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Ezzi MS, Anzala O, Maritim MC, Bhatt KM. "Distribution of Salmonella Typhi Antibodies in the Sera of Healthy Blood Donors at Kenyatta National Hospital." Online Journal of Medicine and Medical Science Research. 2014;3(3):19-23. Abstract

Typhoid fever is widespread in Kenya. Widal test interpretation requires knowledge of the baseline titres amongst healthy population. These normal agglutinin titres vary depending on the degree to which typhoid fever is endemic in each area, a factor which may change over time. It has been a decade since Widal titres in apparently healthy population has been assessed. Furthermore, no baseline Widal titres have been assessed in blood donors. The method applied was a cross sectional descriptive analysis whereby voluntary and healthy blood donors at Kenyatta National Hospital Blood Transfusion Unit were consecutively sampled and screened for Salmonella Typhi agglutinin titres using the Widal test from October 2012 to November 2012. Demographic and focused medical history was obtained by use of structured pretested questionnaires. Blood sample was taken for assessment of Widal titres. Among the 353 serum specimen tested, 75 (21.25%) sera were found to be positive for the Widal test and 278 (78.75%) were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1: 40 for both the anti-O antibodies and the anti-H antibodies which occurred in 49% and 44% of the reactive sera respectively. About 20% of healthy blood donors had a positive Widal screening test, with 50% constituting a baseline titre of 1: 40 for both O and H antigens. A significant proportion of blood donors had titres ≥1: 80. Hence, the researchers recommend the cut off titres of ≥ 1:80 for diagnosis of typhoid fever with the appropriate clinical features.

Eyvazi J, Irannejad H, Kianmehr MH, Esmaeili M, Akbari QA, Onwonga RN. "The effect of Pellet fertilizer application on Wheat Yield and its Components." International Research Journal of Plant Science. 2010;1(6):163-171.eyvazi_et_al2010_the_effect_of_pellet_fertilizer_application_on_wheat_yield.pdf
Eyawo, Oghenowede; de Walque D; FN; GG; LRMET; J. "HIV status in discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.". 2010. Abstract

Background: Most couples affected by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa live in discordant relationships. Men are thought to be the index case in most relationships, and most social marketing and awareness campaigns are focused on men. We investigated serodiscordance in stable relationships to establish the gender balance of index-case infections. Methods: We did a systematic review, random-effects meta-analysis, and meta-regression of published and unpublished studies enrolling discordant couples and assessed the proportion of men and women that were index cases. We repeated the analysis with data from demographic and health surveys (DHS) from the 14 countries that have documented the HIV status of couples. Our primary outcome was the total number of HIV discordant couples, including the proportion of HIV-positive women. Findings: We included data from 27 cohorts of 13 061 couples and DHS data from 14 countries of 1145 couples. The proportion of HIV-positive women in stable heterosexual serodiscordant relationships was 47% (95% CI 43–52), which shows that women are as likely as men to be the index partner in a discordant couple. DHS data (46%, 41–51) and our sensitivity analysis (47%, 43–52) showed similar findings. Meta-regression showed that urban versus rural residence (odds ratio 0·31, 95% CI 0·22–0·39), latitude (β coefficient 0·02, 0·023–0·034), gender equality (β coefficient −0·42, −0·56 to −0·27), HIV prevalence (β coefficient −0·037, −0·04 to −0·030), and older age (β coefficient 0·20, 0·08–0·32) were associated with the proportion of female index cases. Interpretation: Our study shows the need to focus on both sexes in HIV prevention strategies, such as promotion of condom use and mitigation of risk behaviours.

Eyase FL, Akala HM, Ingasia L, Cheruiyot A, Omondi A, Okudo C, Juma D, Yeda R, Andagalu B, Wanja E, Kamau E, Schnabel D, Bulimo W, Waters NC, Walsh DS, Johnson JD. "The Role of Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt in Changing Chloroquine, Amodiaquine, Mefloquine and Lumefantrine Susceptibility in Western-Kenya P. falciparum Samples during 2008–2011.". 2013. Abstract

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Pfmdr1, and Pfcrt, genes of Plasmodium falciparum may confer resistance to a number of anti-malaria drugs. Pfmdr1 86Y and haplotypes at Pfcrt 72-76 have been linked to chloroquine (CQ) as well as amodiaquine (AQ) resistance. mefloquine (MQ) and lumefantrine (LU) sensitivities are linked to Pfmdr1 86Y. Additionally, Pfcrt K76 allele carrying parasites have shown tolerance to LU. We investigated the association between Pfmdr1 86/Pfcrt 72-76 and P. falciparum resistance to CQ, AQ, MQ and LU using field samples collected during 2008-2011 from malaria endemic sites in western Kenya. Genomic DNA from these samples was genotyped to examine SNPs and haplotypes in Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt respectively. Additionally, immediate ex vivo and in vitro drug sensitivity profiles were assessed using the malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence-based assay. We observed a rapid but steady percent increase in wild-type parasites with regard to both Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt between 2008 and 2011 (p<0.0001). Equally, a significant reciprocate decrease in AQ and CQ median IC50 values occurred (p<0.0001) during the same period. Thus, the data in this study point to a significantly rapid change in parasite response to AQ and CQ in the study period. This may be due to releasing of drug pressure on the parasite from reduced use of AQ in the face of increased Artemisinin (ART) Combination Therapy (ACT) administration following the intervention of the Global Fund in 2008. LU has been shown to select for 76K genotypes, thus the observed increase in 76K genotypes coupled with significant cross resistance between LU and MQ, may herald emergence of tolerance against both drugs in future

Eyase FL, Akala HM, Ingasia L, Cheruiyot A, Omondi A, Okudo C, Juma D, Yeda R, Andagalu B, Wanja E, Kamau E, Schnabel D, Bulimo W, Waters NC, Walsh DS, Johnson JD. "The role of Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt in changing chloroquine, amodiaquine, mefloquine and lumefantrine susceptibility in western-Kenya P. falciparum samples during 2008-2011." PloS one. 2013;8:e64299. Abstracteyase_et_al._2013.pdf

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Pfmdr1, and Pfcrt, genes of Plasmodium falciparum may confer resistance to a number of anti-malaria drugs. Pfmdr1 86Y and haplotypes at Pfcrt 72-76 have been linked to chloroquine (CQ) as well as amodiaquine (AQ) resistance. mefloquine (MQ) and lumefantrine (LU) sensitivities are linked to Pfmdr1 86Y. Additionally, Pfcrt K76 allele carrying parasites have shown tolerance to LU. We investigated the association between Pfmdr1 86/Pfcrt 72-76 and P. falciparum resistance to CQ, AQ, MQ and LU using field samples collected during 2008-2011 from malaria endemic sites in western Kenya. Genomic DNA from these samples was genotyped to examine SNPs and haplotypes in Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt respectively. Additionally, immediate ex vivo and in vitro drug sensitivity profiles were assessed using the malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence-based assay. We observed a rapid but steady percent increase in wild-type parasites with regard to both Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt between 2008 and 2011 (p<0.0001). Equally, a significant reciprocate decrease in AQ and CQ median IC50 values occurred (p<0.0001) during the same period. Thus, the data in this study point to a significantly rapid change in parasite response to AQ and CQ in the study period. This may be due to releasing of drug pressure on the parasite from reduced use of AQ in the face of increased Artemisinin (ART) Combination Therapy (ACT) administration following the intervention of the Global Fund in 2008. LU has been shown to select for 76K genotypes, thus the observed increase in 76K genotypes coupled with significant cross resistance between LU and MQ, may herald emergence of tolerance against both drugs in future.

Excler JL, Rida W PGMDABKANZALAMSEJKBFFJA. "AIDS Vaccines and Preexposure Prophylaxis: Is Synergy Possible? ." AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES. 2011;27(6).
EW M, JD M. Common skin tumors in dogs and cats: A review. CSD, University of Nairobi. Nairobi; 2019.
Evusah MM. Strategic responses by the University of Nairobi to changes in the external environment. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Organizations are environment serving and environment dependent. The environment in which organizations operate is constantly changing with different factors influencing the organizations. Coping with the increasingly competitive environment has called on firms to rethink their strategies. Strategic responses ensure the survival of organizations at large and at the same time enhance relevance in the environment in which they serve. Theobjective of this study was to determine the strategies adopted by the University of Nairobi to changes in the external environment. An interview guide was used to collect primary data while secondary data were gathered from various publications of the University of Nairobi. The data collected was analysed using content analysis. The study findings indicate that the University of Nairobi faces various challenges from the external environment including increased competition from local and international universities, reduced capitation from the exchequer, low information technology integration, poaching of staff by other universities, high rate of poverty in the country, increased pressure to admit more students and inadequate budgetary allocation. The University of Nairobi has adopted various strategic responses to address these challenges which included expansion into new markets, product development, forming strategic alliances and collaborations with other universities, improving resource management and governance, increasing and diversifying the revenue base, upgrading and fully exploiting university assets and preparing a university strategic plan for the development and use of physical facilities. Other response strategies included promoting research, and consultancy activities, innovation and technology transfer. Following the findings from this study, the following recommendations are made. The management of the university of Nairobi should lead in providing leadership and direction required in formulating strategic responses, fine tuning strategic plan by the university to fit to environmental changes, ensuring a strategic fit between the strategies and the environment, promoting research, consultancy, innovation and technology transfer through developing and implementing appropriate research programmes and promoting relevant consultancy services, collaborating/partnering and forging strategic alliances with other universities both locally and internationally, market expansion and diversification.

Evers TM;, Huffman TN;, Wandibba S. "On Why Pots Are Decorated the Way They Are.". 1988.Website
Evanson M. Muriithi1*, Paul A. Odundo2 JO2 JG2OC. "Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol. 1 No. 7 July 2013.abstract_-international_journal_of_education_and_research_vol._1_no._7_july_2013.docx
Evanson M. Muriithi1*, Paul A. Odundo2 JO2 JG2OC. "Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;Vol. 1 No. 7 July 2013.abstract_-international_journal_of_education_and_research_vol._1_no._7_july_2013.docx
Evanson M. Muriithi1*, Lewis Ngesu2 GS2 LW2 AK2. "Bulling in Kenyan Secondary Schools: Manifestations, causes, consequences and mitigation measures." International Journal of disaster Management and Risk Reduction. 2013;5(1. April 2013):ISSN: 1992-2744.
Evans W, Nderitu, J., Cheminingwa. management bean pests. Nairobi; 2015.mgt_of_snap_beans_pests.pdf
European journal of business and managementKariuki MM. "Human resource information system and competitive advantage of companies listed on Nairobi Securities Exchange." European Journal of Business and Management. 2015;7(21):198-206.
Eunice Ongoro Boruru, Edward Ontita WOO, Oguge NO. "Climate Change and emergence of helter-skelter livelihoods among the pastoral communities of Samburu East District, Kenya." Climate Change Management, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-22315-0_6; 2011. Abstract
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Eunice GW, Charles K K, Jesse T N. "Soil physicochemical properties under Acacia senegal varieties in the dryland areas of Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a multipurpose drought-tolerant tree or shrub legume and is commonly used in agroforestry systems in sub-Saharan Africa for gum arabic production and soil fertility improvement. Despite its wide distribution in Kenya, there has not been exhaustive evaluation on the effects of the extant varieties (kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal) on soil properties under their canopies for sustainable utilization of the species. Three sites in the drylands of Kenya representing the three varieties were selected for assessment. Soil samples were collected under tree canopies at a depth of 0 to 25 cm and were compared with the soils from the open canopies. There were significant differences in soil physicochemical properties among the three varieties (P<0.05 and P< 0.01). Soil nutrients under the canopies were higher than in the open canopies mainly due to effects of litter accumulation. The three varieties have beneficial effects on soil nutrient status in their natural ecosystems and would most likely improve crop productivity in agroforestry systems as well as enhance herbage productivity in the rangelands. The varieties growing under different soil types may have an effect on their gum Arabic production and quality. Key words: Acacia senegal varieties, soil nutrients accumulation, sustainable utilization.

Eunice W. "Transition from Pre-school to primary school.". In: CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING; 2011.
Eunice G, Gachene CKK, Jesse TN, Omondi SM. "Nitrogen Fixation by Natural Populations of Acacia Senegal in the Drylands of Kenya Using 15N Natural Abundance.". 2013. Abstract

Nitrogen (N) fixation was estimated for three Acacia senegal (L.) (A. senegal) Willd. varieties (A. senegal var. senegal, kerensis, and leiorhachis) growing naturally in different sites in the dryland areas of Kenya. The quantities of N2 fixed were estimated by the 15N natural abundance method, using leaves as the sampling material. Balanites aegyptiaca (B. aegyptiaca) was selected as the reference species growing in the same area. Soil samples were also collected under A. senegal trees for nodule assessment. Leaf 15N natural abundance values (δ15N) were significantly different between A. senegal and B. aegyptiaca. These values averaged 6.35, 4.67, and 3.03% for A. senegal var. kerensis, leiorhachis, and senegal, respectively, and were lower than those of the adjacent reference species. There were also significant differences in the amount of N2 fixed (%Ndfa) among the varieties. A. senegal var. senegal showed the highest levels of N2 fixation with a mean of 36% while A. senegal var. kerensis and leiorhachis had equal estimates of 25%. However, no nodules were observed in the collected soil samples. Leaf N values were significantly different among the varieties with a mean of 2.73, 2.46, and 4.03% for A. senegal var. kerensis, leiorhachis, and senegal, respectively. This study shows that the three varieties of A. senegal are able to fix N2 in their natural ecosystems and the differences could probably be due to soil properties and nutrient availability under the different environments. The species can hence be utilized as plantations in agriculture and land rehabilitation programs.

Eunice GW, Charles K GK. "Soil physicochemical properties under Acacia senegal varieties in the dryland areas of Kenya.". 2011. Abstractabstract24.pdfWebsite

Acacia senegal is a multipurpose drought-tolerant tree or shrub legume and is commonly used in agroforestry systems in sub-Saharan Africa for gum arabic production and soil fertility improvement. Despite its wide distribution in Kenya, there has not been exhaustive evaluation on the effects of the extant varieties (kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal) on soil properties under their canopies for sustainable utilization of the species. Three sites in the drylands of Kenya representing the three varieties were selected for assessment. Soil samples were collected under tree canopies at a depth of 0 to 25 cm and were compared with the soils from the open canopies. There were significant differences in soil physicochemical properties among the three varieties (P<0.05 and P< 0.01). Soil nutrients under the canopies were higher than in the open canopies mainly due to effects of litter accumulation. The three varieties have beneficial effects on soil nutrient status in their natural ecosystems and would most likely improve crop productivity in agroforestry systems as well as enhance herbage productivity in the rangelands. The varieties growing under different soil types may have an effect on their gum Arabic production and quality. Key words: Acacia senegal varieties, soil nutrients accumulation, sustainable utilization.

Etyang AO, Amayo EO, Bhatt SM, Wamola IA, Maritim MC. "Comparison of bedside inoculation of culture media with conventional cerebrospinal fluid culture method in patients with bacterial meningitis.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Background: The yield of bacterial cultures from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) is very low. Bedside inoculation of culture media with CSF may improve yields.
Objective: To compare the culture yield of CSF inoculated onto culture medium at the bedside to that of CSF inoculated onto culture medium in the microbiology laboratory.
Design: Cross-sectional comparative study.
Setting: Accident and Emergency Department and medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Subjects: Cerebrospinal fluid from patients at KNH with a clinical diagnosis of acute meningitis.
Results: Two hundred and twenty CSF specimens were obtained during a four month period. S. pneumaniae was isolated from 24 CSF samples and H. influenzae from one. Bacterial cultures were positive in 25 (11.4%,95% CI 7.0-15.6%) samples inoculated at the bedside and 23 (10.5%,95% CI 6.5- 14.5%) samples inoculated at the laboratory. Bacteria were isolated 5 hours earlier in samples inoculated atthe bedside (95% CI4.34- 6.86 hrs, p<0.05). Four per cent of S. pneumaniae isolates were resistant to crystalline penicillin.
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in culture yield after bedside inoculation of culture media with CSF compared to traditional CSF culture method. Bedside inoculation of culture media with CSF resulted in faster time to positive culture.

Etyang, P. P. & Okoth UA. "Class Teachers’ Role in Maintaining Students’ Discipline In Secondary Schools in Teso South District, Kenya ." International Journal of Human Resources Management (IJHRM). 2018;7(3):1-8.
Etyang AO, Amayo EO, Bhatt SM, Wamola IA, Maritim MC. "Comparison of Bedside innoculation of culture media with conventional cerebrospinal fluid culture methods in patients with bacterial meningitis. ." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(10):476-479. Abstract

Background: The yield of bacterial culture from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF ) at Kenyatta Notational Hospital (KNH) is very low. Bedside inoculation of culture media with CSF may improve yields
Objective: To compare the culture yield of CSF inoculated on to culture medium at the bedside to that of CSF inoculated onto culture medium in the microbiology laboratory.
Design: Cross-sectional comparative study.
Setting: Accidental and emergency Department and medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Subjects: CSF from patients at KNH with a clinical diagnosis of acute meningitis.
Results: Two hundred and twenty CSF specimens were obtained during a four month period. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 24 CSF samples and H. influenzae from one. Bacterial cultures were positive in 25(11.4%, 95% CI 7.0-15.6%) samples inoculated at the bedside and 23(10.5%, 95% CI 6.5-14.5%) samples inoculated at the laboratory. Bacteria were isolated 5 hours earlier in samples inoculated at the bedside( 95% CI 4.34- 6.86 hrs, p<0.05). Four percent of S. pneumoniae isolate were resistant to crystalline penicillin.
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in culture yield after bedside inoculation of culture media. with CSF compared to traditional CSF culture method. Bedside inoculation of culture media with CSF resulted in faster time to positive culture.

Etta Madete, Peirson E. "Gardens of Kibera: The Kibera Public Space Project by Kounkuey Design Initiative." The Architectural Review (2021).
ethe NN ’, Omosa M, Nyangena W. "Economic Processes and Poverty in Kenya.". In: Drivers and Maintainers of Pove rty in Kenya - A Research Agenda.; 2010.
Etenyi JO, Okalebo FA, S.A. Opanga, K. A. Sinei, Osanjo GO, Kurdi A, Goodman B. Comparison of zidovudine and tenofovir based regimens with regard to quality of life and prevalence of syptoms in HIV patients in Kenya. Prague; In Press.
et.al. BMK. Challenges Faced By Kenya Sugar Board In Implementing Strategy On Service Delivery To Sugar Cane Millers In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstractchallenges_faced_by_kenya_sugar_board_in_implementing_strategy_on_service_delivery_to_sugar_cane_millers_in_kenya.pdf

A company's strategy is management's action plan for running the business and conducting its operations. Strategy on service delivery is thus an important element of this management process. For global business market acceleration, business must respond to customers faster than ever with value added products and services, while they struggle to maintain temporary competitive advantage. The study was guided by the main objective which was to identify the challenges of implementation of strategy on service delivery by Kenya Sugar Board to Sugar Millers and to determine possible solutions to these Challenges. It utilized a case study on the Kenya Sugar Board. The target population was the managerial personnel at KSB and a total of eight representatives (one from eight sugar factories). Primary data was collected by the use of interview guide.

et.al. JMI. "Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Suitability of Banana Crop Production to Future Climate Change Over Uganda.". In: Limits to Climate Change Adaptation. Springer, Cham; 2018. Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine suitability zones of future banana growth under a changing climate to guide the design of future adaptation options in the banana sub-sector of Uganda. The study used high resolution (~1 km) data on combined bioclimatic variables (rainfall and temperature) to map suitability zones of the banana crop while the Providing Regional Climate for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) regional climate model temperature simulations were used to estimate the effect of rising temperature on banana growth assuming other factors constant. The downscaled future climate projections were based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) and Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES, A1B and A2) across the period 2011–2090. The methodology involved identification of banana-climate growth thresholds and developing suitability indices for banana production under the high mitigation (RCP 2.6, less adaptation), medium mitigation (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0, medium adaptation), no mitigation (RCP 8.5, very high adaptation) scenarios, SRES A1B and A2 scenarios. The FAO ECO-Crop tool was used to determine and map future suitability of banana growth. Banana production indices were determined using a suitability model in the Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analyst tool. The non-linear banana-temperature regression model was used to assess the impact of future changes in temperature on banana growth. The results revealed unique and distinct banana production suitability and growth patterns for each climate scenario in the sub-periods. RCPs 2.6 and 6.5 are likely to be associated with higher levels of banana production than RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The results further showed that projected temperature increase under SRES A1B will promote banana growth. In contrast, expected increases in temperatures under SRES A2 are likely to retard banana growth due to high moisture deficits. There is need to develop adaptation option for farming communities to maximize their agricultural production and incomes. The effectiveness of adaptation options needed to combat the impacts will be influenced by the magnitude of the expected climatic changes associated with each scenario, the timing of expected climate change extremes and sensitivity of the crop to climate. This study has provided critical information that will be useful for planning integrated adaptation practices in the banana farming subsector to promote productivity.

et.al. GOO. "Effects of Supplementing Mesquit (Prosopis Juliflora) Seedpod Meal on the Performance of Weaner Galla Goats in the Drylands of Kenya." Second RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference on" Building capacity for food security in Africa", Entebbe, Uganda, 20-24 September 2010. 2010:1161-1167. Abstract CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International)

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Key words: Supplementation, feed conversion efficiency, Prosopis juliflora, weight gains

et.al. JMI. "Empirical Relationships between Banana Yields and Climate Variability over Uganda." J. Environ. Agric. Sci. 2016;7:3-13. Abstractempirical_relationships_between_banana_yields_and_climate_variability_over_uganda.pdfIGAD RCC

: Variations in weather and climate have a significant impact on rain-fed banana yields in East Africa. This study examined empirical linkages between banana yields and variations in rainfall and temperature over Uganda for the historical period (1971-2009) using time series moments, correlation and regression analysis. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Crop Water Assessment Tool (CROPWAT) was used to estimate banana crop water requirements, soil moisture deficits and their effects on banana yield levels under rain-fed conditions for different regions. The study observed high comparability in moment indices with some significant differences reflected in the values of the banana yields and rainfall and temperature moment indices. The cumulative effect of rainfall and temperature variations on banana yields was discernible from strong correlation coefficients of up to 78%. The CROPWAT simulations indicated up to 46% reductions in optimal banana yields due to soil moisture deficits within banana plantations. In conclusion, the study observed stronger linkages between banana yields and temperature variations than rainfall. In addition, temperature manifests both direct and indirect effects on banana growth while rainfall exhibits comparatively high intra-seasonal and intra-annual variability with lag effects on banana yields. The study provides a strong scientific basis for the development of coping, adaptation and mitigation strategies in the banana farming subsector in the region due to the anticipated shifts in rainfall and
temperature extremes and changes across Uganda and neighbouring regions.

et.al. GOO. "Monitoring Vegetation Phenological Stages using Remote Sensing Data for Pasture Management in Arid and Semi-Arid lands of Kenya." Second RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference on" Building capacity for food security in Africa", Entebbe, Uganda, 20-24 September 2010. 2010:1451-1457. AbstractRUFORUM Institutional Repository

The objective of this study was to monitor grassland phenological stages in selected arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) of Kenya, so as to provide information useful in pasture management. Five years of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the VEGETATION instrument onboard SPOT were extracted over three ASAL districts. Extraction points were based on a land cover map that showed the location of grassland
in the three districts. Piecewise logistic functions were applied on the NDVI data in order to identify phenological stages. RFE data were then used to relate the identified stages to rainfall using lagged correlation. Curves of the correlated lagged rainfall and NDVI from the determined phenological stages were plotted to compare their temporal patterns. Spatial patterns of length of the growth period were also assessed. Interannual phenological stages appeared to follow a clear growth –senescence temporal pattern. Two growth periods were identified in all the districts, consistent with known cycles of different grass and browse species in the areas. Peak growth
was seen to occur during the short rains in Kajiado district and during the long rains in Baringo district. Growth in the two seasons was almost the same in Garissa district. Phenological stages were significantly correlated to different lags of rainfall, with response to a longer lag observed during the March to June growth period. Patterns of lagged rainfall were also found to be similar to those of NDVI at the different stages. The length of both growth periods showed spatially coherent patterns that signified the distribution of different pasture species. Given these results, logistic functions were able to model grassland phenological stages in the ASALs.

Key words: ASALs, logistic functions, NDVI, pasture, phenological stages

et.al. IJM. "Potential of Harvesting Atmospheric Water over Urban Cities in Kenya." International Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014; 2(5):069-075. AbstractInternational Journal of Physical Sciences

Most urban areas in Kenya are facing water crisis due to rapid population growth, industrialization and climate change. This study investigates potential of harvesting water from fog and air humidity over urban cities in Kenya. Daily air temperature, dew point temperature, wind direction and speed were used. Parameters including atmospheric water vapor pressure, saturated vapor pressure and the absolute and relative humidity of the atmosphere were derived. Air temperatures ranged between 18.2 and 27.6°C in urban areas. Mean annual foggy days was higher at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) with a maximum of 17 foggy days compared to other stations. However, mean annual harvesting days was higher at Moi International Airport (MIA) with a maximum of 350 days. Based on device efficiency of 10%, stations in Nairobi city (JKIA/Dagorretti Corner/Wilson Airport) indicated maximum water harvesting potential of 3.2/1.4/2.9 litres/m2 /day in direction d6 (225 -270°) while Kisumu station showed highest potential of harvesting water (2.2 litres/m2 /day) in direction d5 (180-225°). In Mombasa, the MIA and Lamu stations showed potential of harvesting 4.4 litres/m2 /day and 3.9 litres/m2 /day in direction d6 and d5 respectively. Based on monthly distribution of potential monthly water, harvesting from fog and air humidity was classified into either coastal or non-coastal/continental regions. The urban cities in Kenya have high potential of water harvesting from fog and air humidity presenting an alternative sustainable low cost approach to augmenting available fresh water sources and alleviating existing water stress. This will enable achievement of Kenya’s long term development footprint (Vision 2030) and Millennium Development Goals.

Key words: Vision 2030, urbanization, water stress, fog water harvesting.

et.al. GO. "Integrating meteorological and indigenous knowledge-based seasonal climate forecasts for the agricultural sector-Lessons from Participatory Action Research in Sub-Saharan Africa." CCAA learning paper, 1. 2010. Abstract IDRC Digital Library

Extreme climatic events, such as droughts and floods, as well as changes in the mean climate, have a direct
effect on crops and livestock and, thus, people’s livelihoods. Food security is at risk, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where local production remains largely rain-fed. Given that climate variability is likely to increase with increasing greenhouse gas emissions, it is more important than ever to understand how this variability can be managed to reduce the negative consequences.
The impact is already significant. In Malawi, for example, as a result of the 2002 drought, approximately 5 million
people needed emergency food aid, which took a long time to be delivered. A similar situation occurred in Niger
in 2004–2005 when approximately 2.5 million people — or a fifth of the population — was in need of food rations
(UNDP 2007). In 2009, approximately 3.8 million people in Kenya required food aid because of the prolonged
drought (FEWS Net 2010). In 2006, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 13% of the world’s population and 25% of the undernourished people in the developing world (FAO 2006).

et.al GDB. "A Critical Discussion of Recent Studies Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Nile basin." Nile Basin Water Science & Engineering Journal. 2011;4(2):94-100. AbstractResearchGate

This note provides a concise presentation of the state-of-the-art methods to assess climate change impacts on water systems with reference to the Nile basin. In particular, recent studies dealing with climate change in the Nile basin are summarized and guidelines for dealing with uncertainty in planning water resources in a changing climate are illustrated. The paper also includes potential strategy recommendations to policy and decision makers for planning adaptation measures in the water sector. In particular, the need to better recognize and characterize the uncertainty of climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Nile basin as well as the necessity to effectively support decision-makers and propose adaptation strategies and measures are discussed.
Key Words: Nile, Climate Change, Hydrology, Water Resources, Uncertainty, Decision Makers.

Esther Githumbi, Marchant R, Olago D. "Using the Past to Inform a Sustainable Future: Palaeoecological Insights from East Africa.". In: Using the Past to Inform a Sustainable Future. Springer, Cham; 2019. Abstractusing_past.pdf

Abstract

An important aspect of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which aims to limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 °C by 2050, has been the development of monitoring and evaluation plans that integrate climate change perspectives into new policies and programs for the protection and functioning of ecological systems. These include measures that enhance adaptive capacity, strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change. Ecosystem change and the interaction of the different drivers of change in ecosystems have been studied at different temporal and spatial scales across different disciplines. However, the use of long temporal records documenting environmental and climatic change in understanding the impacts of the interacting drivers of change and planning sustainable use of resources is relatively new. We present examples of the use of palaeoecological data from East Africa in planning for the long-term sustainable use of natural resources by providing long-term historical perspectives on human–environment–societal–wildlife interactions and engagement with the biocultural heritage and societal evaluations of these spaces to achieve an increasingly diverse set of conservation, social and economic objectives. We link the Earth system processes whose associated boundaries can be directly related to sustainable development goals in our attempt to prevent unacceptable environmental change. The realisation that humans are having a significant impact on climate and landscapes means we now need to showcase the societal relevance of palaeoecological research and utilise its output especially in our efforts to remain within a safe operating space for humanity and ecosystems.

Estambale, BB;Chunge R, Knight R;, Chunge R. "HaematemTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Jul-Aug;86(4):458.". 1992.
Estambale BB. "Journal of Helminthology.". 1991.
Essex, S. Mboup KKPJ & MR. "Prevention of Breastmilk Transmission of HIV: Balancing the Benefits and the Risks. .". In: AIDS in Africa (2nd ed.). New York: Raven Press.; 2002.
Essaji LT, KAYIMA JK, JOSHI MD, Otieno CF, Amayo A, Achieng L, Gacii M. "The utility of Physiochemical and modified physiological approach in metabolic acidosis at a tertiary level hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians . 2018;1(1):36-40.
Essajee F, Were F, Admani B. "Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in asphyxiated neonates: a prospective cohort study." Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;30(14):1189-1196. Abstracturine_neutrophil_gelatinase-associated_lipocalin_in_asphyxiated_neonates_a_prospective_cohort_study.pdf

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common complication of perinatal asphyxia. Recent research indicates that urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an early marker for AKI; yet, there is a paucity of data about its use in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted on 108 term babies in the new-born unit of Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital. Urine NGAL and serum creatinine were measured in 108 term asphyxiated neonates on days 1 and 3 of life.
Results: One-hundred and eight patients were recruited (male:female 1.4:1). At a cut-off of 250 ng/ml, urine NGAL had an acceptable discriminative capability of predicting AKI (area under the curve 0.724). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and likelihood ratios were 88, 56, 30, 95 %, 2 and 0.2 respectively. Urine NGAL levels were significantly higher in patients with AKI compared with those without AKI. An NGAL level greater than 250 ng/ml on day 1 was significantly associated with severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE); odds ratio=8.9 (95 % CI 1.78– 37.69) and mortality; odds ratio=8.9 (95 % CI 1.78–37.69).
Conclusion: Urine NGAL is a good screening test for the early diagnosis of AKI. It is also a predictor of mortality and severity of HIE in asphyxiated neonates.

Essajee A. Internal Controls (The case of Nyayo Bus Service Corporation, Nairobi). Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract

The study was aimed at documenting and evaluating the internal control system of Nyayo Bus Service Corporation, Nairobi so as to provide recommendations towards improvement of the existing system.
Personal interviews were used to collect primary data and investigations were also made on certain secondary data. A theoretical framework of sound internal controls was developed used as the basis for evaluating the Nyayo Bus Service Corporation existing internal control system. Fairly good controls were identified in the cash cycle, purchase cycle and payroll cycle. Some weaknesses, however, in these cycles were also identified. The stores area was found to be the weakest controlled area. The stores was functioning as a separate entity from the other departments from the corporation. No adequate segregation of duties existed nor were physical security controls adequate. It was further identified that the Internal auditor reports to the General manager as opposed to a Board Committee and that he performs routine control procedures. Recommendations have also been provided to minimize these weaknesses and to strengthen the internal control system.

Esilaba AO;, Okoti M;, Keya GA;, Miriti JM;, Kigomo JN;, Olukoye G;, Wekesa L;, Ego W;, Muturi GM. The Desert Margins Programme Approaches in Upscaling Best-Bet Technologies in Arid and Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s land surface is primarily arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) which account for 84% of the total land area. The Desert Margins Programme (DMP) in Kenya has made some contribution to understanding which technology options have potential in reducing land degradation in marginal areas and conserving biodiversity through demonstrations, testing of the most promising natural resource management options, developing sustainable alternative livelihoods and policy guidelines, and replicating successful models. In extension of sustainable natural resource management, two types of strategies were used: (i) strategies for the promotion of readily available technologies and (ii) approaches for participatory learning and action research. Thus DMP-Kenya initiated upscaling of four ‘best-bet’ technologies. Under the rangeland/livestock management options, scaling-up activities include improvement of rangeland productivity, rangeland resource management through community-based range resources monitoring/assessment, and fodder conservation for home-based herds. Restoration of degraded lands included rehabilitation of rangelands using the red paint approach in conservation of Acacia tortilis, control of Prosopis, planting of Acacia senegal trees in micro-catchments, and rehabilitation of degraded areas through community enclosures. Improved land, nutrient, and water management involved upscaling water harvesting and integrated nutrient management (INM) technologies. Activities under tree-crop/livestock interactions included upscaling of Melia volkensii and fruit trees (mangoes) and enhancing biodiversity conservation through support of beekeeping as a viable alternative livelihood. Participatory learning and action research (PLAR) was used for technology development and dissemination. Capacity building and training was a major component of upscaling of these best-bet technologies

Esho T, Kimani S, Nyamongo I, Kimani V, Muniu S, Kigondu C, Ndavi P, Jaldesa G. "The "heat" goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya.". 2018.
Esho T, Kimani S, Nyamongo I, Kimani V, Muniu S, Kigondu C, Ndavi P, jaldesa Guyo. "The ‘heat’goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya." Reproductive health. 2017;14(1):1-9.
Eshitera, E.E., Githigia, S.M., Kitala, P., Thomas, L., Fèvre, E.M., Harrison, L.J.S, Mwihia, E.W., Otieno, R.O, Ojiambo, F., Maingi N. "Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in Homa Bay District, Kenya." BioMedical Central Veterinary Research . 2012;8:234 .2012._prevalence_of_porcine_cysticercosis_and_associated_risk_factors_in_homa_bay_district_kenya.pdf
ES Mitema KJ. "AntibacterialActivity of Isometamidium (Veridium')." Kenya Veterinarian. 2002;23. Abstract
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Eriksen HM, Chugulu S, Kondo S, Lingaas E. "Surgical-site infections at {Kilimanjaro} {Christian} {Medical} {Center}." Journal of Hospital Infection. 2003;55:14-20. AbstractWebsite
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Erick O.ODada, Daniel O. Olago SW, et al. "Environmental Assessment of the East African Rift Valley Lakes ." Acquat.Sci. 2003;65(2003):254-271.environmental_assessment_of_ea_lakes.pdf
Erick Kipkoech Rutto, Joshua Nyagol, Julius Oyugi, Samson Ndege, Noel Onyango, Obala A, Chrispinus J Simiyu, Gye Boor, Winfrida Chelangat Cheriro, Otsyula B, Estambale B. "Effects of HIV-1 infection on malaria parasitemia in milo sub-location, western Kenya." BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:303. Abstract

Malaria and HIV infections are both highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV-infected patients being at higher risk of acquiring malaria. HIV-1 infection is known to impair the immune response and may increase the incidence of clinical malaria. However, a positive association between HIV-1 and malaria parasitaemia is still evolving. Equally, the effect of malaria on HIV-1 disease stage has not been well established, but when fever and parasitemia are high, malaria may be associated with transient increases in HIV-1 viral load, and progression of HIV-1 asymptomatic disease phase to AIDS.

Erick A, Omosa L, Midiwo J, Ndakala A, Mwaniki J. "Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid Aglycoes from Kenyan Gardenia ternifolia Schum and Thonn." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2016;11(3):136-141.
Eric Ayienga, Elisha Opiyo WO-OBMAN. "Multiagent Systems for Bandwidth Optimization in Wireless Grids.". 2006. Abstract
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Eric Ayienga, Bernard Manderick WO-O, Nowe A. "Multi-Agent Systems for Efficient Quality of Service Routing in Grids.". 2004. Abstract
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Eric A, Elizaphan M, Rhoda G, Robert O, John K. "University Students' Perception on the Usefulness of Learning Management System Features in Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in Online Learning." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2021;v17 (n1 ):45-64 . Abstract

Online learning has increasingly been adopted by most institutions of higher learning to facilitate teaching and learning as a continuum to the traditional face-to-face approach. Most of these institutions utilize Learning Management Systems which contain features that are intended to make students active participants not only by delivering learning resources to learners but also providing the environment for effective interaction in the learning process. Our examination of the literature reveals that there is limited empirical evidence that addresses how these features are being utilized by students in promoting Self-Regulated learning. To realize the usefulness of the features of Learning Management Systems in promoting Self-Regulated Learning, a structured survey was carried out among University students in Kenya. The findings reveal that the features of Learning Management Systems are underutilized by students. The qualitative results of the study illustrate that students face several challenges that obstruct them from being actively involved in online learning. There is lack of individualized feedback on students' learning habits, lack of instructor guidance, lack of interaction with course instructors, lack of peer interaction and lack of automation tools. This study provides insights for educators and researchers on the areas of focus that can be prioritized towards offering support to students in improving their Self-Regulated learning in online learning environments.

Eric GN, Isaac T. "A Survey on Software Sizing for Project Estimation." International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering. 2015;5(4):56-58.
Erastus Mulinge, Japhet Magambo DOSNEZCM, Dorothy Kagendo, Francis Addy DEMWPKTR. "Molecular characterization of Echinococcus species in dogs from four regions of Kenya." Veterinary parasitology. 2018;255:49-57.
Erastus K’etheK, Violet N K, Brigid MD;, Delia G, K.Lang’at A, Monica W K, Nancy K. "A trans-disciplinary study on the health risks of cryptosporidiosis from dairy systems in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya: study background and farming system characteristics.". 2009. Abstract

Cryptosporidium was conducted with 20 farmers randomly selected from the 29 farmers in the wider survey who were considered at high risk because of farming system. We found that around 1 in 80 urban households kept dairy cattle with an average of three cattle per household. Cross-breeds of exotic and local cattle predominate. Heads of dairykeeping households were significantly less educated than the heads of non-dairy neighbours, had lived in Dagoretti for significantly longer and had significantly larger households. There was a high turnover of 10 % of the cattle population in the 3-month period of the study. Cattle were zero grazed, but productivity parameters were sub-optimal as were hygiene and husbandry practices. In conclusion, dairy keeping is a minor activity in urban Nairobi but important to households involved and their community. Ecohealth approaches are well suited to tackling the complex problem of assessing and managing emerging zoonoses in urban settings. Keywords Urban dairy . Cryptosporidiosis . Ecohealth . Kenya

ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Some Aspects of juvenile delinquency in the Urban and rural Areas in kenya, paper read at the African institute for economic development and planning ANECA, dakar, Senegal, in proceedings on urbanization, Addis Ababa, ethiopia, october 1973. Also in erast.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1975. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Socio-Economic Problems of thr Ahero Pilot Resettlement Scheme in the Kano Plains in Western kenya, The African Scientist, Volume 2,June 1970, West African publishing House, also paper read in proceedings of the 5th Annual University of East Africa So.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1969. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Is Criminality Inherited? A Survey of Contemporary Research, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, Volume 2 No. 2, 1972, East African Literature Bureau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1972. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "problems of rural development in Kenya-sociological case study of social Change in the kano plains,in republic of Kenya's national report to the united nations of human environment(case studies), Nairobi, June, 1971,paper read at the International Confere.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1972. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Distribution of Juvenile Delinquency in the Provinces and Districts in Kenya. A Case Study of the Factors Accounting for the Differential Distribution of Delinquency Rates, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, Vol. 4, No.1, 1974, East .". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Distribution of Juvenile Delinquency in the provinces in Kenya. A case Study of the factors Accounting for the Differential Distribution of delinquency rates, journal of eastern African research and development, Vol., No.1, 1974, east African Literatu.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Some Aspects of Juvenile Delinquency in the Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya, Paper read at the African Institute for Economic Development and Planning ANECA, Dakar, Senegal, in Proceedings on Urbanization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 1973. Also in Erast.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1975. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Obstacles to Social and cultural Change among the luo of the Kano Plains in Western kenya, Paper read Proceedings of the 5th annual university of east Africa Social Science Council Conference, Nairobi 1969.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1969. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Characteristics of thr Residents of the kamburu and gitaru area, in R. S. Odingo(Editor), An African Dam-ecological Survey of Kamburu/ Gitaru hydro-electrical dam Area, Kenya, Ecological bulletins no.29,Swedish natural science Research Council,.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1979. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Background of Some juvenile delinquents in Kenya, Journal of Eastern african research and development, Volume 1, No.2, 1971, East African bereau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1971. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Is criminality inherited? A survey of Contemporary Research, journal of east African Research and Development, volume 2 No.2, 1972, east African literature bereau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1972. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Econo,ics of fertility, Joliso, east African Journal of Literature and Society, Vol.1,no.2,1973.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1973. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Contribution of Leisure to Crime and Delinquency - A Comparison Between Developing and Developed Countries, Thought and Practice - A Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya Vol. 1, No. 2, 1974, East African Literature Bureau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The contribution of Leisure to Crime and delinquence-A Comparision between developing and Developed countries, thought and practice-A journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol.1, no.2, 1974, East African literature bereau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Socio-Economic Problems of the Ahero Pilot Resettlement Scheme in the Kano Plains in Western Kenya, The African Scientist, Volume 2, June 1970 East African Publishing House, also paper read in proceedings of the 5th Annual University of East Africa So.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1969. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Characteristics of the Residents of the Kamburu and Gitaru Area, in R. S. Odingo (Editor). An African Dam-Ecological Survey of Kamburu/Gitaru Hydro-electrical Dam Area, Kenya, Ecological Bulletins No. 29, Swedish Natural Science Research Counci.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1979. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Background of Some Juvenile Delinquents in Kenya, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, Volume 1, No. 2, 1971, East African Literature Bureau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1971. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Problems of Rural Development in Kenya-Sociological Case Study of Social Change in the Kano Plains, in Republic of Kenya's National Report to the United Nations of Human Environment (Case Studies), Nairobi, June, 1971, paper read at the International Conf.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1972. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Economics of Fertility, Joliso, East African Journal of Literature and Society, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1973.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1973. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Reality and Sociology of Knowledge, Thought and Practice - A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1974, East African Literature Bureau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Reality and Sociology of knowledge, thought and Practice-A Journal of the philosophical Association of kenya,Vol.1,No.2, 19784, east African literature Bereau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Obstacles to Social and Cultural Change among the Luo of the Kano Plains in Western Kenya, Paper read in proceedings of the 5th Annual University of East Africa Social Science Council Conference, Nairobi 1969.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1969. Abstract
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Epiu I, Tindimwebwa JV, Tindimwebwa JV, Mijimbi C, Chokwe T, Lugazia E, Ndarugirire F, Twagirumugabe T, Dubowitz G. "Anaesthesia in Developing countries ." Value in Health . 2015;18(7):A679.
Ephantus J Muturi, Mwangangi JM, John C Beier, Millon Blackshear, James Wauna, Sang R, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Ecology and behavior of Anopheles arabiensis in relation to agricultural practices in central Kenya." Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 2013;29(3):222-230.
nje ru Enos Njeru RAPMN8 18/02/20. "Discussion Paper No. DP060/2004 : Social Health Insurance Scheme for all Kenyans: Opportunities and sustainability potential.". ISBN 9966-948-18-x.; 2004. Abstractsocial_health_insurance_scheme_for_all_kenyans0001.pdf

Health is a basic need for all, regardless of race, nationality, social class, age,
sex, etc. In Kenya, just like in many other developing countries, the health
situation has been deteriorating in spite of the government having since
independence directed her efforts tow;rrds tackling the twin problems of
affordability and access to health care services. Beyond this, the policy position
is also clear on the need to address equity and sustainability of quality health
care delivery. The health sector reforms that have hitherto taken place (including
introduction ofNHIF, free health services, cost-sharing, exemptions and waivers,
etc.) are all largely aimed at addressing affordability and access to health care
services, especially among the poor. The latter often find themselves in poverty
traps that deny them access to social services, consequent upon which they
benefit least from health, education, food security, knowledge and information
services and other basic human rights components.
This negates the policy endeavors relating to promoting poverty reduction through
economic growth, access to minimum quality health care by removing barriers
arising from social differentiation and concomitant stratification on basis of
gender, social class, knowledge and limited or even zero participation of the
underprivileged in prioritization and provision ofthe national service infrastructure.
Past policy priorities and measures have not been effective in addressing these
concerns, which relate positively to health care access potential for all. Spending
to promote access to health care is crucial, given also that Kenya is a signatory
to the WHO Abuja Declaration (25th April 2000). The latter requires member
countries to spend at least 15 per cent of their national incomes (aDP) on
health (Kenya spends 9 per cent).
The high cost of health care limits access to the services for many Kenyans,
given that 56 per cent of the population lives below the poverty line (on less
than one dollar a day) among whom 30 per cent live in absolute poverty. The
Second Report on Poverty in Kenya reveals that 40 per cent of the poor did not
seek medical care when they fell sick, mainly due to inability to meet the cost of
medical care, while 2.5 per cent were constrained by distance to a health facility.
Unaffordability, therefore, remains a key challenge facing the poor against
access to health care. Many Kenyans therefore continue to either have no
access to or cannot afford to pay for their health care needs. It is due to the
failures of the past programs, that the National Social Health Insurance Fund
(NSHIF) was conceptualized for implementation, with a view to providing a

ENOCH DROMONGE. "Clinical and laboratory predictors of cholelithiasis in patients with sickle cell anaemia .East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):347-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):347-50. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Cholelithiasis is a common clinical condition in patients with sickle cell disease and there are conflicting reports on laboratory indices useful in predicting those patients who are likely to have gallstones. There is however lack of similar studies from Kenya. We therefore studied the role of clinical (Body Mass Index), haematological (reticulocyte count, haemoglobin level), and biochemical (serum bilirubin: direct and indirect, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum transaminase) indices in predicting sickle cell anaemia patients likely to develop gallstones. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from October 1993 to December 1994 on consecutive male and female patients of all ages with homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS) confirmed by cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. A total of 64 patients aged between three and 37 years were recruited into the study. They were classified into two groups: stone formers and non-formers. The difference in the two groups with respect to clinical, haematological and biochemical indices were determined by Chi-square contingency test. Body mass index (BMI), reticulocyte count and alkaline phosphatase were found to have a significant positive association with increased likelihood of gallstone formation at p values of 0.004, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. The rest of the study indices had no association. The cut-off points were reticulocyte counts above ten per cent and alkaline phosphatase levels above 13 K.A. units. Though sickle cell anaemia patients with BMI > 20 had significant increased likelihood of cholelithiasis, we could not determine its cut-off value.
ENOCH DROMONGE. "Acute aflatoxicosis: case report. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
The objective of this presentation is to document the salient clinical findings in a case of aflatoxicosis and to review the literature on the same so as to increase the index of suspicion, enhance early diagnosis and improve management. The case was a 17-year-old schoolboy presenting with vomiting, features of infection and gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Examination revealed a very ill looking pale patient with abdominal distension, tenderness and rectal bleeding and easy bruisability. Investigations showed abnormal liver function tests, pancytopenia and elevated serum levels of aflatoxins. Management consisted of supportive care including antibiotics and antifungal therapy, transfusion of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma. His recovery was uneventful. The literature on human aflatoxicosis shows that the presentation may be acute, subacute and chronic. The degree of emanating clinical events also conforms to status of the aflatoxicosis. Overall, the features are protean and may masquerade many other forms of toxaemias. In conclusion, the diagnosis of aflatoxicosis takes cognisance of geographical location, past events, staple diet and clinical features to exclude other infections. Also required are high index of suspicion and importantly serum levels of aflatoxin. Treatment strategies involved use of antimicrobials and supporting the damaged multi-organs.
Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA. "The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome." Diabetes Rev.. 1994;2:115. Abstract
n/a
English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Mogoa W, Nyamai R. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting.". 2014;10(2013-305561):452-456. Abstractadoption_of_recommended_practices_and_basic_technologies_in_a_low-income_setting.pdf

Objective In global health considerable attention is focused on the search for innovations; however, reports tracking their adoption in routine hospital settings from low-income countries are absent. Design and setting We used data collected on a consistent panel of indicators during four separate cross sectional, hospital surveys in Kenya to track changes over a period of 11 years (2002–2012). Main outcome measures Basic resource availability,use of diagnostics and uptake of recommended practices. Results There appeared little change in availability of a panel of 28 basic resources (median 71% in 2002 to 82% in 2012) although availability of specific feeds for severe malnutrition and vitamin K improved. Use of blood glucose and HIV testing increased but remained inappropriately low throughout. Commonly (malaria) and uncommonly (lumbar puncture) performed diagnostic tests frequently failed to inform practice while pulse oximetry, a simple and cheap technology, was rarely available even in 2012. However, increasing adherence to prescribing guidance occurred during a period from 2006 to 2012 in which efforts were made to disseminate guidelines. Conclusions Findings suggest changes in clinical practices possibly linked to dissemination of guidelines at reasonable scale. However, full availability of basic resources was not attained and major gaps likely exist between the potential and actual impacts of simple diagnostics and technologies representing problems with availability, adoption and successful utilisation. These findings are relevant to debates on scaling up in low income settings and to those developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic interventions.

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Ayieko P, Were F, Paton C, Tunis S, Forrest CB. "Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." PLOS Medicine. 2016;10(1371). Abstractbuilding_learning_health_systems_to_accelerate_research_and_improve_outcomes_of_clinical_care_in_low-_and_middle-income_countries.pdf

Achieving universal coverage that supports high-quality care will require that health systems are designed to integrate the delivery of health services with the generation of new knowledge about the effectiveness of these services.
System strengthening and research will need to be better integrated to achieve this in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) so that changes in coverage, quality, and impact are measured, costs are contained, and health systems are responsive to users’ needs and concerns.
In high-income countries, learning health systems (LHS) are emerging to meet similar needs. The LHS vision aspires to engage policy makers, researchers, service providers, and patients in learning that uses and strengthens routinely collected data to conduct pragmatic, contextually appropriate research, promote rapid adoption of findings to improve quality and outcomes, and promote continuous learning.
Although there are significant challenges, we should begin to develop LHS in LMIC for their immediate and longer term benefits and to avoid having to retrofit health systems with the capability to promote learning at a later date and even greater cost.
A global coalition on how to build LHS effectively that shares accumulating learning could enable such a strategy.

English MM, Irimu GG, Nyamai RR, Were FF, Garner PP, Opiyo NN, F W. "Developing guidelines in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2017;1(6). AbstractWebsite

There are few examples of sustained nationally organised, evidence-informed clinical guidelines development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the evolution of efforts from 2005 to 2015 to support evidence-informed decision making to guide admission hospital care practices in Kenya. The approach to conduct reviews, present evidence, and structure and promote transparency of consensus-based procedures for making recommendations improved over four distinct rounds of policy making. Efforts to engage important voices extended from government and academia initially to include multiple professional associations, regulators and practitioners. More than 100 people have been engaged in the decision-making process; an increasing number outside the research team has contributed to the conduct of systematic reviews, and 31 clinical policy recommendations has been developed. Recommendations were incorporated into clinical guideline booklets that have been widely disseminated with a popular knowledge and skills training course. Both helped translate evidence into practice. We contend that these efforts have helped improve the use of evidence to inform policy. The systematic reviews, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches and evidence to decision-making process are well understood by clinicians, and the process has helped create a broad community engaged in evidence translation together with a social or professional norm to use evidence in paediatric care in Kenya. Specific sustained efforts should be made to support capacity and evidence-based decision making in other African settings and clinical disciplines.

English M, Mohammed S, Ross A, Ndirangu S, Kokwaro G, Shann F, Marsh K. "A randomised, controlled trial of once daily and multi-dose daily gentamicin in young Kenyan infants.". 2007. Abstracta_randomised_controlled_trial_of_once_daily_and_multi-dose.pdf

To test the suitability of a simple once daily (OD) gentamicin regimen for use in young infants where routine therapeutic drug monitoring is not possible. METHODS: In an open, randomised, controlled trial, infants with suspected severe sepsis admitted to a Kenyan, rural district hospital received a novel, OD gentamicin regimen or routine multi-dose (MD) regimens. RESULTS: A total of 297 infants (over 40% < or =7 days) were randomised per protocol; 292 contributed at least some data for analysis of pharmacological endpoints. One hour after the first dose, 5% (7/136) and 28% (35/123) of infants in OD and MD arms respectively had plasma gentamicin concentrations <4 microg/ml (a surrogate of treatment inadequacy). Geometric mean gentamicin concentrations at this time were 9.0 microg/ml (95% CI 8.3 to 9.9) and 4.7 microg/ml (95% CI 4.2 to 5.3) respectively. By the fourth day, pre-dose concentrations > or =2 microg/ml (a surrogate of potential treatment toxicity) were found in 6% (5/89) and 24% (21/86) of infants respectively. Mortality was similar in both groups and clinically insignificant, although potential gentamicin induced renal toxicity was observed in <2% infants. CONCLUSIONS: A "two, four, six, eight" OD gentamicin regime, appropriate for premature infants and those in the first days and weeks of life, seems a suitable, safe prescribing guide in resource poor settings.

English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya." Lancet. 2004;364(9445):1622-9. Abstract

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first-referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya's eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals, antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems. However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were expressed. Caretakers' views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting.". 2013;(99):452-456. Abstract

Objective In global health considerable attention is focused on the search for innovations; however, reports tracking their adoption in routine hospital settings from low-income countries are absent.
Design and setting We used data collected on a consistent panel of indicators during four separate cross-sectional, hospital surveys in Kenya to track changes over a period of 11 years (2002–2012).
Main outcome measures Basic resource availability, use of diagnostics and uptake of recommended practices. Results There appeared little change in availability of a panel of 28 basic resources (median 71% in 2002 to 82% in 2012) although availability of specific feeds for severe malnutrition and vitamin K improved. Use of blood glucose and HIV testing increased but remained inappropriately low throughout. Commonly (malaria) and uncommonly (lumbar puncture) performed diagnostic tests frequently failed to inform practice while pulse oximetry, a simple and cheap technology, was rarely available even in 2012. However, increasing adherence to prescribing guidance occurred during a period from 2006 to 2012 in which efforts were made to disseminate guidelines.
Conclusions Findings suggest changes in clinical practices possibly linked to dissemination of guidelines at reasonable scale. However, full availability of basic resources was not attained and major gaps likely exist between the potential and actual impacts of simple diagnostics and technologies representing problems with availability, adoption and successful utilisation. These findings are relevant to debates on scaling up in low-income settings and to those developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic interventions.

English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya.". 2004. Abstractassessment_of_inpatient_paediatric_care_at_first_referal_hospitals_in_13_districts_in_kenya.pdf

Background
The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya.
Methods Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts.
Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers.
Findings
Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4–15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3–46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0–100% and 9–77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care.
Interpretation
Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers’ efforts in such hospitals.

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Ayieko P, Were F, Paton C, Tunis S, Forrest CB. "Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." PLoS Med.. 2016;13(4):e1001991. AbstractWebsite

Mike English and colleagues argue that as efforts are made towards achieving universal health coverage it is also important to build capacity to develop regionally relevant evidence to improve healthcare.

English M, Nzinga J, Mbindyo P, Ayieko P, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Mbaabu L. "Explaining the effects of a multifaceted intervention to improve inpatient care in rural Kenyan hospitals--interpretation based on retrospective examination of data from participant observation, quantitative and qualitative studies." Implement Sci. 2011;6:124. Abstract

We have reported the results of a cluster randomized trial of rural Kenyan hospitals evaluating the effects of an intervention to introduce care based on best-practice guidelines. In parallel work we described the context of the study, explored the process and perceptions of the intervention, and undertook a discrete study on health worker motivation because this was felt likely to be an important contributor to poor performance in Kenyan public sector hospitals. Here, we use data from these multiple studies and insights gained from being participants in and observers of the intervention process to provide our explanation of how intervention effects were achieved as part of an effort to better understand implementation in low-income hospital settings.

English M, Ayieko P, Nyamai R, Were F, Githanga D, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "What do we think we are doing? How might a clinical information network be promoting implementation of recommended paediatric care practices in Kenyan hospitals?" Health Res Policy Syst.. 2017;15(4). AbstractWebsite

Background

The creation of a clinical network was proposed as a means to promote implementation of a set of recommended clinical practices targeting inpatient paediatric care in Kenya. The rationale for selecting a network as a strategy has been previously described. Here, we aim to describe network activities actually conducted over its first 2.5 years, deconstruct its implementation into specific components and provide our ‘insider’ interpretation of how the network is functioning as an intervention.
Methods

We articulate key activities that together have constituted network processes over 2.5 years and then utilise a recently published typology of implementation components to give greater granularity to this description from the perspective of those delivering the intervention. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel we then suggest how the network may operate to achieve change and offer examples of change before making an effort to synthesise our understanding in the form of a realist context–mechanism–outcome configuration.
Results

We suggest our network is likely to comprise 22 from a total of 73 identifiable intervention components, of which 12 and 10 we consider major and minor components, respectively. At the policy level, we employed clinical guidelines, marketing and communication strategies with intervention characteristics operating through incentivisation, persuasion, education, enablement, modelling and environmental restructuring. These might influence behaviours by enhancing psychological capability, creating social opportunity and increasing motivation largely through a reflective pathway.
Conclusions

We previously proposed a clinical network as a solution to challenges implementing recommended practices in Kenyan hospitals based on our understanding of theory and context. Here, we report how we have enacted what was proposed and use a recent typology to deconstruct the intervention into its elements and articulate how we think the network may produce change. We offer a more generalised statement of our theory of change in a context–mechanism–outcome configuration. We hope this will complement a planned independent evaluation of ‘how things work’, will help others interpret results of change reported more formally in the future and encourage others to consider further examination of networks as means to scale up improvement practices in health in lower income countries.

English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya." Lancet. 2004;363(9425):1948-53. Abstract

The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya.

English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya.". 2004;364:1622-1629. Abstractdelivery_of_paediatric_care_at_first_referal_hospitals_in_kenya.pdf

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya’s eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals,
antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems.
However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were
expressed. Caretakers’ views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Mogoa W, Nyamai R. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting." Arch Dis Child. 2014;(99):452-456.adoption_of_recommended_practices_and_basic_technologies_in_a_low-income_setting.pdf
English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Peshu N. "Health systems research in a low-income country: easier said than done." Arch. Dis. Child.. 2008;93(6):540-4. Abstract

Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in the health systems of many low-income countries. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved, hospital care for referred severely ill children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet little is known about how to achieve this. This article describes the evolution and final design of an intervention study that is attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. It illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system, rather than an individual, level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question: does it work? Although there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries, the importance of strong, broadly based local partnerships and long-term commitment even to initiate projects is not always appreciated.

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Peshu N. "Health systems research in a low income country - easier said than done.". 2008;93(6):540-544. Abstract

Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in many low-income country health systems. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved hospital care for severely ill, referred children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet we know little about how to achieve this. We describe the evolution and final design of an intervention study attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. We believe our experience illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system rather than an individual level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question - does it work? While there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries the importance of strong, broadly-based local partnerships and long term commitment even to initiate projects are not always appreciated.

Engelbrecht NE, Freeman J, Sternberg P, Aaberg TM, Aaberg TM, Martin DF, Sippy BD. "Retinal pigment epithelial changes after macular hole surgery with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling." American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2002;133:89-94. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Eng. Sonko K(U), Eng. Musimenta J(U), Dr Isaboke OZ(K), Dr Kateyo E(U). "Environmetnal impact assessment process (legal and institutional aspects, procedures and methodologies).". 2003. AbstractWebsite

The EIA process is carried out in relatively well known and documented procedures but the approach to and emphasis on these procedures tend to vary from country to country and amongst development agencies. The most varied aspect of EIA process at the country level is the institutional framework for the EIA process management.

Eneku JP, Tom O, Mwabora JM. Fabrication and Characterization of Aluminium and Gallium Mono and Co-doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Radio Frequency Sputtering for Photovoltaic Applications. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

This study intends to realize a novel thin film material for photovoltaic applications. TiO2 that has a large band gap of 3.2eV is sensitized to visible light via the use of dyes in the Gratzel cell. The dye monolayer when excited by light photons, electron-hole pairs are generated, electrons are injected into the conduction band of TiO2, while the holes are transported to the counter electrode by diffusion. The use of dye and wet electrolyte material has associated instability problems which threatens the suitability of this type of solar cell for commercialization purposes.

The objective of this proposed study is to come up with a semiconductor material of a smaller band-gap which can be used to fabricate a solar cell. This is to be achieved by doping the metal oxide (TiO2) with germanium utilizing the property of the semiconductor nanodot band gap variation with the size. The reduction of the band gap is expected to broaden the wavelength range of the incident light that can be absorbed by the material. This involves the use of large band gap materials (TiO2,) in the form of a thin film that acts as the matrix within which atoms of Ge are added by doping. This enables the tailoring of the band gap of the matrix semiconductor (TiO2,) to absorb incident radiation of a wide range of wavelengths. Film deposition will be done using the sputtering method. Substrate temperatures will be varied for deposition in order to vary the phase. Annealing of the deposited films will be done at different temperatures. The films will then be investigated using various techniques to establish their structural, optical, electrical and opto-electrical properties. The results of the investigation will help to optimize the material performance for fabrication of the solar cells of high efficiency and low cost.

Endale M, Alao JP, Akala HM, Rono NK, Eyase FL, Solomon D, Ndakala A, Mbugua M, Walsh DS, Erdelyl M, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta Medica . 2012;78(1):31-35.
Endale M, Ekberg A, Alao JP, Akala HM, Ndakala A, Sunnerhagen P, Erdelyi M, Yenesew A. "Anthraquinones of the roots of Pentas micrantha." Molecules. 2013;18:311-321.
Enabulele O, Esen E, Gonzalez-Perez MA, Harvey CR, Herrera-Cano A, Herrera-Cano C, Hiko A, Manterola FJ, Kaartemo V, Kihiko MK, Kinoti MW. Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2016.
EN Opot, Magoha GAO. "Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2000;77(2). AbstractWebsite

Objective: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital. Design: Retrospective case study of testicular cancer patients over a fifteen year period.

Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, a referral and teaching hospital.
Participants: All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at theHistopathology Department of Kenyatta National Hospital between 1983 and 1997.

Results: The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. History of cryptochirdism was obtained in 10.26% of the patients. Thirty one patients (79.49%) presented with painless testicular swellings, eleven (28.08%) with pain, nine
(23.08%) with scrotal heaviness, six (15.38%) with abdominal swellings and one (2.56%) each with gynaecomastia and eye swelling. On examination 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, ten (25.64%) had abdominal masses, seven (17.91%) had supraclavicular
and cervical lymphadenopathy, and one each (2.56%) had gynaecomastia and eye mass respectively. More than eighty nine per cent had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma 12.24%, embroyonal carcinoma 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma 6.12% and malignant germ cell tumour, orchioblastoma and dysgerminoma each accounted for 2.04%. Three patients (7.7%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sixteen (41.03%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy, six (15.38%) had orchidectomy and chemotherapy, ten (25.64%) had radiotherapy and chemotherapy, three (7.7%) and two (5.13%) had only chemotherapy and radiotherapy respectively. No cisplastin based chemotherapy regime was used. Follow up was effected for eighteen patients (46.15%) and seven patients (38.89%) were alive after five years.

Conclusion: Prognosis with current regimes was poor with survival of only 38.89% after five years. Cisplastin based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included as a component of testicular cancer management at Kenyatta National Hospital.

EN Muturi, Khalagai JM, Pokhariyal GP. "Splitting and Admissible Topologies Defined on the Set of Continuous Functions Between Bitopological Spaces." International Journal of Mathematical Archive (IJMA). 2018;9(1). AbstractWebsite

In this paper, p-splitting, p-admissible, s-splitting and s-admissible topologies on the sets p−C(Y, Z) and s−C(Y, Z) are defined and their properties explored. exponential functions are introduced in function spaces and s-splitting and s-admissible topologies defined on s-C(Y, Z) compared using these mappings.

Emmanuel TV, Njoka JT, Catherine LW, Lyaruu HVM. "Nutritive and anti-nutritive qualities of mostly preferred edible woody plants in selected drylands of Iringa District, Tanzania.". 2011. Abstract

Nutritional and anti-nutritional factors of preferred woody plants were evaluated in selected drylands of Iringa District. Vangueria infausta (Burch.) and Vitex mombassae (Vatke.) identified as source of edible fruits; Adansonia digitata (L.) and Sterculia africana (Lour.) were preferred for oil products whereas Opilia amentacea (Roxb.) and Maerua angolensis (DC.) were used as sources of vegetables. The nutrients and anti-nutrients were evaluated using laboratory standard methods. Results show that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in percentage moisture content, dry matter, crude protein, crude and carbohydrates in all species used as sources of oils, vegetables and fruits. Percent ash content was different among the preferred species for vegetables and fruits. S. africana as oil producing plants had higher protein content (<25%). O. amentacea and M. angolensis had higher crude protein percent (14-34%) than other species. Crude fiber for all preferred species ranged from 9-27.6% on dry weight basis. The crude lipid content of preferred species ranged from 1.2% for fruit plants to 6.80% for oily plants. V. infausta and A. digitata had high Carbohydrates whereas all edible plants had higher values of Potassium and low Copper, Iron and Zinc content. A. digitata seeds had the highest value of Vitamin C (57.31 mg/100 dry weight) and low levels of tannins and phenols. This study concludes that wild plants are nutritious and have adequate nutrients and levels of anti-nutrients are below the toxic levels. Consequently, use of wild food plants could provide a possible source of food security in Iringa District.

Emma Oketch LFPM&. "Political Science and Ethics Vis-a Vis the Good of an Individual and the Common Good: A Comparison of Aristotles Ethics and his Politics.". In: Politics and the Common Good. Nairobi: Strathmore University; 2006.
Emma Anyika Shileche, Weke P, Achia T. "Kernel density estimation of white noise for non-diversifiable risk in decision making." Journal of Risk Analysis and Crisis Response. 2020;10(1):6-11. AbstractWebsite

Many businesses make profit yearly and tend to invest some of the profit so that they can cushion their organizations against any future unknown events that can affect their current profit making. Since future happenings in businesses cannot be predicted accurately, estimates are made using experience or past data which are not exact. The probability element (which is normally determined by experience or past data) is important in investment decision making process since it helps address the problem of uncertainty. Many of the investment decision making methods have incorporated the expectation and risk of an event in making investment decisions. Most of those that use risk account for diversifiable risk (non-systematic risk) only thus limiting the predictability element of these investment methods since total risk are not properly accounted for. A few of these methods include the certainty (probability) element. These include value at risk method which uses covariance matrices as total risk and the binning system which always assumes normal distribution and thus does not take care of discrete cases. Moreover comparison among various entities lacks since the probabilities derived are for individual entities and are just quantile values. Finite investment decision making using real market risk (non-diversifiable risk) was undertaken in this study. Non-diversifiable risk (systematic risk) estimates of a portfolio of stocks determined by a real risk weighted pricing model are used as initial data. The variance of non-diversifiable risk is estimated as a random variable referred to as random error (white noise). The estimator is used to calculate estimates of …

Emma M, Anna K, L.P O, M.F O, Simon K. "The Role Of Hormonal Contraceptives In Hiv Infection Among Antenatal Mothers In Machakos District Hospital.". 2007. Abstract

This study was done at Machakos District Hospital in the Eastern province of Kenya between May and August 2007.Aim was to find out the role of hormonal contraceptives in HIV infection among antennal mothers. Analytical cross- sectional study design was used. Methodology. The sample size consisted of 144 antenatal mothers visiting the MCH clinic for PMTCT services among other services. The simple random sampling technique included every 8th antenatal mother visiting the PMTCT clinic who had no history of consisted condom use. All antenatal mothers who had not used condoms consistently both contraceptive and non-contraceptive users who fell in the sampling frame acted as study subjects. This was on condition that they consented to participate in the study.

Emily N Kitivo, GH Nyamasyo JKM. "Agroecosytem disservices and service providers." South Eastern Kenya University; 2018.
and Emily Muema, Peter Kinyanjui JMJNSCJKNOAN. "Toxicity and safety of Khat (Cantha edulis) consumption during pregnancy using olive Baboons (Papio Anubis as Experimental Models: A prospective Randomized study. ." Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol 4(3) pp. 061-070 DOI: http//doi.irg/10.15580/GJEPH.2016/3/102116188. 2016.
and Emily A. Rogena, Giulia De Falco KSLL. "A review of the trends of lymphomas in the equatorial belt of Africa." Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). 2010;(10.1002):977.
Emelda OP, Nyambura MI, Masikini M, Emmanuel I. "Biosynthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Ethanol Chemical Sensor." Journal of Nano Research. Submitted.
EM.Karari, GN.Lule, SO.McLigeyo, Amayo EO. "Endoscopic findings and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in chronic renal failure patients with dyspepsia.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Aug;77(8):406-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occurs in up to one fourth of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Some of the factors implicated in its causation include hypergastrinaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, drugs and, recently, Helicobacter pylori infection. Studies on the latter have been few, with none having been carried out in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic findings and to determine the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients with dyspepsia. STUDY DESIGN AND POPULATION: A prospective study of seventy seven consecutive patients with CRF and dyspepsia compared with consecutive age, sex and socio-economically matched seventy seven controls (no CRF) with dyspepsia. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the major referral and teaching hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: In both the study population and the controls, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was carried out. H. pylori was tested for using the biopsy urease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori if they tested positive on both tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Findings at endoscopy and presence of H. pylori. RESULTS: Inflammatory lesions (gastritis, duodenitis) (42%) and duodenal ulcers (18.4%) were the commonest findings in the two groups combined. The prevalence of H. pylori in the 154 subjects studied was 54.5%. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients (53.2%) and the controls (55.8%) (p = 0.746). Patients with endoscopically proven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.3%) regardless of their renal function status. CONCLUSION: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF was due to multiple causes and over 50% were attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylon in dyspeptic CRF patients was similar to that in dyspeptic patients with normal renal function.

EM Muriithi, SO Gunga LMNAKK’OLNW. "Women’s Contributions to the Philosophy of Education: Hermeneutics of Proverbs." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013.
EM Muriithi, SO Gunga LMNAKK’OLNW. "School Characteristics, Use of Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics." Journal of Education and Practice . 2013.
EM W, FE O, WW M, NM M. "Epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infections among young children in Kenya. Rev Infect Dis . 1990 Nov-Dec; 12 Suppl 8 : S1035-8 . PMID: 2270401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Onyango FE, Mirza WM, Macharia WM, Wamola I, Ndinya-Achola JO,.". In: Rev Infect Dis . 1990 Nov-Dec; 12 Suppl 8 : S1035-8 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
The epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) was investigated in a rural community 80 km north of Nairobi, Kenya. This research was conducted prospectively on 250 families with 470 children less than 5 years of age who were contacted every 8 days during the 3-year study. The yearly incidence of respiratory tract infections decreased from 5.2 to 3.4 during the study; less than 5% of these infections involved the lower respiratory tract. The incidence was inversely related to age, and the illnesses were generally mild and brief in length. Fifteen children died during the study period. The precise causes of death are unknown, but respiratory infections possibly played a role in most cases. This study emphasizes the importance of determining the risk factors responsible for unusually severe morbidity and high mortality in children with ARI in developing countries.
PMID: 2270401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

EM N'au, WD B, V M, S O, E M. "Genetic Analysis of HA1 Domain of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Isolated in Kenya During the 2007 to 2013 Seasons Reveal Significant Divergence from WHO-Recommended Vaccine Strains." International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2020. Abstract
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EM N. "Management of Orbital Retinoblastoma; Kenyatta National Hospital experience.". In: The 2nd Colllege Of E Ophthalmologistsof Eastern, Southeren and Central Africa COECSA confere. Livingstone, Zambia; 2014. Abstractorbital_retinoblastoma_2.ppt

Approximately 30-40% of retinoblastoma patients Sub-Saharan Africa have orbital disease at presentation. This presents the ophthalmologist with several challenges among them if to do a primary excentaration or not, if to aim at cure or palliation and which adjuvant therapy to give. At Kenyatta National Hospital, Protocol based management of retinoblastoma developed by the Kenya National Retinoblastoma society has been used to manage these cases with promising success in terms of survival and cosmesis. All retinoblastoma cases with orbital disease are evaluated for distant metastases and if free, then aim to cure treatment started with Chemoreduction. After the proptosis reduces, enucleation with primary orbital implant is done. Chemotherapy is then continued to a total of six courses then radiotherapy upto 40 Grays.

EM O, O WANDIGAS, DA A, O MV, W MJ. "Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Water and Sediment from Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2016;9(9):56-63.osoro_publication.pdf
EM N. "Research and Publications in ECSA Region.". In: The 2nd Colllege Of E Ophthalmologistsof Eastern, Southeren and Central Africa COECSA confere. Livingstone, Zambia; 2014.research_and_publication_in_ecsa_region.pptx
El_Banhawy EM, El-Borolossy MA, El-Sawaf BM, Afia SI. "Biological aspects and feeding behavior of the soil mite, Nenteria hypotrichus ( Uropodina: Uropodidae)." Acarologia. 1997;38:357-360.
Elusah J, Bulimo WD, Opanda SM, Symekher SL, Wamunyokoli F. "Genetic diversity and evolutionary analysis of human respirovirus type 3 strains isolated in Kenya using complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene." PLOS ONE. 2020;15(3):e0229355. Abstractelusa_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

Human respirovirus type 3 (HRV3) is a leading etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and ranks only second to the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). Despite the public health importance of HRV3, there is limited information about the genetic characteristics and diversity of these viruses in Kenya. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 35 complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) sequences of HRV3 strains isolated in Kenya between 2010 and 2013. Viral RNA was extracted from the isolates, and the entire HN gene amplified by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences revealed that all the Kenyan isolates grouped into genetic Cluster C; sub-clusters C1a, C2, and C3a. The majority (54%) of isolates belonged to sub-cluster C3a, followed by C2 (43%) and C1a (2.9%). Sequence analysis revealed high identities between the Kenyan isolates and the HRV3 prototype strain both at the amino acid (96.5–97.9%) and nucleotide (94.3–95.6%) levels. No amino acid variations affecting the catalytic/active sites of the HN glycoprotein were observed among the Kenyan isolates. Selection pressure analyses showed that the HN glycoprotein was evolving under positive selection. Evolutionary analyses revealed that the mean TMRCA for the HN sequence dataset was 1942 (95% HPD: 1928–1957), while the mean evolutionary rate was 4.65x10-4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year (95% HPD: 2.99x10-4 to 6.35x10-4). Overall, our results demonstrate the co-circulation of strains of cluster C HRV3 variants in Kenya during the study period. This is the first study to describe the genetic and molecular evolutionary aspects of HRV3 in Kenya using the complete HN gene.

Elspeth P, Njeri MJ, Kamau N. Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access Project Resource Pack for Teachers,. Nairobi, Kenya: DFID and Oxfam UK; 2004.
Else, Breval; Chiping W; JD; AY; KG; MS; FD; ACP. "PLZT Phases Near Lead Zirconate: 2. Determination by Capacitance and Polarization.". 2006.
Elsayed HM, Wadee S, Zaki MS, Were AJO, Ashuntantang GE, Bamgboye EL, Davids MR, Hafez MH, Mahamat M, Naicker S, Niang A, Seck SM, Swanepoel CR, Tannor EK, Twahir A, Yao HK. "Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of the renal complications of COVID-19 in Africa." African Journal of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):S117-S134.Website
Elnaghy MA, Megalla SE. "Gluconic acid production by Penicillium puberulum." Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 1975;20(6):504-8. Abstract

Twenty-five Penicillium species isolated from Egyptian soil were examined for their ability to produce gluconic acid in surface culture. Of the eight species capable of producing gluconic acid, Penicillium puberulum gave the maximum yield (91% gluconic acid from glucose after 7 days of fermentation with 3% CaCO3). Peptone was the best nitrogen source for acid fermentation and glucose was superior to sucrose. Addition of low concentrations of KH2PO4 and MgSO4 - 7 H2O stimulated acid production. An initial pH of 6.1 was most favourable for acid accumulation and addition of CaCO3 was necessary for maximum acid production.

Elly OD, Hellen KW. "Relationship between inflation and dividend payout for companies listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(6). Abstractrelationship_between_inflation_and_dividend_payout_for_companies_listed_at_the_nse_2013.pdf

Earlier studies conducted have a mixed opinion on the effect of inflation on dividend payout. Due to the nominal increase in the volumes of money, which result from the increase in inflation, at least for a short run, some studies have concluded that inflation has a positive effect on dividend payout. However, in the long run, studies in general seem to show that the inflation rate and stock returns are negatively related. This study, which considers a sample of all the firms that consistently paid dividend between the year 2002 to 2011 and were listed at the Nairobi Security Exchange showed that, inflation rate has no impact on the dividend
payout. However, other variables considered, that is, the spot Dollar exchange rate to Kenya Shillings,
the Volumes of Money Supply and the T-Bill rate (91 day rate) show mixed results. The study reveals that, the exchange rate and the T-Bill rate have a positive correlation with dividend payout, while volume of money supplied has no impact on the dividend payout.
Key Words: Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE), Dividend Payout, Inflation, Exchange Rate, Money Supply, T-Bill rate.

Elly OD, Ojung’a AS. "THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN KENYA." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol. 1 September 2013(9). Abstractthe_effect_of_exchange_rate_volatility_on_foreign_direct.pdf

Kenya like most developing countries has had a deficiency of investment capital which can
negatively affect economic activities. Due to the decline in official development assistance (ODA)
in the 1990s, most of the developing countries’ governments have put in efforts to attract foreign
direct investment which not only creates employment opportunities but also contributes to
economic growth and development. This study therefore investigates the effect of exchange rate
volatility on foreign direct investments (FDI) in Kenya by examining the degree of relationship
between the exchange rate volatility and FDI inflows.
Secondary annual data of both FDI inflows and Exchange rate fluctuation variables for the periods
1981 to 2010 were collected and analyzed in the study. This period is sampled since it captures
three exchange rates regime namely fixed rates regimes, pegged rates regimes and finally floating
rates regimes. The data for real effective exchange rates and FDI are obtained from the IMF and
World Bank data bases on their websites and from the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK).
The findings of the study indicate that the correlation between the two variables is 0.318 implying a
positive correlation which is however weak. The study recommends a more controlled
macroeconomic environment in order to control the fluctuations of the macro economic variables
hence attract more foreign investors in order to increase the FDI inflows into the country. It further
considers future investigation on the contributions of other variables that affect FDI.
Key Words: Exchange rate fluctuations, Foreign direct investments (FDI).

Elly D, Kaijage ES. "DEMAND SIDE FACTORS AND ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE BY SMALL AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESSES DEVELOPMENT. WHITE SANDS HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.; 2015. Abstractdemand_side_factors_and_access_to_external_finance_by_small_and_medium_manufacturing_enterprises_in_nairobi_kenya-2.pdf

This study investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. The findings of the study show that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include entrepreneur’s networks, ethnic orientation, firm growth and earnings volatility. The study recommends further probing of the role of good financial management practices such as preparation and usage of financial information on access to external finance in diverse settings and industries. It is also important for entrepreneurs and providers of the finances to establish and support sustainable networks that guarantee enterprise growth. Though ethnic orientation influence access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure there is efficiency in the market for external financing and certain entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on the basis of their ethnic background. As firm growth also influences access to finance, managers of the SMMEs should endeavor to attain steady and predictable earnings growth with minimal deviations. Such efforts would help minimize financial constraints caused when external funds are inaccessible.

Key Words: Demand side factors, Small and medium manufacturing enterprises

Elly D, Kaijage ES. "FINANCIAL INTEGRATION RELATIONSHIPS AND LINKAGES IN EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY (EAC) EQUITY MARKETS.". In: ORSEA. lower Kabete; 2014. Abstractfinancial_integration_relationships_and_linkages_in_east.pdf

This paper investigates financial integration and linkage relationships amongst equity
markets in East Africa Community over time by determining the speed and levels of
integration using monthly market return data for the period 2007 to 2013. The study also
examines the short run and long run relationships amongst the markets. The study was
motivated by the ongoing plans of establishment of the East Africa Monetary Union
(EAMU) which will be characterized by mobility of labor and capital as factors of
production across the member states.
Using beta and sigma convergence measures, the study notes that financial integration
has not deepened in the EAC over the years though there are trends towards full
integration. Correlation analysis suggests strong significant relationships amongst EAC
equity market returns. Johansen Cointegration tests suggest existence of three stochastic
trends in the equity markets. Vector auto regression analysis and impulse response
analysis suggest linkages amongst the markets hinging on the NSE and mean reversion in
all the equity markets. The study findings suggest that the EAC equity markets are weak
form efficient and there are arbitraging opportunities across the equity markets. The
responses to the shocks in any of the markets are found to be dependent on the
relationships between the markets.
From the study findings, it is inferred that the roadmap to EAMU should be fast tracked
by facilitating efficiency in the EAC markets where rates of return are market
determined. Policy initiatives should be put in place to eliminate arbitrage opportunities
across the markets and to encourage capital mobility through the equity markets. To
support integration, there should be academic studies on the existence of home bias in the
EAC equity market segments.
Key Words: East Africa Community (EAC), East Africa Monetary Union (EAMU), Dar
es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE), Financial Integration, Nairobi Securities Exchange
(NSE), Uganda stock Exchange (USE).

Elly OD, Hellen KW. "Relationship between Inflation and Dividend Payout for Companies Listed At the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(6):1-8. Abstractrelationship_between_inflation_and_dividend_payout_for_companies_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

Earlier studies conducted have a mixed opinion on the effect of inflation on dividend payout.
Due to the nominal increase in the volumes of money, which result from the increase in
inflation, at least for a short run, some studies have concluded that inflation has a positive
effect on dividend payout. However, in the long run, studies in general seem to show that the
inflation rate and stock returns are negatively related. This study, which considers a sample of
all the firms that consistently paid dividend between the year 2002 to 2011 and were listed at
the Nairobi Security Exchange showed that, inflation rate has no impact on the dividend
payout.
However, other variables considered, that is, the spot Dollar exchange rate to Kenya Shillings,
the Volumes of Money Supply and the T-Bill rate (91 day rate) show mixed results. The study
reveals that, the exchange rate and the T-Bill rate have a positive correlation with dividend
payout, while volume of money supplied has no impact on the dividend payout.

Elly D. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION AND FIRM FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: A CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW. University of Nairobi; 2014. Abstract

There has been growing academic interest in the compensation of senior management in corporate enterprises. This interest stems from a concern about the motivation of management as well as concerns about equity and fairness coupled with the importance of corporate governance in enterprises. Shareholders as principals in entities desire maximization of stock returns for a given level of risk and they naturally wish that their firms design compensation systems that motivate senior executives as their agents to pursue policies that meet the principal objective of shareholder wealth maximization. This desk review of relevant theoretical and empirical literature investigates whether the executive compensation – performance link meets an optimality test ex –ante or ex – post under the agency based models as well as other alternative paradigms that explain managerial actions. From the review findings, a confusing debate rages among academics about the relationship between executive compensation and firm financial performance. This confusion manifests itself in a number of ways: in the range of empirical specifications for pay to performance regressions in the literature; in the wide discrepancy in estimates of pay performance sensitivities and in controversy over the appropriate level of executive holdings of stock and stock options. Differences in research methodology explain some of the inconsistent conclusions notwithstanding that there is even a lack of consensus among some studies that use identical or very similar research designs. Foremost, the measurement of firm success is in intself controversial regarding adoption of performance measures. Also controversial is treatment of the components of compensation. The diverse set of disciplines involved in the study area and the wide variety of methods used to investigate the main questions complicates the way to consensus especially on incorporation of organizational contextual settings and other contingency factors for executive compensation.
Research gaps emerging in the literature review include; wide variations of pay performance sensitivities derived within agency models, minimal evaluation of explanatory values of alternative paradigms to the agency models, undefined relationships between pay performance sensitivity and the performance metric applied, undefined relationship between executive compensation components and past and future organizational performance levels, inexplained sensitivity of the pay performance link to organizational contextual effects of ownership and internationalization, unspecified possibility of dual causality between executive compensation and firm performance and the information content of executive compensation plan adopted by a public enterprise.
The study recommends future research effort for bridging the knowledge gaps using alternative paradigms while adressing the methodological issues of empirical specifications, causality, fixed-effects, first-differencing, and instrumental variables. On the empirical specifications, the studies need to reconsider the causality relationships, operationalization of research variables, use of panel data and incorporation of control variables like demographic characteristics, corporate governance mechanisms, regulation, firm ownership and globalization.

Elly OD, Hellen KW. "Relationship between Inflation and Dividend Payout for Companies Listed At the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(6):1-8. Abstractrelationship_between_inflation_and_dividend_payout_for_companies_listed_at_the_nse_20131.pdf

Earlier studies conducted have a mixed opinion on the effect of inflation on dividend payout.
Due to the nominal increase in the volumes of money, which result from the increase in
inflation, at least for a short run, some studies have concluded that inflation has a positive
effect on dividend payout. However, in the long run, studies in general seem to show that the inflation rate and stock returns are negatively related. This study, which consider sa sample of all the firms that consistently paid dividend between the year 2002 to 2011 and were listed at
the Nairobi Security Exchange showed that , inflation rate has no impact on the dividend payout.
However, other variables considered, that is ,the spo tDollar exchange rate to Kenya Shilling
s, the Volumes of Money Supply and the T-Bill rate (91 day rate) show mixed result s. The study
reveals that, the exchange rate and the T-Bill rate have a positive correlation with dividend
payout, while volume of money supplied has no impact on the dividend payout.
Key Words:
Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE), Dividend Payout, Inflation, Exchange Rate,Money Supply, T-Bill rate.

Elly D, Kaijage ES. "DEMAND SIDE FACTORS AND ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE BY SMALL AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESSES DEVELOPMENT. WHITE SANDS HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.; 2015. Abstractdemand_side_factors_and_access_to_external_finance_by_small_and_medium_manufacturing_enterprises_in_nairobi_kenya-2.pdf

This study investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. The findings of the study show that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include entrepreneur’s networks, ethnic orientation, firm growth and earnings volatility. The study recommends further probing of the role of good financial management practices such as preparation and usage of financial information on access to external finance in diverse settings and industries. It is also important for entrepreneurs and providers of the finances to establish and support sustainable networks that guarantee enterprise growth. Though ethnic orientation influence access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure there is efficiency in the market for external financing and certain entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on the basis of their ethnic background. As firm growth also influences access to finance, managers of the SMMEs should endeavor to attain steady and predictable earnings growth with minimal deviations. Such efforts would help minimize financial constraints caused when external funds are inaccessible.

Key Words: Demand side factors, Small and medium manufacturing enterprises

Elly OD, Oriwo AE. "The Relationship Between Macro Economic Variables And Stock Market Performance In Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review . 2012;3(1):38-49. Abstractthe_relationship_between_macro_economic_variables_and_stock_market_performance_in_kenya.pdf

This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic variables on NSE All
share index (NASI) and goes further to determine whether changes in macroeconomic
variables can be used to predict the future NASI. Three key macroeconomic variables
are examined and they include lending interest rate, inflation rate and 91 day Treasury
bill (T bill) rate. Secondary data for the periods March 2008 to March 2012 is collected
as follows; data for NASI was obtained from the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE),
data for inflation was obtained from Kenya National Bureau of Statistics and finally
data for lending rates and 91-day T Bill was obtained from Central Bank of Kenya
(CBK). The data is analysed using regression method. The lending rate is dropped from
the regression model since it is correlated with the 91-Day T bill rate. The findings in
the study indicate that 91 – day T bill rate has a negative relationship with the NASI
while inflation has a weak positive relationship with the NASI. Based on these findings,
the study recommends monitoring of the macroeconomic environment since the
changes in the macroeconomic variables has an effect on the stock market performance,
which also influences the foreign investor’s decisions in the local investments.

Elly D, Kaijage ES. "Effects of Demand Side Factors on Access to External Finance by Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):44-6. Abstract

Abstract Purpose - This paper investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. Methodology - The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. Findings – The study establishes that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include variations in entrepreneur’s networks, firm growth and earnings volatility which explain variations in odds of access to external finance by 39.9 percent for networks and 45.8 percent for earnings volatility and firm growth. Implications – To minimize SMMEs financial constraints, social networking amongst entrepreneurs, firm growth and stabilized earning should be prioritized by management and policy makers. Though ethnic orientation influences the odds of access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure efficiency in external financing markets so that entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on this basis. Value - The study recommends establishment and support of sustainable social networks that guarantee enterprise growth given that firm growth also influence odds of access to external finance. Further studies should probe the significance of good financial management practices on odds of access to external finance in diverse settings and industries.

Ellis JT, Holmdahl OJ, Ryce C, Njenga JM, Harper PA, Morrison DA. "Molecular phylogeny of Besnoitia and the genetic relationships among Besnoitia of cattle, wildebeest and goats.". 2000. Abstract

Knowledge on parasites of the genus Besnoitia is sparse, which are classified in the subfamily Toxoplasmatinae of the phylum Apicomplexa. This arrangement hypotheses that Besnoitia represents the sister group to species such as Toxoplasma gondii and Hammondia hammondi. In order to test this hypothesis, phylogenetic analyses of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from Besnoitia, Hammondia, Isospora, Frenkelia, Eimeria, Neospora, Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma were performed. The 18S rDNA of Besnoitia besnoiti, Besnoitia jellisoni and Eimeria alabamensis were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses by parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods showed Besnoitia to be reproducibly the sister group to a clade containing Hammondia, Neospora and Toxoplasma. Furthermore, Besnoitia of cattle, wildebeest and goats had identical ITS1 rDNA sequences, which questions the use of the taxon Besnoitia caprae to describe the Besnoitia found in goats.

Ellemberg D, Lewis TL, Maurer D, Brent HP. "Influence of monocular deprivation during infancy on the later development of spatial and temporal vision." Vision Research. 2000;40:3283-3295. AbstractWebsite

Using the method of limits, we measured spatial and temporal vision in 15 patients, aged 4–28 years, who had been monocularly deprived of patterned visual input during infancy by a dense cataract. All patients showed losses in both spatial and temporal vision, with greater losses in spatial than in temporal vision. Losses were smaller when there had been more patching of the non-deprived eye. The results indicate that visual deprivation has smaller effects on the neural mechanisms mediating temporal vision than on those mediating spatial vision.

Elizabeth R. Brown, Phelgona Otieno, Dorothy A. Mbori-Ngacha, Carey Farquhar, Elizabeth M. Obimbo, Ruth Nduati JO. "Comparison of CD4 Cell Count, Viral Load, and Other Markers for the Prediction of Mortality among HIV-1–Infected Kenyan Pregnant Women." J Infect Dis. 2009 May 1; . 2009;199(9): 1292–1300. doi:10.1086/597617. Abstractcomparison_of_cd4_cell_count_viral_load.pdf

Abstract
Background—There are limited data regarding the relative merits of biomarkers as predictors of
mortality or time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Methods—We evaluated the usefulness of the CD4 cell count, CD4 cell percentage (CD4%), human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load, total lymphocyte count (TLC), body mass index (BMI),
and hemoglobin measured at 32 weeks’ gestation as predictors of mortality in a cohort of HIV-1–
infected women in Nairobi, Kenya. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and area
under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were determined for each biomarker
separately, as well as for the CD4 cell count and the HIV-1 load combined.
Results—Among 489 women with 10,150 person-months of follow-up, mortality rates at 1 and 2
years postpartum were 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7%–3.4%) and 5.5% (95% CI, 3.0%–
8.0%), respectively. CD4 cell count and CD4% had the highest AUC value (>0.9). BMI, TLC, and
hemoglobin were each associated with but poorly predictive of mortality (PPV, <7%). The HIV-1
load did not predict mortality beyond the CD4 cell count.
Conclusions—The CD4 cell count and CD4% measured during pregnancy were both useful
predictors of mortality among pregnant women. TLC, BMI, and hemoglobin had a limited predictive
value, and the HIV-1 load did not predict mortality any better than did the CD4 cell count alone.
In 2007, >85% of the world’s estimated 2 million HIV-infected pregnant women lived in sub-
Saharan Africa [1]. Many women in this region have HIV-1 infection diagnosed during
pregnancy as part of programs designed to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1
(PMTCT). Within these programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1,

Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, Richardson B, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Farquhar C, Bosire R, Barbara Lohman Payne, John-Stewart G. "Pediatric HIV-1 in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Background—There is limited information regarding the pattern and correlates of viral replication in vertically HIV-1–infected children and its role on their outcomes in resource-limited settings. Methods—HIV-1–infected infants were followed from birth to 24 months. Serial HIV-1 RNA levels were compared in infants infected in utero (<48 hours), peripartum (48 hours–1 month), and late postnatal (after 1 month). Cofactors for viral peak [highest viral load (VL) within 6 months of infection] and set point and mortality were determined. Results—Among 85 HIV-1–infected infants, 24 were infected in utero, 41 peripartum, 13 late postnatal; 7 had no 48-hour assay. HIV-1 VL set point was significantly lower in infants infected >1 month vs. ≤1 month (5.59 vs. 6.24 log10 copies per milliliter, P = 0.01). Maternal VL correlated with peak infant VL (P < 0.001). Univariately, infant peak and set point VL and 6-month CD4% <15% predicted mortality; and 6-month CD4% <15% remained independently predictive in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.90 to 12.36). Conclusions—Infants infected after the age of 1 month contained virus better than infants infected before 1 month of age. Maternal VL predicted infant VL, which, in turn was associated with early mortality

Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo MBCB, et al. "Pediatric HIV-1 in Kenya: Pattern and Correlates of Viral Load and Association With Mortality ,." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009. Abstractpediatric_hiv-1_in_kenya.pdf

Abstract
Background—There is limited information regarding the pattern and correlates of viral replication
in vertically HIV-1–infected children and its role on their outcomes in resource-limited settings.
Methods—HIV-1–infected infants were followed from birth to 24 months. Serial HIV-1 RNA
levels were compared in infants infected in utero (<48 hours), peripartum (48 hours–1 month), and
late postnatal (after 1 month). Cofactors for viral peak [highest viral load (VL) within 6 months of
infection] and set point and mortality were determined.
Results—Among 85 HIV-1–infected infants, 24 were infected in utero, 41 peripartum, 13 late
postnatal; 7 had no 48-hour assay. HIV-1 VL set point was significantly lower in infants infected >1
month vs. ≤1 month (5.59 vs. 6.24 log10 copies per milliliter, P = 0.01). Maternal VL correlated with
peak infant VL (P < 0.001). Univariately, infant peak and set point VL and 6-month CD4% <15%
predicted mortality; and 6-month CD4% <15% remained independently predictive in multivariate
analyses (hazard ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.90 to 12.36).
Conclusions—Infants infected after the age of 1 month contained virus better than infants infected
before 1 month of age. Maternal VL predicted infant VL, which, in turn was associated with early
mortality.

ELIZABETH GATUNGO. "Etude sociologique de la situation du fran." Sub-Department of French; 1986. Abstract
n/a
ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Primary health care, selective or comprehensive, which way to go? East Afr Med J . 2003 Jan; 80 ( 1 ): 7-10 . Review. PMID: 12755235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Obimbo EM.". In: East Afr Med J . 2003 Jan; 80 ( 1 ): 7-10 . Review. PMID: 12755235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To critically review the advantages and disadvantages of selective versus comprehensive Primary Health Care (PHC) approaches as a strategy towards improving health in the developing world. DATA SOURCES: Review of literature on PHC. DATA SELECTION: Relevant papers from western and developing world literature. DATA EXTRACTION: Search of Pub-Med, WHO/UNICEF reports, and relevant publications on PHC. DATA SYNTHESIS: Examination of principles behind PHC and practical experiences in PHC in the developing world. CONCLUSIONS: Selective PHC programs have improved specific aspects of health, frequently at the expense of other health sectors, but fail to address an individual's health in holistic manner, or the health infrastructure of countries. Selective PHC programs tend to focus only on a small subset of the community. Comprehensive PHC is expensive to implement, however addresses health of individuals more holistically, addresses both preventive and curative health care, and promotes health infrastructure development and community involvement, thereby providing more sustainable improvement of health in the whole community. PMID: 12755235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

ELIZABETH GATUNGO. "Les fautes servent ." La Voix du CEFRUNA; 1993. Abstract
n/a
ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Emerging issues in measles. East Afr Med J . 2001 Jan; 78 ( 1 ): 1-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 11320756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Obimbo EM.". In: East Afr Med J . 2001 Jan; 78 ( 1 ): 1-3 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
No abstract available.
ELIZABETH GATUNGO. "Rwanda Humanitaria Situation Reports." United Nations; 1995. Abstract
n/a
Eliud Sagwa Mulanda, Chuhila Y, Awori RM, Adero MO, Amugune NO, Akunda E, Kinyamario JI. "Morphological and RAPD-marker characterization of Melia volkensii (Gürke) in vitro plants regenerated via direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2015;14(15):1261-1274.
Eliud Sagwa Mulanda, Adero M, Wepukhulu D, Amugune N, Akunda E, Kinyamario J. "Thidiazuron-induced somatic embryogenesis and shoot regeneration in cotyledon explants of Melia volkensii Gürke." Propagation of Ornamental Plants. 2014;14(1):40-46.
Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Erick Ayienga KGWO-OBMAN. "Multi-agent systems scheduler and open grid computing standards.". 2006. Abstract
n/a
Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Erick Ayienga KGBMAN. "Multi-agent systems scheduler and open grid computing standards.". 2006. Abstract
n/a
Elisha EO. "Exploration of Cloud Computing Practices in University Libraries in Kenya." Library Hi Tech News. 2016;33(9):16-22.
ELISABETH DRMULLERMARIE. "Passagen des Sinns. Eine aesthetische Theorie ereignishafter Darstellung.". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
ELISABETH DRMULLERMARIE. "Ueber paradoxe Sinnserien, informelle Fakes und Peter Greenaway's Featurefilme (Diss.), Wuerzburg: Koenigshausen & Neumann 1999.". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
ELISABETH DRMULLERMARIE. "Mietek Pemper, Der rettende Weg. Schindlers Liste - Die wahre Geschichte, aufgezeichnet von Viktoria Hertling und Marie Elisabeth Mueller, Hamburg: Hoffmann Und Campe.". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
Elijah Njuguna, Gathara M, Nadir S, Mwalusepo S, Williamson D, Mathé P-E, Kimani J, Landmann T, Juma G, Ong’amo G, Gatebe E, Ru BL, Calatayud P-A, Calatayud P-A. "Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands." Data in brief. 2015:138-144.
Elias M, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Expansion of Crop Cultivation and its Impacts on Land Cover Changes in the Borana Rangeland Southern Ethiopia.". 2017. Abstract

n/a

ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "*6FFBC058752C37F0ACD407CD04F39F6DD393B3C8.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1983.
ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbithi, P.M.F., Maitho, T.E., Musimba, N.K.R., and Mugambi, J.M. 2005. Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of Albizia Anthelmintica and Maerua Edulis against Nematode heligmosomoides Polygyrus infections in mice. The Kenya Veterina.". In: Proceedings of University Science, Humanities & Engineering Partnerships in Africa (USHEPiA) Bench Marking Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 21st . de Gruyter; 2005. Abstract
Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica bark and Maerua- edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Groups, 2, and 3 were given an oral dose of water extracts of A. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently given a double oral dose of 0.2ml of physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyus egg count reduction of 72%. 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and 1 respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, /5%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2 3,6, and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use of these plants as anthelmintics
ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Mbaria, J.M., Maitho, T.E. and Mitema. E.S. 2006. The efficacy of a pyrethrum extract against mixed natural gastrointestinal helminths infestations in puppies. The Kenya Veterinarian 29.". In: In: Gerd Antos & Eija Ventola in cooperation with Tilo Weber (eds.). Interpersonal Communication. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter. 1. de Gruyter; 2006. Abstract
with Gerd Antos & Eija Ventola.

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