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KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. ". Gikunju J.K. 1999, Kenya and the perils of fluoride. A journal for Medical and Health Workers, AFYA, African Medical and Research foundation (AMREF) Vol. 31, No.3, pp 15-18.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1999. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

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KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "COMMERCIAL MINERAL WATER IN NAIROBI: SAFE OR RISKY.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992.
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KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF LAKE MAGADI WITH VARYING WATER TEMPERATURES.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992.
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KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "Gikunju J.K. 1992. Fluoride concentration in Tilapia fish (Oreochromis leucostictus) from Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Fluoride 25:1, 37-43.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "Gikunju J.K., Githui K. and Maitho T.E., 1992, Fluoride levels in bore-hole water around Nairobi. Fluoride 25: 3, 111-114.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "Gikunju J.K., Githui K., Maitho T.E 1992. Borehole water in Nairobi: safe or risky. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 16, pp 16-18.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "Gikunju J.K., Maitho T.E., Birkeland J.M. and Lokken P (1992), Fluoride in fish from Lakes of the Great Rift Valley, Kenya. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 27: 85-90.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "Gikunju J.K., Maitho T.E., Mitema S.E. and Mugera G.M. 1998, Fluoride concentration in Black bass (Micropterus salmoides) from Lake Naivasha, Kenya. International journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol. 6 and 7, Nos. 1 and 2, pp 90 -92.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1998. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "Gikunju J.K., Mbaria J.M., Maitho T.E., Kyule M. 1995. Water fluoride in the Molo division of Nakuru district, Kenya. Fluoride volume 28 (2) 17-20.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1995. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

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KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "INVITRO ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF NEEM TREE EXTRACT AS COMPARED TO OTHER ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992. Abstract
Ethanolic extract of medicinal plant, Azadirachta indica was prepared from the aerial parts selected from the leaves. The activity of the extract was tested using bacteria of three genera (Staphylococcus aureas, streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli). The activity of the extract combined with conventional antibiotics and the micro organisms was also tested. The tube and plate dilution methods were employed, whereby the plate method was used as a confirmatory test method. The synergistic effects of the Neem tree extracts and the conventional antibiotic varied depending on the concentration and the micro organisms used.  It is concluded that carefully guided extraction and characterization of the plant compound may yield useful antibiotic active principles.
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KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "Ombui, J. N. and Gikunju J.K. 1999, Human Schistosomiasis: A review. A journal for Medical and Health Workers, AFYA, African Medical and Research foundation (AMREF) Vol. 31, No. 3, pp 5-9.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1999. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

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KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "THE PREVALENCE OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS (MDR TB) AND ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS THERAPY AMONG PATIENTS WITH HIV-RELATED TUBERCULOSIS AND THOSE WITH NON HIV-RELATED TUBERCULOSIS.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992. Abstract
In treatment of tuberculosis infection it is important for cure to be obtained. Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection thus there is risk of drug resistance. If a dose of anti-tuberculosis is drug is missed, full cure cannot be obtained and reactivation of infection can occur at a later stage. Furthermore, multi-drug resistance which is also common to many bacterial infections may develop as a result of missing the prescribed doses of drug as is required in rational use of antibiotic drugs. The patients infected with HIV/AIDS can live for a long time if they treat opportunistic infection. These patients have a high risk of contacting tuberculosis. The study will use measures set up by the Ministry of Health to control tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS pandemic such as Direct Observed therapy (DOT).DOT has been adopted by the ministry of Health Tuberculosis control programme. Follow up will done by evaluating sputum smears, culture and drug susceptibility test, and examining chest radiographs. Therefore the follow-up to determine multi-drug resistant tuberculosis needs a specialized Microbiology laboratory that is equipped with necessary facilities. The study mainly carried out survey to see the effectiveness of DOT in completion of therapy and in combating the problem of drug resistance which may arise especially from high risk groups such as those infected with HIV/AIDS. The problem of poor drug compliance and drug toxicity was also considered in assessing drug therapy.   
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KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "RIVER WATER FLUORIDE IN CENTRAL AND NAIROBI PROVINCES OF KENYA.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2002. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

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KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "TOXIC EFFECTS OF FLUORIDE IN RATS EXPOSED TO DIFFERENT FLUORIDE SOURCES.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992. Abstract
{      Toxicological information on fluoride is obtained mainly from studies conducted in laboratory animals and rat is the species used most frequently. The objectives of this study were to identify some of the toxic effects which may occur in rats exposed to graded doses of fluoride in form of sodium fluoride and also from some of the commercial cattle salts known to contain high fluoride levels in Kenya. A total of 100 female wistar weaner rats were obtained and randomly divided into 10 groups namely, A (n=10), B (n=10), C (n=10), D (n=10), E (n=10), F (n=10), G (n=10), H (n=10), I (n=10), and J (n=10). Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were fed on 1, 5, 10, 30, 60, 80 mgF/L (or 0.087, 0.42, 0.823, 2.667, 5.45 and 7.804 mgF/Kg) sodium fluoride in de-ionised water, respectively. Group G, H, I and J were fed on 2 % Magadi salt solution, deionised water (control), 2 % commercial mineral salt solution and 2 % tea infusion, respectively. The dose levels were chosen on the basis of the fact that 1 and 5 mg/l represents low fluoride concentration, while 10 and 30 mg/l represents moderate level which may be toxic and 60 and 80 mg/l represents highly toxic levels of fluoride (Whitford, 1991). The oral route of administration was used on voluntary intake. Bodyweight,organ/bodyweight ratio, organ histopathology and clinical observations were made on each group of rats. Any deaths were recorded immediately. Faecal samples were collected.       There were no deaths observed from groups, A (0.087 mg/kg), B (0.042 mg/kg), C (0.823 mg/Kg), H (control), and J (2 % tea). Ten rats died from groups D

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