Publications

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2017
Onkoba N, Mumo RM, Ochanda H, Omwandho C, Ozwara HS, Egwang TG. "Safety, immunogenicity, and cross-species protection of a plasmid DNA encoding Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 polypeptide, microbial epitopes and chemokine genes in mice and olive baboons." Journal of biomedical research. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Incorporation of biomolecular epitopes to malarial antigens should be explored in the development of straintranscending
malarial vaccines. The present study sought to determine safety, immunogenicity and cross-species
ef cacy of Plasmodium falciparumserine repeat antigen 5 polypeptide co-expressed with epitopes of BacilleCalmette
Guerin (BCG), tetanus toxoid (TT) and a chemokine gene. Olive baboons and BALB/c mice were randomly
assigned into vaccine and control groups. The vaccine group animals were primed and boosted twice with pIRES
plasmids encoding the SERA5+ BCG+ TT alone, or with either CCL5 or CCL20 and the control group with pIRES
plasmid vector backbone. Mice and baboons were challenged with P. bergheiANKA and P. knowlesiH strain
parasites, respectively. Safety was determined by observing for injection sites reactogenicities, hematology and
clinical chemistry. Parasitaemia and survivorship pro les were used to determine cross-species ef cacy, and T cell
phenotypes, Th1-, Th2-type, T-regulatory immune responses and antibody responses were assessed to determine
vaccine immunogenicity. The pSeBCGTT plasmid DNA vaccines were safe and induced Th1-, Th2-type, and Tregulatory
responses vaccinated animals showed enhanced CD4 + (P< 0.01), CD 8+ T cells (P< 0.001) activation and
IgG anti-SE36 antibodies responses ( P< 0.001) at week 4 and 8 post vaccination compared to the control group.
Vaccinated mice had a 31.45-68.69 % cumulative parasite load reduction and 60 % suppression in baboons ( P< 0.05)
and enhanced survivorship ( P< 0.001) with no clinical signs of malaria compared to the control group. The results
showed that the vaccines were safe, immunogenic and conferred partial cross-species protection.
Keywords: malaria, DNA vaccines, serine repeat antigen, chemokines, cross-species, protection, immunogenicity,
safety

2016
Waiganjo N, Yole D, Ochanda H. Anti-Schistosomal activity of five plant extracts on Swiss white mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni.; 2016. AbstractWebsite

Schistosomiasis in humans is a major public health problem worldwide. Schistosomiasis occurs
in 76 tropical countries and it is estimated that 85% of the infections are in Africa. In Kenya, it is estimated that
3 million people are infected. The Conventional drugs are effective in the treatment of the disease but very little
progress has been achieved on treatment of Schistosomiasis in Kenya. Any effort towards developing alternative
drugs for the disease is worthwhile. Praziquantel is the most effective drug against all adult stages of human
Schistosomiasis, being the drug of choice for morbidity control of Schistosomiasis. However it is not a satisfying
situation to have one drug used for the treatment. Ideally other drugs should be availed in order to avoid
development of drug resistance. The use of plant extracts in treatment of diseases is universal. The results
obtained showed that Ocimum americanum and Bridelia micrantha plant extracts had antischistosomal activity
as indicated by high worm reduction and reduced gross pathology. Histopathology showed no or few
granuloma in the liver tissue. Further work should be done on the efficacious extracts, towards drug
development.
Keywords: Antischistosomal activity, Pathology, Plant extracts, Praziquantel, Schistosomiasis

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo D, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2016;6(1):5-11. AbstractWebsite

Background: Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum
americanum plant species are commonly used in traditional medicine for a
number of ailments. The extracts of these plants have been shown to have antischistosomal
activity suggesting that they could be used for the development of
new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However
there is limited knowledge on their toxicological profile and their use in
traditional medicine may not be a satisfactory safety indication.
Methods: In this study the extracts were first screened for bioactivity using
brine shrimp lethality test for the determination of LC50 followed by rodent
acute toxicity and 28 day subchronic studies.
Results: B. micrantha water extract with a LC50 of 77µg/ml was deemed toxic
while C. ambrosoides methanol and water extracts were moderately toxic with
LC50 of 104.63µg/ml and 696.44µg/ml respectively. O. americanum hexane
and water extracts toxicity varied from moderate to slightly toxic with LC50 of
887.59µg/ml and 2254.60µg/ml respectively. C. ambrosoides and O.
americanum water extracts which were preferentially selected for subsequent
studies were found to have mild to no irritation to rodent eyes and skin.
Moreover, the aminotransferases AST and ALT which were used to detect liver
injury suggested negligible effect.
Conclusions: This therefore confirms that C. ambrosoides and O. americanum
water extracts are safe for clinical use with O. americanum water extract having
a slight edge.
Keywords: Antihelminthic, Schistosomiasis, Toxicity

Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;178:64-69. Abstract

Abstract Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease
caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa.
The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence
determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies,
but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice
cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in ...

Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Efficacy of a capsular polysaccharide conjugated vaccine against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.". In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.; 2016.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Aye R, Soi R, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Naessens J, Wesonga H. "Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;169:63-67.
Masakhwe C, Ochanda H, Nyakoe N, Ochiel D, Waitumbi J. "Frequency of Epstein-Barr Virus in Patients Presenting with Acute Febrile Illness in Kenya." PloS one. 2016;11(5):e0155308. AbstractWebsite

Background

Most acute febrile illnesses (AFI) are usually not associated with a specific diagnosis because of limitations of available diagnostics. This study reports on the frequency of EBV viremia and viral load in children and adults presenting with febrile illness in hospitals in Kenya.

Methodology/Principal Findings

A pathogen surveillance study was conducted on patients presenting with AFI (N = 796) at outpatient departments in 8 hospitals located in diverse regions of Kenya. Enrollment criterion to the study was fever without a readily diagnosable infection. All the patients had AFI not attributable to the common causes of fever in Kenyan hospitals, such as malaria or rickettsiae, leptospira, brucella and salmonella and they were hence categorized as having AFI of unknown etiology. EBV was detected in blood using quantitative TaqMan-based qPCR targeting a highly conserved BALF5 gene. The overall frequency of EBV viremia in this population was 29.2%, with significantly higher proportion in younger children of <5years (33.8%, p = 0.039) compared to patients aged ≥5 years (26.3% for 5–15 years or 18.8% for >15 years). With respect to geographical localities, the frequency of EBV viremia was higher in the Lake Victoria region (36.4%), compared to Kisii highland (24.6%), Coastal region (22.2%) and Semi-Arid region (25%). Furthermore, patients from the malaria endemic coastal region and the Lake Victoria region presented with significantly higher viremia than individuals from other regions of Kenya.

Conclusions/Significance

This study provides profiles of EBV in patients with AFI from diverse eco-regions of Kenya. Of significant interest is the high frequency of EBV viremia in younger children. The observed high frequencies of EBV viremia and elevated viral loads in residents of high malaria transmission areas are probably related to malaria induced immune activation and resultant expansion of EBV infected B-cells.

Waiganjo N, Yole D, Ochanda H. Immunological Responses of Mice After Treatment with Ocimum Americanum Hexane and Bridelia Micrantha Water Plant Extracts.; 2016. AbstractWebsite

Background-The T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 dichotomy was first shown in murine CD4+ lymphocytes clones
and these cells could be differentiated in terms of the cytokines they secrete. The TH1 subsets produce
interleukin 2 (IL-2,) interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and lymphotoxin, TH2 subsets produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 IL-10
and IL-13. An important function of the TH2 response during infection is to produce cytokines that can prevent
or dampen the production or effector functions of potentially dangerous inflammatory mediators. Results The
results obtained showed that Ocimum americanum hexane (OAH) and Bridelia micrantha (BMW) water extract
had antischistosomal activity. This was indicated by low worm recovery, high worm reduction, and reduced
gross pathology with histopathology showing no or few granulomas in the liver tissue, which was similar to
Praziquantel (PZQ). The two extracts had both cellular and humoral responses as demonstrated by IFN-γ, IL-5
and IgG responses. OAH and BMW were significantly similar to PZQ; however BMW had higher IgG
responses. BMW had higher IFN-γ responses for both spleen and lymph node cells. Conclusion this implied that
treatment groups were able to produce the TH-1 response which is important for cell mediated immunity.
Although both extracts induced production of IL-5 for both lymph node and spleen cells, OAH generated more
IL-5.
Keywords: T helper cell, Cytokines, Interleukin, Interferon gamma, Humoral, Cell mediated

Waiganjo N, Ochanda H, Yole D. Phytochemical analysis of the selected five plant extracts.; 2016. AbstractWebsite

Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75 - 80% of the whole population, and the major part of
traditional therapy involves the use of plant extracts and their active constituents. Plants were collected,
identified, dried then extracted using hexane, Dichloromethane/methanol and water. Identification assays to
test the presence of various chemical constituents were carried out. The five plants were: Sonchus luxurians,
Ocimum americanum, Bridelia micrantha, Croton megalocarpus and Aloe secundiflora. The
Phytochemical screening of the compounds present in the plant extracts were; alkaloid, glycosides,
Saponins, reducing sugar, Steroid, Flavones and Catecholics. The most common compound in all the plant
extracts was Catecholics. Steroids are used in medicine to treat many diseases. The Plant extracts can be
possible candidates for drug development.
Keywords: Herbal medicine, Phytochemical compounds, Traditional therapy, Plant extracts

2015
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Aye R, Soi R, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Naessens J, Wesonga H. "Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.". In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.; 2015.
Nthiwa DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi S, Gichimu BM. "Journal of Parasitology Research." Journal of Parasitology Research. 2015. Abstract

African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina
spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective
of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in
Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G.
pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs
(proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR ..

Nthiw’a DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi SA, Gichimu BM. "Trypanasoma infection rates in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Parasitology Research . 2015; (607432):1-8.
2014
Waiganjo N, Yole D, Ochanda H. "Anti-schistosomal activity of five plant extracts on Swiss white mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2014;9 :49-53.
Waiganjo N, Yole D, Ochanda H. "Immunological responses of mice after treatment with Ocimum americanum hexane and Bridelia micrantha water plant extracts." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2014;13, 09-12.
Oyugi J, Otieno-Ayayo ZN, Ochanda H. "The silver cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea as the main diet source for rearing Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2014;4 (17): 1-6.
2013
Nyamongo O, Mumo RM, Omwandho COA, Ochanda H. "Plasmodium DNA Encording Aplasmodium Falciparan Sera5 polypeptide Microbial Epitopes and Chemokin Genes Indicess Cross Species Protection in Mice and Olive Baboon.". In: International scientific conference. at Southern sun Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi; 2013.
Ngunjirir J, Keiyoro P, Ochanda H, Oyieke FA. Effect of soil pH on Tunga penetrans population.; 2013.
Waiganjo N, Ochanda H, Yole D. "Phytochemical Analysis of selected five plant extracts.". In: Chemistry and Materials Research.; 2013.
2012
Kobia EN, Ochanda H, Yole DS. "The effect of immunizing Swiss white mice with snail soluble proteins and challenging them with Schistosoma mansoni." The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;8(1):DOI: 10.5580/2b3f.
K MRSMARIKAMOGIKOYONANCY-, PROF. OCHANDA HORACE. "Impact of ICT on education.". In: International Journal of BioChemPhysics. Elsevier; 2012. Abstract
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2010
Mwirigi M, Ochanda H, Soi R, Wambugu A, Naessens J. "Effect of a monoclonal antibody on mycoplasma adherence to bovine lung cells." East African Agricultural Forestry Journal. 2010;76(4):217-223.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Owino JO, Ochanda H, Löhr B. "Host–parasitoid population density prediction using artificial neural networks: diamondback moth and its natural enemies." Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 2010;12:233-242.
2009
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka–Volterra model." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220(1):60-70. Abstract

The Lotka–Volterra model was applied to the population densities of diamondback moth
(DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) and its exotic larval parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum
(Hellen) data that was collected earlier by icipe's DBM biological control team. The
collections were done for 15 months before the release and 36 months after release of the
parasitoid in two areas; in Werugha, Coast Province of Kenya and Tharuni, Central Province
of Kenya, respectively. For each area in pre-and post-release periods, we estimated Lotka ...

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Owino, J., Ochanda H, Löhr B. "Evaluation of discrete host–parasitoid models for diamondback moth and Diadegma semiclausum field time population density series. ." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220:1735-1744.
2008
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka-Volterra model." Ecological Modelling . 2008;220:60-70.
2007
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Application of differential equation modelsto the population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid - Diadegma semiclausum (Helllen).". In: The 5th International Workshop on “Management of Diamondback Moth and other Crucifer Insect Pests”. Beijing, China; 2007.
Wanzala W, N.M. K, K.H. Z, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Evaluation of an antigen-ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle." Parasitology Research . 2007;100:539-548. Abstract

A monoclonal antibody-based antigen - ELISA (Ag-ELISA) was studied in kenyan cattle with the objective of evaluating its reliability in diagnosing bovine cysticerconsis. A total of 55 cattle divided into artificially (n=30) and nuturally (n=25) infested animals, were utilized. total dissection was used as gold standard of validity at autopsy. in natural infestations, the essay identified 16 cases

2006
Ochanda H. "Comparison of the survival of Theileria parva-infected adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their infection under simulated climate conditions in the laboratory and in the field." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science . 2006;26:101-107. Abstract

Five groups of adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann, with an average of 98 Theileria parva-infected salivary gland acini per tick, were exposed to four different temperature conditions in the laboratory or to quasi-natural conditions in Kenya. The survival of the infected ticks and T.parva parasites in their salivary glands were determined over time. Ticks kept underquasi-nutural conditions survived up to 86 weeks. This period was longer than that of ticks exposed to any of the four laboratory conditions, except the diurnal temperature rhythm of 13-23 degrees Celsius and 85% relative humidity (RH) to which it was comparable. Theileria parva survived for 82 weeks in ticks exposed to quasi-natural conditions, a period which was much longer than that of parasites in ticks maintained under any of the laboratory conditions. survival of the infected ticks and their infections seemed to be adversely affected by higher temperatures in the laboratory or drought in the field. There was an apparent density-dependent influence in parasite survival, with a dramatic fall in infection occurring in the more highly infected ticks before stabilizing at lower levels.

2005
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses of naturally and artificially infected Kenyan cattle and its implication for routine meat inspection method. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2005;9:66-73.
Wanzala WS, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang'ethe EK, Kang'ethe EK, Zessin KH, Kyule MN, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts in carcases and implications for meat inspection.". 2005.Website
Yole DS, Obanda VO, Kithome K, Ochanda H. "The effect of vaccinating S. mansoni-infected BALB\c mice either before or after treatment. ." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2005;12:65-77.
2003
Ochanda H. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle.". In: Online Journal of Veterinary Research 1, 1-9. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

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Ochanda H, Young AS. "Survival of Theileria parva-infected adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus under laboratory and quasi-natural conditions." Experimental and Applied Acarology . 2003;29:355-365.
2002
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Zessin KH, N.M. K, Baumann MPO, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2002;1:1-9.
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "A comparison of meat inspection method and an antigen-ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle." Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences . 2002;2:265-277.
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA. ." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association . 2002;73:201-206.
2000
Musembi S, Janoo R, Sohanpal B, Ochanda H, ole-Moi Yoi O, Bishop R, Nene V. "Screening for Theileria parva secretory gene products by functional analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 2000;109:81-87.
1998
1996
Ochanda H, Young AS, Wells C, Medley GF, undefined. "Comparison of the transmission of Theileria parva between different instars of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. ." Parasitology. 1996;113:243-253.
1995
Young AS, Dolan TT, Mwakima FN, Ochanda H, Mwaura SN, Njihia GM, Muthoni MW, Dolan RB. "Estimation of heritability of susceptibility to infection with Theileria parva in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus." Parasitology. 1995;111:31-38.
1994
Ochanda H, Young AS, Medley GF, Shaw MK, Perry BD. "Efficiency of transmission of Theileria parva stocks by different instars of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. .". In: British Society for Parasitology Spring . University of Bath ; 1994.
Young AS, Ochanda H, Perry BD, Morzaria SP, Dolan TT, Medley GF, Gettinby G. The biology of the transmission dynamics of Theileria parva. . Nairobi, Kenya: International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics.; 1994.
1992
Young AS, Shaw MK, Ochanda H, Morzaria SP, Dolan TT. Factors affecting the transmission of African Theileria species of cattle by ixodid ticks. . Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA: University of Minnesota College of Agriculture; 1992.
1988

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