Antiparasitic and Antimicrobial Investigations of Terminalia brownii

Terminalia brownii is an African medicinal plant used to treat parasitic and microbial infections [1]. Chromatographic separations on the stem bark extract aimed at identifying the active components led to isolation of a new oleanane-type triterpenoid, along with seven known oleanane-type triterpenoids and seven ellagic acid derivatives. The new compound was identified using spectroscopic methods as 3β,24-O-ethylidenyl-2α,19α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1). The compounds were evaluated for their antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities giving the most potent antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 2.76 µg/mL for 23-galloylarjunolic acid (2) against P. falciparum W2 strain and the most potent antimicrobial activity with IC50 values of 0.32 µg/mL for diellagic lactone (3) against C. glabrata.

2012
Machumi F, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich M, Kleinpeter E, Khan S, Tekwani BL, Walker LA, Muhammad I. "Antiparasitic and anticancer carvotacetone derivatives from Sphaeranthus bullatus.". 2012.Website
2011
2010
Dr. Derese S, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Yenesew A, Peter MG, Heydenreich. M. "neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia.". 2010. Abstractneo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are morphologically similar

Midiwo JO, Yenesew A, Juma BF, Omosa KL, Omosa IL, Mutisya D. "Phytochemical Evaluation of So me Kenyan Medicinal Plants.". 2010. AbstractPhytochemical Evaluation of So me Kenyan Medicinal Plants

11 th NAPRECA Symposium Book of Proceedings, Antananarivo, Madagascar Pages 9-19 Midiwo et al. 9 Phytochemical Evaluation of So me Kenyan Medicinal Plants J. Ogweno Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B.F. Juma Kerubo L Omosa, Irene L Omosa, Daniel Mutisya. Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P.o. Box 30197, Nairobi. Kenya. E-mail: jmidiwo@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract There are more than 1200 described medicinal pl ants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical informati on from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthel mintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoqui none in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain le ngth or the presence / absence of 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-fam ily de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti- feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, in secticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and mi nor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin deriva tive, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is upto 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, di hydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin a nd their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2'-glucosy l-6'-hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exuda te mixture. Other leaf exuda te plants studied included the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloba n diterpenes have been found.

2009
Martin PG, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Guchu SM, lrungu B, Derese S, Midiwo JO. "Flavonoids and isoflavonoids of Erythrina burttii.". 2009.isoflavanoes_...0001.pdfWebsite
2008
2007
2006
Andayi AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P. "Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii.". 2006.Website
2005
ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Antimicrobial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii.". In: Fitotherapia, 469-472.; 2005. Abstract
n/a
2004
2003
2002
Gikonyo NK, Hassanali A, Njagi PGN, Peter M, Midiwo JO. "Odor Composition of Preferred (Buffalo and Ox) and Nonpreferred (Waterbuck) Hosts of Some Savanna Tsetse Flies.". 2002. Abstracthttp://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/36947

A previous study on the feeding responses of tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans, implicated the existence of allomonal barriers, both volatile and nonvolatile, on the nonpreferred host, waterbuck, Kobus defassa. In the present study, electroantennogram-active compounds in odors from waterbuck were compared with those of two preferred hosts of tsetse flies, buffalo, Syncerus caffer, and ox, Bos indicus. Odors from the three bovids were trapped on activated charcoal and/or reverse-phase (octadecyl bonded) silica and analyzed with a gas chromatography-linked electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) and, where possible, identified by using gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chromatographic comparisons with authentic samples. The GC-EAD profiles (with G. m. morsitans antennae) of the odors of the two preferred hosts were comparable, comprising medium-chain, saturated or unsaturated aldehydes and phenols, with buffalo emitting a few more EAG-active aldehydes. Waterbuck odor gave a richer profile, consisting of fewer aldehydes but more phenolic components and a series of 2-ketones (C8–C13) and δ-octalactone. This bovid also emits moderate amounts of C5–C9 straight-chain fatty acids, some of which were detected in buffalo and ox only in trace amounts. However, these did not elicit significant GC-EAD responses. Waterbuck profiles from the antennae of G. pallidipes showed broad similarity to those from G. m. morsitans, although the composition of aldehydes and ketones was somewhat different, indicating species-specific difference in the detection of host odors. Certain waterbuck-specific EAG-active components, particularly the 2-ketones and lactone, constitute a candidate allomonal blend in waterbuck odor.

ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Three isoflav-3-enes and a 2-arylbenzofuran from the root bark of Erythrina burttii.". In: Phytochemistry, 59, 337-341.; 2002. Abstract
n/a
2001
2000
Martin PG, Heydenreich M, M. S, Midiwo.' JO, Yenesew A. "Op-37 Flavonoids from erythrina burttii and erythrina sacleuxii.". 2000. AbstractOp-37 Flavonoids from erythrina burttii and erythrina sacleuxii

The root and stem bark of Erythrina species are widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of microbial infections: In our interest on the phytochemistry of Erythrina species of Kenya, we have isolated several flavonoids, including new flavanones (eg. 1) and isoflav-3-enes (eg 2) from Erythrina burttii; isoflavones (eg. 3) and isoflavanones (eg. '1) from Erythrina sac/euxii. Some of these compounds show antibacterial, anti-fimgal, anti-malarial and anti-oxidant activities. The structure elucidation and biological activities of some of these compounds will be discussed.

Echeverry C, Arredondo F, Abin-Carriquiry JA, Midiwo JO, Ochieng C, Kerubo L, Dajas F. "Pretreatment with Natural Flavones and Neuronal Cell Survival after Oxidative Stress: A Structure−Activity Relationship Study.". 2000. AbstractPretreatment with Natural Flavones and Neuronal Cell Survival after Oxidative Stress: A Structure−Activity Relationship Study

uercetin shows structural features that have been related to the antioxidant potency of flavonoids and also shows neuroprotection in different models of oxidative death. Because only a few studies have focused on the flavonoid structural requirements for neuroprotection, this work evaluated the protective capacity of 13 flavones structurally related to quercetin, isolated from Kenyan plants, to rescue primary cerebellar granule neurons from death induced by a treatment with 24 h of hydrogen peroxide (150 μM). Each flavone (0−100 μM) was applied 24 h prior to the oxidative insult, and neuronal viability was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results suggest that the o-dihydroxy substitution in the B-ring is not necessary to afford neuroprotection and could be partly responsible for neurotoxic effects. Furthermore, the hydroxy substitutions in the positions C3 (C-ring) in C5 and C7 (A-ring) would be important for neuroprotection in this model.

ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Two isoflavanones from stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii.". In: Phytochemistry, 55, 457-459.; 2000. Abstract
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1999
Yenesew. A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Peter MG. New isoflavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii.; 1999.
1998
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Four Isoflavones from the Stem Bark of Erythrina sacleuxii.". In: Phytochemistry, 49, 1, 247-249.; 1998. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Four Isoflavones from the Stem Bark of Erythrina sacleuxii. Phytochemistry, 49, 1, 247-249.". In: Phytochemistry, 55, 457-459.; 1998. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Two prenylated flavonones from stem bark of Erythrinna burtii.". In: Phytochemistry, 48, 8 1439-1443).; 1998. Abstract
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1997
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Psiada punctulata .". In: Phytochemistry Vol 45, (1) 117-120.; 1997. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "A new flavonol tetraglycoside from Myrsina africana leaves.". In: Natural Products letters, 9, 121-126.; 1997. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "A new flavonol tetraglycoside from Myrsina africana leaves.". In: Natural Products letters, 9, 121-126.; 1997. Abstract
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1996
Midiwo JO. "A New Flavonol Tetraglycoside from Myrsine Africana Leaves.". 1996. AbstractA New Flavonol Tetraglycoside from Myrsine Africana Leaves

A new flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3 - glucosyl (1′″ - 4″) rhamnoside - 7 -rhamnosyl (1′″ - 6″″) glucoside (1) together with known flavonol glycosides, quercetin 3 -rhamnoside (2), quercetin 3 - glucoside (3) and myricetin 3 - galactoside (4) have been isolated from methanolic extract of Myrsine africana leaves and identified on the basis of their spectral data.

O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "A flavonoid glycoside from Myrsine africana leaves.". In: Phytochemistry 43, (5) 1107-1109.; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Four flavones from seed pods of Milletia dura.". In: Phytochemistry 41(3) pp 951-955.; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "New Dialkyl benzoquinone from fruits of Myrsine africana and Maesa lanceolata, Forsk.". In: Natural Products Letter 8, pp 11-14.; 1996. Abstract
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1995
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Insect Anti-feedant, Growth Inhibiting and Larvicidal Compounds from Rapanea melanphloes (Myrsinaceae).". In: Insect Science Application, 16 (2) pp. 163-166.; 1995. Abstract
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1994
Derese S, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich, Peter MG. "Anthraquinones, Pre-anthraquinones And Isoeleutherol In The Roots Of Aloe Species."; 1994.
Derese S, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich, Peter MG. "The Chemotaxonomic Value Of Anthraquinones In Asphodelaceae.". 1994.Website
1993
1992
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis of Kenyan Myrsinaceae benzoquinones.". In: The Matsumae International Foundation Fellowship Report,(1992), Vol. 2. 143.; 1992. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Flavonoids of Polygonum senegalense (Meisn) Part II: More surface and Internal Tissue Flavonoid Aglycones.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethip. (1992, 6(2) 119-122.; 1992. Abstract
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1991
1990
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Anti-feedant effects of surface accumulated flavonoids of Polygonum senegalense.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. (1990), 4(2), 123.; 1990. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Benzoquinone Pigments in Kenyan Myrsinaceae:.". In: New 2,5-dihydroxyakyl derivatives from Maesa lanceolata. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. (1990), 4 (1) 71.; 1990. Abstract
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1989
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1980

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