Bio

PDF Upload: 

Publications


2009

Loewenson, R, Mathai MA, Obondo A, Mburu J, Kitazi N, Othieno CJ.  2009.  Use of participatory, action and research methods in enhancing awareness of mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya.

2008

MAINA, DRMBURUJOHN.  2008.  Acute phase response in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense: a molecular gauge of parasite-host interaction.Ngure RM, Eckersall PD, Jennings FW, Mburu J, Burke J, Mungatana N, Murray M.Vet Parasitol. 2008 Jan 25;151(1):14-20. Epub 200. Vet Parasitol. 2008 Jan 25;151(1):14-20. Epub 2007 Oct 22.. : CHAK Times Abstract
Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp). The initial peak levels of Hp and SAP were attained 7 and 12 days post-infection (DPI), respectively. Thereafter SAP levels decreased significantly to near pre-infection levels, but later increased even after treatment to give a second peak 34 DPI after which there was a decline till the study was terminated. The Hp levels on the other hand decreased to an intermediate level after the initial peak increasing to a second peak 22 DPI. Thereafter Hp decreased significantly following diminazine aceturate treatment to reach pre-infection levels within 5 days post-treatment. This indicates that T. congolense-infected mice develop severe anaemia accompanied by an acute phase response leading to an increase in SAP and Hp but that following treatment divergent responses occurred indicating differences in the pathways for stimulation of the APP. Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment.
MAINA, DRMBURUJOHN, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN.  2008.  Factors influencing local communities' satisfaction levels with different forest management approaches of Kakamega forest, Kenya.Guthiga PM, Mburu J, Holm-Mueller K.Environ Manage. 2008 May;41(5):696-706. Epub 2008 Mar 4.. 2008 May;41(5):696-706. Epub 2008 Mar 4.. : CHAK Times Abstract
Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

2007

Ngure, RM, Eckersall PD, Jennings FW, Mburu J, Burke J, Mungatana N, MURRAY M.  2007.  Acute phase response in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense: a molecular gauge of parasite-host interaction. AbstractWebsite

Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp). The initial peak levels of Hp and SAP were attained 7 and 12 days post-infection (DPI), respectively. Thereafter SAP levels decreased significantly to near pre-infection levels, but later increased even after treatment to give a second peak 34 DPI after which there was a decline till the study was terminated. The Hp levels on the other hand decreased to an intermediate level after the initial peak increasing to a second peak 22 DPI. Thereafter Hp decreased significantly following diminazine aceturate treatment to reach pre-infection levels within 5 days post-treatment. This indicates that T. congolense-infected mice develop severe anaemia accompanied by an acute phase response leading to an increase in SAP and Hp but that following treatment divergent responses occurred indicating differences in the pathways for stimulation of the APP. Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment.

2006

A, DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN.  2006.  Abdulreshid A. B, Ndetei D.M, Mburu J.M, Obondo A.A, Kokonya D,. In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). . : CHAK Times Abstract
Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp). The initial peak levels of Hp and SAP were attained 7 and 12 days post-infection (DPI), respectively. Thereafter SAP levels decreased significantly to near pre-infection levels, but later increased even after treatment to give a second peak 34 DPI after which there was a decline till the study was terminated. The Hp levels on the other hand decreased to an intermediate level after the initial peak increasing to a second peak 22 DPI. Thereafter Hp decreased significantly following diminazine aceturate treatment to reach pre-infection levels within 5 days post-treatment. This indicates that T. congolense-infected mice develop severe anaemia accompanied by an acute phase response leading to an increase in SAP and Hp but that following treatment divergent responses occurred indicating differences in the pathways for stimulation of the APP. Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment.
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Ndetei D M, Othieno C J, Kilonzo G & Mburu J. Epilepsy, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359.. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359.. : CHAK Times Abstractthe_african_textbook_of_clinical_psychiatry_and_mental_health_2.pdf

Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp). The initial peak levels of Hp and SAP were attained 7 and 12 days post-infection (DPI), respectively. Thereafter SAP levels decreased significantly to near pre-infection levels, but later increased even after treatment to give a second peak 34 DPI after which there was a decline till the study was terminated. The Hp levels on the other hand decreased to an intermediate level after the initial peak increasing to a second peak 22 DPI. Thereafter Hp decreased significantly following diminazine aceturate treatment to reach pre-infection levels within 5 days post-treatment. This indicates that T. congolense-infected mice develop severe anaemia accompanied by an acute phase response leading to an increase in SAP and Hp but that following treatment divergent responses occurred indicating differences in the pathways for stimulation of the APP. Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment.

2005

M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN.  2005.  Khamis TM, Ndetei DM, Mburu JM (2005) Psychosocial aspects of Khat use among the youth of Nairobi. South Africa Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 11 No 1 April 2005. South Africa Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 11 No 1 April 2005. : CHAK Times Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among leprosy patients in western Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Busia and Teso districts in western Kenya. SUBJECTS: A sample of 152 male and female, adult leprosy patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (PM) was 53.29%. The PM was positively correlated with physical disability and marital status but not with age, sex, education, type of leprosy, or duration of the illness. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among Kenyan leprosy patients compared to studies carried out in India (56% to 78%). It was high compared to the rate of psychiatric morbidity in those seeking medical help in primary health care centres in Kenya, which was recently estimated to be 10%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PM in leprosy patients in western Kenya was lower than that in studies carried out in India. This could be attributed to de-institutionalisation and re-integration of leprosy sufferers back into their local communities. Since the rate was more than double that in the general Kenyan population and seemed to be related to presence of physical disability, an appraisal of psychiatric services offered to these patients is needed.
M., DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, A DROBONDOANNE, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2005.  Kisivuli J A, Othieno C J, Mburu J M, Kathuku D M, Obondo A A & Nasokho P W (2005). Psychiatric morbidity among leprosy patients in Teso and Busia Districts of Western Kenya. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 82 no9, 452-456.. Journal. : CHAK Times Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among leprosy patients in western Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Busia and Teso districts in western Kenya. SUBJECTS: A sample of 152 male and female, adult leprosy patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (PM) was 53.29%. The PM was positively correlated with physical disability and marital status but not with age, sex, education, type of leprosy, or duration of the illness. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among Kenyan leprosy patients compared to studies carried out in India (56% to 78%). It was high compared to the rate of psychiatric morbidity in those seeking medical help in primary health care centres in Kenya, which was recently estimated to be 10%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PM in leprosy patients in western Kenya was lower than that in studies carried out in India. This could be attributed to de-institutionalisation and re-integration of leprosy sufferers back into their local communities. Since the rate was more than double that in the general Kenyan population and seemed to be related to presence of physical disability, an appraisal of psychiatric services offered to these patients is needed.

1997

MAINA, DRMBURUJOHN.  1997.  Monoclonal antibodies against boar sperm zona pellucida-binding protein AWN-1. Characterization of a continuous antigenic determinant and immunolocalization of AWN epitopes in inseminated sows.Calvete JJ, Ensslin M, Mburu J, Iborra A, Mart. Biol Reprod. 1997 Oct;57(4):735-42.. : CHAK Times Abstract

Boar spermadhesin AWN-1 is a sperm surface-associated 14.7-kDa lectin and a major protein of porcine seminal plasma. AWN-1 binds to beta-galactosides and to porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins, suggesting that this protein might play a role in the primary binding of spermatozoa to the egg's external glycoprotein matrix. We have produced a collection of murine monoclonal antibodies against purified AWN-1. Five monoclonal antibodies recognized sequential antigenic determinants. All these epitopes were located at the C-terminal region of AWN-1 (residues 109-123) by competitive ELISA using overlapping synthetic peptides that cover the complete 133 amino acid sequence of the lectin. In a structural model of spermadhesin AWN-1, the polypeptide stretch 109-123 is fully solvent-exposed, providing a reasonable explanation for its high immunogenicity. In addition to epitope mapping, we have employed anti-AWN monoclonal antibodies for immunolocalization of the protein in the genital tract of inseminated sows. Clusters of AWN epitopes were occasionally found attached to the epithelium of the uterotubal junction and the adjacent lower isthmus. However, neither AWN-1 nor other seminal plasma proteins were found in the isthmic fluid collected 10-26 h after insemination. These results suggest that the whole amount of seminal plasma proteins are absorbed by the epithelium of the female genital tract, supporting the claim that removal of seminal plasma components from spermatozoa might be a major event in both in vitro and in vivo sperm capacitation.

1996

Aluoch, JR, JM M.  1996.  Platelet function in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Nairobi. Abstract

From July 1990 to January 1991 we studied platelet functions in 55 indigenous Kenyan patients (23 males and 32 females) with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in steady state (SCASS) and in 20 (11 males and 9 females) SCA patients in vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis (VSCC). A control group of 50 healthy (23 males and 27 females) individuals matched for age and sex was also studied. Platelet aggregation time to ADP in SCASS (57.2 +/- 39.1) and in VSCC (31 +/- 11.1) were more prolonged (p < 0.05) compared to controls (12.7 +/- 5.2). It was also significantly more prolonged (p < 0.05) in VSCC than in SCASS. Platelet adhesiveness time was 31.1 +/- 13.7 seconds in SCASS, 30.9 +/- 11.1 in VSCC, and 37.7 +/- 13.0 in controls and was significantly lower in both SCA groups (p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. Clot retraction was 52.8 +/- 6.9 in SCASS, 53.6 +/- 10.7 in VSCC, and 45.9 +/- 8 in controls and was significantly higher in both SCA groups than in controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. We conclude that platelet function is deranged in indigenous Kenyan patients with SCA.

1995

M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS.  1995.  Ndetei, DM, Mburu, JM, Kathuku DM, Kangethe R, Owino SO & Hagengimana (1995) Psychotrauma Training of Trauma in Rwanda. University of Nairobi and United Nations Development Fund for Women. University of Nairobi and United Nations Development Fund for Women. : CHAK Times Abstract

Boar spermadhesin AWN-1 is a sperm surface-associated 14.7-kDa lectin and a major protein of porcine seminal plasma. AWN-1 binds to beta-galactosides and to porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins, suggesting that this protein might play a role in the primary binding of spermatozoa to the egg's external glycoprotein matrix. We have produced a collection of murine monoclonal antibodies against purified AWN-1. Five monoclonal antibodies recognized sequential antigenic determinants. All these epitopes were located at the C-terminal region of AWN-1 (residues 109-123) by competitive ELISA using overlapping synthetic peptides that cover the complete 133 amino acid sequence of the lectin. In a structural model of spermadhesin AWN-1, the polypeptide stretch 109-123 is fully solvent-exposed, providing a reasonable explanation for its high immunogenicity. In addition to epitope mapping, we have employed anti-AWN monoclonal antibodies for immunolocalization of the protein in the genital tract of inseminated sows. Clusters of AWN epitopes were occasionally found attached to the epithelium of the uterotubal junction and the adjacent lower isthmus. However, neither AWN-1 nor other seminal plasma proteins were found in the isthmic fluid collected 10-26 h after insemination. These results suggest that the whole amount of seminal plasma proteins are absorbed by the epithelium of the female genital tract, supporting the claim that removal of seminal plasma components from spermatozoa might be a major event in both in vitro and in vivo sperm capacitation.

1991

MAINA, DRMBURUJOHN.  1991.  ualitative research with a Kenyan flavour.Mburu J, Cogswell L, Crane E, Todreas IL. Essent Drugs Monit. 1991;(11):8-9.. Essent Drugs Monit. 1991;(11):8-9.. : CHAK Times Abstract

PIP: The Essential Drugs Program in Kenya's Ministry of Health included a qualitative research phase of focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the communication needs in educating the public about responsible essential drug use. This article discusses the general parameters of FGDs, and specific outcomes of essential drug FGDs and the evaluation of the health education tools generated in the FGDs. The purpose of the pilot project was to develop effective materials on the correct use of drug regimens and promoting authorized drug providers. FGDs were used as a quick and relatively inexpensive means of gauging a target audience's beliefs and practices. The facilitator of the group directed discussion and probed for participants views on the community's needs, and forms of expression. (Drawing on positive social customs within a culture helps bridge the difference between local perceptions and knowledge.) Pretesting of draft materials in FGDs assured the ability to reach the target audience. These 2 methods contributed to the project's success by involving the target group as experts in providing useful information, fostering a sense of ownership and commitment, and building a relationship between the staff and target group that renewed dedication and willingness to cooperate. Program staff conducted 19 FGDs with 171 clients and 9 FGDs with 63 providers, and also interviewed 36 providers and observed in 4 locations client/provider exchanges. The results showed that client were unaware of the importance of strict compliance with a drug regimen, and consequences of ineffectiveness. Clients were uneasy about side effects, and purchased drugs from unauthorized dealers. The 3 messages to be promoted were 1) return to the clinic or hospital if drug problems arise, 2) use only authorized providers, and 3) follow directions carefully and completely. It was also decided that posters and audio cassette were the communication modes. A description of the materials developed is described. 24 health centers in 3 districts received the materials. A 3 month evaluation was conducted, after which time quantitative information was analyzed. Behavioral changes were observed in the returns to the clinic for more information, and closing of some unauthorized clinics and loss of business, and fewer complaints of lingering illness. Communication, trust, and good health care resulted.

1987

1984

1981

UoN Websites Search