Bio

DR. KARUGIA JOSEPH THUO

Dr Joseph Karugia is an Agricultural Economist by training. He holds a B.Sc degree (First Class Honours) and an MSc degree both from the University of Nairobi and a PhD in Agricultural Economics from the University of Alberta, Canada. He is currently on leave of absence from the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi where he has taught for more than twenty years and holds the position of Senior Lecturer. He also served as Chairman of Department in the period 2002-2003.

DR. KARUGIA JOSEPH THUO CV

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Publications


2013

2012

Karugia, J;, Wanjiku J;, Nzuma J;, Gbegbelegbe S;, Macharia E;, Massawe S;, Freeman A;, Waithaka M;, Kaitibie S.  2012.  The Impact Of Non - Tariff Barriers On Maize And Beef Trade In East Africa.
Karugia, JT, Caria SA, Engida E, Ayele G.  2012.  The Role of Livestock In the Ethiopian Economy: Policy Analysis Using A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Model for Ethiopia. Abstract

Researchers and policymakers increasingly recognize that the livestock sector supports the livelihoods of a large proportion of rural households in most African countries and may have an important role to play in rural poverty reduction strategies. In order to develop this insight, economywide models should capture both the biological, dynamic relationships between the stocks and flows of livestock and the economic linkages between the sector and the rest of the economy. We extend an existing dynamic recursive general equilibrium model for the Ethiopian economy which better models the livestock sector. A separate herd dynamics module enables us to specify stock-flow relationship, distinguishing between the capital role of livestock and the flow of livestock products. We also improve the underlying system of economic accounts, to better capture draft power and breeding stocks. We use this model to simulate separate, realistic Total Factor Productivity (TFP) shocks to three agricultural subsectors—cereals, cash crops, and livestock—and compare them with a baseline scenario replicating the 1998 to 2007 productivity trends, following Dorosh and Thurlow (2009) who have examined CAADP productivity scenarios. The results we obtain reveal the important role of the livestock sector in increasing various measures of GDP and combating food insecurity. Agricultural GDP and overall GDP growth levels achieved in the livestock TFP shock scenario are very similar to those achieved in the cereal TFP shock scenario, unlike what previously thought. Importantly, as factors are dynamically re-allocated between agricultural activities, our analysis highlights the inefficiency of strategies focusing on cereal sector development alone. Moreover, livestock sector productivity growth leads to greater factor income growth, particularly labor income, than in the other simulations. Labor is the predominant asset of poor households and hence large income gains and food consumption growth are realized under the livestock-led scenario

2011

Oluoch-Kosura, W, Wambugu SK;.  2011.  Conditions for achieving sustained agricultural intensification in Africa: evidence from Kenya. AbstractWebsite

This chapter examines the conditions for achieving sustained agricultural intensification using evidence from micro- and macro-data from Kenya, as well as the six 'I's that represent significant proximate variables influencing agricultural performance, namely Incentives, Inputs, Infrastructure, Institutions, Initiatives and Innovations. The chapter further demonstrates how a change in these 'I's affects agricultural productivity. Furthermore, the authors discuss agricultural intensification and a number of public interventions to promote it, and spell out their implications for the realization of Millennium Development Goal of halving, by 2015, the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Emphasis is laid on maize production, since the lack of maize signals famine and poverty in Kenya, even when other food crops may be available. The chapter examines the conditions that led to a revitalization of increased agricultural productivity in the period 2003 to 2007, after an enabling policy environment that favoured the six 'I's was put in place. The authors also present scenarios likely to emerge after the skirmishes that rocked the country soon after the December 2007 general elections.

2010

Karugia, JT,; Ndirangu L;, Nyangito H;, Suri T.  2010.  Policy Options for Agriculture Growth in Kenya.

2009

Massawe, S; Karugia, WMOJ; J; E;.  2009.  Status and Trends of Agricultural and Rural Development Indicators in the COMESA Region. Abstract

This report is divided into eight sections, section one provides an introduction about the COMESA region and the structure of the economy in the region. Section two presents trends of various socioeconomic indicators in the region. Section three contains gender related information while section four focuses on food security in COMESA. Some examples of subnational food security situations are also given here. Section five focuses on various indicators related to agriculture in COMESA including agriculture and food production, input utilization in agriculture, and application of irrigation in agriculture. Section six provides information on expenditures in agriculture and agricultural value addition in the region. In section seven, various indicators on trade are reviewed. The last section, section eight, contains summary, conclusions, and policy recommendations.

Martin, M;, Gichohi M, Karugia JT;.  2009.  Poverty, Growth, and Institutions: Seminar report. Website

2008

Rakotoarisoa, M; Massawe, MOFBKS; A; R;.  2008.  Investment Opportunities for Livestock in the North Eastern Province of Kenya: A Synthesis of Existing Knowledge. Abstract

Pastoralism is the dominant livelihood activity in the North Eastern Province (NEP) of Kenya. It is supplemented only by a limited amount of agriculture along the rivers. The province faces various developmental challenges including chronic poverty and food insecurity, low human capital and poor health standards, high vulnerability to climate change, poor infrastructure, insecurity and low crop and livestock productivity. This study synthesises existing knowledge and provides recommendations on livestock investments to increase incomes, create employment and reduce food insecurity in the province. It examines investment opportunities in livestock and presents scenarios that meet the objectives of Kenya’s 2030 vision. Four scenarios are analysed. The first scenario consists of the business-as-usual case: a vision of the state of the livestock sector, and its contribution to NEP and national economy, if the current trajectory is maintained. The second scenario outlines a strategy that focuses on catering to domestic demand for livestock products. The third scenario focuses on feeding foreign demand for live animals, while the fourth scenario investigates the possibilities of a livestock sector driven by exports of processed livestock products. Also in these investment scenarios, the broad-based growth contribution to the economy is discussed. The analysis indicates that all three alternative scenarios have far better impacts on pastoralists’ income and employment than the ‘business-as-usual’ scenario. The second scenario is found to have the largest favourable impact. Besides creating jobs and income opportunities, it provides alternatives to meet the growing livestock product consumption spurred by population increase, rising incomes and urbanization in Kenya. However, there are several requirements for this scenario to work and yield the desired impact. The need for creating a favourable investment climate is discussed and specific roles of the public and private sectors are explained.

2007

Oluoch-Kosura, W, Staal SJ, Karugia JT, Makokha SN.  2007.  Valuation of cow attributes by conjoint analysis: A case study of Western Kenya.
Wanjiku, J;, Manyengo JU;, Oluoch-Kosura W;.  2007.  Gender differentiation in the analysis of alternative farm mechanization choices on small farms in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

Using multinomial logit we analyze factors that influence the choice of mechanization technologies in Nyanza Province. The results show that farmers are aware of the attributes of the mechanization technologies, and that animal traction is the most commonly used. Gender, formal and informal training of the household head, and technology attributes influence the choice of mechanization technology. This study recommends increased formal and informal training, extension, credit, and tractor hire services to facilitate knowledge transfer, credit, and tractor availability. The study also recommends enactment of laws that increase women's access and control of productive resources.

2006

Karugia, JT;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Nyikal R;, Odumbe M;, Marenya PP.  2006.  Access to Land, Income Diversification and Poverty Reduction in Rural Kenya. Abstract

The increasing land scarcity and the worsening trend of poverty in Kenya in recent years have raised concerns about the focus on land-based agriculture as the basis of growth in the rural areas. This paper combines two complementary data sets obtained from two locations in Kenya, drawn against distinctively different land availability patterns, to examine the diverse rural asset base and key sources of livelihood in the rural areas. The analysis reveals that while access to productive land is still an important determinant of livelihoods in the rural areas, even where land holdings are very small, growth in farm productivity alone may not guarantee households sufficient incomes to escape poverty. We find evidence to suggest that growth of non-farm sector is necessary and may be much more important in reducing risks and vulnerability to poverty and should be equally emphasized if households in such regions are to escape poverty. Off-farm earnings accounted for at least 50 percent of total household incomes in the two research locations. The study further revealed existence of significant barriers to entry to remunerative livelihoods both at farm and off-farm level. The study advocates for expansion of educational services, infrastructure and strengthening of rural institutions to spur broad-based development in the rural areas.

Otieno, DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Karugia JT, Drucker A;, Rege E.  2006.  Risk Management in Smallholder Cattle Farming: A Hypothetical Insurance Approach in Western Kenya. Abstract

Smallholder cattle farming is an important livelihood strategy in most developing countries like Kenya. However, tropical diseases in Africa often wipe out these valuable assets. This paper focuses on mitigation of cattle disease risks through a hypothetical insurance scheme. The study is based on data from a survey conducted on a purposive sample of 300 smallholder cattle farmers in Kakamega and Siaya districts of Western Kenya. Descriptive measures and a regression model were used in the analysis. Results of the study showed that most farmers (91.3%) were willing to participate in the cattle insurance scheme. Also, the farmers observed that the scheme would enable them to increase their herd sizes and change their breed composition. The farmer’s mean Willingness To Pay (WTP) for the scheme would be determined by their gender, income, cultural norms, cattle breed and economic value/price of the animal kept. This paper recommends establishment of a formal cattle insurance scheme; and economic empowerment of both male and female farmers to encourage adoption of the scheme, as well as educating the farmers on how to integrate the scheme within their cultural norms to ensure it’s sustainability.

  2006.  Africa's Resurgence and International Migration: An Overview. Abstract

In this issue, geography, market integration and institutions are identified as the fundamental constraints on Africa's future prosperity. It is pointed out that, in line with the recommendations of The Report of the Commission for Africa, African governments and international partners can ameliorate the effects of these constraints through: investing in governance, peace and security; improving the investment climate by articulating and implementing suitable policies; improving the infrastructure; diversifying the economic base; and removing trade and non-trade barriers to intra-African trade as well as Africa's beneficial integration into the global economy. Also in this issue, the point is made that the widening gaps between Africa's economies and those of the industrialized nations contribute to the high levels of migration from Africa to the developed world. It is concluded that the developed nations need to support Africa's resurgence in order to reduce the poverty levels and improve economic growth prospects in Africa thereby reduce the pressure on the developed countries to control the influx of (unwanted) low skilled Africans to their countries, save them the cost and consequences of preventing the surge, and ameliorate other negative externalities associated with such migrants. Supporting Africa's resurgence will ensure that Africa does not lag behind yielding the associated benefit of reduced pressure for skilled and unskilled persons to migrate out of Africa and avoidance of perverse spatial distribution of people; the consequences of which can only be imagined.

THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2006.  Otieno D.J., Willis Oluoch-Kosura, Joseph T. Karugia, Adam G. Drucker and J.E.O. Rege (2006) . Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2006.  Stella Nabwile Makokha, Joseph Karugia, Steve Staal, and Oluoch-Kosura (2006) . Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2006.  Joseph Karugia, Willis Oluoch-Kosura, Rose Nyikal, Michael Odumbe and Paswell P. Marenya (2006) . Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2005

Oluoch-Kosura, W;, Karugia JT.  2005.  Why the early promise for rapid increases in maize productivity in Kenya was not sustained: lessons for sustainable investment in agriculture. AbstractWebsite

The influence of climatic, policy and institutional-related (infrastructure, technology, institutional support) factors on the decline in maize output and yields and the subsequent deepening and broadening of food poverty in Kenya is discussed. This chapter provides lessons to enable a re-focusing of attention on ways to achieve sustainable investment in agriculture in order to improve the livelihoods of the majority of households in Kenya.

THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2005.  Karugia, J. T., Stephen K. Wambugu and Willis Oluoch-Kosura (2005). . Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2005.  Willis Oluoch-Kosura and Joseph T. Karugia (2005). . Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2005.  Kimenju, Simon Chege, Hugo De Groote, Joseph T. Karugia, Stephen Mbogoh and David Poland (2005). . Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2005.  Wanyoike, F.N., J.T. Karugia and L.N. Kimenye (submitted). . Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2005.  Maina, Paul Guthiga, Joseph T. Karugia and Rose Nyikal (submitted). "The Effect of Using Animal Traction on Maize Production Efficiency on Smallholder Farms in Central Kenya: A Case of Kirinyaga District" submitted to Agricultural Economics. Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2004

Sinja, J;, Nyangaga J;, Karugia JT;, Waithaka MM;, Mwangi DM;, Romney DL.  2004.  Factors influencing farmer-to-farmer extension of forage legume technology. Abstract

Forage legumes have been introduced to farmers in Central Kenya between 1980 and 2002 through various Institutional and Projects’ efforts. The adoption rate of these forages among farmers has been found to be rather low, with the NDDP reporting only 1.9 % of farms surveyed and an ICRAF report indicating that the technology was only reaching 1 % of smallholder farms. An evaluation of adoption of Calliandra and Desmodium was conducted to identify farm characteristics affecting the likelihood of sharing of Desmodium and Calliandra technologies as well as to characterise the spread or diffusion of the technology from the original contact groups and the effect of distance from those groups. Three groups of farmers were approached. A first generation who received planting material from the distributors, a second generation who received planting materials from the former, and a randomly selected group of farmers at various distances from the first contacts. Informal discussions were held with the farmers and formal questionnaires filled. Out of the 133 first generation farmers contacted 64.7% still had Desmodium and 89.5% still had Calliandra. More farms in the contact sub-locations had the plants than the sub-locations further away. The small sample size of those with the forages could not allow effect of distance to be worked out. Tobit estimates of effects of farmer attributes influencing sharing of planting materials shows that the status of the household head in the community positively affected the likelihood of giving out planting material. The technology has a rather slow spread as indicated by percentages of farms with the forages. For better adoption and spread proponents of the technology should have the technology introduced to farmers who have substantial positions in farmer groups or have been bestowed community responsibility.

2003

Karugia, Joseph T; Wambugu, SO-KWK;.  2003.  The role of infrastructure and government policies in determining the efficiency of Kenya's maize marketing system in the post-liberalisation era. Abstract

Although Kenya has liberalized its agricultural market, it continues to experience frequent food shortages that greatly compromise the welfare of its citizens, especially the poor. In Kenya food shortages are synonymous with maize shortages. Persistent maize crises sometimes manifest themselves in simultaneous existence of grain surpluses in some regions and grain shortages in others. This situation has placed great doubt on the efficiency of the Kenyan food marketing system. Improved market efficiency was an expected outcome of agricultural market liberalization. Partial liberalization of the maize market started in the early 1980s, and full liberalization commenced in 1992, when the National Cereals and Produce Board (NCPB) lost it monopoly as the sole buyer and importer. Liberalization of the maize market was fully effected in December 1993, when consumer prices were decontrolled, grain movement restrictions were lifted, and the NCPB was assigned the role of stabilizing markets and maintaining strategic grain reserves. This study examines the maize marketing system in order to understand the effects of liberalization on its efficiency. Several measures of efficiency are used to assess the performance of the maize marketing system. These measures include the degree of market integration between surplus and deficit regions, the level of marketing costs, and the flow of price information. The study also considers the role of different infrastructure components in enhancing the efficiency of the marketing system. It further addresses the issue of government policy in facilitating or impeding the private sector’s ability to respond to liberalization. Data for the study came from both secondary and primary sources. Price data came from reports of the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and the Ministry of Agriculture. These data were supplemented with data from other published sources. The analysis also relies on survey data collected from a sample of 234 maize traders in Nairobi, Trans Nzoia, Migori, and Mbeere districts using a structured questionnaire. The main methods of data analysis used in the study are computation of descriptive statistics, cross tabulations of survey data, and use of cointegration regression techniques to study price data. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and Microfit 4.1. vi This study finds that liberalization policy has enhanced market integration and the flow of information among markets. This finding suggests that potential arbitrage opportunities exist between maize surplus and deficit regions. The study also reveals, however, that substantial infrastructural, institutional, and policy constraints hinder the exploitation of these opportunities. The constraints undermine the development of private trade in the maize marketing system and lead to high marketing costs, barriers to entry and expansion by traders, and an uncertain business environment. In addition to filling gaps in the literature on maize marketing in Kenya, this study recommends a number of policies that the government and the private sector could undertake to enhance efficiency of the maize marketing system. The study recommends that the central and local governments play a greater role in improving marketing infrastructure, enhancing the performance of the various institutions involved in maize marketing, and reducing uncertainty caused by government policy regarding maize marketing. Farmers and traders should organize themselves into groups to increase their bargaining power in the marketplace and to exploit economies of scale in acquiring marketing inputs such as storage and transport facilities and access to credit. Both government and nongovernmental organizations could play a catalytic role in the formation of these organizations.

THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2003.  Karugia J. T. (2003). A Micro-level Analysis of Agricultural Intensification in Kenya: The Case of Food Staples. Final Report, Lund University, Sweden.. Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2002

THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2002.  Karugia, Joseph T. (2002). . In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002.. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2002.  Nyangito, Hezron, and Joseph Karugia. (2002) . In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002.. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2002.  Karugia, J. T., Stephen K. Wambugu and Willis Oluoch-Kosura (2002) . In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002.. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2001

THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2001.  Karugia, J. T., Okeyo A. M., Kaitho, R., Wollny, C. , Drucker, A. and Rege, J.E.O. (2001). Economic Analysis of Crossbreeding Programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Conceptual Framework and Kenyan Case Study. Animal Genetic Resources Research Report No. 2.. In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002.. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  2001.  Phiri, P.M., J.T. Karugia and W.A. Oluoch-Kosura (2001). . In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002.. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1997

THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  1997.  Karugia, Joseph T. (1997). . Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997.. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  1997.  Karugia, Joseph T. and Michele Veeman (1998). . Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997.. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1993

THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  1993.  Mbogoh, S., M. O. Odhiambo, and J. Karugia (1993). . Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997.. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1992

THUO, DRKARUGIAJOSEPH.  1992.  Karugia, Joseph T. (1992). . Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997.. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.

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