Bio

PROF JAMES MBARIA

Prof. James Mbaria holds a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in Pharmacology and toxicology awarded in 1999. He also holds Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine (BVM) and Master of Science (MSc, Pharmacology & Toxicology) degrees. Currently he is an Associate Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology in the Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi.

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Publications


2013

Wamburu R. W., Kareru P.G., MNNRJMFK.  2013.  Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae). Natural Sciences Research. 3(1):8.prof._mbaria_1.pdf
Kiama, SG;, Mbaria JM;, Oduma JA;, Kaluwa CK.  2013.  Medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of female reproductive health dysfunction in Tana River County, Kenya. Abstract

Reproductive dysfunction is a major health concern amongst the inhabitants of Tana River County. An ethno botanical study was conducted in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao sub divisions of Tana River County to document the utilization of medicinal plants for the management of female reproductive ailments. The target population was practicing herbalists from Pokomo, Ormo and Giryama communities in the study area. Structured questionnaires and focused group discussions were used to collect data. Forty eight plant species distributed in 40 genera and 29 families were documented as being important for the management of pregnancy related complications, menstrual disorders, infertility, fibroids and as contraceptives. The species most frequently cited by the herbalists were fourteen. Fifty two percent of the plant species were probably being mentioned for the first time as being useful in reproductive health management. In conclusion, Tana River has a pool of TMPs with a wealth of indigenous knowledge that needs to be exploited. The plants used to treat dysmenorrhea for example may be important analgesic agents that need further investigation while those with anti-fertility properties may contain steroidal phyto chemical compounds. Such species therefore need further investigation to establish their efficacy and mechanism of action.

2012

Nalule, A S; Mbaria, KOJM; JW;.  2012.  Ascaricidal activity of Rhoicissus tridentata root-tuber ethanolic and water extracts. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine in vitro ascaricidal activity of ethanolic and water extract of root tuber Rhoicissus tridentata against adult nematodes. Adult worm motility inhibition assay was conducted using Ascaris suum model. Ethanolic and water root tuber Rhoicissus tridentata extracts were used in serial dilutions including 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64mg/ml and; 8,16, 32, 64 and 128mg/ml respectively, parallel to Albendazole and Goodwins’ controls in three replicates. Ten adult Ascaris suum were added to each concentration and controls and incubated at 370C for 48hours. Standard phytochemical analysis methods were used to determine the secondary plant metabolites in the extracts. A significant motility inhibition in all dose levels that was dose-dependent was observed (F (5, 53) = 4.14, p =0.005; R2 = 0.90). There was however, no significant interaction between methods of extraction and the dose effect on motility inhibition in R. tridentata (F (10, 53) =1.02, p =0.450). The ethanolic and water extracts maximum response did not significantly differ (p=0.082) although their median effective doses were 12.3 and 23.5mg/ml respectively. R. tridentata extracts have immense in vitro ascaricidal potential supporting its use in ethno-veterinary medicine although anthelmintic potency of plant extracts depend on solvent used for extraction. There is however, need to determine in vivo ascaricidal activity and safety for sustainable utilization of this medicinal plant.

MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2012.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2012). Cytotoxicity of antimalarial plant extracts from Kenyan Biodiversity to the Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae). The 4th International Conference on Drug Discovery and Therapy (4th ICDDT) 2012, at Dubai men. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2012.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2012). Natural products: An exciting source of new pharmacophores against malaria. : The 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and the 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference held at Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, from 25th to 27th April 2012. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2012.  Gakuya D.W., S.G. Kiama. J.M. Mbaria, P.N. Mbugua, P.K. Gathumbi, M. Mathiu: The potential use of Moringa oleifera as poultry feed supplement in Kenya. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference.. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2012.  Nguta, J.M., J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, J. D. Kabasa, S.G. Kiama: Cytotoxicicity of antimalarial plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity to Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae).. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2012.  James M. Mbaria: Traditional Knowledge and Practices of Indigenous Peopes in Coping with Diabetes. Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development organized by International Diabetes Federation and World Diabetes Foundation. Held at Copenha. . Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development organized by International Diabetes Federation and World Diabetes Foundation. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2012.  Joseph M. Nguta, J. Mbaria et al (2012). Cytotoxicity of Antimalarial plant extracts from Kenya biodiversity to brine shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemidae). Drugs and therapy studies. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.

2011

Mbaria, JM.  2011.  Lead Poisoning. Abstract

Understanding of lead toxicity has advanced substantially over the past three decades, and focus has shifted from high-dose effects in clinically symptomatic individuals to the consequences of exposure at lower doses that cause no symptoms, particularly in children and fetuses. The availability of more sensitive analytic methods has made it possible to measure lead at much lower concentrations. This advance, along with more refined epidemiological techniques and better outcome measures, has lowered the least observable effect level until it approaches zero. As a consequence, the segment of the population who are diagnosed with exposure to toxic levels has expanded. At the same time, environmental efforts, most importantly the removal of lead from gasoline, have dramatically reduced the amount of lead in the biosphere. The remaining major source of lead is older housing stock. Although the cost of lead paint abatement is measured in billions of dollars, the monetized benefits of such a Herculean task have been shown to far outweigh the costs.

MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Development of ethnomedicines for management of malaria in Msambweni district, Kenya. The Proceedings of a Workshop on Regional Networks in Africa, held on October 5 to 6th, 2010 at the Kopanong Hotel and Conference Centre in Benoni, South Africa, near Johannesburg. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Natural products from plant biodiversity and malaria. The 12TH International Symposium on Natural Product Chemistry and Related Biological Sciences, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS), University of Karachi, Pakistan during November 22-25, 2010. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Toxicity of crude plant extracts and antitumour drugs in the Brine Shrimp Bioassay. The Proceedings of the Ist International Scientific Conference, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya during June 15-17th, 2011. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Exploiting Natural Products from African Biodiversity in Pest Management: from Extraction of Plant chemicals to Expression in GMOs. The proceedings of a continuous professional development (CPD) workshop on, . : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Biological screening of Kenyan antimalarial plant extracts in brine shrimp bioassay. The first international congress on Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI): Impact, Limitations and Needs in Developing Countries in the United Nations Conference Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from September 12th to 18th, 2011, sponsored by USDA/APHIS in collab. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Exploiting Natural Products from African Biodiversity in Pest Management: from Extraction of Plant chemicals to Expression in GMOs.. The proceedings of a continuous professional development (CPD) workshop on, . : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Plants as source of drugs: Ethnopharmacology, Pharmacology and Toxicology of selected antimalarial herbal plants from Msambweni district, South coast Kenya. Proceedings of a RISE AFNNET workshop-University of Nairobi Node in Chak Guest House, Nairobi, on 13th December 2011. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  F.0. Ochola, G. M. Muchemi, J. M. Mbaria and J. K. Gikunju(2011). Pharmaco-epidemiological study of snake envenomations in selected areas of Kenya. Proceedings of 3rd Internal Toxicology Symposium in Africa. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  James M. Mbaria (2011). Lead poisoning. Proceeding Continuous Professional Development (CPD) workshop on Forensic Veterinary Science. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ, MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  Muthee J K, Mbaria J M, Thaiyah A G, Karanja D N and Gakuya D W (2011). Clinical, Haematological, Biochemical and Pathological Manifestations of Sub-acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in calves. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in A. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  Muthee J. K., Gakuya D.W., Mbaria, J. M., Kareru P. G., Mulei C. N., Njonge F.K., (2011). Ethnobotanical Study of Antihelmintic and other Medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok District of Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 135(1):15-21. The Kenya Veterinarian. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2011.  Joseph Mwanzia Nguta, James M. Mbaria, Peter K. Gathumbi, Daniel Gakuya, John David Kabasa and Stephen Gitahi Kiama (2011). Ethnodiagnostic Skills of the Digo Community for Malaria: A Lead to Traditional Bioprospecting. The 4th International Conference on Drug Discovery and Therapy (4th ICDDT) 2012, at Dubai men. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting.The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.

2010

MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2010.  J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni,. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128: 424. : Kluwer Academic Publishers Abstract
Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented th species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret.(Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L.(Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Seneciosyringitolius O.Hoffman. (Compositae), OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region forthefirst time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2010.  J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni,. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128: 424. : Kluwer Academic Publishers Abstract
Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented th species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret.(Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L.(Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Seneciosyringitolius O.Hoffman. (Compositae), OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region forthefirst time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2010.  J. M. Nguta and J. M. Mbaria et al., (2010) Spectroscopic Determination of Cobalt and Copper in Grass Pastures in Kabete. The Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference held on September 8th to 10th, 2010 at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi. : E Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2010.  J. M. Nguta and J. M. Mbaria (2010). Bioavailability of cobalt and anthelmintic effects of albendazole fortified with cobalt (Vermitan super) in sheep. The Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference, held on September 8th To 10th, 2010 at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi. : E Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2010.  J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2010). Ethnodiagnostic Skills of the Digo Community for malaria: A lead to traditional bioprospecting? The Proceedings of the Ist East and Central Africa Regional Symposium for the Carnegie-RISE Fellows held on September 15th, 2010 at Royale Imperial Hotel, Kampala-Uganda, East Africa. : E Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2010.  J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010): Traditional Antimalarial Phytotherapy Remedies Used by the South Coast Community, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(2): 256-267. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. : E Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ.  2010.  J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010). Traditional Antimalarial Phytotherapy Remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131: (2010) 256. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. : Elsevier Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.

2009

MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ, MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ.  2009.  Cyrus G. Wagate, James M. Mbaria, Daniel W. Gakuya, Mark O. Nanyingi, P. G. Kareru Anne Njuguna, Nduhiu Gitahi, James K. Macharia, Francis K. Njonge (2009). Screening of some Kenyan Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity. Phytotherapy research: 24:15. Phytothereapy research. : E Abstract
ABSTRACT:  Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G−) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G− and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation.

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