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Kariuki S, Mirza N, Mitema ES, Olsvik O. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

2013
2012
2011
2009
Maichomo MW;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Kosura WO;, Nyamwaro SO. "Comparative returns from livestock and crops among the agro-pastoralists of Magadi division, Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kajiado District in August 2003 to estimate incomes from livestock and crop agricultural enterprises, and assess important factors associated with them. Purposive and random selection of pastoralists and their animals was used in order to collect data which were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and Generalized Linear Models from the households (HHs) that were all headed by men. These pastoralists were considered generally wealthy with an average livestock holding of 232 heads of livestock and annual total profit margins of Kshs 436,300 from both livestock and crops, demonstrating their complementarity and livelihood diversification for risk aversion. Cost of inputs and value of income were significantly associated with profit from either crop or livestock production enterprises. This study revealed that livestock production still remained the major source of livelihood in Kajiado District compared to crop production. While reducing cost of livestock and crop production could increase profit for the large and small scale pastoralists respectively, complementarity of crop and livestock production could be exploited by medium scale pastoralists to harness existing opportunities for significant wealth generation and achieve food security.

2008
Maichomo MW;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Matere CN. "Effect of trypanosomosis and tick borne diseases on productivity of Orma / Zebu cattle in an (ASAL) area of south western Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

Trypanosomosis and tick-borne diseases (TBD’s) have a profound impact on the livelihoods of agro-pastoralists in the ASAL areas of Kenya whose transhumance nature exposes livestock to tsetse-infested areas and also new ground may be sources of parasites. Both diseases are endemic and cause suboptimal production, which is enhanced in presence of endoparasites and nutritional stress. Trypanosomosis infected animals have pronounced immunosuppression and easily succumb to TBD’s even in presence of endemic stability and perhaps trypanotolerant animals will show minimal loss in production. A trial was conducted in trypanosomosis endemic foci to assess productivity of three hundred Orma zebu (OZ) (trypanotolerant Orma boran x Maasai zebu) and Sahiwal zebu (SZ) (susceptible Sahiwal x Maasai zebu) crosses, which were monitored monthly from birth to 18 months for prevalence of trypanosomosis and TBDs, and body weight changes. Diagnosis was based on parasitology and serology. Growth rate and disease prevalence were used as outcome measures of productivity. Factors associated with these outcome variables were assessed using multiple regression [Proc Reg, SAS version 9.1, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA] and logistic regression [Proc Logistic] fitted at 95% confidence level. Daily weight gain for the O/Z and S/Z were 0.209 g/d and 0.212 g/d respectively and comparable. Prevalence of trypanosomosis, TBD and EPG counts were 1.9% and 2.5%; 59% and 62%; 48 and 42 in the O/Z and S/Z respectively. Factors significantly associated with disease distribution were season and age of calves. Enhanced trypanotolerance in O/Z crosses can be utilized for effective reclamation of tsetseinfested lands.

2006
Bett B;, Kitala J;, Gathuma J. "Developing a Frame Work for Evaluating Vaccination Strategies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Required for the Establishment of ‘Disease Free Zones’ in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Foot and mouth disease is the most economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. In most parts of Kenya, the disease has become endemic because the available control measures (prophylactic or reactive vaccination) are not being applied at an intensity that would curtail the maintenance of the disease. The effectiveness of the control interventions is complicated by factors that reduce vaccination coverage and efficacy; these factors include spatial and host heterogeneities, low rates of uptake of the vaccines and the multiple serotypes of the virus. The conditions necessary for the establishment of disease free zones, given these limitations, are explored using a mathematical model that combines the mass-action transmission principles with spatial correlation structure describing the contact patterns between clusters of cattle and potential reservoirs. Cattle clusters are nested within those of potential reservoirs. The relative contact probabilities between clusters vary depending on the distances between them. The outputs indicate that with a trivalent vaccine, very high vaccination coverage would have to be realized on a regular basis if disease free zones were to be established. This may require a review of the existing cost sharing policy as it is the main cause of the low uptake of prophylactic vaccination.

2005
Makau BF. Comparative analysis of veterinary drugs delivery mechanisms in the arid lands of Kenya.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

As in other remote, inaccessible pastoral areas of the world, access to quality drugs in a timely and affordable manner remains a major problem in the ASAL areas of Kenya. Several drug delivery mechanisms have been tried by different organisations, but it appears none of them has proved to be satisfactory. This study was therefore launched to carry out a comparative analysis of the different models of running the drug stores, their strengths and limitations, compare their effectiveness and sustainability and provide guidelines for subsequent implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the different delivery systems to ensure effectiveness and value to the pastoral communities. The findings and conclusions in this report are based on observations and interviews with stakeholders and key informants in Nairobi as well as in all the 11 arid districts and one semi- arid district (West Pokot)

Joseph; Gathuma M, Dickson, M; Nyariki, Wellington, N; Ekaya, Boniface; Makau F;. Guidelines For Emergency Livestock Off -take Handbook.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s agricultural sector accounts for 20–30% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Of this, the livestock sector alone makes a contribution of about 50%. Thus, livestock contributes heavily to the GDP and food security of its population. It also provides the necessary thrust for other forms of development in the country. Recent statistics indicate that currently over 50% of the country’s livestock population is based in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which form about 80% of the country’s land area. However, comparative international statistics show that livestock contributes 88% of the total agricultural output in Botswana even though the country has half Kenya’s livestock population and is of less agricultural potential. Thus, there is a huge potential contribution that livestock can make to the Kenyan national economy. Unfortunately, this sector receives only 10% of the government’s agricultural expenditure and less than one per cent of total spending, yet it is estimated that Kenya’s potential to export livestock products if adequately exploited would earn more than the earnings from tea and coffee combined. This then calls for new thinking about livestock development strategies to harness the arid landsThe livestock sector accounts for 90% of employment and more than 95% of household incomes in the ASALs. Most of the livestock slaughtered in major urban centres originates in these areas, with an annual slaughter of about 1.6 million Tropical Livestock Units. Kenya’s livestock from the ASALs is worth Kshs 60 billion (US$800 million). The internal livestock trade in trade in thepastoral areas alone nets in about 6 billion shillings (US$80 million )a yearIn the arid areas of the ASALs, arable crop production is not possible without some form of irrigation; while in semi-arid areas rainfall may be sufficient for certain types of crops, requiring special management techniques. Therefore, except for the areaunder cropping, the rest of the arid areas is used for livestock.......

2004
2003
Karimi SK;, McDermott JJ;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Kinuthia RN. "Risk factors for sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases of calves in Maasai pastoral herds in Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Risk factors for sero-prevalence of Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina were investigated in 729 calves from Maasai herds in Kajiado District, Kenya. Study herds were selected using a multistage sampling method. Serum antibodies were estimated using an indirect Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay and expressed as a percent positivity. The objective was to identify risk factors associated with sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases in Maasai pastoral systems in Kajiado District. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors varied between and within agro-climatic zones, group ranches and farms. Thus, targeted rather than blanket immunization of calves and other tick control should be conducted, with targeting being done at agro-climatic, group ranch and farm levels

Gatongi PM, Njoroge JM, Scott ME, Ranjan S, Gathuma JM, Munyua WK, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Susceptibility to IVM in a field strain of Haemonchus contortus subjected to four treatments in a closed sheep–goat flock in Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

Susceptibility to IVM (IVM) of “strain A” Haemonchus contortus which had been exposed to IVM four times over a 2-year period was compared to IVM susceptibility of “strain C” H. contortus which had no prior field exposure to IVM, by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, the percentage reduction in faecal egg counts (FEC) and the total worm counts (TWC) were compared between control animals (lambs and kids) and animals treated with low dose IVM (20 μg/kg). In vitro susceptibility to IVM was evaluated by larval migration inhibition (LMI) after the two strains of H. contortus were exposed to different concentrations of IVM. The dose response, measured as the proportion of larvae inhibited from migrating, was used to estimate LD50. Although differences in response to IVM in the in vivo determinations were not significant, “strain A” H. contortus had a significantly higher LD50 than “strain C” in the LMI assay. Coincident with the conduct of the in vivo experiment, it was observed that “strain A” H. contortus established and survived better than “strain C” in the control lambs.

MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njanja, J.C., Gathuma,J.M., Gitau, G.K. Njeruh, F.M. and Kinuthia, R.N. (2003). Pastrolists.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 2003. Abstract
No abstract available.
2002
2001
2000
E.M N, P.M.F M, J.M G, T.M W. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 2000. Abstract

Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 67:251-255 A study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonography. A total of 1 390 goats were examined, 43,6 % (606/1390) of them from north-western Turkana, Kenya, and 56,4 % (784/1390) from Toposaland, southern Sudan. Hydatid cysts were visualized in 1,82 % (11/ 606) of the goats from north-western Turkana and 4,34 % (34/784) of those from Toposaland. Unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examined. The lower prevalence rate of the disease in goats from Turkana was attributed to the hydatid disease control programme in that area, which is absent in Toposaland. Keywords: Goats, hydatid cysts, Kenya, north-western Turkana, prevalence, southern Sudan, Toposaland

Odoi A;, Gathuma JM;, Gachuiri CK;, Omore A;, Gitau T;, Wanyangu SW;, Murage E. "Constraints to Sheep and Goal Production in Small Holder Mixed Farms in Kenya's Central Highlands."; 2000.
1999
Njenga MJ, Munyua SJM, Mutiga ER, Gathuma JM, JM; Kang’ethe EK, Bwangamoi O;, Mugera GM, Mitaru BN. "Semen characteristics of goats with subacute, acute and chronic besnoitiosis : research communication.". 1999. Abstract

A study on the semen obtained from breeding goats suffering from mild to severe chronic besnoitiosis revealed marked changes in semen volume, colour, density, concentration, mass and individual motility and percentage live. There were also many neutrophils and spermatozoa with primary and secondary defects, including missing tails and deformed heads and tails. The observed changes were considered to be severe enough to account for the infertility observed in the flock. Sections of testes obtained for histopathology were characterised by massive blockage of the pampiniform plexus, degeneration of the germinal epithelium, tubular necrosis with an inflammatory infiltrate and, in some cases, accumulation of haemosiderin-like material in the tunica vaginalis.

Njogu A, Owiti GO, Persson E, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.Website
1998
1997
Gatongi PM, Scott ME, Gathuma JM, Munyua WK, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Effects of three nematode anthelmintic treatment regimes on flock performance of sheep and goats under extensive management in semi-arid Kenya.". 1997. Abstract

A study was undertaken in a semi-arid area of Kenya between August 1991 and June 1993 to evaluate the effects of anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin before or during the rains, on performance of mixed sheep and goat flocks, in comparison with an untreated flock. Performance parameters measured included age and weight of dams at first parturition, parturition intervals, body weights of dams and offspring, and birth weights, growth rates, and mortality rates of offspring. Among these parameters, birth weights and growth rates of offspring were found to be significantly improved by the treatment administered before the rains compared with the other two treatments. Mortality was lower in lambs and kids with high birth weights. Treatment, either before or during the rains, significantly reduced the faecal egg output and improved body weight, packed cell volume and flock fertility. Liveweight was confirmed to be a better measure of sexual maturity than age. It was further shown that lambs and kids, born of dams at their first lambing or kidding, experienced higher mortality rates than lambs and kids born of dams in their second and subsequent parturitions. Overall, treatment with ivermectin before the onset of rains was equal to or better, in terms of the performance parameters measured, than treatment during the rains, whilst treatment compared with no treatment increased performance in almost all of the parameters measured.

Maingi N, Gichohi VM, Munyua WK, Thamsborg SM. "The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Naturally Acquired Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In The Kenya Highlands.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The strategic use of closantel, a narrow-spectrum salicylanilide anthelmintic against bloodsucking helminths, and of albendazole, a broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep was investigated on a farm in Nyandarua District in the highlands of Kenya. Thirty Corriedale female lambs aged between 9 and 12 months were assigned to three treatment groups of 10 lambs each. The three groups were set stocked on separate paddocks for 12 months. Lambs in group 1 (strategic treatment group) were treated with closantel and albendazole at the beginning and towards the end of the long rains (April and June, respectively) and towards the end of the short rains (December). During the intervening dry season, the lambs were treated with albendazole. Lambs in group 2 (suppressive treatment group) were kept `worm free' by regular deworming with albendazole at 3-weekly intervals for 12 months. The third group of lambs remained untreated (control group). Gastrointestinal nematode infections and pasture infectivity were well controlled in the case of the strategic treatment group. This resulted in higher weight gains, wool production, packed cell volume, and serum albumin and protein concentrations compared with the untreated control lambs. These parameters were comparable between the strategic treatment and the suppressive treatment groups of lambs. It was concluded that worm control strategies based on the epidemiology of the parasites and the sustained anthelmintic action of closantel in combination with broad-spectrum anthelmintics can provide effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the study area.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Thamsborg, S.M.,Munyua,W.K., Gathuma,J.M. and Dangolla , A. (1997). Worm control practices on sheep farms in Nyandarua District of Kenya.Acta Tropica, 68:1-9.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 1997. Abstract
No abstract available.
1996
1995
Laker CD;, Mukhebi AW;, Ssenyonga GSZ;, Gathuma JM. "The economic impact of East Coast Fever on cattle in Mbarara district, Uganda."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Bjørn H;, Thamsborg SM;, Nansen P;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM. "Gastrointestinal Helminth Control Practices And Anthelmintic Resistance On Sheep Farms In Nyandarua District Of Kenya."; 1995.
1994
Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Ngatia TA;, Njiro SM;, Gathuma JM;, Sembe D;, Ngotho JW;, Kanyari PN;, Munyua W k;, Agatha WM. "Preliminary results of tissue parasites and lesions grossly observed in wildlife animals at the game ranching farm, Athi river."; 1994.
Macharia SM, Mulei CM, Gathuma JM, Kagiko MM. "Serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats in Nyandarua district of Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic disease of a world-wide importance. It causes economic loss to livestock industry from abortions, stillbirths, deaths, decreased milk production and infertility, The Leptospira organisms survive best in areas with high rainfall, soil pH of around neutral and temperature range of about 7-34°Cl11. A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats in Nyandarua district which has climatic conditions favour¬able to survival of Leptospira organisms. The district has a high relative humidity (65%)' high annual average rainfall (839 mm), annual average temperature of about 14.1°C and an average soil pH of 6.4(31.

1993
1992
1991
Wachira TM, Macharia CNL, Gathuma JM. "Release and survival of Echinococcus eggs in different environments in Turkana, and their possible impact on the incidence of hydatidosis in man and livestock.". 1991. Abstract

In Turkana, Kenya, a prevalence of hydatidosis of nearly 10% has been recorded among the pastoralists yet their livestock have a much lower prevalence of the disease. The present study investigated the release from dogs and subsequent survival of Echinococcus eggs in Turkana huts, water-holes and in the semi-arid environment. The results were compared with the survival of eggs of Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata. The study was repeated under the cooler and moister conditons found in Maasailand where livestock have a greater incidence of hydatid disease than in Turkana but where the incidence in man is ten times lower. The average number of Echinococcus eggs per proglottid is 823. Nine percent of these remain in proglottids 15 minutes after release from a dog and the released eggs lose their viability in less than two, 48 and 300 hours in the sun, huts and water in Turkana respectively; the major influencing factor being temperature. The greater survival of eggs in the houses, coupled with the fact that dogs congregate for most of the day in the small houses facilitating a close man:dog contact, provide ideal conditions for the trasmission of the parasite to man. The hostile environmental conditions and lack of contact between dogs and livestock contributes to the lower infection rate in livestock. Conversely in Maasailand, Echinococcus eggs survive in the environment for longer than three weeks and in addition, dogs are used for herding. This partly explains the higher infection rate among Maasai livestock but the low human infection rate remains arcane and requires further study. The rapid mortality of the majority of Echinococcus eggs in Turkana suggests that control measures aimed at dog control and a decreased man:dog contact should have a profound effect on the incidence of the disease in an area intrinsically unsuitable for the parasites' survival.

1990
1989
Senerwa DM;, Mutanda LN;, Olsvik O;, Gathuma JM. "An outbreak of diarrhea due to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in a nursery ward."; 1989.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathura, P.B and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Recent trends in the incidence of livestock and human hydatid disease in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (Special issue), 159 .". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Okelo, G.B.A. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1989). The amino acid and fatty acid composition of a thermostable lipoprotein (.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. and Okelo, G.B.A. (1989). Purification and partial characterization of a thermostable lipoprotein (.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Onyango-Abuje, J.A., Waiyaki, P.G. and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Specific and shared antigen components of Taenia saginata oncospheres. Research in Veterinary Science 4, 236 .". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available.
1988
1987
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Chema, S., Chumo, R.S., Dolan, T.T., Gathuma, J.M., James, A.D., Irvin A.D. and Young, A.S. (1987). Clinical trial of Halofuginone lactate for the treatment of East Coast fever in Kenya. Vet. Rec., 120:575 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gatongi, P.M. Gthuma, J.M. and Munyua, W.K. (1987). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle in Tetu Division of Nyeri District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 35, 294 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IDENTIFICATION OF THE SPECIES OF ORIGIN OF FRESH, COOKED AND CANNED MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS BY OUCHTERLONY’S DOUBLE DIFFUSION TEST.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
Antisera to thermosable muscle antigens (TMA) from 14 species of bovidae were raised in goats and/or sheep. To achieve species specificity the antisera were absorbed with serum from the other species. While the absorbed antisera to TMA to buffalo, impala, eland, waterbuck, wildebeest and oryx were rendered specific, the antiserum to cattle TMA cross-reacted with buffalo fresh meat antigens (FMA) and cooked meat antigens (CMA) but not with buffalo thermostable muscle antigens. Fresh and cooked muscle antigens from these two species could be differentiated by the antiserum to buffalo TMA. A similar approach was used to differentiate the FMA, CMA and TMA of kongoni, topi and wildebeest. Antiserum to cattle TMA proved useful in detecting the presence of beef meat in meat products that had undergone commercial sterilization.   Keywords: meat; meat products; thermostable muscle antitgens; immunodiffusion; antibodies; species identification
MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kang.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., and Gathuma, J.M. (1987). Serodiagnosis of hydatidosis in livestock by the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bull. Anim. Hlth. Afr. 35 124 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF AUTOCLAVED MEAT SPECIES USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS IN AN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
1986
Kagiko MM;, Lindqvist. K;, Gathuma JM. "Immunological Characterization Of The Antigens Of Hydatid Cyst Fluid.".; 1986. Abstract

Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF. The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF. This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture. The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS). This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA. Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%. The predictive value was 89%. Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M. (1986). Control of Protozoal diseases in Eastern Africa; The case for environmental considerations. Insect Sci. Appl. (3) 327 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Milk Hygiene in Nomadic Herds in Kenya evaluated by Bacterial Isolation, Bacterial Viability trials in Traditionally Fermenting Milk and Drug Sensitivity.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Microbial contamination of both fresh and fermented milk with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus species and some non-identified bacilli was recorded.  Brucella species were not isolated from any sample in this study.  Streptococcus pyogenes survived in fermenting milk up to 96 hours but Staph.  aureus only survived up to 9 hours.  Milk fermentation markedly reduced bacterial load in the milk probably due to the low PH values, which ranged from 4.2 to 4.9. Most of the bacteria recovered from both fresh and fermented milk samples were readily sensitive to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, streptomycin and kanamycin: sparingly sensitive to tetraclines but resistant to nitrofurantoin, suphafurazole and colistin sulphate.  Multiple drug resistance involving upto 6 drugs was recorded among the organisms recovered from the milk samples.
MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1986). Diagnosis of hydatidosis in Kenya I. The role of indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) based on a thermostable antigen E. Afr. Med. J. 63 (5) 311 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1986). Diagnosis of hydatidosis in Kenya II. An Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermostable antigen E. Afr. Med. J. 63 (5) 318 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF HYDATID DISEASE BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) USING PARTIALLY PURIFIED HYDATID CYST FLUID ANTIGENS.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1985
Wachira TM;, Gathuma JM;, Cheruiyot, H; McPherson CNL, Cheruiyot, H; McPherson CNL. "Comparative Morphological Study Of 35 Day - Old Echninococcus Granulosus Of Sheep, Cattle And Goat Origin In Kenya."; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle E;, Mwangi M;, Rees P;, McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Romig T;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIONS OF THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN SPECIATION OF COOKED AND FRESH ANIMAL MEATS.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kamanga-Sollo, E.I.P., Lindqvist, K.J. and Gathuma, J.M. (1985). Bovine serum components in Cysticercus bovis. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. Vol. 33 (1) 1 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bogh, H.O. and Gathuma, J. M. (1998). Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 315 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1984
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kang.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1984. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1983
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P. N., Gathuma, J.M. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1983). Experimental Infection in Marabou storks with Salmonella typhimurium and fowl pox virus. The Kenya Veterinarians 5 (2), 10 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Gathuma, J.M. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1983). Parasites found on and in five Marabou storks (Leptoptillos crumeniferus) in a sub-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 31 79 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1982
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M., Nyaga, P.N., Omuse, J.K., Nderu, F. M. K. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1982). Exposure of calves to taeniid eggs of wild carnivore origin. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 (1), 55 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1982). Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, in vitro bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermented milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 (1) 19 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Ushewokunze-Obatolu, U.H.F., Froslie, A., Gathuma, J.M. and Nafsad, I. (1982). Residues of Quintiofos in cattle milk after dermal application of Bacdip. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 287 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1981
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P. N., Kaminjolo, J. S., Gathuma, J. M., Omuse, J.K., Nderu, F. M. K. and Gicho, J.M. (1981). Prevalence of antibodies to Parainfluenza-3 (P13) virus in various wildlife species and domestic cattle sharing the same habitats in Kenya. J. Wildlife Di.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1980
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J. M. and Waiyaki, P. G. (1980). Evaluation of the Indirect Heamagglutination test in diagnosis of Taenia saginate cysticercosis (Cysticercus bovis) infection in cattle. Bill. Anim. Prod. Afr. 28 (3), 173 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J. M. and Waiyaki, P.G. (1980). Comparative studies of the Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA) tests in diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 29 (1), 11 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M. and Fossum, K. (1980). Legionnaires.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M. and Kagiko, M.M. (1980). Veterinary Science and Human Health. The Kenya Veterinarian 4 (1), 1 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1979
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Fossum, K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1979). .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J. M., Kagiko, M. M. and Nyaga, P. N. Bacteriological water quality in Kajiado District, Kenya. E.J. Med. Res. Vol. 5 No. 1 (1979).". In: journal. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J. M., Sollod, A. E. and Waiyaki, P. g. (1978). Evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test in the diagnosis of Cysticercus bovis infection in cattle. The Kenya Veterinarian 2 (1), 7 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N. and Gathuma, J.M. (1979). Some observations on Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenya slaughter cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 27 (1), 51 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1978
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M., Waghela, S. and Nderu, F.M.K. A sero-epidemiologic study of brucellosis in abattoir workers in Kenya. E. Afr. J. Med. Res. Vol. 4 No. 4 (June, 1978).". In: journal. au-ibar; 1978. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kamau, J. A., Gacuhi, D. M.; Hansen, G. and Gathuma J.M. (1978). A study of the toxicity of Dichapetalum rulandii (Ludi). Indian Vet. J. 55, 626 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1978. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Omuse, J. K., Gathuma, J. M., Nyaga, P. N., Kaminjolo, J. S. and Nderu, F. M. K. (1978). Verminous pneumonia in topi (Damaliscus korrigum) in Maasai-Mara area of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 26 (2) 156 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1978. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waghela, S., Fazil, M. A., Gathuma, J. M. and Kagunya, D. K. (1978). A serological survey of brucellosis in camels in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 10, (1) 28 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1978. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1976
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma J. M. and Mango, A. M. (1976). The role played by wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine cysticercosis in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 24, (2) 149 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1976. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waghela, S. and Gathuma, J. M. (1976). A serological survey of the prevalence of brucelosis in pigs in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 24 (3) 251 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1976. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1975
Wegener J;, Gathuma JM. "The role of the marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus (Lesson)) in Kenya in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.".; 1975. Abstract

In experiments, adult marabou storks were fed with hydatid fluid of viable Echinococcus cysts obtained from sheep and goats. On microscopic examination of the birds' faeces no scolices were found, the only remaining undigested parts of the parasites fed being the chitinous hooks of the rostellum. The feeding trials have shown that the marabou does not play a role in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.

MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Wegener, J. and Gathuma, J. M. (1975). The role of the marabou stork (Leptotilos crumeniferus lesson) in Kenya in the spread of Echinococcosis from the abattoir. Tropenmed. Parasit. 26 43-47.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1975. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
1970
Muchai K, Gathuma J, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Magambo JK, Zeyhle E. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of 14 hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 1970.

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