Bio

Publications


2013

KARIUKI, HELLENNYAMBURA.  2013.  ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITIES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS USING ANIMAL MODELS. (Titus I. Kanui, PhD, Ed.)., Nairobi: University of Nairobi Abstract

ABSTRACT
Pain represents the symptom for the diagnosis of several diseases conditions and is widely accepted as one of the most important determinants of quality of life. Plants have been claimed to have analgesic effects by several communities in East Africa and a great number of the people use plants for management of painful conditions.

The aim of this study was to establish the antinociceptive activities of nine plants used in traditional medicine as a painkiller using tail flick test.

Of the nine plants tested in the tail flick test, the root extracts of Toddalia asiatica, Senna singueana and Rhus natalensis showed significant antinociceptive effects at dose 200 mg / kg while T. asiatica at 100 mg / kg dose exhibited highly significant effect (p < 0.001) compared to the control animals and this was comparable to the reference drug morphine (5 mg / kg).

In the hot plate test Senna singuaenae at 200 mg / kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive effect while Toddalia asiatica roots extract showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) compared to the vehicle treated mice. The antinociceptive effect of T. asiatica was comparable to that of morphine (5 mg / kg) and of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) (100 mg / kg).
In this study the acetic acid induced writhing test was used to screen the roots and leaves of T. asiatica, plant parts that are commonly used in traditional medical practice. The percentage inhibition was higher (56.3%) at 100 mg / kg of the roots compared to (46.21%) the dose of 200 mg /kg of the leaf extract suggesting that the roots is more potent than the leaf extract. The results also indicated that T. asiatica has peripheral pain modulatory effect.
Roots extract of T. asiatica at 200 mg / kg caused significant antinociceptive effects in the early phase of the formalin test while the 100 mg / kg extract caused a highly significant antinociceptive effect in the late phase. This was comparable to that of the reference drugs indomethacin (50 mg / kg) and ASA (100 mg / kg). The formalin test results suggest that T. asiatica roots extract has both peripheral and central sites of action.
The results of the present study indicate that the roots extracts of T. asiatica possess antinociceptive activity in chemical, thermal, and inflammatory models of pain and that the effects of the extract showed dose-dependent antinociceptive effects. The effects were comparable to those of the reference drugs used ASA, morphine and indomethacin.
The observed antinociceptive effects of T. asiatica roots extract are due to the presence of biologically active chemical compounds in the extracts. In order to identify the active compounds, the roots extract of T. asiatica was fractionated by column chromatography roots and the fractions tested for activity. The polar and non-polar fractions both exhibiting similar antinociceptive activities. The antinociceptive effects of the fractions were comparable to the effects of the morphine and ASA in the tail flick test. The hexane/ dichloromethane (1:1) fraction showed very highly significant antinociceptive effects (p < 0.001) with 50 mg / kg and the 100 mg / kg doses compared to the vehicle treated animals. This effect was comparable to that of ASA and morphine which were used as positive controls. The antinonociceptive effects of the polar fractions (dichloromethane / methanol; 1:1) were also highly significant (p < 0.001) with the 50 mg / kg while the 100 mg / kg dose being highly significant (p < 0.01). However, the fractions with moderate polarity (the fraction eluted with dichloromethane) did not show significant effect compared to the vehicle treated animals.
The roots extract of T. asiatica fractions were purified and yielded seven compounds, four alkaloids and three coumarins. The coumarins, labeled as HK 3 (Isopimpinellin) and HK 5 (6-(3-methylbut-2enyloxy)-8-methoxy2h-chromen-2-one), showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick test while HK 6 (6,7-dimethoxy-5-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyl) HK7 (8-Acetonyldihydrochelerythrine) and HK 18 (6-(2, 3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-5,7-dimethoxy-2H-chromen-2-one)) had significant antinociceptive effects compared to the vehicle treated animals. The alkaloids HK 15 (8-oxochelerythrine) and HK 13 (dihydrochlerythrine) showed very highly significant antinociceptive effects with HK 13 showing the most potent antinociceptive effects in the tail flick test. The structure elucidation of compounds of Toddalia asiatica was done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
The compound HK 6 is a new compound and it exhibited significant antinociceptive effects when compared to the vehicle treated controls. Compound HK13 (dihydrochlerythrine) was for the first time isolated from T. asiatica and the structure ellucidated. It is also the first time the compound has been assayed for antinociception and exhibited very highly significant effects. No motor, neurological, or other behavioral deficits were observed with the extracts as well as the compounds of T. asiatica.
Data obtained from this study established the analgesic properties of the crude extracts of which the roots of T. asiatica was he most active. From this plant the active compounds have been isolated and identified withdihydrochlerythrine, being the most active compound. More tests to evaluate on the safety and toxicity on dihydrochlerythrine and related compounds need to be conducted in animals before conventional clinical trials can be undertaken.
This study therefore authenticates the use of Toddalia asiatica in the management of pain since it contains compounds which have shown antinociceptive activities.

Key words:
Antinociception, Toddalia asiatica, mice, alkaloid, coumarin, antinococeptive, dihydrochlerythrine

RA Powell, R Harding, NKMBGRMEL-ALIOAJBEELL.  2013.  Palliative care research in Africa: Consensus building for a prioritized agenda.. Abstract

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Palliative care research in Africa is in its relative infancy, with dedicated financial support extremely limited. Therefore, setting research priorities to optimize use of limited resources is imperative.

OBJECTIVES:

To develop a prioritized research agenda for palliative care in Africa.

METHODS:

We used a two-stage process involving palliative care professionals and researchers: 1) generation of an initial topic list at a consultative workshop of experts and 2) prioritization of that list using a consensus development process, the nominal group technique.

RESULTS:

Phase 1: 41 topics were generated across five groups, with several topics nominated in more than one group. Phase 2: 16 topics and three broad thematic areas were identified. The two most prioritized topics within each of the three themes were the following: Theme 1: patient, family, and volunteers-1) care outcomes and the impact of palliative care as perceived by patients and caregivers and 2) palliative care needs of children; Theme 2: health providers-1) impact of palliative care training on care and practice and 2) integration of palliative care and antiretroviral therapy services; and Theme 3: health systems-1) palliative care needs assessments at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels and 2) integration of palliative care into health systems and educational curricula.

CONCLUSION:

Consensus-based palliative care topics determined by the study can assist researchers in optimizing limited research capacities by focusing on these prioritized areas. Subsequent to the identification and publication of the research agenda, concrete steps will be undertaken by the African Palliative Care Research Network and other partners to help implement it.

Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Africa, palliative care, participatory, priorities, research agenda

Gladys, Machira, HKLMN.  2013.  Impact of Pain Education Program on Nurses: Pain Knowledge and Attitude.. Abstract

International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Vol. 19, Iss. 7, 26 Jul 2013, pp 341 - 345

Introduction: Pain is a common symptom for patients receiving palliative care, but can be relieved by effective pain management. Nurses play a critical part in implementing pain management effectively and must therefore have a solid foundation of knowledge and a positive attitude toward it. Aim: The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate an educational pain management programme (PMP) for nurses in Kenya. Methods: The effects of the PMP were measured using a quasi-experimental pre-post test design. Twenty seven nurses from two units in a single health institution in Kenya participated in a baseline assessment using the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP). Nine randomly selected nurses then received 7 hours of focused education. This group completed the assessment again both immediately after and 2 weeks after the PMP. Results: A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent at baseline. The nurses who received the PMP scored significantly higher on the NKASRP following the PMP: mean scores were 18.44, 28.00, and 27.56 at baseline, first follow-up, and second follow-up assessment respectively. Conclusion: The PMP appears to be effective in improving nurses' pain knowledge and attitudes.

KARIUKI, HELLENN, L GWYTHER, RA POWELL BA MAMS1 HARDINGBSMSPD2 NAMISANGOMS3 KATABIRAREE, 5, L RADBRUCH MD6 MURRAYS.  2013.  Palliative care research in Africa: Consensus building for a prioritized agenda . JOURNAL OF PAIN AND SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT.
Kariuki1, HN, Kanui TI, Yenesew A, Patel N, Mbugua PM.  2013.  Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice. Pan African Medical journal. 14( ):133.

2012

N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  2012.  Hellen N. Kariuki, Titus I. Kanui, Paul G. Kioy. Antinociceptive Potentiation of Pethidine (Demerol) by Clomipramine in the Late Phase of Formalin Test in Mice. Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. : EFENET Abstract
Background: Pethidine, an opioid analgesic is used for pain management. Clomipramine a tricyclic antidepressant primarily used for mood management is also used to treat pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the potentiation of the analgesic effects of sub-threshold dose of pethidine by a tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine. Methods : The antinociceptive activities of clomipramine and pethidine alone and in combination were investigated in Swiss albino mice using the formalin test. Normal saline was employed as the control. Ten animals were used in each experiment. Results: Pethidine 5mg / kg failed to cause any significant effect while the 6.25, 7.5, 8.75 and 10.0mg /kg showed highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.01) compared to the controls in the late phase of formalin test. Clomipramine 0.5 mg / kg did not show any significant effect while 0.75 mg / kg caused a significant effect (p< 0.05) while 1.00 and 1.25mg /kg caused a very highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.001) in the late phase of formalin test compared to the vehicle treated animals. The combination of pethidine 5mg / kg and clomipramine 0.75mg / kg caused a highly significant antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) in the late phase of formalin test.  Conclusion: This study demonstrates a marked reduction in the time spent in pain behaviour produced by the combination of low dose pethidine and clomipramine in the late phase of formalin test. The findings demonstrate the potentiation of a narcotic analgesic by a tricyclic antidepressant.
N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  2012.  Kariuki et. al. Treatment and Outcomes in Palliative Care for HIV Patients: Randomised Control Trial in Kenya.. 19th International Congress on Palliative Care to be held October 9-12, 2012 in Montr. : IAHPC Abstract
Introduction: Despite the epidemiological data demonstrating a high need for palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa, systematic appraisal of the outcome evidence found a wealth of experience yet a dearth of evidence. This paradox offers an opportunity for ethical outcome evidence. A number of barriers to access for HIV palliative care have been identified, particularly in the assessment and management of HIV pain and drug availability in Africa for management of palliative care for people with HIV.There evidence from several studies in Europe, Africa and Latin America identifying those on ART to have a physical and psychological symptom burden equal to those not on treatment (even when controlling for CD4 and viral load). Research showed that around half of HIV outpatients would benefit from palliative care irrespective of their treatment status. Longitudinal studies conducted in East Africa have identified the palliative care-related needs among patients accessing outpatient care in the presence of ART. Barriers and lack of evidence have been identified and there is need for appropriateness of palliative care throughout the HIV disease trajectory and alongside ART. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy in terms of patient outcomes of training HIV nurses in palliative care including an assessment tool, for adults taking ART in Kenya, using randomised controlled trial (RCT) designs.Materials and Method: The study consists of two independent Phase III clinical randomised controlled trials, in a comprehensive care centre in Kenya.Patients are randomly allocated to standard HIV care (including ART) or standard HIV care plus palliative care. The palliative care is delivered through the HIV clinic using an integrated model. The APCA African POS questionnaire is used in this study.The design is longitudinal, using repeated measures. Patient-centred outcomes are measured using quantitative questionnaires. This study aims to reject the null hypothesis that receipt of palliative care in addition to standard care does not affect pain compared to those receiving standard care alone.APCA African POS seeks to address: pain, symptoms, anxiety information, spirituality, communication, planning, family information, family ability to care and family anxietyConclusion: With palliative care being introduced in government hospitals in Kenya, the study aims to provide evidence for efficacy of palliative care in HIV management and to achieve greater access to palliative care for those on ART by enabling existing ART clinic staff to assess and provide palliative care rather than use alternative (potentially more costly) approaches that refer all palliative care need out to external providers.
N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  2012.  Kariuki et. al. Treatment and Outcomes in Palliative Care for HIV Patients: a Randomised Control Trial.. Partnership for Advanced Clinical education Conference, HIV symposium. Kenya. : International Association for the Study of Pain Abstract
Introduction: Despite the epidemiological data demonstrating a high need for palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa, systematic appraisal of the outcome evidence found a wealth of experience yet a dearth of evidence. This paradox offers an opportunity for ethical outcome evidence. A number of barriers to access for HIV palliative care have been identified, particularly in the assessment and management of HIV pain and drug availability in Africa for management of palliative care for people with HIV.There evidence from several studies in Europe, Africa and Latin America identifying those on ART to have a physical and psychological symptom burden equal to those not on treatment (even when controlling for CD4 and viral load). Research showed that around half of HIV outpatients would benefit from palliative care irrespective of their treatment status. Longitudinal studies conducted in East Africa have identified the palliative care-related needs among patients accessing outpatient care in the presence of ART. Barriers and lack of evidence have been identified and there is need for appropriateness of palliative care throughout the HIV disease trajectory and alongside ART. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy in terms of patient outcomes of training HIV nurses in palliative care including an assessment tool, for adults taking ART in Kenya, using randomised controlled trial (RCT) designs.Materials and Method: The study consists of two independent Phase III clinical randomised controlled trials, in a comprehensive care centre in Kenya.Patients are randomly allocated to standard HIV care (including ART) or standard HIV care plus palliative care. The palliative care is delivered through the HIV clinic using an integrated model. The APCA African POS questionnaire is used in this study.The design is longitudinal, using repeated measures. Patient-centred outcomes are measured using quantitative questionnaires. This study aims to reject the null hypothesis that receipt of palliative care in addition to standard care does not affect pain compared to those receiving standard care alone.APCA African POS seeks to address: pain, symptoms, anxiety information, spirituality, communication, planning, family information, family ability to care and family anxietyConclusion: With palliative care being introduced in government hospitals in Kenya, the study aims to provide evidence for efficacy of palliative care in HIV management and to achieve greater access to palliative care for those on ART by enabling existing ART clinic staff to assess and provide palliative care rather than use alternative (potentially more costly) approaches that refer all palliative care need out to external providers.
N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  2012.  Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITIES OF TODDALIA ASIATICA ROOT EXTRACT USING THE FORMALIN TEST ON MICE. 14th World Congress on Pain -Milan 2012. : International Association for the Study of Pain Abstract
Aim of Investigation: Approximately 80% of the world population relies on traditional healers who use herbal remedies. Seventy percent of sub Saharan Africa is reported to be using herbal medicine for management of various medical conditions. Based on anecdotal evidence, herbal remedies used in most communities are claimed to be effective and there is need to evaluate their effectiveness for the benefits to the general population. Natural products still hold the promise for the future of drug discovery in the management pain. Analgesic substances have been purified from plants resulting in the identification of novel structures with known mechanism of actions. The roots and bark of Toddalia asiatica have been traditionally used in the treatment of pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica root extract using the formalin test in mice. Methods: Roots of Toddalia asiatica were sourced, air-dried, powdered and extraction done using dichloromethane and methanol in the ratio of 1:1. The extracts were then concentrated and reconstituted in 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 95% normal saline to achieve working concentrations of 50,100 and 200 mg / kg body weight. The experimental and control animals were injected intraperitoneally 1 hour prior to the experiment. 8 mice were used in each group and each animal was used once. Sensorimotor test was performed on each animal prior to the formalin test. Results: None of the animals showed sensorimotor defect. The 50mg /kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive effect in either the early or the late phase of formalin test.The 100mg / kg dose showed highly significant antinociceptive effect (p < 0.001) in the late phase (15-30 mins) of formalin test while the 200mg / kg dose showed a significant antinociceptive effect (p < 0.01) in the early phase (0-5mins) of formalin test compared to the vehicle treated animals. The 200 mg / kg dose showed no significant effect in the late phase of formalin test. Conclusions: These results suggest that the root extract of Toddalia asiatica has significant antinociceptive effects in the formalin test using mice.
N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  2012.  Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain. Phytopharmacology 2012, 3(1) 122-129. : Inforesights publishing Abstractkariuki_et_al_2012.pdf

Toddalia asiatica within the context of traditional African medicine is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. It is used by the Masai in both Kenya and Tanzania for management of rheumatism among others. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick and hot plate pain tests. The extract solvent (vehicle), morphine and aspirin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. The acetic acid -induced writhing test was used as the screening test and as the root bark extract was found to be more potent than the leaf extract, the former was investigated using the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The root bark extract (200 mg / kg) showed highly significant (p < 0.001) antinociceptive activity in the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The 100mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) activity in the tail flick test but not significant in the hot plate test. The present study, therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful condition.

N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  2012.  Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive Activities of the Root Extracts of Rhus natalensis Kraus and Senna singueana. Phytopharmacology 2012, 2(2) 1-6. : Inforesights Publishing Ltd. Abstractantinocieptive_activity_of_the_root_extracts_of_rhus_natalensis_kraus.pdf

Rhus natalensis and Senna singuaenae are traditional African plants commonlyused as medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain. The plants areused for management of rheumatism among others. This study investigated theantinociceptive activities of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in Swiss albino miceusing the tail-flick and hot plate tests. Extract solvent (vehicle), morphine andaspirin were employed as controls. Root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg /kg) and 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the hot plate while the 200mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05). In the tail flick tests, root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg / kg) showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.01) while 200mg / kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) compared to the controls. The 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick. This study lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in the management of painful conditions..Keywords: Rhus natalensis; Senna singuaenae; analgesic,;

2011

N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  2011.  Hellen Kariuki et. al. (editors). National Palliative Care Guidelines. ( Submitted to MoH for launching). Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. : MOH AbstractWebsite

The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.

N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  2011.  Hellen N. Kariuki and Teresa N. Kinyari (Editors). National Palliative Care Training Manual. (Manual submitted to the MoH for launch). Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. : Ministry of Health Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  2011.  The Antinociceptive Antipyretic Effects of Solanum incanum (Linneaus) in Animal Models Mwonjoria J. K, Kariuki H N, and Waweru FN. International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2011, 2(1), 22-26.. Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. : International Journal of Phytopharmacology Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.

1998

N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  1998.  H.N. Kariuki: Analgesic Effects of Clomipramine and Carbamazapine in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. MSc Thesis . Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. : MOH Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.

1997

N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  1997.  N.M. Ngakinya, B.N. Ngotho, H.N. Kariuki , J.T. Kaimenyi and F.L. Ndungu. Periodontal Health status of patients attending Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital . Indian Journal of Dental Research 8 (4) 105-110, 1997.. Indian Journal of Dental Research 8 (4) 105-110, 1997.. : MOH Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN.  1997.  R.W. Kahama, D.N. Kariuki, H.N. Kariuki and L.W. Njenga: Flourosis in Children and sources of Fluoride around Lake Elementaita region of Kenya . Fluoride 30 (1) 19-25,1997. Fluoride 30 (1) 19-25,1997. : MOH Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.

1996

N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN, G. PROFKIOYPAUL.  1996.  H.N.Kariuki, T.I.Kanui, and P.G.Kioy: The analgesic effects of Clomipramine individually and in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. 7 th International Symposium: The Pain Clinic . October 2-6, 1996 , Istanbul . 7 th International Symposium. : MOH Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.

UoN Websites Search