Publications

Found 2133 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Desc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is G  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F [G] H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
G
vii. James Gathungu M. "Organization Development Interventions on Teamwork and Teambuilding Skills of Commercial Bank Executives: A Case of KCB Limited in Kenya." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies . 2018;2(10).
Gathungu JM. "Organization Development Interventions on Communication Skills of Commercial Bank Executives: A Case of KCB Bank Limited in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Review. 2018;4(5).
GATHUMBI. PROFPETERKARURI. "Should we design extended or straightforward questions for small stock when records are unavailable?" The Kenya Veterinarian . 2012. Abstract

Data from two closely related questions in a survey on rabbits is analyzed in order to determine
whether results from these two groups of questions would yield similar results about numbers of
rabbits kept by a household. One question seeks a straightforward answer about numbers of
rabbits kept while the other group of questions breaks the question into several questions seeking
numbers of rabbits disaggregated by sex and age. This is prompted by the fact that record
keeping is not a very common undertaking in a small holder agricultural setting in Kenya and
that in their absence, farmers may not recall precisely how many rabbits they own unless a
headcount is performed. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant
underreporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we
hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm. The results show that such
underreporting is not serious enough. The conclusion is that between the two question modes
implemented in the survey, the straightforward question is suitable as it is time saving when the
survey data required does not include numbers disaggregated by sex or age of rabbits.

Gathumbi J.K., Kanja L.W., Maitho T.E., Mbaria J.M., Nduhiu J.G., Gitau F.K., J.G. N, Lucy M.W, K. M. "Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation. 2013;8 (3):145-150.
Gathumbi J.K. "Overview of sampling and analytical methods for mycotoxins. .". In: COMESA Regional training on food safety/aflatoxin control for Regionally harmonized sampling and laboratory procedures. KEPHIS Hqs, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2012.
and Gathumbi, J.K. WMMJEWJ. "Application of rapid immunoassays in a survey of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) in foods and feeds. .". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bi-annual Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
and Gathumbi, J.K. BMNLCDJ. "Mycological examination of poultry feeds used in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 1996;44:19-22.
Gathumbi PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi N;, Pelle R;, Wando J. "Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes."; 2003.
Gathumbi PK, Varma S, Wells C. "Pathological and Ultrastructural Features of Equine Klosiellosis." Kenya Veterinarian. 2001;21:45-48.
Gathumbi JK, Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW, Midiwo JO. "Identification of the Antimicrobial Compounds in Garlic Grown at Laikipia County." International Journal of Agricultural Research and Review. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Gathumbi, P.K., Thoithi, G.N., Mwangi, J.W., KIBWAGE, Maingi, N., Pelle R, Wando J. "Evaluation of effects of plant extracts on Trypanosomes.". In: End of ARF Project Conference . KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
Gathumbi JK, Samson C, Wanjiru, Wanyoike, Christine B, Dorington O. "Incidence of Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Maize Cultivated Under Rain-Fed and Irrigation Farming Systems in Kenya." British Microbiology Research Journal. 2016;11(6):1-11.
and Gathumbi, J. K. UMEE. "Rapid extraction and immunological determination of aflatoxin in chicken liver tissues. .". In: XXI World Poultry Congress. Montréal, Canada ; 2000.
Gathumbi JK. "Immunological determination of mycotoxins in animal feeds: principles and application.". In: 2nd Kenya Livestock Technicians Association Scientific Conference . KARI, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2002.
and Gathumbi, J.K. BMNLCDJ. "A survey of mycotoxins in poultry feeds used in Nairobi, Kenya. ." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 1995;43:243-245.
Gathumbi PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi N;, Maingi N;, Pelle R;, Wando J. "Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes."; 2003.
Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
Gathumbi JK, Ndung'u JK, Hindorf H, Muthomi JW. "Occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight–causing Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Kenyan Wheat.". 2006. Abstract

Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of wheat and other small-grain cereals, causing grain yield reduction, reduced quality and mycotoxin contamination. This study was conducted in two districts of Kenya to determine the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxin contamination in freshly harvested wheat. A survey was carried out during the 2004 growing season in different agro-climatic zones to determine the presence of Fusarium head blight and weather conditions during the critical stages of wheat growth. Fungal contamination was determined by isolation on agar media while mycotoxin analysis was by direct competitive ELISA. Fusarium head blight was reported by 81% of the farmers and wet conditions were prevalent during anthesis. The wheat grain samples were highly contaminated with fungi, especially Epicoccum, Alternaria and Fusarium species. The mean Fusarium infection rate varied from 13 to 18%, with the major head blight – causing species being F. poae, F. graminearum, F. equiseti, and F. avenaceum. Fusarium poae, F. chlamydosporum and F. oxysporum were the most prevalent in all the agro-ecological zones while F. graminearum was isolated in 6 out of the 9 agro-ecological zones. Most grain samples were contaminated with mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1. The most prevalent mycotoxin was T-2 (86% of the samples) followed by deoxynivalenol (59%), zearalenone (53%), and aflatoxin B1 (52%). The maximum mycotoxin concentration was 302mg/kg, 95.8mg/kg, 65.7mg/kg and 6.9mg/kg for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin and aflatoxin B1, respectively. The incidence and levels of the mycotoxins varied depending on the agro-ecological zone. Samples with high proportion of total Fusarium infection contained higher deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin levels. Co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone was fund in up to 35% of the samples. The results suggested the presence of Fusarium head blight in Kenya and associated mycotoxin contamination, though at low but significant levels. The presence of the different mycotoxins, though at low levels, could pose chronic adverse health effects to human and livestock fed on the contaminated wheat products.

and Gathumbi, J. K. UMEE. "Production of ultrasensitive antibodies against aflatoxin B1." Letters in Applied Microbiology . 2001;32:349-351.
Gathumbi PK, Varma VS, Gathumbi JK, Shah DN. "Ocular Neoplastic Lesions of the Horse in Kenya from Specimens Recceived between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitiology.". In: 47th Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2013.
Gathumbi PK, Varma VS, Gathumbi JK, Shah DN. "Ocular Neoplastic Lesions of the Horse in Kenya from Specimens Recceived between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitiology.". In: 47th Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2013. Abstract
n/a
Gathumbi JK, Ntampaka P, Nyaga PN, Tukei M. "Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and its control among dog owners in Kigali city, Rwanda." BioRxiv 2018. 2018:500-595.
Gathumbi JK, Samson C, Wanjiru W, Christine B, Dorington O. "Prevalence of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes According to Aflatoxin Levels in Maize of Different Varieties in Kenya." Biotechnology Journal International.. 2017;19(2):1-21.
Gathumbi JK, Usleber E, Martlbauer E. "Production of ultrasensitive antibodies against aflatoxin B 1.". 2001. Abstract

Aims: To produce speciÆc antibodies against the haptenic fungal toxin aØatoxin B1 (AFB1) and apply these antibodies in immunochemical assays for aØatoxins. Methods and Results: Rabbits were immunized using an AFB1 -bovine serum albumin conjugate and serum titres determined by double-antibody enzyme immunoassay. High titres of antibodies with very high afÆnity for AFB 1 were obtained 15 and 4 weeks after the initial immunization and the Ærst booster immunization respectively. The antibodies were employed in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoafÆnity chromatography (IAC) methods for aflatoxins. With a detection limit of 15 · 8pgml)1 for AFB1 , the EIA employing these antibodies is the most sensitive test for AFB1 described so far. In IAC columns, these antibodies provided high binding capacity for all major aØatoxins, including AFB1 , AFB2 , AFG1 and AFG2 Conclusions: The antibodies described here are useful for the analysis of trace levels of aflatoxins. SigniÆcance and Impact of the Study: Polyclonal antibody-based EIA and IAC methods for aflatoxin analysis offer a suitable alternative to the more expensive monoclonal antibody- based methodS.

and Gathumbi, J.K. KKSG. "Traces of opiates in Shisha collected in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: National Conference on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Kasarani stadium; 2013.
Gathumbi PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi, N; Pelle WR; J, Pelle R;, Wando J. "Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes."; 2003.
Gathumbi, J. K.; Muthomi N'u C'waJW; JK. Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination in freshly harvested wheat grain in Kenya.; 2005. Abstract

A survey was carried out during the 2004 wheat-cropping season in 6 agro-ecclogical zones to determine fusarium contamination of freshly harvested wheat grain. This was done by plating in culture media. Contaminations with mycotoxins t!cnxynivalcnol, zenralenonc and aflatoxin B I were determined by competitive EUSA. Farmers indicated presence ol'hcnd blight 111 wheat fields and occurrence of wet weather during flowering. Wheat residue was mainly directly grazed to animals in the field or ploughed in. Most popular rotation was wheal-maize followed by continuous wheat cropping. Fusarium contaminated 85 % of the wheat samples, but kernel infection rate was 15%. Fusarium species most isolated were F.poae. F. chlumvdospnrum and F. grammC:Ul1lfll. Other fungi isolated were Alternaria. Epicoccum. Aspergigiilus anti Penicillium. Mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1. There is need for regular screening for Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat grain.

Gathumbi, J.K. and Bebora LC. "The occurrence of aflatoxin in poultry tissues collected in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 2000;48:61-62.
Gathumbi PK, Varma S, Wells C. "Pathological and Ultrastructural Features of Equine Klosiellosis." Kenya Veterinarian. 2001;21:45-48. Abstract
n/a
Gathumbi JK, Kimani, J.M., Mutisya P, Kombe, Yeri, Wamunyokoli, Fred W, Mbakaya, Charles FL. "The Additive Effect of Hepatitis B Virus and Aflatoxin B1 to Liver Disease Burden: A Case Study in Kitui, Makueni and Machakos Counties, Kenya." Journal of Health and Medical Sciences. 2019;2(3):312-331.
Gathumbi JK, Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW. "Assessment of Effectiveness of Garlic Extract from Laikipia County, on Shelf-Life of Meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Gathumbi JK, Kanja LW, Maitho TE, Mbaria JM, Nduhiu JG, Gitau FK, Ndiritu JG, Lucy MM, Maloba K. " Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation . 2013;8(3):145-150.
Gathumbi JK. A survey of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds. . Nairobi.: University of Nairobi.; 1993.
Gathumbi PK, J.W. M, Mugera GM, Njiro SM. "Toxicity of chloroform extract of Prunus africana stem-bark in rats: Gross and histopathological lesions." Phytotherapy Research . 2001;15:1-4.
Gathuma JM, Mbaria JM, Wanyama JB, Kaburia HFA, Mpoke L, and healers ST. Efficacy of Myrisine africana, Albizia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosa herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthosis in Samburu District, Kenya.. Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya.; 2001.
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
Gathuma JM, Mbaria JM, Wanyama JB, Kaburia HFA, Mpoke L, and healers ST. Efficacy of Myrisine africana, Albizia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosa herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthosis in Samburu District, Kenya.. Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya.; 2001.
Gathuma JM, Mbaria JM, Wanyama J, Kaburia HFA, Mpoke L, Mwangi JN, and healers ST. "Efficiency of Myrsine africana, Albizia anthelmintica, Hilderbrantia sepalosa Herbal remedies against Mixed Natural Sheep Helminthosis in Samburu District, Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;91:7-12.
Gathu EW, Karuri EG, Njage PMK. "Physical characterization of new advanced drought tolerant common bean ( phaseolus vulgaris) lines for canning quality.". 2012. Abstract

The suitability for use in the canning industry of eight new dry bean varieties, selected from 150 new advanced drought tolerant dry bean lines was studied. Physical attributes including seed size, dimensions, hundred seed mass, bulk density, water uptake, volume increase and leaching characteristics on soaking were evaluated. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in seed dimensions, hundred seed mass and bulk density. DSS 11-04 (14.67 mm), DRM 11-14 (13.32 mm) and DPC 11-05 (12.84 mm) were highest in seed length. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in maximum soaking rate (Vmax), time at which Vmax occurred, water uptake at which Vmax occurred, final water uptake (UF) and time taken to reach UF. However, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in volume change. The rate of water uptake was highest in DNB 11-10 (24.00%/h) followed by Kenya Early (19.33%/h) and DSR 11-01 (18.33%/h). The extent of final water uptake was highest in DSS 11-04 (122.0%), DRM 11-14 (118.0%) and DRK 11-12 (113.3%). No significant differences (p>0.05) among varieties were observed in maximum leaching rate (Vlmax) and the time taken to reach final electrical conductivity (tECF) the measure of leaching characteristics. Significant differences (p = 0.05) were observed in time at which Vlmax occurred, electrical conductivity at which Vlmax occurred and final electrical conductivity (ECF). The extent of leaching was highest in DNB 11-10, Mex 142 and DMC 11-13 at 1.00, 0.97 and 0.93 deciSiemen/metre, respectively. All the genotypes DNB 11-10, DSS 11-04, DRK 11-12, DRM 11-14, DPC 11-05, DMC 11-13, DSR 11-01 and Kenya Early are comparable to the control Mexican 142 and are suitable for further use in the canning process according to the results of these physical tests.

GATHONI MSKANDUMAESTHER. "Kanduma E.G, Mukuria JC, Mwanda WO (2000). Serum sialic acid: Relationship with age of cancer patient, gender and type of tumor- Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Conference-2nd-3rd September 2000, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Nair.". In: Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Conference-2nd-3rd September 2000, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Patients in whom acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was newly diagnosed were randomized to receive 400 mg moxifloxacin, 300 mg isonaizid, or 600 mg rifampin daily for 5 days. Sixteen-hour overnight sputa collections were made for the 2 days before and for 5 days of monotherapy. Bactericidal activity was estimated by the time taken to kill 50% of viable bacilli (vt50) and the fall in sputum viable count during the first 2 days designated as the early bactericidal activity (EBA). The mean vt50 of moxifloxacin was 0.88 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-1.33 days) and the mean EBA was 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.79). For the isoniazid group, the mean vt50 was 0.46 days (95% CI, 0.31-0.61 days) and the mean EBA was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.00). For rifampin, the mean vt50 was 0.71 days (95% CI, 0.48-0.95 days) and the mean EBA was 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15-0.41). Using the EBA method, isoniazid was significantly more active than rifampin (p < 0.01) but not moxifloxacin. Using the vt50 method, isoniazid was more active than both rifampin and moxifloxacin (p = 0.03). Moxifloxacin has an activity similar to rifampin in human subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis, suggesting that it should undergo further assessment as part of a short course regimen for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis.
GATHONI MSKANDUMAESTHER. "Kanduma E, Timothy D. McHugh, Stephen H. Gillespie (2003). Molecular Methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain typing-Users guide. J Appl Microbio 94:781-791.". In: J Appl Microbio 94:781-791. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

GATHONI MSKANDUMAESTHER. "Kanduma EG, Mukuria JC, Mwanda OW.Serum total sialic acid and Hanganutziu-Deicher antibody in normals and in cancer patients.East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):207-14.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):207-14. Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

GATHONI MSKANDUMAESTHER. "Gillespie SH, Gosling RD, Uiso LO, Sam NE, Bongard E, Kanduma EG, Nyindo M, Morris RW (2003). The Bactericidal activitry of moxifloxacin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 168(11):1342-5.". In: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 168(11):1342-5. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
Patients in whom acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was newly diagnosed were randomized to receive 400 mg moxifloxacin, 300 mg isonaizid, or 600 mg rifampin daily for 5 days. Sixteen-hour overnight sputa collections were made for the 2 days before and for 5 days of monotherapy. Bactericidal activity was estimated by the time taken to kill 50% of viable bacilli (vt50) and the fall in sputum viable count during the first 2 days designated as the early bactericidal activity (EBA). The mean vt50 of moxifloxacin was 0.88 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-1.33 days) and the mean EBA was 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.79). For the isoniazid group, the mean vt50 was 0.46 days (95% CI, 0.31-0.61 days) and the mean EBA was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.00). For rifampin, the mean vt50 was 0.71 days (95% CI, 0.48-0.95 days) and the mean EBA was 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15-0.41). Using the EBA method, isoniazid was significantly more active than rifampin (p < 0.01) but not moxifloxacin. Using the vt50 method, isoniazid was more active than both rifampin and moxifloxacin (p = 0.03). Moxifloxacin has an activity similar to rifampin in human subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis, suggesting that it should undergo further assessment as part of a short course regimen for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis.
GATHONI MSKANDUMAESTHER. "Cullen MM, Sam NE, Kanduma EG, McHugh TD, Gillespie SH.Direct detection of heteroresistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using molecular techniques.J Med Microbiol. 2006 Aug;55(Pt 8):1157-8.". In: J Med Microbiol. 2006 Aug;55(Pt 8):1157-8. Kisipan, M.L.; 2006. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

GATHONI MSKANDUMAESTHER. "Kanduma E.G, Mukuria JC, Mwanda WO (2001). Survey of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibodies in cancer patients- African Journal of Biotechnology/ Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Conference-6th-7th September 2001, ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Biotechnology/ Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Conference-6th-7th September 2001, ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
Patients in whom acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was newly diagnosed were randomized to receive 400 mg moxifloxacin, 300 mg isonaizid, or 600 mg rifampin daily for 5 days. Sixteen-hour overnight sputa collections were made for the 2 days before and for 5 days of monotherapy. Bactericidal activity was estimated by the time taken to kill 50% of viable bacilli (vt50) and the fall in sputum viable count during the first 2 days designated as the early bactericidal activity (EBA). The mean vt50 of moxifloxacin was 0.88 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-1.33 days) and the mean EBA was 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.79). For the isoniazid group, the mean vt50 was 0.46 days (95% CI, 0.31-0.61 days) and the mean EBA was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.00). For rifampin, the mean vt50 was 0.71 days (95% CI, 0.48-0.95 days) and the mean EBA was 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15-0.41). Using the EBA method, isoniazid was significantly more active than rifampin (p < 0.01) but not moxifloxacin. Using the vt50 method, isoniazid was more active than both rifampin and moxifloxacin (p = 0.03). Moxifloxacin has an activity similar to rifampin in human subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis, suggesting that it should undergo further assessment as part of a short course regimen for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis.
GATHONI MSKANDUMAESTHER. "Timothy D McHugh (2005). The early bactericidal activity of a moxifloxacin and isoniazid combination in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. J Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (in press).". In: J Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (in press). Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

Gathogo SM, Kuria JK, Ombui JN. "Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughter cattle in Kenya: a postmortem, microbiological and DNA molecular study.". 2012. Abstract

A study to determine the presence and prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughter cattle in Kenya was carried out in two abattoirs from July to November 2009. Routine postmortem meat inspection was performed on a subpopulation of 929 cattle selected randomly from among 4,984. Carcases were inspected for gross tuberculous lesions which were then examined for acid-fast bacilli, (AFB), cultured for isolation of mycobacteria and the isolates characterised by DNA molecular analysis. Of the carcases examined, 176 (18.95 %, 95 % CI) had lesions suggestive of tuberculosis. AFB were observed in 63/176 of the lesioned cattle and mycobacteria were isolated from 64 of them. The isolates were identified as Mycobacterium bovis (19/64), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (2/64) and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (43/64). The prevalence of M. bovis by molecular analysis was 2.05 % (95 % CI). This study documents for the first time the presence of bovine tuberculosis among slaughter cattle in Kenya. There is therefore a need to formulate and implement control programmes in order to minimise transmission among animals and to humans. Isolation of M. tuberculosis from cattle underscores the risk tuberculous humans pose to animals

Gathirwa JW;, Rukunga GM;, Njagi ENM;, Omar SA;, Guantai AN;, Muthaura CN;, Mwitari PG;, Kimani CW;, Kirira PG;, Tolo FM;, Ndunda TN;, Ndiege IO. "In vitro anti-plasmodial and in vivo anti-malarial activity of some plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria by the Meru community in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Extracts of seven medicinal plant species used for treatment of malaria in traditional/cultural health systems of the Ameru people in Kenya were tested in vitro and in vivo against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 and W2 strains) and P. berghei, respectively. Of the plants tested, 28.57% were highly active (IC50 <10 μg/ml) and 42.86% moderately active (IC50 10–50 μg/ml), while 28.57% had weak activity of 50–125 μg/ml in vitro. The water and methanol extracts of Boscia salicifolia Oliv. and Artemisia afra Jacq. (ex-Willd.) were the most active against both the chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (D6) and the CQ-resistant (W2) P. falciparum strains. Artemisia afra and Rhus natalensis Bernh. (ex-Krauss) exhibited the highest parasite clearance and chemo-suppression (>70%) in vivo (in mice). The plants with high in vitro anti-plasmodial (low IC50 values) and high anti-malarial activity (high chemo-suppression) in vivo are potential sources of novel anti-malarial drugs.

Gathigi G. "Welcome to the age of crowd education." Standard, May 13, 2014.
Gathigi G. "Inventing East African hip-hop: Youth and music convergence in East Africa.". In: Music, Performance and African Identities. New York : Routledge; 2010.
Gathigi G, Brown D. "The new public-sphere: Radio and democratization process in Kenya. .". In: Media and technologies in emerging African Democracies . Lanham, MD: University Press of America; 2010.
Gathigi GW. "FM Radio Broadcasting in Local Languages Triggering Rural Empowerment in Kenya." Jahazi Arts and Culture Journal. Submitted.
Gathigi G. "Why sit-in exams are not the best assessment tools." Standard, April 17, 2014.
Gathigi G, Waititu E. " Coding for Development in the Silicon Savannah: The Emerging Role of Digital Technology in Kenya.". In: Re-Imagining Development Communication. Lexington : Lexington Books; 2012.
Gathiaka JK, Muriithi MK. "Empirical Analysis of Livelihood Strategies and Food Insecurity in Turkana County, Kenya." Tanzanian Economic Review. 2020;10(1):139-162.
Gathiaka JK. "Livestock farming and poverty reduction in smallholder farms in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(19):212-228.
Gathiaka K. "Peer effects in smallholder agricultural production in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(22):1-13.
Gatheru AP. Blood requests, crossmatch and transfusion practices for elective surgery in Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2012. Abstract

This study was carried out over a period of ten weeks between June and August 2011 at the KNH theatres. A total of 370 patients scheduled for elective surgery whose blood had been crossmatched prior to being taken to theatre were recruited into the study. Majority of requests in the study period were requests for whole blood while requests for other blood products were rarely made. Most surgical teams made requests for two units of blood for the adults for most surgical procedures. Cross-matching of one unit of blood per patient however predominated followed by cross-matching of two units per patient. Single unit transfusions for adult patients were the most common despite requests for two units being the majority. However in the category of children the average blood volume transfused was 18.9mllKg. The overall Cross-match to Transfusion ratio during the study period was 1.42. Most of the blood that was cross-matched (64.8%) was transfused of the patients was transfused to them. The mean estimated duration blood products were kept out of the cold chain was 17 minutes. The methods mainly used to reduce the need for pre-operative blood transfusions included use of diathermy, pre-operative hemodilution and use of hypotensive anesthesia. The main transfusion triggers were estimated blood loss, conjuctival pallour and change in haemodynamic status. In the study subjects above 14 years, the mean estimated blood loss triggering transfusion was 750 mls. The study established that all patients received peri-operative fluids with crystalloid infusions predominating. There was a highly significant relationship( P

Gathenya JM, Liniger HP, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK, Thomas D. "Problems of river-water management for a basin west of Mount Kenya: challenge to water resource planners.". 1993. Abstract

A case study was conducted in two reaches in the Naro Moru river basin, which extends from the humid western slopes of Mount Kenya to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau. The study involved measuring the amount of water abstracted from all abstraction points, as well as river discharge, for a period of eight months starting from November 1990. Results showed that the amount of water abstracted from each reach as a percentage of the available river inflow rose from 10% at the end of the wet season to over 60% at the end of the dry season. A survey of water permits revealed that legal abstractions constituted 30% of the amount abstracted during the wet season, but only 8% of the dry season abstractions. Communal water supply systems taking water for domestic use, for watering livestock and for irrigation accounted for over 90% of the water that was abstracted from the river during the period of study.

Gathece L, Gichangi P, Thenya S, Kamau J, Kiragu J, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kigondu C. "Prevalence of domestic violence among clients seeking emergency department services in a private hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2004;17:8-17.
gathece. "Oral Hygiene Status and gingival inflammation of Persons Living with HIV Attending Comprehensive Care Centre in Nairobi." International journal of innovative research and advanced studies. 2017.
Gathece LW, Macigo FG, Mulli TK, Wagaiyu EG. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi. EAMJ Vol 85(8) 378-385." East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 85(8) 378-385. 2008. AbstractWebsite

According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.

Gathara D, Nyamai R, Were F, Mogoa W, Karumbi J, Kihuba E, Mwinga S, Aluvaala J, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Todd J, Allen E, English M. "Moving towards Routine Evaluation of Quality of Inpatient Pediatric Care in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(3):1-13.gathara_d_2015.pdf
Gathara D, Malla L, Ayieko P, Karuri S, Nyamai R, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Variation in and risk factors for paediatric inpatient all-cause mortality in a low income setting: data from an emerging clinical information network." BMC Pediatrics. 2017. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND Hospital mortality data can inform planning for health interventions and may help optimize resource allocation if they are reliable and appropriately interpreted. However such data are often not available in low income countries including Kenya. METHODS Data from the Clinical Information Network covering 12 county hospitals' paediatric admissions aged 2-59 months for the periods September 2013 to March 2015 were used to describe mortality across differing contexts and to explore whether simple clinical characteristics used to classify severity of illness in common treatment guidelines are consistently associated with inpatient mortality. Regression models accounting for hospital identity and malaria prevalence (low or high) were used. Multiple imputation for missing data was based on a missing at random assumption with sensitivity analyses based on pattern mixture missing not at random assumptions. RESULTS The overall cluster adjusted crude mortality rate across hospitals was 6 · 2% with an almost 5 fold variation across sites (95% CI 4 · 9 to 7 · 8; range 2 · 1% - 11 · 0%). Hospital identity was significantly associated with mortality. Clinical features included in guidelines for common diseases to assess severity of illness were consistently associated with mortality in multivariable analyses (AROC =0 · 86). CONCLUSION All-cause mortality is highly variable across hospitals and associated with clinical risk factors identified in disease specific guidelines. A panel of these clinical features may provide a basic common data framework as part of improved health information systems to support evaluations of quality and outcomes of care at scale and inform health system strengthening efforts.

Gathara D, Opiyo N, Wagai J, Ntoburi S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Wamae A, Migiro S, Mogoa W, Wasunna A, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Quality of hospital care for sick newborns and severely malnourished children in Kenya: a two-year descriptive study in 8 hospitals." BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:307. Abstract

Given the high mortality associated with neonatal illnesses and severe malnutrition and the development of packages of interventions that provide similar challenges for service delivery mechanisms we set out to explore how well such services are provided in Kenya.

Gathara D, Nyamai R, Were F, Mogoa W, Karumbi J, Kihuba E, Mwinga S, Aluvaala J, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Todd J, Allen E, English M. "Moving towards Routine Evaluation of Quality of Inpatient Pediatric Care in Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2015. Abstractmoving_towards_routine_evaluation_of_quality_of_inpatient_pediatric_care_in_kenya.pdf

Background: Regular assessment of quality of care allows monitoring of progress towards system goals and identifies gaps that need to be addressed to promote better outcomes.We report efforts to initiate routine assessments in a low-income country in partnership with government.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey undertaken in 22 ‘internship training’ hospitals across Kenya that examined availability of essential resources and process of care based on review of 60 case-records per site focusing on the common childhood illnesses (pneumonia, malaria, diarrhea/ dehydration, malnutrition and meningitis).
Results: Availability of essential resources was 75% (45/61 items) or more in 8/22 hospitals. A total of 1298 (range 54–61) case records were reviewed. HIV testing remained suboptimal at 12% (95% CI 7–19). A routinely introduced structured pediatric admission record form improved documentation of core admission symptoms and signs (median score for signs 22/ 22 and 8/22 when form used and not used respectively). Correctness of penicillin and gentamicin dosing was above 85% but correctness of prescribed intravenous fluid or oral feed volumes for severe dehydration and malnutrition were 54% and 25% respectively. Introduction of Zinc for diarrhea has been relatively successful (66% cases) but use of artesunate for malaria remained rare. Exploratory analysis suggests considerable variability of the quality of care across hospitals.

Gathara D;, Irimu G;, Kihara H;, Maina C;, Mbori-Ngacha DA;, Mwangi J;, Allen E;, English M. "Hospital outcomes for paediatric pneumonia and diarrhoea patients admitted in a tertiary hospital on weekdays versus weekends: a retrospective study.". 2013. Abstract

Background: Quality of patient care in hospitals has been shown to be inconsistent during weekends and night- time hours, and is often associated with reduced patient monitoring, poor antibiotic prescription practices and poor patient outcomes. Poorer care and outcomes are commonly attributed to decreased levels of staffing, supervision and expertise and poorer access to diagnostics. However, there are few studies examining this issue in low resource settings where mortality from common childhood illnesses is high and health care systems are weak. Methods: This study uses data from a retrospective cross-sectional study aimed at “ evaluating the uptake of best practice clinical guidelines in a tertiary hospital ” with a pre and post intervention approach that spanned the period 2005 to 2009. We evaluated a primary hypothesis that mortality for children with pneumonia and/or dehydration aged 2 – 59 months admitted on weekends differed from those admitted on weekdays. A secondary hypothesis that poor quality of care could be a mechanism for higher mortality was also explored. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between mortality and the independent predictors of mortality. Results: Our analysis indicates that there is no difference in mortality on weekends compared to weekdays even after adjusting for the significant predictors of mortality (OR = 1.15; 95% CI 0.90 -1.45; p = 0.27). There were similarly no significant differences between weekends and weekdays for the quality of care indicators, however, there was an overall improvement in mortality and quality of care through the period of study. Conclusion: Mortality and the quality of care does not differ by the day of admission in a Kenyan tertiary hospital, however mortality remains high suggesting that continued efforts to improve care are warranted

Gathaiya NW, Mwaura, F; Wamalwa J, Wagoro MCA. "A Cross-Sectional Study on Factors Associated with Relapse in Patients with Schizophrenia at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi Kenya." Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Research. 2018;6:1-5. Abstract
n/a
Gathagu TW, Agwata JF. "POLICY OPTIONS FOR ENHANCING WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN MANAGING WATER RESOURCES IN KAJIADO COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Development Research. 2014;Vol. 4(Issue, 5):1048-1055. Abstractjournal_paper-ijdr.pdf

The important role that women play in the management of water resources has been recognized in
various parts of the world. This is because they play a significant role in accessing water for
various uses such as washing, cooking, watering of crops and livestock rearing. Their effective
participation in water management is however influenced by existing policy, institutional and
legal frameworks. In this study, the various policies that enhance women’s participation in water
resources management in Kajiado County of Kenya were evaluated from the perspective of
relevance, value and limitations. This was done with a view to suggesting practical measures to
ensure the women’s important and critical roles are properly captured in the proposed policies on
water resources management in the County and elsewhere in the country. The findings show that
although the existing policies, legal and institutional frameworks are fairly comprehensive in
addressing women’s roles in the management of water resources, the policies do not, however,
directly and adequately address women’s issues and concerns in water resources management in
the County.

GATHAARA NV;, NGUGI JN. Gender, soil and water conservation in Machakos district, Kenya.; 2009. AbstractWebsite

Gender mainstreaming is crucial in soil and water conservation initiatives. The existing technologies though, as designed, are expected to be gender neutral, lead to gender differences at the adoption stage. This was confirmed during a study conducte d in Kathekakai settlement scheme, Machakos district where despite both men and women participating in soil and water conservation initiatives, women’s efforts to adopt the recommended technologies were hampered by their limited access to authoritative infor ma- tion and lack of control over land. Women though playing major roles as farmers (64.6%), could not make key decisions on land u se. Previous reports indicate that the women in Machakos district contributed significantly to soil and water conservation efforts in the mid 1980’s leading to terracing of over 70% of the district. Gender mainstreaming efforts need to be enhanced for achievement o f sustainable and effective soil and water conservation for improved agricultural production and livelihoods

Gateri M.W., R. Nyankanga, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(32)( DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/42135):1-13.Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. .pdf
Gateri MW, Nyankanga R, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Optimizing Nitrogen Application in Onion (Allium cepa L.): Influence of Rate and Time of Topdressing on Growth, Yield and Quality." New Perspectives in International Plant and Soil Research Vol. 1. 2019:102-120. Abstract
n/a
Gateri MW, Nyankanga R, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) as influenced by nitrogen and time of topdressing." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2018:1-13. Abstract
n/a
Gateri AM, Ondicho TG, Karimi E. "Correlates of Domestic Violence against Men: Qualitative insights from Kenya." African Journal of Gender, Society, and Development. 2021;10(3):87-111.
Gateri MW, Opere AO, Gitau W. ": Domestic Rainwater harvesting in Kilifi, Taita-Taveta and Mombasa Counties." J. Meteorol. Relat. Sci. . 2016;DOI: 10.20987/jmrs .
Gateri MW, Alfred OPERE, Wilson GITAU, Ndiwa NGAINAJ. "Domestic rainwater harvesting: a case study in Embu County, Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):50-59. Abstractdomestic_rainwater_harvesting_a_case_study_in_embu_county_kenya.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

This study assessed probable water that could be harvested during rainy seasons over Embu County of Kenya. Monthly rainfall data was obtained from Kenya Meteorological Department while percentage distribution of household by household size, main roofing material, number of rooms in the main dwelling and per capita volume of water required was sourced from Kenya Integrated Household Budget of Survey (KIHBS). Minimum water demand per household was computed based on KIHBS. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) 2009 population census was used to determine population and number of occupants in the main dwelling. Embu County receives bimodal rainfall during March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Rainfall is highly variable with 8190 and 7490 litres of harvested water during MAM and OND season respectively expected to last for approximately 43 days (MAM) while 39 days (OND) and thus not sufficient to satisfy minimum water demand levels for Embu population. The total potential harvestable water during MAM and OND accounted for 45.4 % and would go a long way in meeting water demands in the region. Notably, harvestable water was being used to supplement natural sources of water. Therefore, enhanced water harvesting during rainy season could provide an alternate source of domestic water.

Gatere Lucy Njeri, Omboga Zaja and Rayya Timmamy. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya, ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2020;Juzuu 5,(Na.1, April 2020,):185-196.
Gatere AW. "The Language of Love." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):33-35.the_language_of_love.pdf
Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. "Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya." Cancer Res.. 1978;38(2):303-7. Abstract

A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.

GATEBE CK, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Kwach R, Njau LN, Mukolwe EA, Maina DM. "Determination of suspended particulates matter of major significance to human health using nuclear techniques in Kenya.". 1996.Website
GATEBE CK, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Kwach R,... "Determination of suspended particulates matter of major significance to human health using nuclear techniques in kenya." … of Radioanalytical and …. 1996. AbstractWebsite

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis of aerosol samples in Nairobi is presented. Results show that elemental concentrations are of the order of 10− 4 to 10− 6 μg/m 3 for most elements analyzed. The total suspended particulate (TSP) matter was …

Gatari, M.J; Kinyua AM. "Projects Implementation In Africa.". 1994.
GATARI MJ. "First WHO Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health: A Brief Report." Clean Air Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

The subject conference (documented in www. who. int) was organized by WHO in collaboration with WMO, CCAC, UNFCC, UNECE, The World Bank, UN-DESA and EU-DEVCO in Geneva, Switzerland from 30 October to 01 November 2018. The conference …

GATARI MJ. Studies Of Atmospheric Aerosols And Development Of An EDXRF Spectrometer In Kenya, Gotenburg University, Gotenburg, Sweden. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2006. AbstractWebsite

There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which …

GATARI MJ, Boman J, Wagner A, Janhäll S,... "Assessment of inorganic content of PM2. 5 particles sampled in a rural area north-east of Hanoi, Vietnam." Science of the total …. 2006. AbstractWebsite

Atmospheric aerosols from seven rural sites in northern Vietnam, east of Hanoi, were sampled and analyzed. The aim of the study was to evaluate trace elemental and black carbon (BC) concentrations in fine particles (PM 2.5) and to investigate the influence of the …

GATARI MJ. Studies of tropospheric aerosols at selected sites in Kenya. Chalmers University of Technology; 2002. Abstract
n/a
GATARI MJ, Boman J. "Black carbon and total carbon measurements at urban and rural sites in Kenya, East Africa." Atmospheric Environment. 2003. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports measurements of black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC)(TC= BC+ organic carbon) in the lower troposphere in Nairobi and the towns of Nanyuki and Meru in Kenya. The rural sites of Nanyuki and Meru are both located on the equator on the …

Gatari M, Boman J. Design and Development of an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2008. AbstractWebsite

Contribution of scientific research to local and international journals from Africa and indeed Kenya is weak in comparison to other regions. One of the main problems is the non-availability of reliable and affordable analytical instrumentation. Energy-Dispersive X-ray …

GATARI MJ. Atmospheric aerosol studies in Kenya. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2006. AbstractWebsite

There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which …

Gatari M, Lavrich R, Preston B, Gaita S,... "Speciation of particulate carbonaceous species at an urban-background site in Nairobi, Kenya." EGU General …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Tropospheric aerosols have adverse implications on human health, climate, and visibility. Particles in combustion source emissions have complex physical and chemical characteristics. They regularly contain Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) molecules …

GATARI MJ, Pettersson JBC, Kimani W,... "Inorganic and black carbon aerosol concentrations at a high altitude on Mt Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry …. 2009. AbstractWebsite

Aerosol samples were collected at an altitude of 3678 m on Mt Kenya in August 2001. A virtual impactor was used to collect particles in fine (aerodynamic diameter, da< 2.5 µm) and coarse (2.5 µm< da< 10 µm) size fractions. The samples were analyzed for particulate mass …

GATARI MJ, Boman J, Wagner A. "Characterization of aerosol particles at an industrial background site in Nairobi, Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry: An …. 2009. AbstractWebsite

Air pollutants from industrial and urban sources contain harmful elements and chemical compounds. This work presents a study on background industrial and urban aerosol particles in the city of Nairobi. Its main focus was the understanding of elemental, black …

Gatari M, Berhane Z, Ulmer L, Omanga E. Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables. oa.las.ac.cn; 2014. AbstractWebsite

Background Developing countries have limited air quality management systems due to inadequate legislation and lack of political will, among other challenges. Maintaining a balance between economic development and sustainable environment is a challenge …

Gatari M, Wagner A, Boman J. "Elemental composition of tropospheric aerosols in Hanoi, Vietnam and Nairobi, Kenya." Science of the Total Environment. 2005. AbstractWebsite

Air pollution problems in major cities within the developing countries need to be studied. There are scanty measurements from the developing countries on airborne particles despite their adverse implications to human health, visibility and climate. One of the major sources of …

Gatari M, Ngo N, Ndiba P,... "Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study." EGU General Assembly …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the …

GATARI MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E,... "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya." … Research Part D …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Airborne black carbon (BC) particles have serious implications for human health and climate change and thus represent a prime target for mitigation policies. The sources of BC include vehicles burning diesel fuel, which are common in urban areas in low-income countries. The …

Gatari M, Boman J, Maina D. "Trace element categorization of pollution sources in the equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry: An …. 2005. AbstractWebsite

An air pollution campaign was carried out in the town of Nanyuki at four different sites during July and August 1999. Nanyuki is situated on the equator on the northwestern slope of Mount Kenya at about 1930 m above sea level. The intention of the project was to …

Gatari MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E, Volavka-Close N, Ngo N, Gaita SM, Law A, Ndiba PK, Gachanja A, Graeff J, Chillrud SN. "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya. Transportation Research." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017;68:99-109.
Gasper MA, Kunwar P, Itaya G, Lejarcegui N, Bosire R, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Slyker J, Overbaugh J, Horton H, Sodora DL, John-Stewart G, Lohman-Payne B. "Natural killer cell and T-cell subset distributions and activation influence susceptibility to perinatal HIV-1 infection." AIDS. 2014;28(8):1115-24. Abstract

To determine neonatal immunologic factors that correlate with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1.

Gashururu SR, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Gasana MN, Odhiambo PO, Getange DO, Habimana R, Cecchi G, Zhao W, Gashumba, J, Bargul JL, Masiga DK. "Occurrence, diversity and distribution of Trypanosoma infections in cattle around the Akagera National Park, Rwanda." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2021;15(12).
Gashururu RS, Githigia SM, Gasane MN, Habiman R, Maingi N, Cecchi G, Pacone M, Zhao W, Masiga DK, Gashumba J. "An update on the distribution of Glossina(tsetse flies) at the wildlife-human-livestock interface of Akagera National Park, Rwanda." Parasites and Vectors. 2021;14(1):294.
Gashururu RS, Githigia SM, Habimana RS, Maingi N, Gecchi G, Paone M, Zhao W, Masiga DK, Gashumba J. "An update on the Distribution of Glossina (tsetse flies) at the Wild;life-Human-Livestock interface at Akagera National Park, Rwanda." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(PARAV- D- 21 0016).
Garvie JM, Kemp FH. "The diagnosis of chronic intussusception in children." Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1945;20:73-80. AbstractWebsite

Images null

GARG NISHA, GARG AMIT, DIENYA DRTOMMBOYA. "Chapter 8: Text Book of Endodontics."; 2020.
GARG NISHA, GARG AMIT, DIENYA DRTOMMBOYA. "Chapter 11---Text Book of Operative Dentistry."; 2020.
Garelick S, Russell JM, Dee S, Verschuren D, Olago DO. "Atmospheric controls on precipitation isotopes and hydroclimate in high-elevation regions in Eastern Africa since the Last Glacial Maximum.". 2021;567:116984. AbstractWebsite

Tropical Africa experienced large changes in hydroclimatic conditions since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), ∼26.5 to 19 thousand years (ka or kyr) ago. The hydrogen isotopic composition of fossil leaf waxes (δDwax), assumed to record past variations in the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation (δDprecip), is increasingly being used to study past hydroclimatic change in Africa, and are commonly interpreted to reflect variation in the amount of precipitation through time (i.e., the amount effect). Although there are now many such δDprecip records from tropical Africa, there are few robust δDprecip records from easternmost equatorial Africa of sufficient length and resolution to evaluate the mechanisms governing hydroclimate variation during and since the LGM. We produced a new δDprecip record based on analyses of δDwax in sediment cores collected from Lake Rutundu, situated at an elevation of 3,078 meters above sea level (m asl) on Mt. Kenya. This record displays large variations in δDprecip corresponding with known climate events over the past 25 kyr, including D-enrichment during the Heinrich 1 stadial (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD), and D-depletion during the Holocene portion of the African Humid Period (AHP). We also observe D-depletion during the LGM relative to the late Holocene, which, considering the amount effect, could be interpreted to imply that LGM climate conditions were wetter than today. However, because other hydroclimate proxies at this site indicate a drier LGM climate at Lake Rutundu, and since precipitation isotopes at this high-elevation site are likely influenced by different processes than at low elevations, we used a single-column Rayleigh distillation model to evaluate temperature and altitude-related effects on high-elevation δDprecip. This revealed that a change in the temperature lapse rate exerts strong control on δDprecip in this high-elevation setting, and that a steeper lapse rate could explain the observed D-depletion during the LGM at our site. Comparison of the Lake Rutundu δDprecip record with other leaf-wax based δDprecip records from East Africa indicates that changes in the meridional precipitation gradient associated with the mean annual position and intensity of the tropical rain belt, in turn driven by precessional insolation forcing, were likely a primary control on East African hydroclimate over the past 25 kyr, thereby contributing to overall regional drying during the LGM.

Garelick S, Russell JM, Dee S, Verschuren D, Olago DO. "Atmospheric controls on precipitation isotopes and hydroclimate in high-elevation regions in Eastern Africa since the Last Glacial Maximum.". 2021;567:116984. AbstractWebsite

Tropical Africa experienced large changes in hydroclimatic conditions since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), ∼26.5 to 19 thousand years (ka or kyr) ago. The hydrogen isotopic composition of fossil leaf waxes (δDwax), assumed to record past variations in the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation (δDprecip), is increasingly being used to study past hydroclimatic change in Africa, and are commonly interpreted to reflect variation in the amount of precipitation through time (i.e., the amount effect). Although there are now many such δDprecip records from tropical Africa, there are few robust δDprecip records from easternmost equatorial Africa of sufficient length and resolution to evaluate the mechanisms governing hydroclimate variation during and since the LGM. We produced a new δDprecip record based on analyses of δDwax in sediment cores collected from Lake Rutundu, situated at an elevation of 3,078 meters above sea level (m asl) on Mt. Kenya. This record displays large variations in δDprecip corresponding with known climate events over the past 25 kyr, including D-enrichment during the Heinrich 1 stadial (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD), and D-depletion during the Holocene portion of the African Humid Period (AHP). We also observe D-depletion during the LGM relative to the late Holocene, which, considering the amount effect, could be interpreted to imply that LGM climate conditions were wetter than today. However, because other hydroclimate proxies at this site indicate a drier LGM climate at Lake Rutundu, and since precipitation isotopes at this high-elevation site are likely influenced by different processes than at low elevations, we used a single-column Rayleigh distillation model to evaluate temperature and altitude-related effects on high-elevation δDprecip. This revealed that a change in the temperature lapse rate exerts strong control on δDprecip in this high-elevation setting, and that a steeper lapse rate could explain the observed D-depletion during the LGM at our site. Comparison of the Lake Rutundu δDprecip record with other leaf-wax based δDprecip records from East Africa indicates that changes in the meridional precipitation gradient associated with the mean annual position and intensity of the tropical rain belt, in turn driven by precessional insolation forcing, were likely a primary control on East African hydroclimate over the past 25 kyr, thereby contributing to overall regional drying during the LGM.

Gardner DG, Shoback DM. Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology. McGraw-Hill Medical New York:; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Garcia-Knight MA, Nduati E, Hassan AS, Gambo F, Odera D, Etyang TJ, Hajj NJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC, Rowland-Jones SL. "Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(11):e0143043. Abstract

Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy and T-cell immunity in this vulnerable population is warranted.

García JL, Fernandez N, Garcia-Villalon AL, Monge L, Gomez B, Dieguez G. "Cerebral reactive hyperaemia and arterial pressure in anaesthetized goats." Acta physiologica Scandinavica. 1995;153:355-363. Abstract

{The effects of arterial pressure on cerebral reactive hyperaemia were studied in anaesthetized goats measuring electromagnetically middle cerebral artery flow and performing arterial occlusions of 5-30 s. Under normotension (mean arterial pressure

Garba DGW, Oyieke FAO, EA M, LC, GS, Houmsou, RS, Darda, F, Chintem. "Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Anopheline Vectors of Malaria on the Highlands of Mambilla Plateau Northeast, Nigeria." Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2017;1(1):PP 37-42.speciesdiversityandrelativeabundanceofanopheline-liatuetal_2.pdf
Garba LC, Oyieke FA, Owino EA, Mwansat GS, Houmsou RS, Chintem DGW, BE W. "Larval habitats of anopheline vectors of malaria on the highlands of Mambilla Plateau Taraba State North East Nigeria." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2018;5(1):96-100.liatu_et_al_2018.pdf
Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, Odada E, Olago D, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability. 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon, Kate Elizabeth, Conway, Declan, Pardoe, Joanna, Ndiyoi, Mukelabai, Batisani, Nnyaladzi, Odada, E.O., Kgosietsile, Sinah, Opere, Alfred, Nyambe, Mubita, Omukuti, Jessica, Siderius, Christian, Olago DO. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability.. 2018; ISSN 2059-4798.
and Ganira Khavugwi Lilian, Odundo Paul Amollo GJMJNC. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018.
Ganira, Khavugwi L, Odundo P, Gatumu JC, Muasya, Juliet N. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018;5(2):205-220.
Ganira KL, Odundo P, Gatumu, Jane C, Muasya, Juliet N. "Social Studies Curriculum and Cooperation among Preschool Learners in Nairobi County, Kenya: Addressing Effectiveness of Instructional Methods." American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2019;4(1):86-97.
and Ganira, K.L. OKMMK’ura.PARW. "Teacher sustenance of emotional balance among children aged 4-6 with disability in Kenya: Addressing safety, actualization and independence." International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE).. 2016;3(1).
Ganira K, Odundo P, Kahiga R, Muriithi EM, Mwangi J. "Teacher Sustenance of Emotional Balance among Children aged 4-6 with Disability in Kenya: Addressing Safety, Actualization and Independence. ." International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE), Special Issue . 2016;3(1):948-955.
Ganira K, Odundo, Paul O, Gatumu, Jane C, Muasya, Juliet N. "Social Studies Curriculum Content, and Respect among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya: Focusing on Relevance." International Journal of social studies and humanities invention. 2018;5(7):4842-4848.
Gangata H, Ntaba P, Akol P, Louw G. "The reliance on unclaimed cadavers for anatomical teaching by medical schools in {Africa}." Anatomical Sciences Education. 2010;3:174-183. AbstractWebsite

The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all the cadavers used for dissection in the United Kingdom are donated. Because the sources of cadavers used in Africa are not clearly known, a questionnaire to gather information on cadavers used at medical schools was designed from the relevant literature and was sent by electronic mail to 123 Anatomy lecturers in 23 African countries (48 medical schools). Fourteen lecturers from 14 medical schools in ten countries responded to the questionnaires. The results indicate that, in most countries, the cadavers are unclaimed bodies from the hospitals and prisons, and the bodies of dead bandits. In South Africa and Zimbabwe, the donations are mostly from the white community, and medical school in the Islamic country of Libya is importing cadavers from India. The lack of knowledge about body donation programes and firmly held cultural and religious burial traditions may explain the lack of bequests from black communities. The use of unclaimed bodies may disproportionally affect people who were homeless and poor, criminals, people with fewer social links, and social outcasts. The Anatomy lecturers felt that there should be broader national awareness programes for body donations, although the benefits of this could take decades to materialize. Anat Sci Educ, 2010. © 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

Ganda B, Oyoo GO, KAYIMA JK, Maritim M. "Peripheral arterial disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88(12):107-113. Abstract

Objective: To determine the magnitude of the rosclerotic arterial disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: hospital based cross-sectional study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital Rheumatology outpatient clinic.
Subjects: Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.
Results: We obtained ABI measurements in 90 RA patients, among them 23(25.5% 95% CI 17.2-36.1) had obstructed lower limb arteries. Among the 23, 21(91.3%) had mild PAD, two (8.7%) had moderate PAD; none had severe PAD nor incompressible vessels. The obstruction of vessels was independent of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cigarette smoking though these factors increased the likelihood of having PAD. Risk age( ≥45 males, ≥55 females), Established RA(> 5 year duration) and severe RA were found to be significantly associated with the likelihood of having PAD. These trends remained significant after multivariable adjustment for potential confounders. twenty five (27.7%) of the study subjects exhibited symptoms of intermittent claudication, 13(52%) of them had PAD on ABI measurements, The Edinburgh claudication questionnaire was found to have 56.5% sensitivity and 82% specificity in detection
of PAD in RA patients. Conclusion: There seems to be an association between PAD in RA with chronicity and severity of the RA. This association may support the pathogenic role of accumulated systemic inflammation in atherosclerosis. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of impared arterial function and thus subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

Ganatra FA, Kisumbi BK, Gathece LW. "Selection of posterior dental restoratives by dentists." JKDA. 2009;1(3):59-64.
Ganatra FA, Kisumbi BK, Gathece LW. "Selection of posterior dental restoratives by dentists." JKDA. 2009;1. Abstract
n/a
Galvin KA, Trevor Even, Robin S. Reid, Jesse Njoka, Joana Roque de Pinho, Philip Thornton, Saylor K. "Understanding Climate from the Ground Up: Knowledge of Environmental Changes in the East African Savannas." Changing Climate, Changing Worlds. 2020:221-242.
Galukande E;, Mulindwa HE;, Wurzinger M;, Mwai AO;, Sölkner J. "On-farm comparison of milk production and body condition of purebred Ankole and Crossbred Friesian–Ankole cattle in south western Uganda."; 2008. Abstract

Increasing land pressure due to the rapidly growing population, growing demand for livestock products in urban centres and new land policies in Uganda are changing the life styles of the hitherto extensive grazers of the long horned Ankole cattle in south western Uganda. A production system where two separate herds are kept on one farm, a pure bred Ankole herd and a herd of Friesian - Ankole crosses is emerging. The Friesian-Ankole crosses are kept as a source of milk, most of which is sold to generate income. The Ankole are kept for cultural reasons, a buffer against shock in case of prolonged drought and disease outbreak and for income through sale of live animals. This study investigates the life cycle efficiency of the different genotypes on farm. Eighteen farmers have been selected and in each farm up to 30 animals have been selected per herd covering the complete age /sex range of the herd. During the selection the crossbred status was evaluated based on information from the farmer and phenotype. All selected animals were tagged. The animals are currently followed up on monthly intervals and this will last for a period of two years. During the visits body condition, tick count, health status, milk production of cows, growth parameters in young animals (weight approximated by the measurement of chest circumference) are recorded. Other information collected includes disease and parasite control measures (methods and costs involved), labour costs, calving dates, any supplementation, rainfall and temperature patterns. This paper discusses preliminary results on performance traits of the different genotypes for the first year of the study.

Galukande E;, Mulindwa, H; Wurzinger MAO; SM; J, Wurzinger M;, Mwai J, Solkner J. "Breed diversification in south western Uganda: characterization of a new cattle farming system."; 2009. Abstract

keeping different genotypes (Holstein-Friesians or their crosses and pure Ankole) is emerging in South Western Uganda. In this system the Ankole, cattle are being crossed with Holstein-Friesian and the two genotypes are being kept in separate herds on the same farm. This is in response to the rapidly growing population, new land policies that favour individual land ownership [1, 2] high demand of livestock products in the urban centres and improved rural infrastructure. As part of a larger research program that aims at evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of the new pastoral systems, a survey was undertaken of sixteen farmers selected from 3 sub-counties in Kiruhura District in South West Uganda. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farms. The 1st set was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, and the 2nd one was administered on a monthly basis for a period of the last 12 months. On each farm visit performance traits such as milk yield (MY), heart girth measurement (HG) and Body Condition Score (BCS) of the animals were recorded. Comparative MY, BCS and body weight performance for mature cows for the different genotypes are considered here. Majority (53.3%) of the farmers interviewed stated that they kept the two cattle types (genotypes) because the crossbreds gave them more marketable milk, while the Ankole provides security in case diseases or prolonged drought affected the crossbreds. Another group (19.9%) stated that they still prefer to keep Ankole cattle besides the crosses because they are hardy, while others (13.3%) stated that they kept Ankole for beef production because they were easier to sell off for this purpose and the crosses for milk production. Another 13.3% stated that the crossbreds were kept for income through milk sales and Ankole were kept for cultural reasons.

Gallie BL, Chan HSL, White A, Gronsdahl P, Dimba EAO, Kimani K, Dimaras H. "Retinoblastoma.". 2013. Abstract

Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer of infancy and childhood. Survival and the chance of saving vision depend on severity of disease at presentation. Retinoblastoma was the first tumour to draw attention to the genetic aetiology of cancer. Despite good understanding of its aetiology, mortality from retinoblastoma is about 70% in countries of low and middle income, where most affected children live. Poor public and medical awareness, and an absence of rigorous clinical trials to assess innovative treatments impede progress. Worldwide, most of the estimated 9000 newly diagnosed patients every year will die. However, global digital communications present opportunities to optimise standards of care for children and families affected by this rare and often devastating cancer. Parents are now leading the effort for widespread awareness of the danger of leucocoria. Genome-level technologies could make genetic testing a reality for every family affected by retinoblastoma. Best-practice guidelines, online sharing of pathological images, point-of-care data entry, multidisciplinary research, and clinical trials can reduce mortality. Most importantly, active participation of survivors and families will ensure that the whole wellbeing of the child is prioritised in any treatment plan.

Gallie BL, Chan HSL, White A, Gronsdahl P, Dimba EAO, Kimani K, Dimaras H. "Retinoblastoma.". 2013. Abstract

Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer of infancy and childhood. Survival and the chance of saving vision depend on severity of disease at presentation. Retinoblastoma was the first tumour to draw attention to the genetic aetiology of cancer. Despite good understanding of its aetiology, mortality from retinoblastoma is about 70% in countries of low and middle income, where most affected children live. Poor public and medical awareness, and an absence of rigorous clinical trials to assess innovative treatments impede progress. Worldwide, most of the estimated 9000 newly diagnosed patients every year will die. However, global digital communications present opportunities to optimise standards of care for children and families affected by this rare and often devastating cancer. Parents are now leading the effort for widespread awareness of the danger of leucocoria. Genome-level technologies could make genetic testing a reality for every family affected by retinoblastoma. Best-practice guidelines, online sharing of pathological images, point-of-care data entry, multidisciplinary research, and clinical trials can reduce mortality. Most importantly, active participation of survivors and families will ensure that the whole wellbeing of the child is prioritised in any treatment plan.

Galliard T, Phillips DR, Matthew JA. "Enzymic reactions of fatty acid hydroperoxides in extracts of potato tuber. II. Conversion of 9- and 13-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoic acids to monohydroxydienoic acid, epoxyhydroxy- and trihydroxymonoenoic acid derivatives." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;409(2):157-71. Abstract

1. Crude extracts and partially purified enzyme preparations from potato tubers catalyse, at pH 5-7, the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxides to a range of oxygenated fatty acid derivatives. 2. 9-D- and 13-L-hydroperoxide isomers are converted at similar rates to equivalent (isomeric) products. 3. The major products from the 13-hydroperoxide isomer were identified as the corresponding monohydroxydienoic acid derivative, threo-11-hydroxy-trans12,13-epoxy-octadec-cis9-enoic acid and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-octadec-trans10-enoic acid. The corresponding products from the 9-hydroperoxide were the monohydroxydienoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-octadec-12-enoic acid and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-octadec-11-enoic acid. 4. No separation of activities forming the different products was achieved by partial purification of enzyme extracts. 5. Product formation was unaffected by EDTA, CN-, sulphydryl reagents or glutathione but was reduced by boiling the extracts. 6. This system is compared with the 9-hydroperoxide-specific enzymic formation of divinyl ether derivatives by potato extracts.

Gallaher CM, Kerr JM, Njenga M, Karanja NK, WinklerPrins AMGA. "Urban agriculture, social capital, and food security in the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society. 2013;30(3):389-404.
Gallaher CM, Mwaniki D, Njenga M, Karanja NK, WinklerPrins AMGA. "Real or Perceived: The Environmental Health Risks of Urban Sack Gardening in Kibera Slums of Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces

Gallagher MM, Obel OA, Camm JA. "Tachycardia-induced atrial myopathy: an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation?". 1997. Abstract

The atrial myocardium of patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) is often abnormal in its histologic features and in its electrophysiologic properties. These abnormalities have been interpreted in some cases as the cause of AF and in others as a consequence of AF. We believe that both are the case. We will review the features of this atrial myopathy and discuss the likely mechanisms and consequences of the process.

Galla JH. "Metabolic {Alkalosis}." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2000;11:369-375. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Gall AM, Madadi V, Shisler JL, Mariñas BJ. The Safe Global Water Institute: An integrated, collaborative approach for improving drinking water and sanitation globally. USA: Water Environment Federation; 2013.
Galgallo A, Gatari M, Keskinen R, Esala M,... "Total and Extractable Trace Elements in Soil." 한국토양비료학회 학술 …. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Although agriculture is the main economic activity in Sub Saharan Africa, this region still has the highest prevalence of malnutrition in the world. Its per capita food production has also been on the decline for the last two decades. The African soil resource is over utilized and …

Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK;, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK;, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya EM, Kamau DM, Gakuu LN, Sang EK. "COMPARISON OF CLOSED FEMUR FRACTURE: SKELETAL TRACTION AND INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING COST-EFFECTIVENESS." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2014;8:4-9. Abstract

Background: Fractures of the femur are common injuries affecting the productive age group. Skeletal
traction is the mainstay of treatment in Kenya, hence comparison with operative management, to determine which is more cost-effective. To our knowledge no similar study has been done in Africa.Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of skeletal traction compared to intramedullary nailing. Design: Prospective conventional sampling analytical study. Setting: Hospital based study in a referral and teaching institution - Kenyatta National Hospital, orthopaedic wards. Study population: Patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital with diaphyseal femur fracture aged between 18 – 50 years. The study was done from October 2012 to May 2013. Materials and methods: A structured data collection sheet was used. It included the patient particulars, hospital stay and per diem cost, the type of injury, type of management and comparing the cost of
each, X-ray findings during treatment and at 3 months to assess for union. Data was represented in
form of tables, and figures. Results: Males were more affected than females, with a mean age of 31.5 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.48 days for the operative group and 66.7 days for the skeletal traction group. The average total hospital cost for the operative group was Kshs 54, 380.44 (US$640) compared to Kshs 67,792 (US$798) for the traction group. In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union.
Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant
strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal traction, with a better outcome

Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Mbithi PMF, Munenge RW. " Evaluation of the Bioactivity of some Traditional Medicinal plants using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test." The Kenyan veterinarian,. 2004; 26:8-11.
Gakuya DW, Itonga SM, Mbaria JM, Muthee JK, Musau JK. "Ethnobotanical Survey of Biopesticides and other Medicinal Plants Traditionally used in Meru Central District of Kenya ." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;145:547-553.
Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Mwaniki SM, Kiama SG, Muchemi GM, Njuguna A. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera (LAM) Leaf meal in Layer Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13 (7)::379-384.
Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Mwaniki, S.W, Muthama, J.M. "A New Frontier in Collaborative Approaches in Sustainable Open Spaces Delivery."; 2019.
Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK;, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kavoi BM, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13:208-213.
Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kavoi B, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(4):208-213.
Gakuya DW, Okoth MO, Muraya J, Nganga CJ, Muthee JK. "An outbreak of acute helminthosis in a sheep and goat farm in Machakos County.". In: 9th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Ochung HA, Musembi JK, Ngesa TJ. "Preliminary Investigation of Suspected Plant Poisoning in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine farm, Kabete, Kenya. ." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2008; 56(1):19-24.
Gakuya DW, Okumu MO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Mathiu PM, Nguta JM. "Traditional Medicine in Kenya: Past and current status, challenges and the way forward." Scientific African . 2020:pp. 1-7. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00360.
Gakuya, F., Ombui, J., Heukelbach, J., Maingi, N., Muchemi, L., Ogara, W., Mijele, D., Alasaad S. "Knowledge of mange among Masai pastoralists in Kenya." Public Library of Science (PLoS ONE).. 2012;7(8 ).2012_knowledge_of_mange_among_masai_pastoralist_in_kenya.pdf

UoN Websites Search