Ouma, JO, Olang LO, Ouma GO, Oludhe C, Ogallo L, Artan G.  2018.  Magnitudes of Climate Variability and Changes over the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya between 1961 and 2013 Period. American Journal of Climate Change. 7(1):27-39. Abstractmagnitudes_of_climate_variability_and_changes_over_the_arid_and_semi-arid_lands_of_kenya_between_1961_and_2013_period.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

The magnitude and trend of temperature and rainfall extremes as indicators of climate variability and change were investigated in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) of Kenya using in-situ measurements and gridded climate proxy datasets, and analysed using the Gaussian-Kernel analysis and the Mann-Kendall statistics. The results show that the maximum and minimum temperatures have been increasing, with warmer temperatures being experienced mostly at night time. The average change in the mean maximum and minimum seasonal surface air temperature for the region were 0.74˚C and 0.60˚C, respectively between the 1961-1990 and 1991-2013 periods. Decreasing but statistically insignificant trends in the seasonal rainfall were noted in the area, but with mixed patterns in variability. The March-April-May rainfall season indicated the highest decrease in the seasonal rainfall amounts. The southern parts of the region had a decreasing trend in rainfall that was greater
than that of the northern areas. The results of this study are expected to support sustainable pastoralism system prevalent with the local communities in the ASALs.

Aduma, MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW.  2018.  Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya. American Journal of Climate Change. 7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

Ogallo, LA, Omondi P, Ouma G, Wayumba G.  2018.  Climate Change Projections and the Associated Potential Impacts for Somalia. American Journal of Climate Change. 7(2):153. Abstractclimate_change_projections_and_the_associated_potential_impacts_for_somalia.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Somalia has faced severe challenges linked to climate variability, which has been exacerbated by conflict and limited governance that persisted for decades. Today climate extremes such as floods, drought, and coastal marine severe systems among others are always associated with the destruction of property and livelihoods; losses of lives lost, migrations, and resource based conflicts among many other miseries. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown that climate change is real and requires sound knowledge of local future climate change scenarios. The study attempted to provide projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios over Lower Jubba, Somalia. This was done using the downscaled Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) RCMs data. The simulated temperature and rainfall data derived from the CORDEX RCMs ensemble were compared with the observed data. The study focused on the IPCC projected periods of
2030, 2050 and 2070 benchmarks. Analysis of the projected rainfall indicated a decreasing trend in rainfall leading up to 2030 followed by an increase in rainfall with the 2050 and 2070 scenarios. In the case of temperature, the projections from all the models showed increase in minimum and maximum temperatures in all seasons and sub periods, like being observed by temperature projection over other parts of the world. The 2030, 2050 and 2070 projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios show that Somalia future development and livelihoods will in future face increased threats of climate extremes unless effective climate smart adaptation systems form integral components of national development strategies.


Mwesigwa, JB, Ouma GO, Ouma JO, Lutta IM, Mwangi SG, Ogallo LA.  2017.  Tools and Procedures for Seasonal Downscaling of Climate Forecasts for Use by Farmers Over the Greater Horn of Africa: A Case Study for Western Kenya. Climate Change Adaptation in Africa. : Springer, Cham Abstract

Seasonal climate outlooks have become a necessary input to agricultural planning and execution of all farming activities as a form of adaptation to climate change and variability. Extended climate forecasts of 3–4 months pose a challenge to farmers as it is difficult for them to pinpoint exactly what might happen on daily, weekly or decadal time scales. In addition, such forecasts are presented in form of probability maps and in very coarse resolution, making them difficult for farmers to comprehend. Community-specific downscaled forecasts offer an opportunity for farmers to decide on what, where and when to plant, allocation of resources and on other investment options. This study evaluated various downscaling tools and procedures for seasonal forecast interpretation over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) region. The tools evaluated were: analogue year approach, Fact-Fit tool, Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) and GeoCLIM tool. Analogue year approach turned out to be good but highly dependent on accuracy of the selected year; Fact-Fit tool was able to convert the seasonal probability forecasts into amounts but unable to disaggregate rainfall amounts at daily, weekly or dekadal time scales; the WRSI tool used was limited to a number of crops, seasons and regions but was necessary for monitoring seasonal progress and predicting crop performance. The current GeoCLIM software used was unable to disaggregate rainfall amounts to daily, weekly or dekadal scales but was good for suitability analysis and producing spatial distribution rainfall maps. An integrated approach is therefore desirable for producing more reliable and dependable location-specific seasonal forecasts for direct application by farmers and other agricultural practitioners. This is so important in the Horn of Africa region, where climate change is already affecting populations, and adaptation is seen as a major approach to cope with the impacts of climate change.

Haines, S, Imana CA, Opondo M, Ouma G, Rayner S.  2017.  Weather and Climate Knowledge for Water Security: Institutional Roles and Relationships in Turkana. REACH Working Paper. 5 AbstractREACH

Lodwar town in Turkana County faces water security issues relating to its strategic location, (semi-)arid climate, hydroclimatic variability, high poverty rates, low piped water service and a rapidly growing population challenges that are also relevant to many Kenyan and African small towns in fragile environments. Political, economic and environmental changes affecting Lodwar, including devolution, climate variation and change, demographic shifts, and the exploration of subterranean resources (both water and oil), make this an important time to examine the challenges and prospects for inclusive water security. This working paper discusses findings from a 2016 study of the institutions involved in water decision-making in Lodwar, focusing on their access to and use (or non-use) of weather and climate information. What organisations are involved in water decisions affecting Lodwar town; how do they negotiate information access, accountability and uncertainty; and what is at stake? Drawing on qualitative material collected during a 10-week study of institutional arrangements and decision-making, this paper explores
connections and mismatches between weather/climate knowledge and water decisions in Lodwar town and the wider Turkwel basin.

Ouma, GO, Dieye AM, Ogallo LO, Olang LO.  2017.  Institutional Challenges in Scaling-up Climate Change Adaptation Actions: Experiences from Rural Communities in Senegal and Kenya. Climate and Development. :1-10. Abstractinstitutional_challenges_in_scaling_up_climate_change_adaptation_actions_experiences_from_rural_communities_in_senegal_and_kenya.pdfTaylor & Francis

Regional institutions in Africa have the potential to reinforce the adaptive capacity of rural communities in handling climate change impacts. The institutional arrangements provide the rationale for scaling-up adaptation actions by setting the roles of individual players involved in the planning process at local, national and regional levels. The scaling-up then seeks to extend and disseminate the lessons learnt across the levels to support refinement and inclusive implementation of long-term climate change adaptation strategies. This article discusses these considerations through studies of two rural communities faced with the implementation of climate change adaptation strategies in Senegal and Kenya. The cases illustrate different approaches of institutional arrangements and scaling-up of adaptation actions from community to national levels. The lessons from the
communities are typical of most vulnerable rural regions and were hence important for extended dissemination
considering that the impacts of climate change in Africa are felt largely at community levels. A reduction of this
vulnerability requires efficient and realistic adaptation strategies that seek to understand the rural communities while developing considerate policy-based alternatives at all levels of administration

Scott, AA, Misiani H, Okoth J, Jordan A, Gohlke J, Ouma G, Arrighi J, Zaitchik BF, Jjemba E, Verjee S, Waugh DW.  2017.  Temperature and Heat in Informal Settlements in Nairobi. PloS one. 12(11) AbstractPLOS One

Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or “slums” are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity. We show how temperature, humidity and heat index differ in several informal settlements, including in Kibera, the largest slum neighborhood in Africa, and find that temperature and a thermal comfort index known colloquially as the heat index regularly exceed measurements at the Dagoretti observation station by several degrees Celsius. These temperatures are within the range of temperatures previously associated with mortality increases of several percent in youth and elderly populations in informal settlements. We relate these changes to surface properties
such as satellite-derived albedo, vegetation indices, and elevation.

Onyango, MO, Mito CO, Baki P, Ouma G.  2017.  Near Real-time Tropospheric Water Vapour Profiling using a Ground-based GPS Receiver. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 38(23):6697-6713. Abstractnear_real_time_tropospheric_water_vapour_profiling_using_a_ground_based_gps_receiver.pdfTaylor & Francis

This article presents a remote-sensing tool employing an artificial neural networks algorithm for near real-time determination of the relative humidity (RH) profile above a site using global positioning system (GPS) data recorded by a ground-based GPS receiver. GPS data were processed to obtain Integrated Water Vapour. The integrated water vapour in conjunction with ground level information for temperature, pressure, and RH was fed as inputs to the developed neural network which in turn generated the instantaneous RH profile, at six standard pressure levels of 100, 150, 200, 300, 500, and 700 hPa, as output. GPS and radiosonde data for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to train the system while the same data for 2011 were used to validate the system. The relative humidity profile results for 2011 generated using GPS data and the neural network, upon comparison
with recorded in situ radiosonde RH profile measurements for the same days and times in the year 2011, had root mean square error of less than 4%, which falls within the margin of error of the Vaisala RS92 Radiosonde’s humidity measurement regime.

Bobadoye, A, Ogara W, Ouma G, Onono J.  2017.  Assessing Vulnerability of Maasai Pastoralist in Kenya to Climate Change and Variability. Preprints. Abstractassessing_vulnerability_of_maasai_pastoralist_in_kenya_to_climate_change_and_variability.pdfPreprints

Human adaptive responses to climate change occur at the local level, where climatic variability is experienced. Therefore analyzing vulnerability at the local level is important in planning effective adaptation options in a semi-arid environment. This study was conducted to assess vulnerability of Maasai pastoralist communities in Kajiado County, Kenya to climate change by generating vulnerability index for the communities. Data was collected
using questionnaires that were administered to 305 households in the five different administrative wards (Oloosirkon/Sholinke, Kitengela, Kapetui North, Kenyawa-Poka and Ilmaroro) in Kajiado East. Vulnerability was measured as the net effect of adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure to climate change. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assign weights to the vulnerability indicators used for the study and also to calculate the household vulnerability index. A vulnerability map was produced using the GIS software package ArcGIS 10.2. Results showed that gender of household head, age of household head, educational level, access to extension agents, herd size, livestock diversity and access to credit facility influenced vulnerability of the Maasai pastoralists  to  climate  change  in  Kajiado  East.  The  result  showed  that  the  most  vulnerable communities with the highest negative vulnerability index value are Ilpolosat (‐2.31), Oloosirikon (‐2.22), Lenihani (‐2.05), Konza (‐1.81) and Oloshaiki (‐1.53). The communities with the highest positive vulnerability index values were Kekayaya (4.02), Kepiro (3.47), Omoyi (2.81), Esilanke (2.23), Kisaju (2.16) and Olmerui (2.15). We conclude that provision of basic amenities such as good roads and electricity; access to extension agents, access to credit facilities and herd mobility will reduce vulnerability of Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado east to climate change and variability.


Bobadoye, AO, Ogara WO, Ouma GO, Onono JO.  2016.  Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among rural Maasai Pastoralist in Kenya. American Journal of Rural Development. 4(6):120-128. AbstractResearchGate

The aim of this study is to assess adaptation and coping strategies of Maasai pastoralist to climate change and identify viable adaptation options to reduce the impact of climate change among Maasai pastoralist in the arid and semi-arid (ASALS) in Kenya. The study was carried out in Kajiado County and multiple data collection
techniques such as in-depth interview with 305 households, focus group discussion, and key informant interview
were used to assess adaptation strategies of pastoralist household and identify viable adaptation options for the study area. Rainfall data used for the study was also collected from Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS) and used for standard precipitation index (SPI) analysis. SPI was used to analyze drought severity in the study area between 1970 and 2013. SPI was designed to quantify precipitation deficit for multiple time scale. Results showed that drought is the major climatic challenge affecting pastoralist in the study area. The SPI result showed increase in drought occurrence in Kajiado County in recent years with six years (2000, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2011) having negative SPI values between 2000-2011. The year 2000 was also the driest year recorded in the study with an SPI value of -3.09. The study also showed that Maasai pastoralists already have many adaptation measures to cope with the impacts of climate extremes. However, increase in drought occurrence in the last few years is reducing their resilience. This study observed that most of the adaptation and coping strategies adopted by Maasai pastoralist are autonomous and are unlikely to build resilience of pastoralist livelihoods and ecosystems to cope with the projected magnitude and scale of climate change in the 21st Century. The study identified adaptation strategies such as effective early warning system, water harvesting, rapid infrastructural development, encouraging table banking and cooperative societies, Building and equipping schools, migration, livestock diversification and child education as long term no regret adaptation option that can enhance resilience of Maasai pastoralist to climate change and its extremes in the arid and semi arid lands of Kenya.

Keywords: adaptation strategies, drought, climate change, Maasai pastoralist

Scott, A, Misiani HO, Zaitchik BF, Ouma GO, Anyah RO, Jordan A.  2016.  Inter-annual Variability of Temperature and Extreme Heat Events during the Nairobi Warm Season. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. AbstractSAO/NASA ADS Physics Abstract Service

Extreme heat events significantly stress all organisms in the ecosystem, and are likely to be amplified in peri-urban and urban areas. Understanding the variability and drivers behind these events is key to generating early warnings, yet in Equatorial East Africa, this information is currently unavailable. This study uses daily maximum and minimum temperature records from weather stations within Nairobi and its surroundings to characterize variability in daily minimum temperatures and the number of extreme heat events. ERA-Interim reanalysis is applied to assess the drivers of these events at event and seasonal time scales. At seasonal time scales, high temperatures in Nairobi are a function of large scale climate variability associated with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) and Global Mean Sea Surface Temperature (GMSST). Extreme heat events, however, are more strongly associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). For instance, the persistence of AMO and ENSO, in particular, provide a basis for seasonal prediction of extreme heat events/days in Nairobi. It is also apparent that the temporal signal from extreme heat events in tropics differs from classic heat wave definitions developed in the mid-latitudes, which suggests that a new approach for defining these events is necessary for tropical regions.

A.O, B, W.O PO, Dr. Ouma GO, Dr. Onono JO.  2016.  Pastoralist Perceptions on Climate Change and Variability in Kajiado in Relation to Meteorology Evidence. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 5(1):37-46. Abstractpastoralist_perceptions_on_climate_change_and_variability_in_kajiado_in_relation_to_meteorology_evidence.pdfAcademic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

This study provides an overview of changing climatic conditions in Kajiado County based on analysis of climatic data and perception of pastoralist on key climatic variables. It collates the two sources of knowledge on climate change, indicating the consistency and inconsistency between the two. Rainfall and temperature data of the study area for a period of 43 years
(1970-2013) was collected from Kenya Meteorological Service, organized and analyzed using Microsoft excel. The perception of Maasai pastoralist to climate change was determined using questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interview. Result shows that rainfall trend in Kajiado County have a high variability level (CV %) of 27.5% for Kajiado North, 21.5% for Kajiado West, 26.4% for Kajiado East and 25.2% for Kajiado Central. Although, there is no significant change for rainfall over the study period, result on perception revealed that 83% of respondent perceive that rainfall amount is reducing in the last 30 years. However, perception of pastoralist about years of extreme drought corroborates the meteorological trend of years with very low rainfall. A rise in minimum temperature (1.410C), maximum temperature (0.470C) and average temperature (0.940C) occurred between 1970 and 2013. This agrees with the perception of 81% of Maasai pastoralist, which perceived that temperature has been increasing in the last 30 years. Overall, the results of this study are in line with recent trend of global warming in the region as reported by the latest Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2014) report.

Keywords: climate change, rainfall, temperature, perception

Songa, CMM, Ndeda JHO, Ouma G.  2016.  Statistical Study of Solar Forcing of Total Column Ozone Variation Over Three Cities in Kenya. Applied Physics Research. 8(3):77-89. Abstractstatistical_study_of_solar_forcing_of_total_column_ozone_variation_over_three_cities_in_kenya.pdfApplied Physics Research

In this study, a statistical analysis between three solar activity indices (SAI) namely; sunspot number (ssn), F10.7
index (sf) and Mg II index (mg) and total column ozone (TCO) time series over three cities in Kenya namely;
Nairobi (1.17º S; 36.46º E), Kisumu (0.03º S; 34.45º E) and Mombasa (4.02º S; 39.43º E) for the period 1985 -
2011 are considered. Pearson and cross correlations, linear and multiple regression analyses are performed. All
the statistical analyses are based on 95% confidence level. SAI show decreasing trend at significant levels with
highest decrease in international sunspot number and least in Mg II index. TCO are highly correlated with each
other at (0.936< r < 0.955, p < 0.001). SAI are also highly correlated with each other at (0.941< r < 0.976, p <
0.001) and are significantly positively correlated with TCO over the study period except Mg II index at Kisumu.
TCO and SAI have correlations at both long and short lags. At all the cities, F10.7 index has an immediate
impact and Mg II index has a delayed impact on TCO. A linear relationship exists between the two variables in
all the cities. An increase in TCO of about 2 – 3 % (Nairobi), 1 – 2% (Kisumu) and 3 – 4 % (Mombasa) is
attributed to solar activity indices. The multiple correlation coefficients and significant levels obtained show that 3
– 5% of the TCO at Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa can be predicted by the SAI.

Keywords: correlation, F10.7 index, Mg II index, regression, solar activity indices, sunspot number, time series,
total column ozone


Hope, R, Olago D, Opondo M, Mumma A, Ouma G, Dulo S, A Trevett, Harvey P, Stallone A, Koehler J, Katuva J, James R, Washington R, Bradley D, Cheeseman N, Borgomeo E, Charles K, Thomson P.  2015.  Country Diagnostic Report, Kenya. Abstractcountry_diagnostic_report_kenya.pdfOxford University Research Archive

Kenya is one of Africa’s most dynamic and entrepreneurial economies, but one with increasing water security risks. These risks are of growing concern to the poor; where it is clear current poverty metrics do not capture the impact and implications of water shocks or long-term human exposure to water risks. This report highlights 4 significant but uncertain developments that will interact to determine Kenya’s progress in its quest to reach middle-income status by 2030 and improve water security for over 17 million poor people: the impacts of decentralisation resilience to climate shocks reducing inequality harnessing mobile ecosystems. The report presents potential locations to establish Water Security Observatories that address these key issues and developments. Through a risk-based approach and science-practitioner partnerships, the observatories are proposed to examine ‘small towns in fragile lands’ and ‘build water secure institutions’ with the goal of reducing water security risks for the poor. This paper is an output from the REACH Improving Water Security for the Poor programme


L. O. OLANG, P.M. KUNDU, OUMAANDFÜRSTGJ.  2012.  IMPACTS OF LAND COVER CHANGE SCENARIOS ON STORM RUNOFF GENERATION: A BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE NYANDO BASIN, KENYA. land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2140(DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2140)land_cover_change_scenarios.pdf



C, SWMODOAGFGMMTDAOO · · · ·.  2010.  Vulnerability to epidemic malaria in the highlands of Lake Victoria basin: the role of climate change/variability, hydrology and socio-economic factors. Climatic Change. 99(DOI 10.1007/s10584-009-9670-7):473–497.Malaria.pdf



and Ogallo, OGOLA.  2007.  DESERTIFICATION IN AFRICA. Promotion of Science and Technology (POST). Vol. XIII (No.1):22-25.desertification_final.pdf


O., DROUMAGILBERT.  2005.  On Intertwining and W-hypormal operators, Opusula Mathematical, Vol.25 No.2 275 - 285. Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. Abstract
O., DROUMAGILBERT, N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, O DROPEREALFRED.  2005.  Validation of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates: The Ethiopian Case Study. Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. Abstract


O., DROUMAGILBERT.  2004.  Comparison of climatological regions of Kenya derived from dekadal rain gauge and satellite-derived total precipitable water data. Submitted to the Journal of Meteorology and Applied Physics. Abstract


and N. J. Muthama, C. Oludhe, OGO.  2003.  A SIMPLE MODEL FOR DETERMINING THE POTENTIAL RISKS OF LIGHTNING STROKES OVER THE CITIES OF NAIROBI AND MOMBASA. Journal of African Meteorological Society. Vol.6 (No. 2):19-24.Lightning.pdf
and G. Ouma., Omeny P.A, KJ.  2003.  REMOTE SENSING APPLICATION ON EUTROPHICATION MONITORING IN KAVIRONDO GULF OF LAKE VICTORIA KENYA. Journal of African Meteorological Society. Vol.6 (No. 2):11-17.Eutrophication.pdf


O., DROUMAGILBERT.  2001.  Strengthening Remote Sensing for Early Warning, Food Security and Environmental Monitoring in the IGAD Countries. Proc. United Nations Regional Workshop on the Use of Space Technology for Disaster Management in Africa, 1-5 July 2002, Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia. Abstract


O., DROUMAGILBERT.  2000.  Use of satellite data in the monitoring and prediction of rainfall over Kenya. Ph.D thesis, Department of Meteorology, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 185pp. Abstract
O., DROUMAGILBERT.  2000.  The role of remote sensing in natural resource management.. Proc. Workshop on Sustainable Environmental Management for Poverty Alleviation in the Lake Victoria Basin, 27-29 March, 2000, Maseno University College, Kisumu.. Abstract


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