Publications


2012

JAMEELA, HASSANALI.  2012.  Sternal foramina and variant xiphoid morphology in a kenyan population.. Folia Morphologica. : Via Medica AbstractWebsite

The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

2011

Malek, AA, Ogeng’o JA, Mandela P, Hassanali J, Muthoka JM.  2011.  Position and Blood Supply of the Carotid Body in a Kenyan Population. Abstract

Position and source of blood supply to the human carotid body displays population variations. These data are important during surgical procedures and diagnostic imaging in the neck but are only scarcely reported and altogether missing for the Kenyan population. The aim of this study was to describe the position and blood supply of the carotid body in a Kenyan populati on. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, was designed. 136 common carotid arteries and their bifurcations were exposed by gross dissection. The carotid body was identified as a small oval structure embedded in the blood vessel adventitia. Position and source of blood supply were photographed. Data are presented by tables and macrographs. 138 carotid bodies were identified. Commonest position was carotid bifurcation (75.4%) followed by external carotid artery (10.2%), internal carotid artery (7.2%) and ascending pharyngeal artery (7.2%). Sources of arterial blood supply included the carotid bifurcation (51.4%), ascending pharyngeal (21.0%), external carotid (17.4%) and internal carotid (10.2%) arteries. Position and blood supply of the carotid body in the Kenyan population displays a different profile of variations from those described in other populations. Neck surgeons should be aware of these to avoid inadvertent injury.

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2011.  KAVOI, B. & JAMEELA, H. comparative morphometry of the olfactory bulb, tract and stria in the human, dog and goat. Int. J. Morphol., 29(3):939-946, 2011.. E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : International Journal of Morphology Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2011.  Pokhariyal,G. & Hassanali, J.Regression and Simulation models for Human and Baboon Brain Parameters. Int. J. Morphol., 29(3):971-977, 2011.. E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : international Journal of Morphology Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

2010

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2010.  Socio-cultural practices of deciduous canine tooth bud removal among Maasai children. J.Mutai, E.Muniu, J.Sawe, J.Hassanali, P.Kibet, P.Wanzala. International Dental Journal, 60 : 94-98 (2010). E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : International Dental Journal, 60 : 94-98 (2010) Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

2009

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2009.  Topography and distribution of ostia venae hepatica in the retrohepatic inferior vena cava. Bundi PK, Ogengo JA, Hassanali J, Odula PO. Annals of African Surgery 4 : 13-17 (2009). E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : Annals of African Surgery 4 : 13-17 (2009) Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2009.  Regional Histomorphometry of the Hepatic Inferior Vena Cava: a Possible Sphincteric Mechanism. Bundi PK, Ogengo JA, Hassanali J, Odula PO. International Journal of Morphology 27: 849-854 (2009).. E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : International Journal of Morphology 27: 849-854 (2009). Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2009.  Course of the hepatic Inferior Vena Cava in a Kenyan Population. Bundi PK, Ogengo JA, Hassanali J, Odula PO. Clinical Anatomy. Online www.interscience.wiley.com DOI 10.1002/ca.20807 (2009).. E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : Online www.interscience.wiley.com DOI 10.1002/ca.20807 (2009). Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2009.  Sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion among adult Kenyans. Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula P. Brazilian Journal of Morphological Sciences 26:4-7 (2009). E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : Brazilian Journal of Morphological Sciences 26:4-7 (2009) Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2009.  Anatomic position of the Asterion among Kenyans for posterolateral surgical approaches to cranial cavity. Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula P. Clinical Anatomy (2009). E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : Clinical Anatomy (2009) Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

2008

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2008.  Anatomic position of the Pterion among Kenyans for lateral skull approaches. International Journal of Morphology 26: 931-933 (2008). E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : International Journal of Morphology 26: 931-933 (2008) Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2008.  Biometric features of facial foramina in adult Kenyan skulls. Ongeti K, Hassanali J, Ogengo J, Saidi H. European Journal of Anatomy 12 :1:89-95 (2008). E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : European Journal of Anatomy 12 :1:89-95 (2008) Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2008.  Enucleation of deciduous canine tooth buds in infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hassanali J and Wanzala P. Developing Dentistry 9:1:8-10 (2008). E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : Developing Dentistry 9:1:8-10 (2008) Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2008.  Enucleation of Deciduous Canine tooth bud in infants of Maasai community in Kenya P. Wanzala, J. Sawe, J. Hassanali, P. Kibet, et al. Kenya Dental Association Journal 1: 1 (2008).. E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. : Kenya Dental Association Journal 1: 1 (2008). Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

2007

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2007.  Prevalence and distribution of the Third Coronary Artery in Kenyans. Olabu B.O. Saidi H., Hassanali J. Ogengo J.A. International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).. East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):500-1. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2007.  Comparative analysis of selected linear measurements of human and baboon brains J. Hassanali, G. Pokhariyal, P. Mwasina European Journal of Anatomy, 11, 9-16 (2007).. East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):500-1. : Journal of Anatomy, 11, 9-16 (2007). Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2007.  Hassanali J.Deciduous canine tooth bud removal in infants in East Africa.East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):500-1. East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):500-1. : International Journal of Morphology 26: 931-933 (2008) Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

2005

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2005.  Wanzala P., J. Hassanali, P. Kibet, H. Dossajee. Perceptions of Primary Health Care, Knowledge Altitudes and Practices amongst the Kenyan Maasai. East African Medical Journal 82, 24-27 (2005). East African Medical Journal 82, 24-27. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract

OBJECTIVES: In order to introduce a comprehensive intervention system to improve health, there is need to establish a profile of the Maasais' current knowledge, attitude and practices of predisposing environmental, cultural and other factors which may lead to considerable health risks. DESIGN: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas of Kajiando District. SUBJECTS: Maasai community in Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas regions of Kajiado District of Kenya over a period of two years. RESULTS: Previous awareness to primary health care and knowledge has been through education and training by AMREF Nomadic Health Unit. Factors such as limited availability of water, health care delivery and dry arid environment with poor infrastructure as well as some persistent harmful cultural practices predispose the Maasai community to common health problems in children and adults. CONCLUSION: With community participation, there is need for an integrated approach to these health risks. The Ministry of Health together with AMREF have incorporated a comprehensive intervention system to address the commonly occurring diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia and address adults and children problems differently.

2004

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2004.  Pokhariyal G., C. Muturi, J. Hassanali, S. Kinyanjui;Simulation Model from Dental Arch Shapes. East African Medical Journal 81, 599-602 (2004). East African Medical Journal 81, 599-602. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for dental arch shapes. DESIGN: Analysis of measurements of dental casts to determine a general second degree equation for the dental arches. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy and School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: The measurement of dental casts, 30 (15M and 15F) each from three Kenyan ethnic groups (Maasai, Kalenjin, Kikuyu), aged 12 years. RESULTS: The arches change their shapes from a parabola to an ellipse, governed by the boundary conditions at the position of the canine tooth, based on the general second degree equation for the conic sections. CONCLUSION: The simulation model graphically confirms the change from parabolic to elliptic shapes of dental arches with boundary conditions at the canine. This could be used to show the changes in dental arches for other ethnic groups.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2004.  Dossajee H., J. Hassanali;Morphometric Analysis of cerebral cortex in the developing baboon. European Journal of Anatomy 8(1): 29-34. (2004). European Journal of Anatomy 8(1): 29-34.. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract

OBJECTIVES: In order to introduce a comprehensive intervention system to improve health, there is need to establish a profile of the Maasais' current knowledge, attitude and practices of predisposing environmental, cultural and other factors which may lead to considerable health risks. DESIGN: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas of Kajiando District. SUBJECTS: Maasai community in Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas regions of Kajiado District of Kenya over a period of two years. RESULTS: Previous awareness to primary health care and knowledge has been through education and training by AMREF Nomadic Health Unit. Factors such as limited availability of water, health care delivery and dry arid environment with poor infrastructure as well as some persistent harmful cultural practices predispose the Maasai community to common health problems in children and adults. CONCLUSION: With community participation, there is need for an integrated approach to these health risks. The Ministry of Health together with AMREF have incorporated a comprehensive intervention system to address the commonly occurring diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia and address adults and children problems differently.

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2004.  Hassanali J, P. Kibet.Deciduous and Permanent tooth Anomalies arising from Deciduous canine tooth bud removal in infancy among the Maasai. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. East African Medical Journal Vol 4 No. 3 233-235 (2004). East African Medical Journal Vol 4 No. 3 233-235. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract

OBJECTIVES: In order to introduce a comprehensive intervention system to improve health, there is need to establish a profile of the Maasais' current knowledge, attitude and practices of predisposing environmental, cultural and other factors which may lead to considerable health risks. DESIGN: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas of Kajiando District. SUBJECTS: Maasai community in Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas regions of Kajiado District of Kenya over a period of two years. RESULTS: Previous awareness to primary health care and knowledge has been through education and training by AMREF Nomadic Health Unit. Factors such as limited availability of water, health care delivery and dry arid environment with poor infrastructure as well as some persistent harmful cultural practices predispose the Maasai community to common health problems in children and adults. CONCLUSION: With community participation, there is need for an integrated approach to these health risks. The Ministry of Health together with AMREF have incorporated a comprehensive intervention system to address the commonly occurring diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia and address adults and children problems differently.

2003

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2003.  Dossajee H., J. Hassanali;Recent observations of some socio-cultural norms amongst the Kenyan Maasai in Kajiado District. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 4 No. 2 206-208. (2003). African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 4 No. 2 206-208.. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for dental arch shapes. DESIGN: Analysis of measurements of dental casts to determine a general second degree equation for the dental arches. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy and School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: The measurement of dental casts, 30 (15M and 15F) each from three Kenyan ethnic groups (Maasai, Kalenjin, Kikuyu), aged 12 years. RESULTS: The arches change their shapes from a parabola to an ellipse, governed by the boundary conditions at the position of the canine tooth, based on the general second degree equation for the conic sections. CONCLUSION: The simulation model graphically confirms the change from parabolic to elliptic shapes of dental arches with boundary conditions at the canine. This could be used to show the changes in dental arches for other ethnic groups.

2001

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2001.  Ochola S., Muasya M. Hassanali J, Guthua S.W; Radiographic Analysis of Size and Pattern of Maxillary and Frontal air Sinuses in Kenyan Adults. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 3, No.3; Nov (2001). African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 3, No.3;. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for dental arch shapes. DESIGN: Analysis of measurements of dental casts to determine a general second degree equation for the dental arches. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy and School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: The measurement of dental casts, 30 (15M and 15F) each from three Kenyan ethnic groups (Maasai, Kalenjin, Kikuyu), aged 12 years. RESULTS: The arches change their shapes from a parabola to an ellipse, governed by the boundary conditions at the position of the canine tooth, based on the general second degree equation for the conic sections. CONCLUSION: The simulation model graphically confirms the change from parabolic to elliptic shapes of dental arches with boundary conditions at the canine. This could be used to show the changes in dental arches for other ethnic groups.

2000

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  2000.  Hassanali J, Odhiambo JW. Analysis of dental casts of 6-8- and 12-year-old Kenyan children. Eur J Orthod. 2000 Apr;22(2):135-42.Click here to read. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 3, No.3;. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 97 6-8-year-old and 173 12-year-old Maasai, Kikuyu, and Kalenjin children were studied. The Kikuyu are Bantu, while Maasai and Kalenjin are Nilo-Hamitic subjects. The variables measured were palatal depth (PD) and length (PL); maxillary and mandibular anterior arc circumferences (AC1) and (AC2), respectively; posterior arc circumferences (PC1) and (PC2), inter-canine (CC1), and (CC2); inter-molar (MM1) and (MM2) distances, and mandibular length (ML). The data were analysed using SPSS package. The mean values of all the variables were generally higher in the males compared with the females and significant sex differences in the means (P < 0.01) were found in AC1, PC1, PC2, CC1, CC2, MM1, and MM2 in the 12-year-old subjects. The means of all variables, except PL, ML, PC2, and CC2, increased from 6 to 12 years of age and significant differences in the means for age were found in ML, AC1, PC2, PD, MM1, MM2, and CC1. Mean maxillary inter-molar distance increased with age by 0.17-0.34 mm in the three groups. Mean values of mandibular variables were highest in the Kikuyu, while maxillary variables were highest in the Maasai. The Maasai casts showed a marked decrease in CC2, PC2, AC2, and ML compared with the Kikuyu and Kalenjin. Ethnic and sex differences in the dental arches may be masked by anterior tooth positions that are influenced by the dento-alveolar complex and soft tissues. Corresponding mandibular and maxillary variables were strongly correlated and anterior and posterior arc circumferences were correlated with inter-canine and intermolar distances. Details of the norms for dental arch dimensions and changes with age may allow for appropriate assessment of dental occlusion and treatment planning for Kenyan children.

1999

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1999.  Hassanali J., S. Maolbabic and Y. Vujaskovic;Quantitative analysis of the trigeminal ganglion neurons in the human, monkey and baboon. European Journal of Anatomy 3(3): 115-20) (1999). European Journal of Anatomy 3(3): 115-20). : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 97 6-8-year-old and 173 12-year-old Maasai, Kikuyu, and Kalenjin children were studied. The Kikuyu are Bantu, while Maasai and Kalenjin are Nilo-Hamitic subjects. The variables measured were palatal depth (PD) and length (PL); maxillary and mandibular anterior arc circumferences (AC1) and (AC2), respectively; posterior arc circumferences (PC1) and (PC2), inter-canine (CC1), and (CC2); inter-molar (MM1) and (MM2) distances, and mandibular length (ML). The data were analysed using SPSS package. The mean values of all the variables were generally higher in the males compared with the females and significant sex differences in the means (P < 0.01) were found in AC1, PC1, PC2, CC1, CC2, MM1, and MM2 in the 12-year-old subjects. The means of all variables, except PL, ML, PC2, and CC2, increased from 6 to 12 years of age and significant differences in the means for age were found in ML, AC1, PC2, PD, MM1, MM2, and CC1. Mean maxillary inter-molar distance increased with age by 0.17-0.34 mm in the three groups. Mean values of mandibular variables were highest in the Kikuyu, while maxillary variables were highest in the Maasai. The Maasai casts showed a marked decrease in CC2, PC2, AC2, and ML compared with the Kikuyu and Kalenjin. Ethnic and sex differences in the dental arches may be masked by anterior tooth positions that are influenced by the dento-alveolar complex and soft tissues. Corresponding mandibular and maxillary variables were strongly correlated and anterior and posterior arc circumferences were correlated with inter-canine and intermolar distances. Details of the norms for dental arch dimensions and changes with age may allow for appropriate assessment of dental occlusion and treatment planning for Kenyan children.

1997

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1997.  Hassanali J. Quantitative and somatotopic mapping of neurones in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus and ganglion innervating teeth in monkey and baboon. Arch Oral Biol. 1997 Oct-Nov;42(10-11):673-82.. Archives of Oral Biology, 42/10-11:673-682. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract
Neurones of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Mes V) and ganglion innervating the periodontium of incisor, canine and molar teeth in 10 monkeys and 10 baboons were counted and mapped using the horseradish peroxidase (Hrp), retrograde axonal transport method. Periodontal afferent neurones of all these teeth were well represented in the Mes V, although the incisors had a significantly higher number of labelled neurones than the canines or molars. The primary cell bodies of the periodontal afferents were located mainly in the caudal part of the ipsilateral Mes V from the level of the inferior colliculus to the floor of the fourth ventricle in the pons. The caudal periodontal Mes V neurones may be favourably located to make collateral connections with the trigeminal motor nucleus for jaw reflexes. Incisors and canines had a large and predominantly ipsilateral representation of Hrp-labelled neurones in the ganglion. In contrast, molar representation in the ganglion was sparse and all labelled neurones supplied ipsilateral teeth. The maxillary and mandibular teeth had a somatotopic distribution within the respective maxillary (middle) and mandibular (posterolateral) compartments of the trigeminal ganglion. It is suggested that the anterior teeth with greater connections to the Mes V and the ganglion may impart greater sensory perception and be involved in jaw reflexes to ensure a good occlusal relation during mastication, while the afferent connections of the molars may initiate complex jaw reflexes during the occlusal phase of mastication.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1997.  Hassanali J.Quantitative analysis of the neurons of the neurons of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus and ganglion innervating the teeth in the monkey and baboon. Archives of Oral Biology, 42/10-11:673-682 (1997). Archives of Oral Biology, 42/10-11:673-682. : . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007). Abstract
Neurones of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Mes V) and ganglion innervating the periodontium of incisor, canine and molar teeth in 10 monkeys and 10 baboons were counted and mapped using the horseradish peroxidase (Hrp), retrograde axonal transport method. Periodontal afferent neurones of all these teeth were well represented in the Mes V, although the incisors had a significantly higher number of labelled neurones than the canines or molars. The primary cell bodies of the periodontal afferents were located mainly in the caudal part of the ipsilateral Mes V from the level of the inferior colliculus to the floor of the fourth ventricle in the pons. The caudal periodontal Mes V neurones may be favourably located to make collateral connections with the trigeminal motor nucleus for jaw reflexes. Incisors and canines had a large and predominantly ipsilateral representation of Hrp-labelled neurones in the ganglion. In contrast, molar representation in the ganglion was sparse and all labelled neurones supplied ipsilateral teeth. The maxillary and mandibular teeth had a somatotopic distribution within the respective maxillary (middle) and mandibular (posterolateral) compartments of the trigeminal ganglion. It is suggested that the anterior teeth with greater connections to the Mes V and the ganglion may impart greater sensory perception and be involved in jaw reflexes to ensure a good occlusal relation during mastication, while the afferent connections of the molars may initiate complex jaw reflexes during the occlusal phase of mastication.

1995

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1995.  Hassanali J, Amwayi P, Muriithi A. Removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in Kenyan rural Maasai.East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):207-9.. East African Medical Journal 72: 207-209. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract

The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase.

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1995.  Hassanali J. , P. Amwayi, A. Muriithi.Removal of deciduous canine tooth buds amongst Maasai children. East African Medical Journal 72: 207-209 (1995). East African Medical Journal 72: 207-209. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract

The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase.

1994

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1994.  Hassanali J., P. Amwayi, A. Muriithi;Social aspects of Dental Health of the rural Maasai community. Discovery and Innovation. Vol 6 363-365 (1994). Discovery and Innovation. Vol 6 363-365. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract

The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase.

1993

Bailey, LJ, Sadowsky PL, Nelson C, Hassanali J, Cox CF.  1993.  Patterns of nerve regeneration in dental pulps of monkeys following surgical transection at 1 year. Abstract

Previous studies have reported revascularization and reorganization of dental pulp chambers with periodontal tissues of monkeys following complete surgical transection through a portion of the apical roots. This study observed 128 teeth in four adult monkeys. Following surgical transection, the tissues were acquired by perfusion fixation, serially sectioned, and stained for cellular detail with hematoxylin and eosin. Collagen tissues were stained with Preece's trichrome and neural tissues with Rowles' silver cyanate for controlled impregnation. At 1 and 2 weeks the coronal tissues showed tissue disruption, necrosis, and degenerating nerves. The 3- and 4-week tissues that had been completely transected showed replacement healing of the pulp tissue with periodontal ligament connective tissue, but no nerves were present. At 6 weeks, no nerves were present in the coronal chambers of those teeth with complete vital transection. The 24-, 36-, and 52-week pulp chambers with complete transection failed to show nerve fibers in their reorganized connective tissues.

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1993.  Hassanali J, Pokhariyal GP.Anterior tooth relations in Kenyan Africans. Arch Oral Biol. 1993 Apr;38(4):337-42.(ABSTRACT). European Journal of Orthodontics ; 15: 513-518. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 235 Maasai, 116 Kikuyu and 61 Kalenjin children aged 3-16 yr were studied to determine the incidence and magnitude of diastemas, overbite, overjet and anterior open bite. The highest prevalence of diastema was amongst the Maasai (61.3%), of overbite (84%) and overjet (99%) amongst the Kikuyu, and of anterior open bite amongst Kalenjin (24%), with values greater than 0.4 mm up to 11.5 mm. Comparison of the mean values showed that diastema (1.77 mm) and overjet (4.4 mm) were greatest in Maasai, overbite (3.53 mm) in Kalenjin, and anterior open bite (3.50 mm) in Kikuyu. In the total sample, the prevalence and mean of diastema were 49%, 1.68 mm; of overbite 77.4%, 2.96 mm; of overjet 88.6%, 3.83 mm; and of anterior open bite 16.5%, 2.69 mm (with values between 0.4-11.5 mm), while 5.5% had an edge-to-edge bite (-0.5-0.5 mm). The prevalence of diastema decreased whilst its magnitude increased with age. The mean values of overbite and overjet increased, while those for anterior open bite decreased with age. The mean values of diastema, overbite and overjet were greater amongst the females, but the difference was significant only for overjet. The high prevalence and greater values of measurements of anterior tooth relations may be related to variable growth of the bimaxillary dentoalveolar complex and soft tissue influences. This may be important in orthodontic treatment planning, dental prostheses and other clinical dental treatments in Kenyan populations.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1993.  Hassanali J, Amwayi P. Biometric analysis of the dental casts of Maasai following traditional extraction of mandibular permanent central incisors and of Kikuyu children.Eur J Orthod. 1993 Dec;15(6):513-8.Click here to read. European Journal of Orthodontics ; 15: 513-518. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 93 Maasai and 79 Kikuyu children age 12-15 years were analysed. Four biometric measurements were taken of the maxillary and mandibular casts: intercanine distance (C-C), inter-molar distance (M-M), canine arch circumference (C-C ACirc.), and molar arch circumference (M-M ACirc.). Incisor space (IS) was also measured in the mandibular casts. The mean values of all measurements except (M-M) in the mandibular casts were significantly reduced in the Maasai who had permanent central incisors extracted compared to the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. The mean incisor space in the Maasai with extractions was 6.3 mm compared to 11.7 mm in the non-extracted Maasai group. The extent of reduction of IS, C-C, C-C ACirc. and M-M ACirc. following extractions of the incisors may depend on the mesial drift of lateral incisors, jaw growth and soft tissue influence. The position of the tongue and occlusal relationship of the molars may prevent bucco-lingual movements maintaining a constant M-M. There was no significant difference in the mandibular cast dimensions of the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. Analysis of the maxillary cast dimensions of the Maasai with extraction, non-extracted Maasai and Kikuyu showed no significant differences suggesting that the extraction of mandibular incisors has no effect on maxillary arch dimensions. The variability in growth of the dento-alveolar complex itself may explain why the dental arch dimensions are similar in the Maasai and Kikuyu despite ethnic differences. There was no significant difference between the male and female dental arch dimensions.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1993.  J. Hassanali, P. Amwayi. Biometric analysis of dental casts of Maasai who had extractions of mandibular central incisors and of the Kikuyu. European Journal of Orthodontics ; 15: 513-518 (1993). European Journal of Orthodontics ; 15: 513-518. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 93 Maasai and 79 Kikuyu children age 12-15 years were analysed. Four biometric measurements were taken of the maxillary and mandibular casts: intercanine distance (C-C), inter-molar distance (M-M), canine arch circumference (C-C ACirc.), and molar arch circumference (M-M ACirc.). Incisor space (IS) was also measured in the mandibular casts. The mean values of all measurements except (M-M) in the mandibular casts were significantly reduced in the Maasai who had permanent central incisors extracted compared to the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. The mean incisor space in the Maasai with extractions was 6.3 mm compared to 11.7 mm in the non-extracted Maasai group. The extent of reduction of IS, C-C, C-C ACirc. and M-M ACirc. following extractions of the incisors may depend on the mesial drift of lateral incisors, jaw growth and soft tissue influence. The position of the tongue and occlusal relationship of the molars may prevent bucco-lingual movements maintaining a constant M-M. There was no significant difference in the mandibular cast dimensions of the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. Analysis of the maxillary cast dimensions of the Maasai with extraction, non-extracted Maasai and Kikuyu showed no significant differences suggesting that the extraction of mandibular incisors has no effect on maxillary arch dimensions. The variability in growth of the dento-alveolar complex itself may explain why the dental arch dimensions are similar in the Maasai and Kikuyu despite ethnic differences. There was no significant difference between the male and female dental arch dimensions.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1993.  Hassanali J., G. Pokhariyal. Anterior tooth relationships in Kenyan Africans. Archives of Oral Biology ; 38: 337-342 (1993). Archives of Oral Biology ; 38: 337-342. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 235 Maasai, 116 Kikuyu and 61 Kalenjin children aged 3-16 yr were studied to determine the incidence and magnitude of diastemas, overbite, overjet and anterior open bite. The highest prevalence of diastema was amongst the Maasai (61.3%), of overbite (84%) and overjet (99%) amongst the Kikuyu, and of anterior open bite amongst Kalenjin (24%), with values greater than 0.4 mm up to 11.5 mm. Comparison of the mean values showed that diastema (1.77 mm) and overjet (4.4 mm) were greatest in Maasai, overbite (3.53 mm) in Kalenjin, and anterior open bite (3.50 mm) in Kikuyu. In the total sample, the prevalence and mean of diastema were 49%, 1.68 mm; of overbite 77.4%, 2.96 mm; of overjet 88.6%, 3.83 mm; and of anterior open bite 16.5%, 2.69 mm (with values between 0.4-11.5 mm), while 5.5% had an edge-to-edge bite (-0.5-0.5 mm). The prevalence of diastema decreased whilst its magnitude increased with age. The mean values of overbite and overjet increased, while those for anterior open bite decreased with age. The mean values of diastema, overbite and overjet were greater amongst the females, but the difference was significant only for overjet. The high prevalence and greater values of measurements of anterior tooth relations may be related to variable growth of the bimaxillary dentoalveolar complex and soft tissue influences. This may be important in orthodontic treatment planning, dental prostheses and other clinical dental treatments in Kenyan populations.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1993.  Anterior Teeth Morpho-metric Parameters in Kenya Africans"; Archs Oral Bio, Vol39, No.4 pp. 337-342. Discovery and Innovation. Vol 6 363-365. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract

The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase.

1992

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1992.  Mwaniki DL, Hassanali J. The position of mandibular and mental foramina in Kenyan African mandibles.East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3.. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract
Analysis of 79 adult African mandibles indicated that 64.6% of the mandibular foramina were located below the level of the posterior extension of the occlusal plane while 30.7% were located along this plane. 56.1% of the mental foramina were located below the second premolar while 31.1% were between the second premolar and first molar. The remainder were located between the premolars. The mental foramen opened posterosuperiorly in 72.5% of the surfaces. Multiple mental foramina were found on 4.5% of the mandibles. While emphasising the importance of palpation prior to administration of mental nerve block, these observations suggest that in case of uneffective mandibular nerve block, for a significant proportion of Kenyan Bantus, attempts to place the anaesthetic solution slightly below the occlusal plane be considered.
JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1992.  Mwaniki D., J. Hassanali;The position of mandibular and mental foramina in Kenyan Africans' mandibles. East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3.. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract
Analysis of 79 adult African mandibles indicated that 64.6% of the mandibular foramina were located below the level of the posterior extension of the occlusal plane while 30.7% were located along this plane. 56.1% of the mental foramina were located below the second premolar while 31.1% were between the second premolar and first molar. The remainder were located between the premolars. The mental foramen opened posterosuperiorly in 72.5% of the surfaces. Multiple mental foramina were found on 4.5% of the mandibles. While emphasising the importance of palpation prior to administration of mental nerve block, these observations suggest that in case of uneffective mandibular nerve block, for a significant proportion of Kenyan Bantus, attempts to place the anaesthetic solution slightly below the occlusal plane be considered.

1991

JAMEELA, PROFHASSANALI.  1991.  Hassanali J. Biometric analysis of the mandibles of Papio anubis and Cercopithecus aethiops.Folia Primatol (Basel). 1991;56(1):28-32.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3.. : Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996. Abstract
Six biometric measurements were recorded from dry mandibles of 53 Papio anubis and 84 Cercopithecus aethiops: intercondylar width, intercoronoid width, intermolar width (IMW), mesiodistal width of the condyles, height of the occlusal table and anteroposterior length of the chewing surface from P4 to M3 (CL). The mean values and correlation matrices of these variables show that, despite the difference in size, the overall shape of the mandible in male and female is similar within species. The principal component analysis shows that in P. anubis the six variables contribute almost equally to the first component (75% of total variance), suggesting that the large mandible may be force related because of the greater mechanical forces required for chewing certain foods. In C. aethiops, the contribution of IMW and CL is less in the first component (52.7% of total variance), suggesting that the biochemical forces of mastication are more complex to adapt the mandible to a shorter muzzle and a particular diet.

1990

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