Publications

Found 116 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
.
Mwachaka P, Saidi H OMPP. ". Structural changes in the rabbit neural retina following monocular deprivation." Ann of Anatomy . 2014;196S: :177-178.
A
El-busaidy H, Saidi H, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Hassanali J. "Age Changes in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;1(1):30-38.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI, KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2008 May;85(5):244-7.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty carotid arteries of forty cadavers were dissected. RESULTS: The bifurcation of the commonest carotid artery was high (above the reference points) in 63.8% of vessels and the external carotid was antero-lateral to the internal carotid artery in 30% of the vessels. A linguo-facial trunk was the most common variation of the external carotid artery. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively. CONCLUSION: The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Anatomy teaching: Flexnerian model to contexualized vertical integration? Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg. 2009; 4: 1-2.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
Gichangi PB, Opole IO, Saidi H. "The aorta in health and disease." Nairobi Journal of Medicine. 1990;16:42-48.
Nyagetuba MJK, Saidi H, Githaiga J. "The association between pitch conditions and incidence of injury in rugby." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(2):73-76.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Awori K.O., Saidi H., Kiptoon K., Acute acalculous cholecystitis in the outpatient setting. East and Centr. Afr. J. Surgery 2006; 11: 48-53.". In: East and Centr. Afr. J. Surgery 2006; 11: 48-53. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

B
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Biometric features of facial foramina in adult Kenyan skulls. Ongeti K., Hassanali J, Ogeng�o J, Saidi H. Eur J Anat 2008; 21(1): 89-95.". In: Eur J Anat 2008; 21(1): 89-95. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
Several studies have indicated ethnic, age and sex-related variations in the position and size of the facial foramina. The present study reports the biometric features of the mental foramen (MF), and infraorbital (10), supraorbital (SO), and zygomaticofacial (ZF) foramina in a sample of adult Kenyan skulls. One hundred and four adult human skulls were evaluated for the sizes, positions, multiplicity, syrnmetry and geometries of the MF, 10, SO, and ZF foramina. Our observations reveal that the MF was present in all 104 skulls. The distance of the mental foramina from the symphysis menti ranged from 16.5 mm ro 34.0 mm. The 10 foramina were multiple in 5% of the skulls. The 10 foramen was positioned 6.26: +/-1.8 mm from the inferior orbital margin and 32.87: t3 mm from the superior alveolar margins, respectively. The distance from the superior alveolar pracess was greater in males. The distance of the MF, IO and SO from the midline was about 27 mm. ZF were absent in 3-4% of the skulls and multiple in 50% of the skulls. Ten percent of the supraorbital passages were foramina; 60% were notches, while the rest were both notches and foramina. In conclusion, the biometric characteristics of the facial foramina reveal variations in Kenyan skulls. Clinicians operating in this are a should be aware of this anatomy and dimorphic sexual features when anaesthetizing and operating in the facial region.
Sinkeet S, Mwachaka P, Muthoka J, Saidi H. "Branching pattern of inferior mesenteric artery in a black African population: a dissection study." SRN Anatomy. 2013;doi.org/10.5402/2013/962904.
C
Olabu B, Gichangi P SO’oHJ. "Castration causes progressive reduction of penile length of rabbit penis." Anat J Afr . 2014;3 (3):3 (3): 412-416.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Chavda S, Saidi Hassan, Magoha G Acute appendicitis at Kenyatta National hospital; an audit East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82: 527-531.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82: 527-531. Surgical society of Kenya; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Appendicitis still remains a diagnostic challenge particularly in women and extremes of age. The incidence of appendicectomy for suspected appendicitis is higher but declining in the developed countries in contrast with a low but increasing incidence in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of appendicitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, with emphasis on epidemiological oddities. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a 2000 bed teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya SUBJECTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients managed for suspected acute appendicitis between July 2000 and June 2001. RESULTS: There were 116 males and 73 females. The peak incidence was in the third decade. Sixty four percent of patients were below 30 years of age. The elderly (< 60 years of age) accounted for 1.6% of cases. The rate of false appendicectomy was 18.0%. This rate of negative appendicectomies was 12.9% for males and 30.1% for females. The rate of perforation/gangrene was 29.7%. Hospital stay averaged 6.4 days. Overall morbidity was 12.3%. It was 19.4% in perforated appendicitis and 7.6% in non-perforated appendicitis. There was no mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of appendicitis has increased at Kenyatta National Hospital over the last 30 years. The disease is common in men in their third decade. These odd characteristics warrant further investigations.
H PROFS, P O, K A. "Child Maltreatment at a Violence Recovery Center in Kenya ;.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

Saidi H, Abdihakin M, Njihia B, Jumba G, Kiarie G, Githaiga J, ABINYA NO. "Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer in Kenya ." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2011;7. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAO-ANAOAHIA. "Colon Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Colorectal Cancer Surgery Trends in Kenya. Saidi H, Nyaim EO, Githaiga JW, Karuri D. 1993-2005. World Journal of Surgery, 2008; 32: 217-223.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

Ongeti K, Saidi H O’oJ. "Common carotid intimal medial thickness in a Kenyan ." Anat J Afr . 2014;3 (3 ):393-399.
Obimbo MM, Ogeng'o JA, Saidi H. "Comparative regional morphometric changes in human uterine artery before and during pregnancy." Pan Afr Med J. 2012;13:30. Abstract

Uterine artery undergoes structural modifications at different physiologic states. It is expected that due to its unique course, hemodynamic stresses in the vessel would vary resulting in differences in arterial dimensions. The objective of this study was to investigate regional morphometric changes in the human uterine artery.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI, D K, EO. N. "Correlation of clinical data, anatomical site and disease stage in colorectal cancer. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jun;85(6):259-62.". Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage of disease. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fifty three tumours were categorised as right colonic (RCC), left colonic (LCC) and rectal (RC) lesions. The distribution of symptoms (rectal bleeding, tenesmus, change in bowel habits, abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, rectal mass), anaemia, transfusion requirement, and the Dukes' stages were compared for right colon, left colon and rectal tumours. RESULTS: There were 54 RCC, 59 LCC, 140 RC lesions. Patient delay from onset of symptom(s) to presentation was a mean of 26.6 +/- 43, 20 +/- 25 and 33.7 +/- 42 weeks for right, left and rectal lesions respectively (p = 0.092). The proportion of patients presenting with rectal bleeding was 21%, 44% and 79% for RCC, LCC and RC lesions, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal obstruction was 14.8%, 27.1% and 43.6% in right, left and rectal lesions, respectively. The haemoglobin levels were significantly lower for right sided lesions (p = 0.05 for right colon/rectum pair; p = 0.059 for right colon/left colon pair). The sites of the lesions had no relationship to the stage of disease at presentation. CONCLUSION: In patients with colorectal cancer, the duration of symptoms was prolonged irrespective of the anatomical sub-sites. Symptoms were evenly distributed across the anatomical regions except for bleeding and obstruction which predominated in rectal and left colon cancers respectively. This underlines the need for early investigations in patients with rectal bleeding, change of bowel habit, intestinal obstruction and anaemia.

E
Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI. "Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities." J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2015;10(2):144-150.
Nasio NA, Saidi H. "Effects of delayed treatment on perforated peptic ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9:37-41 .
Stevens KA, Paruk F, Bachani AM, Wesson HHK, Wekesa JM, Mburu J, Mwangi JM, Saidi H, Hyder AA. "Establishing hospital-based trauma registry systems: lessons from Kenya." Injury. 2013;44 Suppl 4:S70-4. Abstract

In the developing world, data about the burden of injury, injury outcomes, and complications of care are limited. Hospital-based trauma registries are a data source that can help define this burden. Under the trauma care component of the Bloomberg Global Road Safety Partnership, trauma registries have been implemented at three sites in Kenya. We describe the challenges and lessons learned from this effort.

Kimani MM, Kiiru JN, Matu MM, Chokwe T, Saidi H. "Evaluation of POSSUM and P-POSSUM as predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing laparotomy at a referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2010;5:28-32. AbstractWebsite

14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";}
Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Experience with Hirchprung’s disease at a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Ongeti K, Saidi H., Ogeng’o J, Tharao M. Ann Afr. Surg. 2009; 4: 8-12.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
F
Saidi H. "Fifty consecutive renal transplants- an audit III: Experience with living donors." Nairobi hospital proceedings. 2001;5: 65-68. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological data on automobile injuries and to assess the adequacy of road trauma documentation at the Nairobi Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Accident and Emergency Centre of the Nairobi Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Medical records of randomly selected road trauma patients who presented at The Accident Centre between 1st July 1997 and 31st August 1998 were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age was 32 years with a peak incidence in the 21-30 year age group. Males comprised 63.1% of the injured. The predominant category of the road user injured was the vehicle occupant (70%). Pedestrians only constituted 21.3%. Major city roads or highways were the commonest scenes of injury (38.3%). Most of the responsible vehicles were small personal cars (65.8%). The public service minibuses (popularly known as matatu) caused 20% of the injuries. Most of the injuries were mild and transport of the injured to hospital was uniformly haphazard. A quarter of the injuries were severe enough to warrant admission. Trauma documentation was poor with less than 30% accuracy in most parameters. CONCLUSION: The pre-hospital and initial care of the injured is not systematized. The study calls for re-orientation of trauma care departments to the care of the injured.

G
Njuguna E, Musibi A SWAHIA. "Gastric Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya,. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2013.
Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAOAHIA. "Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
Saidi, H OP. "Glandular Digestive System.". In: KIMANI’S HISTOLOGY Text and Manual . Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
H
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Hassan Saidi, Adari G Primary breast sarcoma; a case report East Afr. Med J. 2004; 81: 375-377.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2004; 81: 375-377. Surgical society of Kenya; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Kenya has a soaring rate of road traffic fatalities. Available evidence suggests significant alcohol-relatedness to trauma. We know little about the prevalence of alcohol-related injuries in Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and pattern of alcohol use in subjects admitted following road traffic accident. DESIGN: A descriptive hospital based survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)- a university affiliated hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: The overall incidence of alcohol use was 26.3%. This was higher in males (29.6%) than females (9.1%). Use was 24.4%, 31.0%, 28.6% and 13.6% in the 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 age groups respectively. The mean ages, pre-hospital times and ISS were similar for the AUG and NAUG. The incidence of males, weekend injuries, night collisions, and pedestrian involvement was 94.4%, 69.4%, 41.7%, 77.8% in the AUG and 83.2%, 35.6%, 19.8% and 61.4% in the NAUG respectively. The incidence of head and extremity injuries in AUG was 27.8% and 50% respectively compared to 11.9% and 66.3% in the NAUG. Treatment costs were higher for the NAUG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a high incidence and potential alcohol-relatedness to road trauma in Nairobi. The study calls for objective evaluation of the extent, interactions and effects of this modifiable trauma factor.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Hassan Saidi, Macharia WM, Atinga J Self-reported alcohol prevalence in an urban traffic trauma population in Kenya East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82(3); 145-148.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82(3); 145-148. Surgical society of Kenya; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Kenya has a soaring rate of road traffic fatalities. Available evidence suggests significant alcohol-relatedness to trauma. We know little about the prevalence of alcohol-related injuries in Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and pattern of alcohol use in subjects admitted following road traffic accident. DESIGN: A descriptive hospital based survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)- a university affiliated hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: The overall incidence of alcohol use was 26.3%. This was higher in males (29.6%) than females (9.1%). Use was 24.4%, 31.0%, 28.6% and 13.6% in the 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 age groups respectively. The mean ages, pre-hospital times and ISS were similar for the AUG and NAUG. The incidence of males, weekend injuries, night collisions, and pedestrian involvement was 94.4%, 69.4%, 41.7%, 77.8% in the AUG and 83.2%, 35.6%, 19.8% and 61.4% in the NAUG respectively. The incidence of head and extremity injuries in AUG was 27.8% and 50% respectively compared to 11.9% and 66.3% in the NAUG. Treatment costs were higher for the NAUG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a high incidence and potential alcohol-relatedness to road trauma in Nairobi. The study calls for objective evaluation of the extent, interactions and effects of this modifiable trauma factor.
96. Musibi A, Saidi H NWAO-ANAOEIA. "Hepatocellular Carcinoma.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2013.
Saidi H, Mutiso B. "High Burden, Morbidity and Cost of Motorcycle Injuries at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Kenya." European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery. 2013;DOI 10.1007/s00068-013-0280-.
Misiani MK, Loyal PK O’o JASHS. "High origin of the right testicular artery coursing through a hiatus in the inferior vena cava." Anat J Afr. 2014;3 (3):372-375 .
Saidi H, Gichangi P MAPK. Histology Module I: Basic Histology. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Histomorphometric evidence of early onset coronary artery disease among Kenyans. Ogeng’o JA, Kilonzi J, Saidi H, Hassanali J. Afr. J. Hosp. Med. 2010; 19-24: 11-14.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Histomorphometry of the left anterior descending coronary artery among Kenyans. Kilonzi PJ, Saidi HS, Hassanali J, Ogeng’o JA. Eur. J. Med. Res., 2008; 13(suppl 1): 2.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

I
Saidi H;, Mutiso B. "Injury Outcomes in Elderly Patients Admitted at an Urban African Hospital.". 2013. Abstract

Background: Elderly patients have worse outcomes for similar severity when compared to younger trauma patients. Elderly patients form smaller proportions of the trauma population in the developing world in comparison to high in-come countries. Due to limited data capabilities, elderly trauma has been infrequently studied. Objective: To describe the common injuries that afflict elderly trauma patients associated resource utilization and the determinants of outcome in Kenyan urban hospital. Methods: Seventy two patients aged 60 years and older admitted for trauma from diverse mechanisms, were recruited over a period of one year (November 2009-December 2010). Data on the specific mecha-nism and type of injury, age, sex, intensive care unit (ICU) use, hospital length of stay, and cost were recorded. Survi-vors and those who died during admission were compared to determine associated factors. Elderly patients were also compared to younger trauma patients to determine significant group peculiarities using X2 analysis or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. Results: Elderly trauma cases (mean age 70.5 + 9.1 years) formed 4.5% of all trauma admissions during the study period. The intent was accidental in 84.7% of cases. The predominant mechanisms of injury were traf-fic (44.4%) and falls (41.7%). Females comprised 41.7% of all patients and lower limb fractures predominated (54.9%). The average injury severity score was 7.82 + 4.4. (median 9.0). The proportion admitted to the ICU was 6%. The me-dian length of hospital stay was 24 days, cost of treatment Kshs. 27,153 Kenya shillings and overall hospital mortality rate was 13.9% (25% for ISS > 15). Only gender and head injury were predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Traffic and falls are the predominant mechanisms in geriatric trauma in Kenya. Unique features of geriatric trauma are higher fe-male involvement, prolonged length of hospital stay and fewer predictors of mortality compared to younger patients.

Abdalla RO, Qureshi MM, Saidi H, Abdallah A. "Introduction of the Canadian CT Head Rule Reduces CT Scan Use in Minor Head Injury." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(1):19-21.
K
Saidi H, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Olabu B. Kiman's Histology Text and Manual. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
L
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: Is it of surgical significance? Mwachaka P.M., Saidi H., Odula P.O., Awori K.O., Kaisha W.O. Clinical Anatomy 2010; 23: 84-86.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
M
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Machoki MS, Saidi H, Ahmed M. Conservative management of a high output enterocutaneous fi stula in abdominal tuberculosis BMJ Case Reports.". In: BMJcases. BMJcases; 2011. Abstract
Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Mutebi MC, Saidi H, Raja AJ. "Mentoring the modern African Surgeon- a call to arms!" Annals of African Surgery.. 2011;7.Website
Saidi, H, B.K. Mutiso, Ogengo. J. "Mortality after road traffic crashes in a system with limited trauma data capability." J Trauma Manag Outcomes. 2014;8(1):4. Abstract

Africa has 4% of the global vehicles but accounts for about one tenth of global vehicular deaths. Major trauma in Kenya is associated with excess mortality in comparison with series from trauma centers. The determinants of this mortality have not been completely explored.

H.Saidi, Mutisto BK. "Motorcycle injuries at a tertiary referral hospital in Kenya: injury patterns and outcome." Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 39:481–485. 2013;38:481-485.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Mutebi , Abdalla A., Saidi H. Acute pancreatitis at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi: a two year audit. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2007; 1: 60-65.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. 2007; 1: 60-65. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007.
N
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Nasio N.A., Saidi H. Perforated peptic ulcer disease at Kenyatta National hospital East & Centr. Afr. J. Surg.;14:13-17.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Njeru, E.K., Mutiso, V.M., Saidi H, Mak.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg.2008; 3: 3-9. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008.
O
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Odhiambo D, De Souza J, Gikenye G, Saidi HS. Radiological anatomy of a cranial malformation in a conjoined dicephalus twin. Eur. J. Anat., 2006; 10 (3): 121-125.". In: Eur. J. Anat., 2006; 10 (3): 121-125. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Ojuka K, Saidi H. Exposure in emergency general surgery in a time-based residency program: A call for review? Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2:15-18.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2:15-18. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to characterize the resident exposure to acute general surgical conditions during a three-months rotation in a general surgical unit. SETTING: The Department of Surgery, University of Nairobi and Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. METHODS: Four residents (in their first to third post-basic science year) were evaluated during a 12-week General Surgery rotation. Details assessed included number and variety of admission diagnoses logged by each resident, number and nature of surgical operations performed independently by each resident and with consultant support, and the resident involvement in the continuity of care. The experiences were compared across the residents. RESULTS: One hundred and forty five patients were admitted. The number of admissions per resident varied between 30 and 41. Fifty-eight patients had surgery. Operative experience where the resident was the principal surgeon ranged from 11 cases to 23 cases per resident. A second resident assisted in 8 out of the fifty-eight cases operated on and consultant support was infrequent. CONCLUSION: The operative experience was variable for the general surgical residents. Exposure could be improved by a policy of resident assistance at emergency surgery. The infrequent consultant support may invalidate formative assessment of resident competence.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Olabu B, Ogengo J, Kirsteen A, Saidi H. Variations in the formation of supraclavicular brachial plexus in Kenyans. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2: 9-14.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2: 9-14. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern and prevalence of variations that occur in the supraclavicular part of the brachial plexus in a Kenyan population. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four brachial plexuses from forty-seven formalin fixed cadavers were displayed by gross dissection. RESULTS: The presence of at least one variation from the classical anatomy was observed in 73 (77.7%) of the 94 plexuses. The roots and trunks were involved in 32 (34%) of the plexuses . Pre- and postfixed roots were present in 23 (24.7%) and 3 (3.2%), respectively. The presence of four trunks, and trunks passing between the scalene medius and posterior were also noted. The long thoracic nerve was variant in 51 (54.3%) of the plexuses. Unusual relations of the phrenic nerve to scalene muscles and the subclavian vein were encountered. CONCLUSION: The presence of four trunks and an accessory phrenic nerve passing through the subclavian vein are probably described and reported for the first time. However, most of the variations of the BP among Kenyans are similar to those reported in the other populations.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Olabu B, Saidi H , Ogengo J, Kirsteen A, Prevalence and distribution of the third coronary artery in Kenyans.Int. J. Morphol. 2007;25(4): 851-854.". In: Int. J. Morphol. 2007;25(4): 851-854. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Olumbe AO, Saidi H.S.Coronary arterial vessels in relation to sudden cardiac death: a review. .East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):185-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):185-9. Surgical society of Kenya; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review literature on the coronary vascular factors related to the syndrome of sudden cardiac death. DATA SOURCE/SYNTHESIS: Major published articles and case reports on the nature of sudden cardiac death were searched electronically (Medline, Internet) and through hand scanning. Comparison of the different studies with regard to common themes was undertaken and consensus opinions highlighted. RESULTS: The aetiology of sudden cardiac death is diverse. Many conditions, hitherto considered benign, including coronary arterial anomalies and muscle bridges have been shown to cause sudden cardiac death. Coronary atherosclerosis, hypoplastic coronary vessels, coronary artery dissections are the commoner causes. The role of coronary arterial thrombi is controversial. The protective role of exercise is seriously questioned by the many reports of sudden cardiac death in long distance runners. CONCLUSION: Cases of sudden cardiac death are increasingly being reported. As a minimum, autopsy worksheets for cases of sudden death should include atherosclerosis, congenital coronary anomalies, tunneling of coronary vessels and hyposplastic vessels in addition to valvular and myocardial disorders.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Onget KW, Ogeng.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. J Morph Sci; 2011. Abstract
Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Magoma G, Saidi H, Kaisha WO. "Origin of thyroid arteries in a Kenyan population." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(1):50-54.
P
Nebayosi T, Saidi H MNBAEN. "Pancreatic Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
Magoma G, Saidi H, Kaisha W. "The pattern of external laryngeal nerve relation to the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2013;1(1):27-29.
Nasio NA, Saidi H. "Perforated peptic ulcer disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006 Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications

Saidi H, Aziz RA, Ariffin A, Hassan H. "Performance of locally manufactured hollow-fiber membrane for CO2 separatio.". 1994. Abstract

Hollow fiber membrane is the latest and advanced gas separation technology currently employed in the gas industries. Malaysia which is rich in natural resources has huge natural gas reserves amounting to more than 5 Trillion Standard Cubic Feed (5 TSCF). Membrane Research Unit has produced a hollow-fiber module by using locally made spinneret which is capable of producing hollow fiber membranes using a wet-spinning method. This module contains hollow fiber membranes with surface area of 72.22cm2. The module is utilised in the existing membrane gas separation pilot plant (MGSPP) for performance test. The performance of third module was based on its permeation rate and selectivity for each pure gases tested namely N2, CO2 and O2. Based on the result obtained the module has the capability to separate CO2 from natural gas, helium recovery in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), nitrogen and oxygen recovery in the production of urea.

El-Busaidy H, Hassanali J KHO’o N’uWSJ &. "Prevalence of abnormal Sternal Angles in a Kenyan Population." Anat Physiol . 2014;4:135.
Makanga W, Wasike R, Saidi H. "A profile of female breast cancer patients in a Kenyan private hospital." Annals of African Surgery . 2013;10(1):3-7.
Ongeti KW, Ogeng’o J, Gakuu LN, Saidi H. "A Pulei Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc in an African Population: Kenyan Experience." East Afrcan Orthopedic Journal. 2012;6:12-15.
R
Abdihakin M, Khamala W, Hasan S, Maceod J. "A randomized controlled trial of steroid injection in the management of plantar fasciitis." South African Orthopedic Journal. 2012;11(4):33-38.
Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAO-ANAOAHIA. "Rectal Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
Magoma G, Saidi H, Kaisha W. "Relation of the external laryngeal nerve to superior thyroid artery in an african population.". 2012. Abstract

The external laryngeal nerve runs parallel to superior thyroid artery and later crossing the artery either above or below the upper pole of the thyroid gland. This relatively high anatomic variability demonstrates inter-population differences. However, datum among the Kenyan population is lacking. Knowledge of normal and variant anatomy of these structures is important in surgical procedures within the neck. This study therefore aimed at describing the variant anatomical relations of the superior thyroid artery and external laryngeal nerve for the Kenyan population. Twenty formalin fixed cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi were dissected to expose the thyroid gland, superior thyroid artery and external laryngeal nerve. The relation of the superior thyroid artery to the external laryngeal nerve was noted. The external laryngeal nerve crossed the superior thyroid artery within 1cm above the upper pole of the thyroid gland in 25% of cases and more than 1 cm in 75% of cases. The level at which the external laryngeal nerve crosses the superior thyroid artery displays variations among Kenyans warranting care during surgical procedures of the thyroid gland.

H S. "Respiratory System.". In: KIMANI’S HISTOLOGY Text and Manual. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
MS Machoki MS, Saidi H, Raja H, Ndonga A, Njue A, Biomdo I, Kimani S, Arudo J, Mushtaq A. "Risk Factors for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Kenyan Population." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(1):38-43.
S
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Karanja TM, Ogengo JA.Variant anatomy of the cystic artery in adult Kenyans. Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Kitunguu P., Ogengo JA. Variant anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery in Adult Kenyans. Afr. J. Neurol. Sci.2008; 27: 97 - 105.". In: Afr. J. Neurol. Sci.2008; 27: 97 - 105. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Mohammed U, Machoki M.An unusual abdominal mass: case report.East Afr Med J. 2007 Feb;84(2):88-92.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Feb;84(2):88-92. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
The causes of intra-abdominal masses associated with chronic abdominal pain range from the benign to malignant; common to bizarre and some raise major medical-legal issues. We present a case of a 40-year old African lady who presented with chronic right-sided abdominal pain with an associated mass on the right mid-abdomen. She had had a Caesarian section one year prior to presentation. Antecedent history of surgery and typical imaging features enabled a preoperative diagnosis of abdominal mass secondary to retained surgical gauze. The case illustrates the fallibility of the men and women in the operating theatres and the vital role of correct instrument and sponge counts.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Ongeti KW, Ogengo J. Morphology f human myocardial bridges and association with coronary artery disease. Afr Health Sci;2010: 10: 242-47.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:39-43. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H. Firearm injuries: surgical perspective. East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):105-6.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
No abstract available. 
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H., Anangwe D., Ogeng.". In: Ann. Afr. Surgery 2007; 1: 56-59. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
Background: The sigmoid colon in Africans is commonly affected by volvulus formation. Anatomical characteristics of this part of the colon could provide some of the contributory explanations for male gender predisposition. Method: Ninety five sigmoid colons (fifty  male subjects) were harvested at autopsy. The following measurements were made: length of the sigmoid colon, length of the mesocolon root, height of the mesocolon. The sigmoid length.mesocolic root length ratio and sigmoid length:mesocolic height ratios were also calculated. All means and ratios were compared for gender using the Student t-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean sigmoid colon length was higher in males (36.9cm) than in females (32.6cm) (p=0.007). Most (41.7%) of the sigmoid colons measured 30-34.9cm long. Males had shorter mesocolon roots and longer mesocolon heights. Conclusion: The greater colon length and smaller mesocolic root lengths in males may be the anatomical basis for the higher incidence of sigmoid volvulus in males.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H., Macharia W, Atinga J. Crash and road-user characteristics in non-fatal motor vehicle collisions in Nairobi, Kenya Afr. Safety Promotion Journal 2006; 4: 50-58.". In: Afr. Safety Promotion Journal 2006; 4: 50-58. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H.S. Initial injury care in Nairobi, Kenya: a call for trauma care regionalisation..East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):480-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):480-3. Surgical society of Kenya; 2003. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the emergency care of injuries at a main city hospital. DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Data were collected between February 1st, 1999 and 30th April, 1999 from the records of the 2000 bed Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and forty injury patients admitted at KNH were analysed. METHODS: All patients were analysed for demographics, environment of injury hospital arrival and Emergency Department times. The effects of injury severity, place of injury and time of day on these time intervals were analysed statistically. RESULTS: Road injury admissions formed 31% of all injury admissions. The mean age was 30 years. Males comprised 84.6% of all patients. The proportions of patients under 20 years of age was 20% with a peak age of 20-29 years. Majority (43.3%) of the injured resided in deprived neighbourhood of East Nairobi. The mean pre-hospital time was 2.56 hours. The Emergency Department disposition time was 3.36 hours. Injuries of all severities, as determined by the Injury Severity Score (ISS), were treated. The pace of care did not match severity of the injuries. Only 17.5% reached their areas of definitive care within sixty minutes. CONCLUSION: Injuries following road traffic accidents (RTAs) are common in Nairobi. The response to injury is slow and haphazard. The insitution of a care incorporating the city's health centers and pre-hospital triage may optimise care.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H.S., Chavda S.K.Use of a modified Alvorado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):411-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):411-4. Surgical society of Kenya; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The negative appendicectomy rates have remained high. The integration of clinical scores into the diagnostic process in acute appendicitis has had the purposes of improving decision making and reducing the negative rates in this common condition. The performance of these score systems have however, not been uniform. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of a modified Alvorado score (1986) to predict groups of patients with suspected appendicitis for definite surgery, observation or discharge from hospital. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a central referral and teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients with suspected acute appendicitis were studied over a period of twelve months. METHODS: Five symptoms and four signs were assigned numerical values and the patients scored out of a total of 10 points. A score of >7 predicted mandatory operation, 5-6 observation and score 1-4 predicted those not considered for surgery. The decision to operate was the prerogative of the surgeon or surgical resident based on overall clinical suspicion and not the diagnostic score. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with scores >7 was 40.7%. The mean score was 6.02. The mean ages and the gender ratios were similar across score groups. The negative appendicectomy rate was 17.6% for group 1-4, 16.5% for 5-6 and 19.7% for >7. These were similar to the overall negative rate of 18% based on clinical suspicion. The overall sensitivity and sensitivity for the scoring system was 80.3% and 16.8% respectively. CONCLUSION: High scores were found to perform poorly in predicting diagnosis of acute appendicitis preoperatively and in the reduction of negative appendicectomies. The integration of a scoring system does not offer advantage over degree of clinical suspicion.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi Hassan, Chavda SK , Magoha GA. Appendicectomy for recurrent and chronic appendicitis Tropical Doctor 2007; 37: 56-57.". In: Tropical Doctor 2007; 37: 56-57. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
In recent years, several reports have underlined the possible existence of chronic appendicitis. Up to 38% of spontaneously resolving acute appendicitis may recur. We studied 41 patients operated on between July 2000 and June 2001 for chronic and recurrent appendicitis at a teaching hospital in the city of Nairobi. The patients comprised 17.8% of all patients undergoing surgery for appendicitis during the study period. The majority (65.9%) were females. The faecolith rate was 51.2%. About half of appendices removed for these symptoms were normal at histology. Nearly 70% of the normal appendices contained faecoliths. Symptoms resolved in 90% of faecolith-containing appendices and 87.5% of non-faecolith-containing appendices that were normal on histology.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Awori M, Kibira G. Blunt colon injury and multiple organ failure (MOF) syndrome; a case report. EAMSJ 2002; 1(1) 34-36.". In: EAMSJ 2002; 1(1) 34-36. Surgical society of Kenya; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, injury patterns, offender-victim characteristics, treatment and outcome of firearm-related injuries at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Aga Khan Hospital, a major private hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seven patients who presented at the Aga Khan Hospital Accident and Emergency Department (January 1993-December 1998) with firearm injuries and were subsequently hospitalised. There were 97 males and 10 females aged four to 94 years. The mean age was 39 years. RESULTS: The peak incidence was in the 40-49 year age group. The male to female ratio was 10:1. The victim offender was a thug, thief or robber in 74.7% of cases. Law enforcement officers were responsible for 9.4% of the injuries. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ranged from one to 32 with mean score of 8.25. Injuries involving the extremities were the most prevalent. There were 31 major operations performed. The complication rate was 35.5%. Six (6.5%) of these patients died. CONCLUSION: Gunshot injuries cause profound morbidity and significant mortality. A wider and larger study needs to be undertaken to elucidate the true nature of firearm injuries.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Kabiru J Fifty consecutive renal transplants- an audit I: 30-day mortality and morbidity. Nairobi hospital proceedings 2001 5(1): 21-28.". In: Nairobi hospital proceedings 2001 5(1): 21-28. Surgical society of Kenya; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological data on automobile injuries and to assess the adequacy of road trauma documentation at the Nairobi Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Accident and Emergency Centre of the Nairobi Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Medical records of randomly selected road trauma patients who presented at The Accident Centre between 1st July 1997 and 31st August 1998 were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age was 32 years with a peak incidence in the 21-30 year age group. Males comprised 63.1% of the injured. The predominant category of the road user injured was the vehicle occupant (70%). Pedestrians only constituted 21.3%. Major city roads or highways were the commonest scenes of injury (38.3%). Most of the responsible vehicles were small personal cars (65.8%). The public service minibuses (popularly known as matatu) caused 20% of the injuries. Most of the injuries were mild and transport of the injured to hospital was uniformly haphazard. A quarter of the injuries were severe enough to warrant admission. Trauma documentation was poor with less than 30% accuracy in most parameters. CONCLUSION: The pre-hospital and initial care of the injured is not systematized. The study calls for re-orientation of trauma care departments to the care of the injured.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Kahoro P. East Afr Med J.Experience with road traffic accident victims at The Nairobi Hospital. 2001 Aug;78(8):441-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Aug;78(8):441-4. Surgical society of Kenya; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological data on automobile injuries and to assess the adequacy of road trauma documentation at the Nairobi Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Accident and Emergency Centre of the Nairobi Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Medical records of randomly selected road trauma patients who presented at The Accident Centre between 1st July 1997 and 31st August 1998 were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age was 32 years with a peak incidence in the 21-30 year age group. Males comprised 63.1% of the injured. The predominant category of the road user injured was the vehicle occupant (70%). Pedestrians only constituted 21.3%. Major city roads or highways were the commonest scenes of injury (38.3%). Most of the responsible vehicles were small personal cars (65.8%). The public service minibuses (popularly known as matatu) caused 20% of the injuries. Most of the injuries were mild and transport of the injured to hospital was uniformly haphazard. A quarter of the injuries were severe enough to warrant admission. Trauma documentation was poor with less than 30% accuracy in most parameters. CONCLUSION: The pre-hospital and initial care of the injured is not systematized. The study calls for re-orientation of trauma care departments to the care of the injured.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Macharia WM, Atinga JEO Outcome for hospitalized road trauma patients at a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Eur. J. Trauma; 2005; 31: 401-6.". In: Eur. J. Trauma; 2005; 31: 401-6. Surgical society of Kenya; 2005. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Ndonga A Patient and allograft survival after transplantation with living donor kidneys; 14 years experience East & Centr. Afr. J Surg. 2003; 8(1); 19-24.". In: East & Centr. Afr. J Surg. 2003; 8(1); 19-24. Surgical society of Kenya; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The negative appendicectomy rates have remained high. The integration of clinical scores into the diagnostic process in acute appendicitis has had the purposes of improving decision making and reducing the negative rates in this common condition. The performance of these score systems have however, not been uniform. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of a modified Alvorado score (1986) to predict groups of patients with suspected appendicitis for definite surgery, observation or discharge from hospital. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a central referral and teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients with suspected acute appendicitis were studied over a period of twelve months. METHODS: Five symptoms and four signs were assigned numerical values and the patients scored out of a total of 10 points. A score of >7 predicted mandatory operation, 5-6 observation and score 1-4 predicted those not considered for surgery. The decision to operate was the prerogative of the surgeon or surgical resident based on overall clinical suspicion and not the diagnostic score. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with scores >7 was 40.7%. The mean score was 6.02. The mean ages and the gender ratios were similar across score groups. The negative appendicectomy rate was 17.6% for group 1-4, 16.5% for 5-6 and 19.7% for >7. These were similar to the overall negative rate of 18% based on clinical suspicion. The overall sensitivity and sensitivity for the scoring system was 80.3% and 16.8% respectively. CONCLUSION: High scores were found to perform poorly in predicting diagnosis of acute appendicitis preoperatively and in the reduction of negative appendicectomies. The integration of a scoring system does not offer advantage over degree of clinical suspicion.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Nyakiamo J, Faya S.Gunshot injuries as seen at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):188-92.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):188-92. Surgical society of Kenya; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, injury patterns, offender-victim characteristics, treatment and outcome of firearm-related injuries at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Aga Khan Hospital, a major private hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seven patients who presented at the Aga Khan Hospital Accident and Emergency Department (January 1993-December 1998) with firearm injuries and were subsequently hospitalised. There were 97 males and 10 females aged four to 94 years. The mean age was 39 years. RESULTS: The peak incidence was in the 40-49 year age group. The male to female ratio was 10:1. The victim offender was a thug, thief or robber in 74.7% of cases. Law enforcement officers were responsible for 9.4% of the injuries. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ranged from one to 32 with mean score of 8.25. Injuries involving the extremities were the most prevalent. There were 31 major operations performed. The complication rate was 35.5%. Six (6.5%) of these patients died. CONCLUSION: Gunshot injuries cause profound morbidity and significant mortality. A wider and larger study needs to be undertaken to elucidate the true nature of firearm injuries.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Olumbe AO, Kalebi. Anatomy and pathology of coronary artery in adult black Kenyans. A.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jun;79(6):323-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jun;79(6):323-7. Surgical society of Kenya; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of coronary arterial anatomy and prevalence of postmortem coronary pathology in adult Kenyan Africans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Nairobi City Mortuary and the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. METHOD: One hundred hearts were retrieved during consecutive autopsies over a three month duration and systematically dissected. Details on coronary ramification, dominance, atherosclerosis, tunnelling and hypoplastic segments were obtained and statistically analysed. RESULTS: Seven patterns of left coronary ramifications were identified. The right coronary artery anomalously exited from the left coronary sinus in one situation. There were separate ostia for the coronary artery branches in 2% and 31 % of cases on the left and right coronary systems respectively. The right coronary artery was dominant in 82% of the hearts. Coronary ostial sizes and luminal dimensions showed wide variations. Only two of the hearts had atheromatous luminal narrowing greater than 75% of the cross-sectional area. Muscle bridges of average depths of 1.1-2 mm were demonstrable in 29% of the autopsies. Diminutive left anterior descending artery was present in four cases. The right coronary artery was diminutive in one case. CONCLUSION: Coronary atherosclerosis is still a rarity in the setting within which the study was undertaken. The diverse patterns of ramifications of the coronary tree begs for caution during coronary investigations and interventional procedures. Coronary arterial anomalies, myocardial bridges, atheroma and diminutive arteries should be considered in cases of sudden cardiac death in the absence of other pathologies.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Severe necrotizing infection of the perineum: Beyond necrosectomy. Abdihakin M, Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg., 2010; 5: 39-43.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Severe necttrotising infection of the perineum: Beyond Necrosectomy.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:39-43. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Sex variation in occurrence of myocardium in the human mitral valve cusps. Gatonga P., Odula P.O., Saidi H., Mandela P. Int. J. Morph. 2009; 27(4): 1217-1222.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Ndung'u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli.". 2012. Abstract

Atrioventricular annuli are important in haemodynamic flexibility, competence, and support for tricuspid and mitral valves. The anatomical features of the annuli, such as circumference, organisation of connective tissue fibres, myocardium, and cellularity, may predispose to annular insufficiency and valvular incompetence. These pathologies occur more commonly in females, although the anatomical basis for this disparity is unclear. Sex variation in the structure of the annuli is important in providing a morphological basis for the patterns of these diseases. This study therefore aimed to determine the sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli. One hundred and one hearts (48 males, 53 females) obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi were studied. Annular circumferences were measured using a flexible ruler and corrected for heart weight. Results were analysed using SPSS version 17.0 and sex differences determined using student's t-test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. For light microscopy, specimens were harvested within 48 hours post-mortem, processed, sectioned, and stained with Masson's trichrome and Weigert's elastic stain with van Gieson counterstaining. Females had significantly larger annular circumferences than males after correcting for heart weight (p ≤ 0.05). Histologically, myocardium was consistently present in all male annuli while this was absent in females except in one specimen. The annuli were more elastic and cellular in males especially in the annulo-myocardial and annulo-valvular zones, respectively. The corrected larger annular circumference in females may limit heart valve coaptation during cardiac cycle and may be a risk factor for valvular insufficiency. The predominance of myocardium, annular cellularity, and elasticity may be more protective against heart valve incompetence in males than in females

El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, OGENGO J, Ndung’u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Folia Morphol (Warsz).. 2012;71(1):23-7.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Sexual and Partner violence at a Womens’ hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Saidi H., Awori K., Odula P. East Afr. Med. J. 2008; 85: 347-54.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

El-Busaid H, Kaisha W, Hassanali J, Hassan S, Ogeng'o J, Mandela P. "Sternal foramina and variant xiphoid morphology in a Kenyan population." Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2012;71(1):19-22.
El-Busaid H, Kaisha W, Hassanali J, Hassan S, Ogeng'o J, Mandela P. "Sternal foramina and variant xiphoid morphology in a Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):19-22. Abstract

Sternal foramina may pose a great hazard during sternal puncture, due to inadvertent cardiac or great vessel injury. They can also be misinterpreted as osteolytic lesions in cross-sectional imaging of the sternum. On the other hand, variant xiphoid morphology such as bifid, duplicated, or trifurcated may be mistaken for fractures during imaging. The distribution of these anomalies differs between populations, but data from Africans is scarcely reported. This study therefore aimed to investigate the distribution and frequency of sternal foramina and variant xiphoid morphology in a Kenyan population. Eighty formalin-fixed adult sterna (42 males [M], 38 females [F]) of age range 18-45 years were studied during dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. Soft tissues were removed from the macerated sterna by blunt dissection and foramina recorded in the manubrium, body, and xiphoid process. The xiphisternal ending was classified as single, bifurcated (2 xiphoid processes with a common stem), or duplicated (2 xiphoid processes with separate stems). Results were analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Foramina were present in 11 specimens (13.8%): 7 M, 4 F. The highest frequency was in the sternal body (n = 9), where they predominantly occurred at the 5th intercostal segment. Xiphoid foramina were present in 2 specimens (both males) (2.5%), while manubrial foramen was not encountered. The xiphisternum ended as a single process in 64 cases (34 M, 30 F) (80%). It bifurcated in 10 cases (5 M, 5 F) (12.5%), and duplicated in 6 cases (4 M, 2 F) (7.5%). There were no cases of trifurcation. Sternal foramina in Kenyans vary in distribution and show higher frequency than in other populations. These variations may complicate sternal puncture, and due caution is recommended. The variant xiphisternal morphology may raise alarm for xiphoid fractures and may therefore be considered a differential.

Wabwire B, Saidi H. "Stratified Outcome Evaluation of Peritonitis." Afr Surg . 2014;11:29-34.
ONGETI K, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H. "Structural organization of the human carotid artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1).
Opole IO, Gichangi PB, Saidi H. "Structure and adrenergic innervations of the carotid rete Mirabelle in the maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) ." Nairobi Journal of Medicine . 1991;17:51-58.
Nyagetuba M, Saidi H, Githaiga JW. "Surveillance of injuries among Kenya rugby Union (KRU) players – season 2010." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(2):88-92. Abstract

Objective: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injury amongst Kenya rugby union players and associated factors.
Design: A whole population prospective cohort study.
Methods: 364 registered Kenya rugby union (KRU) players were studied
throughout the 2010 season. Data on their demographics, injury incidence, pattern and severity were gathered. The study tool used was the Rugby International Consensus Group (RICG) Statement.
Results: There were 173 backs and 191 forwards. One hundred and two
1 injuries for 60 league games (2400match player hours) were recorded. The incidence of injuries was 42.5/1000 match player hours (mph), (44.2 for forwards and 40.8 for backs). Lower limb injuries were the most common (41.2%). Players were most prone to injuries in the in tackle scenario (63.7%), at the beginning of the season (47.1%), and in
the last quarter (50%) of a game.
Conclusion: The injury incidence recorded contrast the earlier Kenyan
data but is comparable to international amateur level incidence, uniqueness of the Kenyan environment notwithstanding. The higher
rates associated with the tackle/tackled scenario, earlier part of the season and later part of the game, suggest interventions can target player conditioning, and use of protective gear.

T
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Tharao MK, H Saidi, P Kitunguu and JA Ogengo Variant Anatomy of the Hepatic Artery in Adult Kenyans.". In: Eur J. Anat. 2007; 11 (3): 155-161. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
The causes of intra-abdominal masses associated with chronic abdominal pain range from the benign to malignant; common to bizarre and some raise major medical-legal issues. We present a case of a 40-year old African lady who presented with chronic right-sided abdominal pain with an associated mass on the right mid-abdomen. She had had a Caesarian section one year prior to presentation. Antecedent history of surgery and typical imaging features enabled a preoperative diagnosis of abdominal mass secondary to retained surgical gauze. The case illustrates the fallibility of the men and women in the operating theatres and the vital role of correct instrument and sponge counts.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Topography of the posterior communicating artery in a Kenyan population.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Topography of the posterior communicating artery in a Kenyan population. Sinkeet R, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 37-40.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
Saidi H, Mutiso B. "Trauma deaths outside the hospital: Uncovering the typology in the Kenyan Capital." J Forensic Leg Med.. 2013;20 (6):570-4.
U
Saidi H, Mohammed U, Machoki M. "An unusual abdominal mass: case report." East Afr Med J. 2007;84(2):88-92. Abstract

The causes of intra-abdominal masses associated with chronic abdominal pain range from the benign to malignant; common to bizarre and some raise major medical-legal issues. We present a case of a 40-year old African lady who presented with chronic right-sided abdominal pain with an associated mass on the right mid-abdomen. She had had a Caesarian section one year prior to presentation. Antecedent history of surgery and typical imaging features enabled a preoperative diagnosis of abdominal mass secondary to retained surgical gauze. The case illustrates the fallibility of the men and women in the operating theatres and the vital role of correct instrument and sponge counts.

Ongeti KW, Saidi H, Ogeng'o JA. "Unusual formation of the median nerve associated with the third head of biceps brachii.". In: Clinical anatomy. Clinical anatomy; 2012. Abstract

Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Saidi HS, Chavda SK. "Use of a modified Alvorado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis." East Afr Med J. 2003;80(8):411-4. Abstract

The negative appendicectomy rates have remained high. The integration of clinical scores into the diagnostic process in acute appendicitis has had the purposes of improving decision making and reducing the negative rates in this common condition. The performance of these score systems have however, not been uniform.

V
Tharao MK, Oroko P, Abdulkarim A, Saidi H. "Validation of the Ottawa ankle rules at a tertiary teaching hospital." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(2):77-80.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Variant anatomy of the uterine artery in a Kenyan population. Obimbo MM, Ogengo J, Saidi H. Int J. Gynaecol Obstet. 2010; 1: 49-52.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
Ongeti KW, Saidi H, Ogeng'o JA. "Variant origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population." Clinical Anatomy. 2011.Website
Kimani SM, Alexander OJ, Hassan S, Bernard MN. "Variations in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk in a Kenyan population." Intenational Journal of Morphology 2010. 2010;28(1):199-204 .
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Variations in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk in a Kenyan population. Mburu KS, Alexander O.J., Hassan Saidi, Bernard N. Int. J. Morph. 2010; 28(1): 199-204.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
Nderitu J, Butt F SH. "Variations in the emergence and course of the inferior palpebral nerve." Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr . 2014;7(3):233-6.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Variations in the formation of supraclavicular brachial plexus in Kenyans. Olabu B, Ogeng’o J, Kirsteen A, Saidi H. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2: 9-14.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

W
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Wasike R, Saidi H.Perforated Meckel's diverticulitis presenting as a mesenteric abscess: case report.East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):580-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):580-4. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Who wants to be a surgeon? A survery of medical students at the University of Nairobi. Mwachaka P, Mbugua E, Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Who wants to be surgeon?". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31

UoN Websites Search