Bio

Prof. Jens Friis Lund

Jens Friis Lund is associate professor in forest governance in developing countries at the University of Copenhagen. His research has focused on natural resources governance in developing countries, in particular community forestry processes in Tanzania and Nepal. He has also done research on the political economy of timber governance in Ghana. Lastly, in a Danish context, he has done research-cum-advisory work on economic and social issues of hunting and other recreational uses of forests and natural landscapes.

Publications


2012

Lund, JF; Carlsen, HCP; TK; T.  2012.  The political economy of timber governance in Ghana.
Nielsen, MR; Lund, JF; BTA; I.  2012.  Locally-based monitoring and its relevance to management and research. Abstract

Locally-based monitoring (LBM) has been pro posed as a solution to overcome the costs of monitoring the condition and development of natural resources and ecosystems in developing countries. Based on a recent empirical study on LBM, this brief argues that careful attention should be paid to the incentives and power struggles surrounding the particular context within which LBM schemes are based as they will invariably shape the information produced and communicated.

2011

Lund, JF.  2011.  Her er den nye globale fattigdom.
Hansen, P;, Lund JF.  2011.  Beskatning i udviklingslandene – gå efter guldet.
Lund, JF(ed).  2011.  Measuring Livelihoods and Environmental Dependence: Methods for Research and Fieldwork.. AbstractWebsite

Thousands of surveys on rural livelihoods in developing countries are being done every year. Unfortunately, many suffer from weaknesses in methods and problems in implementation. Quantifying households' dependence on multiple environmental resources (forests, bush, grasslands and rivers) is particularly difficult and often simply ignored in the surveys. The results therefore do not reflect rural realities. In particular, 'the hidden harvest' from natural resources is generally too important to livelihoods for development research, policies and practice to ignore. Fieldwork using state-of-the-art methods, and in particular well-designed household questionnaires, thus becomes an imperative to adequately capture key dimensions of rural welfare. This book describes how to do a better job when designing and implementing household and village surveys for quantitative assessment of rural livelihoods in developing countries. It covers the entire research process from planning to sharing research results. It draws on the experiences from a large global-comparative project, the Poverty Environment Network (PEN), to develop more robust and validated methods, enriched by numerous practical examples from the field. The book will provide an invaluable guide to methods and a practical handbook for students and professionals.

2010

Chhetri, BBK;, Lund JF;, Nielsen ØN.  2010.  Rural development potential of Community Forestry in Nepal.
Bosselmann, AS; Lund, JF; SN.  2010.  Kan markedet redde skovene? Nyt fra forskningen.
Lund, JF;, Bhandari NS;, Baral K;, Kharel KK;, KK; Puri L;, Chhetri BBK;, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP, Upadhyaya CP.  2010.  Community forestry common funds in Nepal.

2009

Lund, JF;, Carlsen K;, Thorsen BJ.  2009.  Alternative indkomster til skovbruget på Vallø Stift. Abstract

Denne arbejdsrapport er et af produkterne fra projektet ”Alternative indkomster til skovbruget: Case- og feasibility-studier”. Projektet er finansieret af Skov- og Naturstyrelsen og bliver realiseret af Skov & Landskab, Københavns Universitet, i samarbejde med Centre for Tourism and Culture Management, Handelshøjskolen København. Vallø Stift er en af projektets case-ejendomme og nærværende rapport er et resultat bl.a. af et tæt produktudviklingssamarbejde mellem Vallø Stift, Skov & Landskab og Centre for Tourism and Culture Management. Der blev i Juni 2008 afholdt en temadag på Vallø Stift for at give et praktisk eksempel på en oplevelsesøkonomisk produktudviklingsproces. Vallø Stift har en særlig historie som Kongeligt Frøkenstift for ugifte døtre af dansk adel og med Dronning Margrethe II som nuværende protektor. Vallø Slot kan som ejendom dateres tilbage til 1200-tallet, og det nuværende slot og omkringliggende bygninger kan dateres tilbage til 1700 tallet. Med et jordtilliggende på 4 200 ha er Vallø Stift blandt landets største godser. Ejendommens primære produktion er landbrug og skovbrug. Den sekundære produktion indbefatter bl.a. salg af fødevareprodukter med et særligt Vallø brand, som indbefatter garanti for dyreetisk forsvarlige produktionsmetoder og høj kvalitet. Ejendommen ligger umiddelbart Syd for Køge, skovene har et højt besøgstal, parken, slottet og bygningerne heromkring har en række æstetiske og landskabelige kvaliteter og en spændende historie. Disse egenskaber giver mulighed for at udbyde en række oplevelser, som er særlige for Vallø Stift. Der udbydes allerede nu en række oplevelsesrelaterede produkter på ejendommen. De inkluderer udlejning af jagt, udlejning af arealer til campingplads, tilladelse til fotografering og filmoptagelser omkring hovedbygningen, større selskaber og events i parken, absolut eksklusive arrangementer på slottet, udstedelse af ridekort til skovene samt mulighed for benyttelse af betalingshundeskov. I forbindelse med dette projekt er yderligere muligheder for oplevelsesrelaterede produkter blevet analyseret og i enkelte tilfælde allerede afprøvet. Hen gengives kort en samlet konklusion for de analyserede produkter: - Sæsonmarked: Vallø Stift’s produktion og afsætning af udvalgte kvalitetsfødevarer er allerede i god gænge. Med udgangspunkt i erfaringer indsamlet i dette projekt, fx fra Løndal, vurderes det at det på sigt kan danne rygraden i fx et påskemarked (æg og lam) med fokus på kvalitetsmadvarer - Tematiserede børnefødselsdage: Vallø Stift’s beliggenhed, opland, historie og slottets og skovenes æstetiske kvaliteter er et godt grundlag for denne ydelse. Det vurderes dog, at skal det lønne sig for alvor skal der satses på ret eksklusive versioner og etableres velfungerende samarbejder med en guide/instruktør. - Hundeskove har allerede her under projektet vist sig interessante som nye betalingsydelser målrettet specielle grupper af hundeejere. Det vurderes, at kan man fastholde det gode samarbejde kan der være grundlag for udvidelser både rettet mod almindelige hundeluftere såvel som hundesportsfolk. 3 - Live Rollespil er en mulig udnyttelse af de to pladser i Skovhusvænge. Det vurderes dog, at beliggenhed og rollerspillernes efterspørgsel gør, at en rentabel brug nok primært vil kunne lade sig gøre ved at udleje arealet til enkeltstående lejre og spil. - Mountainbikere anvender ganske ofte Skovhusvænge. Størstedelen af brugerne er ikke organiserede og ikke bosiddende i det umiddelbare opland. Det betyder manglende ejerskabsfølelse og ansvar for lokaliteterne på Vallø, og mulighederne for konstruktive aftaler med og selvjustits blandt brugerne begrænsede. Det vurderes derfor der p.t. ikke er basis for rentable samarbejdsaftaler med de mountainbikere, der bruger området. Muligheden for mountainbikerute kan overvejes når/hvis mountainbikere i/omkring Køge organiserer sig. - Træklatring er en lille niche-sportsgren, der potentielt kan vokse sig større og Skovhusvænge er igen et interessant område. På grund af de store krav til sikkerhed mv. vurderes det, at aktiviteter på dette område alene kan gøres rentable gennem samarbejde med professionelle specialister, som lejer adgang til skovparten. - Eventarrangementer er en mulig videreudvikling af de eksklusive selskabsarrangementer Vallø Stift allerede har. Det vurderes dog at muligheden skal anvendes med omtanke for fortsat at sikre betalingsvilje for netop det eksklusive brand. - Nye aktiviteter omkring campingpladsen kan være med til at øge dens værdi og dermed forpagtningsindtægterne. Skovlegepladser, trætophytter og andre ting er mulige måder at differentiere campingpladsen fra andre, men det vurderes som en risikabel investering umiddelbart.

Hansen, CP, Lund JF, Treue T.  2009.  Neither Fast, Nor Easy: He Prospect of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in Ghana. Abstract

On the basis of a detailed case study of the High Forest Zone of Ghana, the paper challenges the common narrative of REDD as being fast and easy. The paper analyses proximate and underlying causes of deforestation and degradation and finds that these processes are driven by multiple underlying causes. The paper goes on to argue that the causes of deforestation and degradation that are found within the realm of the forestry sector, to which REDD measures will be largely confined, have emerged as a result of a political economy that gives priority to economic development over forest conservation, while at the same time allowing powerful interest groups, in particular the political and administrative elite, to financially benefit from resource depletion. The analysis suggests that forest conserving policy reforms are unlikely to come fast and easy, and that the prospect of future REDD payments may not accelerate them. It is argued that the case of Ghana is not unique and that REDD implementation may face similar constraints in many developing countries.

Mustalahti, I.  2009.  Where and how can participatory forest management succeed? Learning from Tanzania, Mozambique, and Laos AbstractWebsite

This article deals with participatory forest management (PFM) in Tanzania, Mozambique, and Laos, focusing on the degree to which the legislation supports local communities' security of rights to the forest resources and access to resource benefits, as well as the degree to which the legislation is implemented. The findings are that local communities' security of rights and access to benefits differ markedly among the three countries, whereas there is a striking similarity in the absence of efforts to implement PFM, in particular in areas with valuable timber resources. The underlying reasons for the differences are poor institutional setups and conflicting economic interests at various levels. We argue that the approach to support PFM should acknowledge differences between countries and areas, and that, under all conditions, assistance to communities in building advocacy organizations that can assert their legal rights and demand commitment of national governments is a fundamental prerequisite for success.

2008

Lund, JF; Larsen, HO; CBK; RNOJ; OCSS;.  2008.  When Theory Meets Reality – How To Do Forest Income Surveys In Practice.
Lund, JF; Helles, MNI; TF; H; I.  2008.  Landsbyskovbrug i Tanzania : hvem vinder, hvem taber?
  2008.  Are we getting there? Evidence of decentralized forest management from the Tanzanian Miombo woodlands Abstract

Based on a village study in Tanzania, the effects of decentralized forest management on forest conservation, rural livelihoods and good governance are evaluated. Tree growth is estimated to exceed harvest, and forest utilization appears effectively controlled. Forest revenues cover the costs of management and finance local public services, but the underlying taxes and regulations have made the poorest worse off. Governance outcomes are also ambiguous. Revenues are administered transparently, but village leaders are coercive toward forest dependent minorities. The case provides a rare example of how decentralized forest management works in Africa when meaningful powers are devolved to local communities.

2007

Gausset, Q, Nathan I.  2007.  Why combine private and communal tree management? A case-study based in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania) Abstract

Despite the focus on the importance of trees in Africa and the many projects that try to improve their management, there is very little research and few development projects which address tree related problems in a holistic manner. With respect to forest management arrangements, focus tends to be either exclusively on community forestry, or on private tree planting. Such a divided focus makes it difficult to understand the complementarities and possible synergetic effects of these two approaches in solving common problems and improving local livelihoods. The present article argues that interdisciplinary projects are needed to develop a holistic approach to tree management and to improve the use of trees. This argument builds on the results from the PETREA (People, Trees and Agriculture) research programme in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania). In this village, private and collective tree management is characterized by very different uses, opportunities and problems. Common woodlands play an important role in providing villagers with Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) from indigenous species that are important for local livelihoods as they provide food, medicine, and grazing areas. The constraints linked to the management of common woodlands pertain to group dynamics and resemble, at first glance, a “tragedy of the commons” as described by Hardin (1968). Private tree planting, on the other hand, provides both local services (including providing fruits, firewood or securing boundaries between fields) and cash from the selling of poles. The constraints characterizing private tree management are linked to land-tenure, tree seedling cost and season for planting. Land tenure is of paramount importance as trees cannot be planted on borrowed or rented land, or at the expense of cropland needed to sustain the household. The season for planting seedlings is a constraint because of a conflict with labour demands for crops needed to survive. Despite being characterized by very different uses and constraints, the management of private and common trees also share common constraints as both require that grazing is under control and that there exist clear rules and efficient institutions able to solve management conflicts. Both types of management should therefore be analyzed together as improving one can help relieve the pressure on the other.

2006

Lund, JF;, Helles F.  2006.  Taxation issues in Tanzanian forest decentralisation. Abstract

The paper deals with issues of taxation in relation to decentralisation of forest resources. It presents preliminary empirical data from Tanzania in the form of forest taxation records from 12 villages that have gained jurisdiction over forest products taxation through a decentralisation reform. The analysis shows that (i) decentralisation of forest resources can lead to vast improvements of taxation effectiveness and (ii) taxation of forest products may be regressive or progressive in relation to income distribution. Thus, the effects of increased forest taxation effectiveness on poverty alleviation are ambiguous and highly dependent upon the local pattern of forest utilisation. The indication that forest decentralisation can lead to higher effectiveness in the taxation of forest products contradicts some of the general debate on the effects and potentials of decentralisation on taxation, and, hence, provides an argument for continued decentralisation of natural resources.

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