Bio

PROF. ININDA MWALICHI J.

Personal Information

Associate Professor

Head of  Dynamic Processes and Weather Prediction

Research Interest

Weather and Climate prediction using NWP

Research Activities

  • Review of Paper for Journal:
    Paper to be send to KMS Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences
  • Writting Paper for Publication:

    Study on tidal variations over the Kenyan Coast

PDF Upload: 

PROF. ININDA JOSEPH M CV

Publications


Submitted

M, DRININDAJOSEPH, A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE.  Submitted.  Wet periods along the East Africa Coast and the extreme wet spell event of October 1997. A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. : Kenya Met Soc

2018

et.al., JMI.  2018.  Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Suitability of Banana Crop Production to Future Climate Change Over Uganda. Limits to Climate Change Adaptation. : Springer, Cham Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine suitability zones of future banana growth under a changing climate to guide the design of future adaptation options in the banana sub-sector of Uganda. The study used high resolution (~1 km) data on combined bioclimatic variables (rainfall and temperature) to map suitability zones of the banana crop while the Providing Regional Climate for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) regional climate model temperature simulations were used to estimate the effect of rising temperature on banana growth assuming other factors constant. The downscaled future climate projections were based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) and Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES, A1B and A2) across the period 2011–2090. The methodology involved identification of banana-climate growth thresholds and developing suitability indices for banana production under the high mitigation (RCP 2.6, less adaptation), medium mitigation (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0, medium adaptation), no mitigation (RCP 8.5, very high adaptation) scenarios, SRES A1B and A2 scenarios. The FAO ECO-Crop tool was used to determine and map future suitability of banana growth. Banana production indices were determined using a suitability model in the Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analyst tool. The non-linear banana-temperature regression model was used to assess the impact of future changes in temperature on banana growth. The results revealed unique and distinct banana production suitability and growth patterns for each climate scenario in the sub-periods. RCPs 2.6 and 6.5 are likely to be associated with higher levels of banana production than RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The results further showed that projected temperature increase under SRES A1B will promote banana growth. In contrast, expected increases in temperatures under SRES A2 are likely to retard banana growth due to high moisture deficits. There is need to develop adaptation option for farming communities to maximize their agricultural production and incomes. The effectiveness of adaptation options needed to combat the impacts will be influenced by the magnitude of the expected climatic changes associated with each scenario, the timing of expected climate change extremes and sensitivity of the crop to climate. This study has provided critical information that will be useful for planning integrated adaptation practices in the banana farming subsector to promote productivity.

2016

et.al., JMI.  2016.  Empirical Relationships between Banana Yields and Climate Variability over Uganda. J. Environ. Agric. Sci. 7:3-13. Abstractempirical_relationships_between_banana_yields_and_climate_variability_over_uganda.pdfIGAD RCC

: Variations in weather and climate have a significant impact on rain-fed banana yields in East Africa. This study examined empirical linkages between banana yields and variations in rainfall and temperature over Uganda for the historical period (1971-2009) using time series moments, correlation and regression analysis. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Crop Water Assessment Tool (CROPWAT) was used to estimate banana crop water requirements, soil moisture deficits and their effects on banana yield levels under rain-fed conditions for different regions. The study observed high comparability in moment indices with some significant differences reflected in the values of the banana yields and rainfall and temperature moment indices. The cumulative effect of rainfall and temperature variations on banana yields was discernible from strong correlation coefficients of up to 78%. The CROPWAT simulations indicated up to 46% reductions in optimal banana yields due to soil moisture deficits within banana plantations. In conclusion, the study observed stronger linkages between banana yields and temperature variations than rainfall. In addition, temperature manifests both direct and indirect effects on banana growth while rainfall exhibits comparatively high intra-seasonal and intra-annual variability with lag effects on banana yields. The study provides a strong scientific basis for the development of coping, adaptation and mitigation strategies in the banana farming subsector in the region due to the anticipated shifts in rainfall and
temperature extremes and changes across Uganda and neighbouring regions.

Mugo, RM, Ininda JM, Okoola RE.  2016.  Inter Annual Variability of Onset and Cessation of the Long Rains in Kenya. J. Meteorol. 9(3):30-47. Abstractinter_annual_variability_of_onset_and_cessation_of_the_long_rains_in_kenya.pdfUniversity of Nairobi

This study examined the spatial and temporal variability of the onset and cessation of long rains (MAM). The daily rainfall data used in the study was obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD. Both graphical and statistical methods were applied in the analyses. Most of the stations indicated the onset month to be March. However, a few stations indicated February as their onset month while a few others had April as the onset month. Further analysis indicated a link between performance of the seasonal rainfall and the onset date. Thus positive (negative) rainfall anomaly was associated with early (late) onset. The results from the analysis showed that over most stations, the mean onset is the 74th day (14th march) with an average standard deviation of 24 days.

The mean cessation day was day 150 (29th of May) with an average standard deviation of 21 days.
The highest variability was observed in dry areas.
The study showed that over most parts of the country there is very high likelihood of below normal rainfall when the onset is late. However, over the north western part of the country (region 1) which receive it seasonal rainfall over a short period, the rainfall performance may not be affected by the late the onset It was also noted that over most regions there is high chances of near normal rainfall occurring when the onset is normal. The chances of below normal rainfall occurring when the onset is normal are low. It was noted that whereas the chances of below normal rainfall occurring when there is an early onset were minimal, The western region (region 12) represented by Elgon had substantive chance of having below normal rainfall even with early onset. The onset over this region is associated with the low level westerlies from Congo, while the performance of the seasonal rainfall over this region is largely linked with the characteristics of the ITCZ.

2015

Ngaina, J, Muthama N, Ininda J, Opere A, Mutai B.  2015.  Towards Precipitation Enhancement through Cloud Seeding in Kenya. Global Meteorology. 3(1):7-13. Abstracttowards_precipitation_enhancement_through_cloud_seeding_in_kenya.pdfGlobal Meteorology

The study investigated potential of enhancing precipitation through cloud seeding during October-November-December (OND) season. Rainfall, cloud top temperature (CTT), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and wind data were used. Short-Cut Bartlett correlation, composite wind and time series analysis, and HYSPLIT backward trajectory analysis were used to achieve the objectives of study. Precipitation showed decreasing patterns with peaks between pentad 65 and 68. Delineated dry years (18) exceeded wet years (9). Low level winds were predominantly north-easterly during dry years characterized by continental trajectory. AOD values iincreased in all stations during dry year with aerosol load being higher in areas characterized by depressed rainfall. Pollutants suspended 1000 above mean sea level (AMSL) originated from Arabian and India subcontinent and pollutants suspended below 1000 AMSL were predominantly south easterly during wet years originated from Western Indian Ocean and characterized by maritime trajectory. Mean CTT during dry/wet years were positve over coastal areas while central, Rift-valley and Lake Victoria basin showed negative values, indicating presence of seedable conditions and thus potential cloud seeding to enhance rainfall and alleviate existing water stress.

Ngaina, JN, Opere A, Ininda JM, Muthama N.  2015.  Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Deep Convective Clouds Over Equatorial East Africa. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. Abstract SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep convective clouds (DCCs) associated with tropical convection, are significant sources of precipitation in Equatorial East Africa. The DCCs play a fundamental role in hydrological and energy cycle. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with detailed bin-resolved microphysics are used to explore the diurnal variation of DCCs under maritime/clean and continental/polluted conditions. The sign and magnitude of the Twomey effect, droplet dispersion effect, cloud thickness effect, Cloud Optical Depth (COD) susceptibility to aerosol perturbations, and aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation is evaluated. Twomey effect emerges as dominant in total COD susceptibility to aerosol perturbations. The dispersion effect is positive and accounts for 3-10% of the total COD susceptibility at nighttime, with greater influence on heavier drizzling clouds. The cloud thickness effect is positive (negative) for a moderate/heavy drizzling (light thickness) clouds. The cloud thickness effect results in 5-22% of the nighttime total cloud susceptibility. Cloud microphysical properties and accumulated total precipitation show a complex relationship under varied aerosol conditions. The mean of core updraft and maximal vertical velocity increased (decreased) under low (high) CCN scenarios. Overall, the total COD susceptibility ranges from 0.28-0.53 at night; an increase in aerosol concentration enhances COD, especially with heavier precipitation and in a clean environment. During the daytime, the range of magnitude of each effect is more variable owing to cloud thinning and decoupling. The ratio of the magnitude of cloud thickness effect to that of the Twomey effect depends on cloud thickness and base height in unperturbed clouds while the response of precipitation to increase in aerosol concentration was non-monotonic

2014

Ngaina, JN, Mutai BK, Ininda JM, Muthama JN.  2014.  Monitoring Spatial-temporal Variability of Aerosol over Kenya. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management . 7(3):244–252. Abstractmonitoring_spatial-temporal_variability_of_aerosol_over_kenya.pdfAFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL)

This study sought to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over Kenya based on
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data
for the period between 2001 and 2012. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT)
model was used for trajectory analysis in order to reconstruct the origins of air masses and understand the
Spatial and temporal variability of aerosol concentrations. Validation of MODIS AOD using Aerosol Robotic
Network (AERONET) indicated that MODIS overestimated the aerosol loading over the study region. Space
time variability of MODIS AOD measurements over Kenya showed a decreasing trend in aerosol loading with a
long term mean of between 0.02 and 0.56. Mean monthly AOD values showed two peaks during the months
of July and December while seasonal variations indicated high aerosol loading during the December –
January –February (DJF) and June –July –August (JJA) season. Back trajectory analyses showed that aerosols
mainly dust and sea salt reaching Kenya were transported from either Arabian or Indian sub continent or
western parts of the Indian Ocean respectively. Therefore, long term and more comprehensive satellite AOD
retrievals are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of spatial and temporal variations in
aerosols over Kenya

Key Words: Aerosol Optical Depth, MODIS, Kenya

et.al., IJM.  2014.  Potential of Harvesting Atmospheric Water over Urban Cities in Kenya. International Journal of Physical Sciences. 2(5):069-075. AbstractInternational Journal of Physical Sciences

Most urban areas in Kenya are facing water crisis due to rapid population growth, industrialization and climate change. This study investigates potential of harvesting water from fog and air humidity over urban cities in Kenya. Daily air temperature, dew point temperature, wind direction and speed were used. Parameters including atmospheric water vapor pressure, saturated vapor pressure and the absolute and relative humidity of the atmosphere were derived. Air temperatures ranged between 18.2 and 27.6°C in urban areas. Mean annual foggy days was higher at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) with a maximum of 17 foggy days compared to other stations. However, mean annual harvesting days was higher at Moi International Airport (MIA) with a maximum of 350 days. Based on device efficiency of 10%, stations in Nairobi city (JKIA/Dagorretti Corner/Wilson Airport) indicated maximum water harvesting potential of 3.2/1.4/2.9 litres/m2 /day in direction d6 (225 -270°) while Kisumu station showed highest potential of harvesting water (2.2 litres/m2 /day) in direction d5 (180-225°). In Mombasa, the MIA and Lamu stations showed potential of harvesting 4.4 litres/m2 /day and 3.9 litres/m2 /day in direction d6 and d5 respectively. Based on monthly distribution of potential monthly water, harvesting from fog and air humidity was classified into either coastal or non-coastal/continental regions. The urban cities in Kenya have high potential of water harvesting from fog and air humidity presenting an alternative sustainable low cost approach to augmenting available fresh water sources and alleviating existing water stress. This will enable achievement of Kenya’s long term development footprint (Vision 2030) and Millennium Development Goals.

Key words: Vision 2030, urbanization, water stress, fog water harvesting.

2013

M, IJ.  2013.  OCEANOGRAPHY. , Nairobi: University of Nairobi AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

Welcome to Oceanography (SMR 411). This course is offered to both Meteorology students and atmospheric students. While this course does not require pre-requisites, a basic knowledge on climate and atmospheric circulation will enable the leaner to comprehend the concepts presented in the course.

Oceanography is the study of the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the world ocean. All the global oceans together with the seas cover nearly three-quarters of the surface of the earth. The major goals of oceanography are to understand the geologic and geochemical processes involved in the evolution and alteration of the ocean and its basin, to evaluate the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere so that greater knowledge of climatic variations can be attained, and to describe how the biological productivity in the sea is controlled.

Oceans play an important role on weather and climate. Have you ever heard of El Niño, tropical cyclones, the Atlantic hurricane season and storm surges? How does the oceans contribute to these phenomena? These and many other interesting features will be learnt in this course.

Omondi, P, Awange JL, Ogallo LA, Ininda J, Forootan E.  2013.  The Influence of Low Frequency Sea Surface Temperature Modes on Delineated Decadal Rainfall Zones in Eastern Africa Region. Advances in water resources. 54:161-180. AbstractScienceDirect

Influence of low frequency global Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) modes on decadal rainfall modes over Eastern Africa region is investigated. Fore-knowledge of rainfall distribution at decadal time scale in specific zones is critical for planning purposes. Both rainfall and SST data that covers a period of 1950–2008 were subjected to a ‘low-pass filter’ in order to suppress the high frequency oscillations. VARIMAX-Rotated Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) was employed to delineate the region into decadal rainfall zones while Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) techniques was used to examine potential linkages of these zones to various areas of the tropical global oceans. Ten-year distinct decadal signals, significant at 95% confidence level, are dominant when observed in-situ rainfall time series are subjected to spectral analysis. The presence of variability at El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related timescales, combined with influences in the 10–12 year and 16–20 year bands were also prevalent. Nine and seven homogeneous decadal rainfall zones for long rainfall season i.e. March-May (MAM) and the short rainfall season i.e. October-December (OND), respectively, are delineated. The third season of June–August (JJA), which is mainly experienced in western and Coastal sub-regions had eight homogenous zones delineated. The forcing of decadal rainfall in the region is linked to the equatorial central Pacific Ocean, the tropical and South Atlantic Oceans, and the Southwest Indian Ocean. The high variability of these modes highlighted the significant roles of all the global oceans in forcing decadal rainfall variability over the region.

Omondi, P, Ogallo LA, Anyah R, Muthama JM, Ininda J.  2013.  Linkages between Global Sea Surface Temperatures and Decadal Rainfall Variability over Eastern Africa Region. Int. J. Climatol. . 33:2082–2104. Abstractlinkages_between_global_sea_surface_temperatures_and_decadal_rainfall_variability_over_eastern_africa_region.pdfRoyal Meteorological Society

Linkages between dominant spatio-temporal decadal rainfall variability modes and the global sea surface temperature (SST) modes are investigated over East Africa region for the period 1950–2008. Singular value decomposition (SVD)and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) techniques are employed to examine potential linkages and predictability of decadal rainfall variability over the region. When the ten-year periodicity is filtered out from the observed monthly rainfall data, distinct decadal rainfall regimes are exhibited in the time series of mean seasonal rainfall anomalies. Spectral density analysis of rainfall time series showed dominance of a ten-year periodicity, significant at 95% confidence level.The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) results yielded nine and seven homogeneous decadal rainfall zones for long rains; March–May (MAM), and the short rains: October–December (OND) seasons, respectively. The third season of June–August (JJA) which is mainly experienced in western and coastal sub-regions had eight homogenous zones delineated. Results show that
the leading three SVD-coupled modes explain greater than 75% of the squared co variance between the two fields. The first SVD mode for Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans contributed to 50, 43 and 38% of the total square covariance for MAM season, respectively. The same mode accounted for 65, 48 and 40% for OND rainfall season, respectively. For the JJA season, mode one contributed to about 61, 39 and 42% of the variance. The study showed that forcing of decadal rainfall over the region is associated with El Ni˜no mode that is prominent over the Pacific Ocean, while Indian Ocean dipole is the leading mode over the Indian Ocean basin. An inter-hemispheric dipole mode that is common during ENSO was a prominent feature in the Atlantic Ocean forcing regional decadal rainfall. The high variability of these modes highlighted the significant roles of all the global oceans in forcing decadal rainfall variability over the region. In addition, results from multiple linear regression model showed substantial variation of the model prediction skill of the decadal rainfall variability
modes within various homogenous zones and for different seasons. Copyright© 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.

KEY WORDS decadal rainfall variability; Eastern Africa; decadal modes of variability; global oceans SSTs

2012

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2012.  Linkages between global sea surface temperatures and decadal rainfall variability over Eastern africa region. International Journal of Climatology. : Royal Meteorological Society Abstract
Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. 256p.

2010

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2010.  Spatial and Temporal Rainfall characteristics Over Seychelles. International Journal of Climatology. : JOURNAL OF KENYA METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Abstract
ABSTRACT While Seychelles lies close to the Equator, it experiences only one rainy season. The rainfall characteristics over this region is evident from the Satellite observations which show that during most part of the year the active clouds are concentrated to the eastern sector of the equatorial Indian Ocean and Seychelles comes under active weather only during southern hemisphere summer. The main objective of this study was to therefore investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall over Seychelles during the rainy season. The specific objectives included demarcating Seychelles into rainfall homogeneous zones, identify the rainfall season, determine the onset and cessation of the rainy season. The data used in the study were the daily and monthly rainfall over Seychelles for the period 1972 to 2006 and NCEP reanalysis data. The methods used to analyze these data were Principal Component Analysis (PCA), time series analysis, pentad and cumulative curves. The results from PCA analyses showed that Seychelles may be divided into four rainfall homogeneous zones. The study also shown that the rainfall season occur between November and March. January was observed to be the peak rainfall month, while July has the lowest amount of rainfall. The onset and cessation of the rainy season occur in the month of November and March respectively. Analysis of the low level flow showed the Near Equatorial Trough (NET) is the main system influencing rainfall over the Seychelles region. During the time of maximum rainfall in January, the Inter-Tropical Convergent Zone (ITCZ) lies far to the south of the country

2008

Okoola, R, Camberlin P, Ininda J.  2008.  Wet periods along the East Africa Coast and the extreme wet spell event of October 1997. Journal of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2(1):67-83. AbstractHAL

Extreme wet spells affect the East Africa Coast (EAC) during March to June (long rains) and October to December (short rains). While these spells are less frequent during the short rains, some of the most extreme wet spells occur at this time of the year. The present study examined the general characteristics of the wet spells during the short rains. A detailed study of the anomalous wet spell event of October 1997, with record rainfall around Mombasa (4.0°S, 39.6°E), was also carried out.
Daily rainfall for 1962-1997 and NCEP2 reanalysis data for 1979-1997 were used to study the characteristics of the wet events. A high spatial coherence is found in the rainfall over the EAC. The circulation features that were common during most of the wet events were: weakening or reversal of the east-west (Walker type) circulation over the Indian Ocean, enhanced convergence between the northern and southern hemisphere trade winds and westward-moving disturbances in the low-level equatorial wind field. During the 1997 wet event, it is shown that prior to the heavy rainfall event a ridge of high pressure, on the eastern coast of southern Africa, intensified and propagated eastwards leading to the strengthening of moist easterlies reaching the EAC. The zonal wind component along longitude 40°E showed shears in the flows that were associated with the development of the Mozambique Channel low/trough in the lower troposphere round which southerlies surged northwards. These southerlies converged with the easterlies near the EAC. Thus, the warm and wet air from the east interacted with the relatively cold and mainly continental air from the south generating instability at the EAC.

Muhati, DF, Ininda JM, Opijah FJ.  2008.  Simulation of the Impact of Deforestation on Rainfall in the Lake Victoria Basin. AbstractWebsite

Over the past four decades, Lake Victoria basin has experienced drastic environmental changes on account of both natural and anthropogenic factors. The natural factors include prolonged droughts and the recent emergence of water hyacinth in the Lake, while anthropogenic factors include the deforestation rates, poor agricultural practices, and destruction of critical wetlands. This study examines the potential impact of deforestation on the rainfall over the lake Victoria basin. To assess the potential impact of deforestation on rainfall over the region, the General Circulation Model (GCM) ECHAM5 was applied. ECHAM5 was used to predict the possible impact of land cover and land use changes on rainfall using land cover and land use scenarios based on the Integrated Model to Assess Global Environment (IMAGE). The projected vegetation cover for 2050 was used to model the impact of deforestation, which indicated a general decrease in the canopy. The results from the model indicate a decrease in rainfall over many parts, although some areas showed increased rainfall. From the study we conclude that while deforestation has an impact on climate, there seem to be a complex interaction between forest and the rainfall generation mechanism.

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2008.  Towards Improvement of Seasonal Rainfall Forecasting Through Model Output Statistics (Mos) Downscaling of Echam Forecasts Over Tanzania. A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. : Kenya Met Soc Abstract
Many economic activities such as agriculture and hydroelectric power generation are dependent on the availability of water. The main source of water in Tanzania is rainfall. The seasonal rainfall over Tanzania is highly variable both in time and space. Hence there is need for a forecasting model. The main objective of the study was towards improvement of seasonal rainfall forecasting through model output statistics (MOS) down scaling of the ECHAM forecast over Tanzania. ECHAM is a numerical weather prediction model developed at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, that has a comprehensive parameterization package developed at Hamburg. The data used in the study consists of monthly rainfall for 15 stations over Tanzania and wind and rainfall output from ECHAM for the period 1971-2004. The observed data was first subjected to quality control to ensure that it was homogenous and consistent. The ECHAM was forced with observed sea surface temperature. The analysis of the results indicated that the model was capable of simulating the observed climatological circulation and the annual rainfall pattern over Tanzanian. The skill of simulation was highest during the October to December (OND) rainfall season where the model explained as high as 74% of the variance at some locations while during March to May (MAM) the variance explained over most locations was less than 40%. This result was consistent with the previous studies that have shown high (low) correlation between the OND (MAM) rainfall and the SST. Moreover, the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals are observed to be stronger during the OND season. The results from the study showed that the use MOS for down scaling improves the simulation skill.

2007

Ininda, J, Njuguna JGM, Gichuru L, Lorroki P.  2007.  Performance of Three-Way Cross Hybrids for Agronomic Traits and Resistance to Maize Streak Virus Disease in Kenya. Abstract

Maize Streak virus (MSV) disease is a major disease in many parts of Africa, and is the most important viral pathogen of maize in Kenya. A study was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the agronomic performance and maize streak virus (MSV) resistance of maize ( Zea mays check for this species in other resources L.) three-way crosses developed in Kenya. Twenty hybrids and one check were grown under normal conditions in a randomized complete block design, in two replications at Embu, 1540 masl; and Muguga, 2093 masl). In a parallel trial in Muguga, hybrids were also evaluated in two replications under artificial inoculation with MSV. The analyses of variance combined across environments showed significant differences (P<0.05) among genotypes for grain yield, days to 50% pollen shed, days to mid-silk and ear height. Genotype x environment interaction was significant (P<0.01) for grain yield and days to mid-silk, indicating some hybrids were more adapted in some environments. Grain yield for MU03-025 (10.04 t ha-1) was significantly better (P<0.05) than the check, H513 (7.53t ha-1). In the disease inoculated experiment, the best hybrids for disease resistance were MU03-012 and MU03-006 (score of 1.75), while H513 had a mean score of >3.0. The highest yielding hybrid under disease inoculation, MU03-026 showed yield gain of 5.2 t ha-1 above that of H513. The results indicate adoption of disease resistant hybrids would result in a higher maize yields in the mid-altitude areas of Kenya.

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2007.  East Africa Coastal wet spells during the short rains and the anomalous extreme wet spell event of October 1997.. . Proceedings of the Eighth Kenya Meteorological Sosiety. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 11th September to 14th September 2007.. : Kenya Met Soc
M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2007.  The Impact of climate change on the prevalent of Malaria in Kenya. Workshop on Climate and Health in the Nile Basin to be held at Nile Basin Research Program, University of Bergen in Norway from November 19 to November 22, 2007.. : Kenya Met Soc
M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2007.  Relarionship Between ENSO parameters and the Trends and Periodic Fluctuations in East African Rainfall. A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. : Kenya Met Soc

2005

Ininda, JM.  2005.  DYNAMIC METREOROLOGY II (SMR 401). , Nairobi: University Of Nairobi AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

This course is a continuation of Dynamic Meteorology I (SMR401). If you studied SMR301 a long while ago, it
may be advisable to review it once more before you embark on this course. As you worked through SMR301, you may have been introduced to several equations and may be wondering why this course appear to be mathematical. Well, as you may have already found out, there are many processes that take place in the atmosphere, dynamic meteorology will seek not only to explain how this comes about, but also to express the relationship between the forces involved in a mathematical form.

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2005.  The Environmental and Climatic Factors that Influence the Quality and Quantity of the Well Water in Matunda Location, Uasingishu District In Kenya. KMS Workshop Proceeding. : Kenya Met Soc Abstract
Water is the key to economic development and poverty reduction. Water is firmly linked with health and has important social implications. For example in areas where water is scare, women spent most of their time looking for water and hence being left with little time to attend to other social-economic activities and therefore they are unable to improve their living standards. While the Matunda location in Uasin Ngishu District is supplied with piped water from the Ziwa dam, the supply is seasonal and even when available it is unsuitable for domestic use. The residents of this area have therefore resorted to using well water for drinking and domestic use. Most of these wells are shallow, ranging from 15 to 40 feet deep. The present study aims at establishing whether this well water is safe for domestic use and whether the ground water is sustainable. The objective of the present study was to investigate the environmental and climatic factors that influence the quality and quantity of the well water. The environmental factors affecting the quality of water in this location were investigating by studying the social economic activities that take place within the locality which the climatic factors were studied by analyzing the variability of rainfall within the locality. The study indicated a high possibility of contamination of the wells and that the wells may also dry up during the prolonged droughts as indicated from the rainfall time series.
M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2005.  Predictability Potential of the Seasonal Rainfall over Kenya Using Quasi-Biennial Oscillation Index. KMS Workshop. : Kenya Met Soc Abstract
Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is an important natural fluctuation observed in the stratosphere temperatures, winds and trace gases (including ozone). Since a quasi-biennial oscillation is also detected in weather parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST), it has potential for the prediction of seasonal rainfall over Kenya. Prediction of rainfall is very important in ensuring food security. This study investigated the predictability of the seasonal rainfall over Kenya using QBO. Various methods were employed in the study. This included lag correlation composite analysis and analogue methods. Some locations indicated significant correlation values were observed between rainfall and QBO at lag between six to twelve months. It was however noted that the phase of QBO rather than the actual values may be used to predict seasonal rainfall over Kenya. The link between the tropospheric circulation and the QBO phase was also Investigated. The results was used to explain the mechanism linking the rainfall to QBO.

2003

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2003.  THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER ON MENINGITIS. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003. : Kenya Met Soc Abstract
Weather parameters influence human physiological adaptive activities, such as sweating, the general comfort and vulnerability to disease as well as the survival of disease-causing vectors and pathogens. In this study the influence of weather on Meningitis, one of the killer disease was investigated. Meningitis is caused by an inflammation of the meninges ( membrane) of the brain. The two main forms of meningitis are Aseptic (viral) and Meningococcal bacterial) meningitis. Both forms of meningitis are spread by direct contact, droplets, nasal discharge, and through the air. In the higher latitudes, the Aseptic form has been found to increase in late-summer and early autumn, while the Meningococcal meningitis has been found to increase in winter and spring. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of weather on the increase and spread of meningitis. Economic and social factors such as age and gender were also considered The data of the meningitis cases on monthly basis was collected from Kenyatta National Hospital and Aga Khan Hospital in Nairobi. All the meningitis cases were confirmed both clinically and by lumber puncture. The age, sex and total number of deaths were also obtained. The results from the analysis showed that meningitis cases were high in March-May, July, September, October and January. The reported male meningitis cases were higher than female cases. Adults and infants cases were more compared to children and teenagers. Minimum temperature indicated a stronger relationship with meningitis compared to other parameters. However, other weather parameters such as maximum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity were also significantly correlated with meningitis.
M, DRININDAJOSEPH, N. DRMUTEMIJOSEPH.  2003.  The Predicable patterns and Modes Of East Africa Seasonal Rainfall Following Global SST and ENSO Phase Forcing.. Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005.. : Kenya Met Soc Abstract
Water is the key to economic development and poverty reduction. Water is firmly linked with health and has important social implications. For example in areas where water is scare, women spent most of their time looking for water and hence being left with little time to attend to other social-economic activities and therefore they are unable to improve their living standards. While the Matunda location in Uasin Ngishu District is supplied with piped water from the Ziwa dam, the supply is seasonal and even when available it is unsuitable for domestic use. The residents of this area have therefore resorted to using well water for drinking and domestic use. Most of these wells are shallow, ranging from 15 to 40 feet deep. The present study aims at establishing whether this well water is safe for domestic use and whether the ground water is sustainable. The objective of the present study was to investigate the environmental and climatic factors that influence the quality and quantity of the well water. The environmental factors affecting the quality of water in this location were investigating by studying the social economic activities that take place within the locality which the climatic factors were studied by analyzing the variability of rainfall within the locality. The study indicated a high possibility of contamination of the wells and that the wells may also dry up during the prolonged droughts as indicated from the rainfall time series.

2002

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  2002.  The relationship between the global sea surface temperature anomaly patterns and the interannual variability of short rains over east Africa. In J. African Met Soc.. Journal of the African Meteorological Society. : African Meteorological Society

1999

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  1999.  Fundamental Concepts in Seasonal Prediction and Current State of Seasonal Prediction, Science and Technology. The First Climate Prediction Capacity Building Training Workshop for the Greater Horn of Africa. : Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi Abstract
Western Kenya, which comprise the highlands west of the Rift Valley and the Lake Victoria basin, receive substantial amount of rainfall almost throughout the year. This region has therefore a high agricultural potential. The characteristics of rainfall in this part of the country are influenced by several factors, which range from meso-scale to global. One of the global teleconnection systems that influence the rainfall over this region is the Southern Oscillation (SO). The SO is an irregular, interannual and global scale see saw fluctuation in surface pressure between Indonesia and Southwest Pacific, and occurs at interval of 2 to 7 years. Both the rainfall and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data were obtained from the Drought Monitoring Centre (DMC) in Kenya. The Data consisted of monthly rainfall from 24 stations distributed over the region and the monthly-normalized SOI. The period of study was between 1957 to 1993. The seasonal data was derived from the data. The monthly and seasonal rainfall and SOI were subjected to correlation analysis. The t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the computed correlation values. The spatial and temporal patterns of the correlation values were used to determine the nature of the relationship between the SO and rainfall over western Kenya during various months and seasons. Significant positive correlation values were observed during the months of July- September, while significant negative correlation values were observed during October-December. Low correlation values were however observed during January- May. The significant correlation values observed during July-September and October-December suggest that the SOI can be used as a predictor for the rainfall during these seasons
M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  1999.  Practical Application of Correlation. The First Climate Prediction Capacity Building Training Workshop for the Greater Horn of Africa. : Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi Abstract
Western Kenya, which comprise the highlands west of the Rift Valley and the Lake Victoria basin, receive substantial amount of rainfall almost throughout the year. This region has therefore a high agricultural potential. The characteristics of rainfall in this part of the country are influenced by several factors, which range from meso-scale to global. One of the global teleconnection systems that influence the rainfall over this region is the Southern Oscillation (SO). The SO is an irregular, interannual and global scale see saw fluctuation in surface pressure between Indonesia and Southwest Pacific, and occurs at interval of 2 to 7 years. Both the rainfall and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data were obtained from the Drought Monitoring Centre (DMC) in Kenya. The Data consisted of monthly rainfall from 24 stations distributed over the region and the monthly-normalized SOI. The period of study was between 1957 to 1993. The seasonal data was derived from the data. The monthly and seasonal rainfall and SOI were subjected to correlation analysis. The t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the computed correlation values. The spatial and temporal patterns of the correlation values were used to determine the nature of the relationship between the SO and rainfall over western Kenya during various months and seasons. Significant positive correlation values were observed during the months of July- September, while significant negative correlation values were observed during October-December. Low correlation values were however observed during January- May. The significant correlation values observed during July-September and October-December suggest that the SOI can be used as a predictor for the rainfall during these seasons
M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  1999.  Composite Analysis. The First Climate Prediction Capacity Building Training For the Greater Horn Of Africa. : Drought Monitoring Centre Abstract
Western Kenya, which comprise the highlands west of the Rift Valley and the Lake Victoria basin, receive substantial amount of rainfall almost throughout the year. This region has therefore a high agricultural potential. The characteristics of rainfall in this part of the country are influenced by several factors, which range from meso-scale to global. One of the global teleconnection systems that influence the rainfall over this region is the Southern Oscillation (SO). The SO is an irregular, interannual and global scale see saw fluctuation in surface pressure between Indonesia and Southwest Pacific, and occurs at interval of 2 to 7 years. Both the rainfall and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data were obtained from the Drought Monitoring Centre (DMC) in Kenya. The Data consisted of monthly rainfall from 24 stations distributed over the region and the monthly-normalized SOI. The period of study was between 1957 to 1993. The seasonal data was derived from the data. The monthly and seasonal rainfall and SOI were subjected to correlation analysis. The t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the computed correlation values. The spatial and temporal patterns of the correlation values were used to determine the nature of the relationship between the SO and rainfall over western Kenya during various months and seasons. Significant positive correlation values were observed during the months of July- September, while significant negative correlation values were observed during October-December. Low correlation values were however observed during January- May. The significant correlation values observed during July-September and October-December suggest that the SOI can be used as a predictor for the rainfall during these seasons
M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  1999.  The Relationship Between Interannual Rainfall Variability over Western Kenya and the Southern Oscillation. Journal of the African Meteorological Society. : African Meteorological Society Abstract
Western Kenya, which comprise the highlands west of the Rift Valley and the Lake Victoria basin, receive substantial amount of rainfall almost throughout the year. This region has therefore a high agricultural potential. The characteristics of rainfall in this part of the country are influenced by several factors, which range from meso-scale to global. One of the global teleconnection systems that influence the rainfall over this region is the Southern Oscillation (SO). The SO is an irregular, interannual and global scale see saw fluctuation in surface pressure between Indonesia and Southwest Pacific, and occurs at interval of 2 to 7 years. Both the rainfall and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data were obtained from the Drought Monitoring Centre (DMC) in Kenya. The Data consisted of monthly rainfall from 24 stations distributed over the region and the monthly-normalized SOI. The period of study was between 1957 to 1993. The seasonal data was derived from the data. The monthly and seasonal rainfall and SOI were subjected to correlation analysis. The t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the computed correlation values. The spatial and temporal patterns of the correlation values were used to determine the nature of the relationship between the SO and rainfall over western Kenya during various months and seasons. Significant positive correlation values were observed during the months of July- September, while significant negative correlation values were observed during October-December. Low correlation values were however observed during January- May. The significant correlation values observed during July-September and October-December suggest that the SOI can be used as a predictor for the rainfall during these seasons
M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  1999.  The influence of the Global sea surface Temperature on the interannual variation of March to May Rainfall over East Africa.. J. African Met Soc. Vol. 4, 95-114. : African Meteorological Society

1998

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  1998.  Divine Control Over Weather. Weatherman. : Kenya Met Soc Abstract
Western Kenya, which comprise the highlands west of the Rift Valley and the Lake Victoria basin, receive substantial amount of rainfall almost throughout the year. This region has therefore a high agricultural potential. The characteristics of rainfall in this part of the country are influenced by several factors, which range from meso-scale to global. One of the global teleconnection systems that influence the rainfall over this region is the Southern Oscillation (SO). The SO is an irregular, interannual and global scale see saw fluctuation in surface pressure between Indonesia and Southwest Pacific, and occurs at interval of 2 to 7 years. Both the rainfall and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data were obtained from the Drought Monitoring Centre (DMC) in Kenya. The Data consisted of monthly rainfall from 24 stations distributed over the region and the monthly-normalized SOI. The period of study was between 1957 to 1993. The seasonal data was derived from the data. The monthly and seasonal rainfall and SOI were subjected to correlation analysis. The t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the computed correlation values. The spatial and temporal patterns of the correlation values were used to determine the nature of the relationship between the SO and rainfall over western Kenya during various months and seasons. Significant positive correlation values were observed during the months of July- September, while significant negative correlation values were observed during October-December. Low correlation values were however observed during January- May. The significant correlation values observed during July-September and October-December suggest that the SOI can be used as a predictor for the rainfall during these seasons

1997

M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  1997.  Arificial Weather Modification. Weatherman. : Kenya Met Soc
M, DRININDAJOSEPH.  1997.  Simulation of the Impact of El-Nino Southern Oscillation on the Short Rains over East Africa. Fourth Meteorological Technical Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa. : African Meteorological Society

UoN Websites Search