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Ferrier, S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta LA, Akcakaya HR, Brotons L, Cheung WWL, Christensen V, Harhash KA, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Lundquist C, Obersteiner M, Pereira HM, Peterson G, Pichs-Madruga R, Ravindranath N, Rondinini C, Wintle BA.  2016.  The methodological assessment report on scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services. , Bonn, Germany: IPBES2016.methodological_assessment_report_scenarios_models.pdf
Fuente, D, Gatua JG, Ikiara M, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mwaura M, Whittington D.  2016.  Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya. Water Resources Research. (doi:10.1002/2015WR018375)
Ferrier, S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta-Michlik L, Akçakaya HR, KABUBO-MARIARA J.  2016.  Summary for policymakers of the assessment report of the methodological assessment of scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES Secretariat. , Bonn, Germany
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, R. M, DiFalco S.  2016.  The Impact of Climate Change on Food Calorie Production and Nutritional Poverty: Evidence from Kenya, 20-23 March . CSAE 2016 Conference on Economic Development in Africa. , St. Catherine's College, Oxford, UK


KABUBO-MARIARA, J.  2015.  Does Institutional Isolation Matter for Soil Conservation Decisions? Evidence from Kenya. SAGE Open. January-March 2015: 1–9. DOI: 10.1177/2158244015570977


KABUBO-MARIARA, J.  2014.  Integrating Market Access and Tenure Security: The role of Institutional Isolation in Crop Productivity in Kenya. International Journal of Economics Perspectives. Vol. 8(Issue 1)abstract_-_prof._mariara_2.pdf


KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Kirii DM, Ndeng’e GK.  2013.  Pro-poor Growth, Inequality, and Institutions in Kenya, April 19–20. Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Confronting the Challenges of a Better Life for all Africa IAD Spring 2013 Symposium in Honor of Erik Thorbecke, H.E. Babcock Professor Emeritus of Economics. , Cornell University
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Wambugu A, ARAAR A.  2013.  Measurement and Correlates of Multidimensional Poverty: Application to Child Wellbeing in Kenya. : PEP and University of Nairobi
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Wambugu A, Musau S.  2013.  Counting and Multidimensional Child Poverty Measurement in Kenya. : PEP and University of Nairobi
KABUBO-MARIARA, J.  2013.  The Role of Institutional Isolation in Adoption of Soil Conservation investments in Kenya. : CEEPA and University of Nairobi
Grainger, A, Wong G, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mbuvi D, Low PK, Low PS.  2013.  Economic and Social Impacts Assessment of DLDD. Chapter 2 . Economic and social impacts of desertification, land degradation and drought. White Paper I. : UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, prepared with the contributions of an international group of scientistsunccd_white_paper_1.pdfunccd_key_findings_policy_implications_and_recommendations_of_wp_i.pdf
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Beukering V.  2013.  Tenure security and ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya. Nature's Wealth: The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Poverty. : Cambridge University Press
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Kiriti-Nganga TW.  2013.  The Impact of Social Protection on the Welfare of Vulnerable Communities in East Africa: A Case Study from Kenya, May 2013. IDRC. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the role of social protection on the welfare of vulnerable groups in Kenya. The study examined the various types of shocks and risks experienced by vulnerable groups and the strategies employed to address different types of shocks. The study further investigated the impact of social protection on enterprise development and asset accumulation by women and on children’s schooling outcomes. A sample consisting of 968 households from Thika District and Starehe and Kibera Districts in Nairobi was interviewed between October and December 2011. Descriptive analyses, probit models, and ordered probit models were used to achieve the objectives of the study.

The results show that the main shocks affecting households were: economic shocks - high prices for goods and inputs, low prices of farm produce, unemployment, and business failures; life cycle shocks - death of family member or household head or cash earner; and natural shocks - drought. The main coping strategies adopted in response to shocks were formal and informal social protection, consumption adjustment, putting in more hours of work, and establishing/operating a business. The results further suggest that social protection in the form of the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Cash Transfer and the Old Persons’ Cash Transfer programmes reduced the probability of experiencing natural and economic shocks by the households. Cash transfers and informal social protection also played a significant role both in enterprise development and the promotion of enterprises that were owned or operated by women. Cash transfers favoured asset accumulation by women and enhanced children’s school enrolment and attendance. The other factors that influenced household and individual welfare outcomes were urban residence and the gender, level of education, and age of the household head. Overall, the results show that cash transfers impact on standards of living and provide poor and vulnerable households with basic needs (food, health, and education).

The results of the study point to a number of policy issues. First, there is need to raise the amounts given in cash transfers and to expand coverage among the vulnerable groups. Second, complementary interventions and strategies should be enhanced to further protect the poor and vulnerable segments of the society from shocks and vulnerability. Third, there is need to sensitise people on the importance of participating in informal social protection arrangements in order to escape poverty. Fourth, Community-Based Organisations and Non-Governmental Organisations should mobilise the poor and vulnerable in rural areas to fight poverty and vulnerability. Fifth, graduation and exit strategies should be designed and implemented to reduce dependency on cash transfers. Finally, there is need to pursue complementary policies for fighting poverty and vulnerability including asset accumulation, enhanced education, and rural development strategies.

Key words: Social protection, Poverty, Vulnerability, Shocks, Enterprise Development, Asset Accumulation, Education, Kenya.

JEL: I1, I2, I3, D1, H5

KABUBO-MARIARA, J, ARAAR A, DUCLOS J-Y.  2013.  Multidimensional Poverty and Child Well-being in Kenya. Journal of Developing Areas. . 47(2):109-137.
KABUBO-MARIARA, JANE.  2013.  Forest-poverty nexus: Exploring the contribution of forests to rural livelihoods in Kenya.. Natural Resources Forum. . DOI: 10.1111/1477-8947.12003.(Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 )


KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Nyangena W.  2012.  Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options of Farming Households: Empirical Evidence from Kenya. Chapter 5 . Natural Resource Management and Climate Change in Africa. Vol. 3: Climate Change. : African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) & Moran (E.A.) Publishers
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, M.M. KARIENYE, F.M. KABUBO.  2012.  Child Survival, Poverty and Inequality in Kenya: Does Physical Environment Matter? African Journal of Social Sciences. 2(1):65-84..ajss_manuscript.pdf
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Karienyeh MM, Kabubo F.  2012.  Child Survival and Policy Options in Kenya: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys. Journal of Reviews on Global Economics. 1:13-26.jrgev1a2.pdf


KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G.  2011.  Does Land Tenure Security Matter for Investment in Soil and Water Conservation? Evidence From Kenya African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics- AFJARE. 4(2):123-139.
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, V. LINDERHOF.  2011.  Tenure Security and Incentives for Sustainable Land Management: A Case Study from Kenya. Chapter 4(51-63).. Bluffstone R. and G. Köhlin (Eds.). Agricultural Investments, Livelihoods and Sustainability in East African Agriculture.. , Washington D.C. : Resources for the Future (RFF) Press
Kirori, GN, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kiriti-Nganga TW.  2011.  (2011). Rural Livelihoods in Kenya: The Role of Social Capital. Journal of International Business & Finance. 3(1):1-27.
KABUBO-MARIARA, J.  2011.  Soil Conservation and Crop Productivity in Kenya: The role of Institutional Isolation. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 49, . : Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria.
KABARA, M, KABUBO-MARIARA J.  2011.  Global Warming in the 21st Century: The Impact on Agricultural Production in Kenya. In J.M. Cossia (Ed.). Chapter 8 (199-214) . Global Warming in the 21st Century. . , NEW YORK: Nova Science Publishers
Kirori, GN, J. K-M, T.W. N’ang’a.  2011.  Impacts of Social Capital on Household Consumption Expenditure in Rural Kenya: An Instrumental Variable Approach. International Journal of Afro Asian Studies.. 2(1):15-33.


KABUBO-MARIARA, JANE, Wambugu A, Musau S.  2010.  Multidimensional poverty in Kenya: Analysis of maternal and child wellbeing. Website
Cockburn, J, KABUBO-MARIARA J.  2010.  Child Welfare in Developing countries ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6. , New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G.  2010.  Poverty-environmental links: the impact of soil and water conservation and tenure security on household welfare in Kenya. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2(1):41-53.mariara_jdae_manuscript.pdf
Fonta, WM, Ichoku HE, KABUBO-MARIARA J.  2010.  The Effect of Protest Zeros on Estimates of Willingness to Pay in Healthcare Contingent Valuation Analysis.. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. 8(4):225-37.
KABUBO-MARIARA, J, Massawe S, Wanjiku J, Karugia J.  2010.  Poverty Reduction Initiatives in the COMESA Region. Mimeo, ReSAKSS/ILRI, Nairobi.. Website

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