Kailemia, M, Kariuki N, Laving A, Agweyu A, Wamalwa. D.  2018.  Caregiver oral rehydration solution fluid monitoring charts versus standard care for the management of some dehydration among Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial.. International Health. 10(6):442–450. Abstract

Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration.


Kibaru, EG, Nduati R, D Wamalwa KN, Kariuki N.  2015.   Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on hematological indices among HIV-1 infected children at Kenyatta National Hospital-Kenya. AIDS Research and Therapy. (12:26) Abstract

HIV infected children experience a range of hematological complications which show marked improvement within 6 months of initiating anti-retroviral therapy. The Objectives of the study was to describe the changes in hematological indices of HIV-1 infected children following 6 months of treatment with first line antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) regimen.

A retrospective study was conducted between September and November 2008. During this period medical records of children attending Comprehensive Care Clinic at Kenyatta National hospital were reviewed daily. HIV infected children aged 5-144 months were enrolled if they had received antiretroviral drugs for at least 6 months with available and complete laboratory results.

Medical records of 337 children meeting enrollment criteria were included in the study. The median age was 63 months with equal male to female ratio. Following 6 months of HAART, prevalence of anemia (Hemoglobin (Hb) <10 g/dl) declined significantly from 35.9 to 16.6 % a nearly 50 % reduction in the risk of anemia RR = 0.56 [(95 % CI 0.44, 0.70) p < 0.001]. There was significant increase in Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and platelets above the baseline measurements (p < 0.0001) and a significant decline in total white blood cell counts >11,000 cell/mm(3) but a none significant decrease in red blood cells (RBC). Pre-HAART, World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 and 4 was associated with a ten-fold increased likelihood of anemia. Chronic malnutrition was associated with anemia but not wasting and immunologic staging of disease.

Hematological abnormalities changed significantly within 6 months of antiretroviral therapy with significant increase in hemoglobin level, MCV, MCH and platelet and decrease in WBC and RBC.

Changes of hematological parameters; Hematological abnormalities; Paediatric HIV infection


Kibaru, EG, Nduati R, Wamalwa D, Kariuki. N.  2014.   Baseline Haematological Indices among HIV-1 Infected Children at Kenyatta National Hospital . International Journal of Novel Research in Healthcare. 1(1):21-26.


Kariuki, N.  2009.  Managment of immune thrombocytopaenia in children: a review. East African Medical Journal. 86(12):84-88.


NYAMBURA, DRKARIUKI.  2006.  Invasive multidrug-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in Africa: zoonotic or anthroponotic transmission?J Med Microbiol. 2006 May;55(Pt 5):585-91.PMID: 16585646 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kariuki S, Revathi G, Kariuki N, Kiiru J, Mwituria J J Med Microbiol. 2006 May;55(Pt 5):585-91.. : Elsevier Abstract
Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, PO Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya. In Africa, multidrug-resistant non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and high mortality in children under 5 years of age, second in importance only to pneumococcal disease. The authors studied NTS isolates from paediatric admissions at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya, and followed the index cases to their homes, where rectal swabs and stools from parents and siblings, and from animals in close contact, were obtained. The majority of NTS obtained from cases were Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (106 out of 193; 54.9%) and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (64; 33.2%), a significant proportion (34.2%) of which were multiply resistant to three or more antibiotics, including ampicillin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol. Only 23.4% of NTS were fully susceptible to all 10 antibiotics tested. Of the 32 NTS obtained from contacts (nine adults and 23 children) at the homes of index cases, 21 (65.6%) isolates were similar by antibiotic-susceptibility profiles and plasmid content, and their XbaI- and SpeI-digested chromosomal DNA patterns were indistinguishable from those of the corresponding index cases. Only three out of 180 (1.7%) samples from environmental sources, including animals, soil, sewers and food, contained NTS matching those from corresponding index cases. The carriage of NTS in an asymptomatic population was represented by 6.9% of human contacts from 27 out of 127 homes sampled. This population of carriers may represent an important reservoir of NTS that would play a significant role in the epidemiology of community-acquired NTS bacteraemia in children.
NYAMBURA, DRKARIUKI.  2006.  Characterisation of community acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella from bacteraemia and diarrhoeal infections in children admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya Samuel Kariuki, Gunturu Revathi, Nyambura Kariuki, John Kiiru, Joyce Mwituria, and Charles A Hart. BMC Microbiol. 2006 Dec 15;6:101.. : Elsevier Abstract
Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa community-acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of high morbidity and death among children under 5 years of age especially from resource poor settings. The emergence of multidrug resistance is a major challenge in treatment of life threatening invasive NTS infections in these settings. RESULTS: Overall 170 (51.2%) of children presented with bacteraemia alone, 28 (8.4%) with gastroenteritis and bacteraemia and 134 (40.4%) with gastroenteritis alone. NTS serotypes obtained from all the cases included S. Typhimurium (196; 59%), S. Enteritidis (94; 28.3%) and other serotypes in smaller numbers (42; 12.7%); distribution of these serotypes among cases with bacteremia or gastroenteritis was not significantly different. A significantly higher proportion of younger children (< 3 years of age) and those from the slums presented with invasive NTS compared to older children and those from upper socio-economic groups (p < 0.001). One hundred and forty-seven (44.3%) NTS were resistant to 3 or more antibiotics, and out of these 59% were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in antibiotic resistance between the two serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were the only antibiotics tested to which all the NTS were fully susceptible. Using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) there were 3 main patterns of S. Typhimurium and 2 main patterns of S. Enteritidis among cases of bacteraemia and gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION: Serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility and PFGE patterns of NTS causing bacteraemia and gastroenteritis did not differ significantly. The high prevalence of NTS strains resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobials is of major public health concern.


NYAMBURA, DRKARIUKI.  2003.  Increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant non-typhoidal salmonellae, Kenya, 1994-2003.Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005 Jan;25(1):38-43.PMID: 15620824 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kariuki S, Revathi G, Kariuki N, Muyodi J, Mwituria J, Munyalo A, Kagendo . Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005 Jan;25(1):38-43.. : Elsevier Abstract
Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, PO Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya. Over the last decade there has been a steady increase in the proportion of multidrug resistance among non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS) isolated from adult patients with bacteraemia in Kenya. The prevalence of NTS multiply resistant to all commonly available drugs including ampicillin, streptomycin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol and tetracycline rose from 31% in 1994 to 42% at present, with concomitantly higher MICs of each drug. Resistance is encoded on large self-transferable 100-110 kb plasmids. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of XbaI and SpeI digested chromosomal DNA revealed three main digest patterns for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and two main patterns for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. Although the genotypes of NTS remained fairly stable over the last decade, the large increase in MICs of all commonly used drugs and increased MICs of ciprofloxacin, poses a major challenge for treatment of invasive NTS infection.


Kariuki, N, Karanja MN, MCLIGEYO SO.  1998.  Polycystic kidney disease in tuberous sclerosis complex: case report. Abstract

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder characterised by seizures, mental retardation, cutaneous lesions and visceral harmatoma. We describe a 4 1/2-year old boy in whom in addition to the commonly described features of TSC, adult-type polycystic kidneys, a scantily reported occurrence, was an associated feature

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