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Habwe J, TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. " 'The Development of Kiswahili Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili Novel' in Reyono." Reyono-Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2016;Vol.5,(Issue 2):21-43 .
Kimani M, Makoteku O. " The Effect of Socio-economic and Proximate Determinants on birth Intervals in Kenya .". In: Fertility in Africa (editors) I. Diamond and D. Holmes, International Statistical Institute. Voorburg: International Statistical Institute; 1991.
Mutuku A, Murungaru K, Magadi M.  Fertility in Kenya: Analysis of Birth intervals in Kenya. . Mauritius: VDM Publishing House LTD; 2010.
NZOMO PROFMARIA. " Feminism and Governance in Africa,” ."; 2011.
Kimani M.  Effect of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya. Hill K, Makoteku O, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1992.
Kimani M.  Effect of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya. Mosley H, Oyuke C, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1982.
B.W.K W.  Effects of herbicides and Kikuyu grass on yield and yield quality of pyrethrum. . Ariga ES, P.O A, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Onjala J, Olsson B, Birungi P, Huda S, Motlaleng GR, Sterner T. " "Ranking Environmental Services in Different Countries"." Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Economics. 2002;Volume 4(Part 1):Pp.73-93.
Onjala J. " "Economic Growth and Development in Kenya Since Independence" .". In: in Ng'ethe N. and W. Owino (eds) (2000). From Sessional Paper No.10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate. Nairobi: The Regal Press Kenya.; 2000.
Onjala J. " “Merchandize Trading between Kenya and China: Implications for East African Community (EAC)”.". In: in Adem Seifuden (ed) “China’s Diplomacy in East and Central Africa”. England: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. England; 2013.
Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "肯尼亚地区对玉米中霉菌毒素引起的健康风险的管理和降低." Food Quality and Safety. 2018;1(4):268-274.
Kimeu M. "•Made contributions in the Architectural Book entitled: Traditional Architecture: Settlement, Evolution and Built Form, Authored by T.J.C Anyamba and A. Adebayo.". In: Traditional Architecture: Settlement, Evolution and Built Form. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation Press; 1994.
Rinkanya AN. "• “ She would never be a doormat”: ideal female characters in Margaret Ogola’s novels // Pathways to African Feminism and Development." Journal of African Women’s Studies Centre, University of Nairobi. 2015;1(3):36-47.
Rinkanya AN. "• Woman for president? ‘Alternative’ future in the works of Kenyan women writers // Tydskrif vir Letterkunde." Pretoria: University of Pretoria Press. 2014;51(2):144-155.
(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM, Gakuu PC, Mboroki DG, Ndiritu DA. "• University Managers’ Participation in Distance Education: What Role Does Their Level of Knowledge in Distance Education Play?". In: ACADEMIC CONFERENCE IN THE SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND DISTANCE EDUCATION. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND EXTERNAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, KENYA; 2013.university_managers_participation_in_de.doc
Twalib MH. "• Twalib, M.H. (2018). To Keep close or to Let Loose: Recipe for Sustainable Quality Dyad. .". Forthcoming. Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the recipe of sustainable quality dyad. Leaders are known to consciously and sub consciously form two groups; in-group and outgroup members.Studies have shown that members of the in-group work overtime and perform extra duties and in turn,get favours from the leaders including career mobility and access to information, among other favours.Literature is unclear on how these groups are formed and this paper embarked on finding out the recipe of the formation and sustainability of a quality dyad. It was hypothesised that being a male member, trust and competence are not recipesof a high quality relationship. The study used a descriptive survey of a population of 19 leaders were responding to questions about their 169 employeeswho report to them directly.Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires.122 pairs of leaders and their direct reports was the response rate(72.2%). Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.The hypothesis wastested using logistical regression technique. The results showed that competence and trust arethe recipe for a high quality relationship. Masculinity, on the other hand, was not a recipe for a sustainable quality dyadic relationship. It is recommended that employees should ensure high level trustworthiness and competence for them to be kept close by the leader. The paper suggests that more variables can be considered as recipes for the quality dyadic relationship. These findings add significant value on both policyand practice.

Abuya PE. "• The “Pacific Solution”: A Durable Answer or Political Stopgap Option? ." East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights. 2003;1(9):144-149.
Abuya PE. "• The Pain of Love: Spousal Immigration and Domestic Violence in Australia—A Regime in Chaos?" Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal . 2003;3(12):673-707.
"• The effect of Farm Pesticides water bird numbers in Lake Naivasha Kenya." AmericanJournal of Environment Science and Water Resources. 2013;2(227 0704):203-209.koaga_et_al.pdf
Kinyanjui S. "• Sentencing in Kenya: Trends, Practices and Perceptions ." Legal Resources Foundation. 2011.
Abuya PE. "• Revisiting Liberalism and Post-Colonial Theory in the Context of Refugee Applications ." Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights . 2006;2(24):193-227 .
Abuya PE. "• Reinforcing Refugee Protection in the Wake of the War on Terror ." Boston College International and Comparative Law Review. 2007;2(30):277-330 .
Abuya PE. "• Refugees and Their Interpreters: Lessons from the Kenyan Experience." Australasian Review of African Studies . 2004;(66):66-76.
Abuya PE. "• Refugee Status Imtaxaan in Kenya: An Empirical Survey ." Journal of African Law . 2004;2(48):187-206.
Abuya PE. "• Refugee Status Determination in Australia: Breaking the Rules? ." Liverpool Law Review . 2004;3(25):225-251.
Kinyanjui S. • Pre-Trial Detention in Kenya . Open Society Initiative for East Africa; 2011.
Ouko SJ. "• Political Transparency: A Case for Legislative Review in Kenya; .". In: • Political Transparency.; 2010.
Abuya PE. "• Past Reflections, Future Insights: African Asylum Law and Policy in Historical Perspective ." International Journal of Refugee Law . 2007;1(19):51-95.
Abuya PE. "• Legislative Changes to the Temporary Refugee Regime in Australia: Three Steps Forward? ." Tottel’s Journal of Immigration, Asylum & Nationality Law . 2004;4(18):262-264.
Getanda CM. • Labour Law principles structures and practice . Aura Publishers; 2012.
Ouko SJ. "• Governance and Constitutional Review: A case study of Kenya.". In: • Governance and Constitutional Review.; 2009.
Getanda CM. • Fair Trial & The Rights Of The Accused . Aura Publishers; 2012.
K, wa Gachigi. "• Effects of Farm Pesticides on water quality in Lake Naivasha, Kenya." American Journal of Plant Physiology. 2013;8 ( 1557-4539):105-113.kaoga_e_tal_water.pdf
Abuya PE. "• Consequences of a Flawed Presidential Election ." Legal Studies . 2009:127-148.
Rajar SAD. "• Commercial Litigation; A case for expeditious dispute disposal .". In: • Commercial Litigation.; 2008.
Oloo A. "• China and India Engagement in Africa; A Critical Analysis.". In: China-Africa Partnership. The quest for a win-win relationship. Kenya: IREN ; 2012.
Abuya PE, Ikobe C. "• Challenges Facing Internally Displaced Persons: Reflections on Kenya ." Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies . 2010;233(274).
Abuya PE. "• Can African States Conduct Free and Fair Presidential Elections? ." Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights . 2010;8(2):122-164.
Abuya PE, Nyaoro D. "• Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Victims of Persecution and Armed Conflict in South Africa." Hastings International & Comparative Law Review . 2009;1(32):1-54 .
Kinyanjui S. • Best Practices in the Administration of Criminal Justice. Muslim for Human Rights (MUHURI); 2012.
Kinyanjui S. • Best Practices in the Administration of Criminal Justice. Muslim for Human Rights ; 2011.
Abuya PE. "• Asylum Law: Temporary and Permanent Protection Programs in Australia―Solutions or Created Problems? ." Tolley’s Journal of Immigration, Asylum & Nationality Law . 2004;2(18):115-137.
Abuya PE, Mukundi G. "• Assessing Asylum Claims in Africa: Missing or Meeting Standards? ." Netherlands International Law Review . 2006;2(53):171-204 .
Rajar SAD. • A Case for Human Rights for women in Africa . 2006: University of London; 2006.
Abuya PE. "• “A Place to Call Home”: Temporary Asylum in Australia―Lessons for South Africa ." Stellenbosch Law Review . 2004;3(15):429-449.
C N. "„Research on Men and Its Implications for Policy and Programme Development in Reproductive Health.". In: Programming for Male Involvement in Reproductive Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
LNW, Njogu REN, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "”Synthesis of Tris Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes under Green Conditions for Photoredox Catalysis” Trends in Green Chemistry.". In: Trends in Green Chemistry. Stockholm University; 2017.
H.N GATIMU. "”Performance of Civil Servants as Influenced by Factors of Motivation in Government Ministries Headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya”." Journal of Sociology, Psychology and Anthropology in Practice (ISSN:2141-274X). 2011;3; Number 1:p.30-42.
Nyamongo GB. "”Linking Gender Research and Practice".". In: Solidaridad Eastern and Central African Expertise Centre. Naivasha; 2012.
Nzioka C, C N. "“You will know these things when you are older”: The Challenge of imparting sexual Education in Kenyan Schools.". In: ReThinking Research and intervention Approaches that aim at preventing HIV infection among the Youth. Nairobi: The Regal Press Kenya Ltd ; 2006.
Atieno R. "“Women and Girls”.". In: State of Kenya Population 2011. National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2011.
(Eds) DGN/GD/KKC. "“Will they survive the margins? Endangered languages and oral traditions in Kenya”.". In: Indigeneity, Culture and Representation. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan; 2009.
Ngugi M. "“Why Diplomats are so Outspoken.”." Nairobi Law Monthly.. March (1996).
Wasamba P, Sihanya B. "“What Do they get for their Sweat: Rethinking Compensation for Artists in Poor Cash-based Economies.” ." Journal of African Cultural Studies. 2012;Vol. 24, (No. 2):171-183.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "“We don’t want our clothes to smell smoke”: changing malaria control practices and opportunities for integrated community-based management in Baringo, Kenya." BMC public health. 2018;18(1):609. AbstractFull Text

Background

The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya.

Methods

Clinical malaria cases obtained from four health facilities in the riverine and lowland zones were used to analyse malaria trends for the 2005–2014 period. A mixed method approach integrating eight focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews, 300 survey questionnaires and two stakeholders’ consultative forums were used to assess local knowledge on malaria risk and develop a framework for malaria reduction.

Results

Malaria cases increased significantly during the 2005–2014 period (tau = 0.352; p < 0.001) in the riverine zone. March, April, May, June and October showed significant increases compared to other months. Misconceptions about the cause and mode of malaria transmission existed. Gender-segregated outdoor occupation such as social drinking, farm activities, herding, and circumcision events increased the risk of mosquito bites. A positive relationship occurred between education level and opinion on exposure to malaria risk after dusk (χ2 = 2.70, p < 0.05). There was over-reliance on bed nets, yet only 68% (204/300) of respondents owned at least one net. Complementary malaria control measures were under-utilized, with 90% of respondents denying having used either sprays, repellents or burnt cow dung or plant leaves over the last one year before the study was conducted. Baraza, radios, and mobile phone messages were identified as effective media for malaria information exchange. Supplementary strategies identified included unblocking canals, clearing Prosopis bushes, and use of community volunteers and school clubs to promote social behaviour change.

Conclusions

The knowledge gap on malaria transmission should be addressed to minimize the impacts and enhance uptake of appropriate malaria management mechanisms. Implementing community-based framework can support significant reductions in malaria prevalence by minimizing both indoor and outdoor malaria transmissions.

Keywords

Local knowledgeMalaria trendsCommunity-based strategiesFramework

Onjala J. "“Water and Electricity Services Provision in Kenya”.". In: in McCormick D, Mary Omosa and Alila (eds). Business Systems in Africa. Nairobi: of Nairobi Press. ; 2007.
“Visa Vya Watoto Watundu na Hadithi Nyingine”. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2013.
(Eds) DGN/GD/KKC. "“Virtual Communities as spaces for safeguarding endangered cultures”.". In: Local Knowledge - Global Translations. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan; 2013.
WAFULA DRCHARLES. "“Utilization of Open and Distance Learning in Addressing Educational Challenges: Case of the Flagship Projects Initiatives of the University of Nairobi”.". In: A Paper presented to the Academic conference for the School of Continuing and Distance Education on 18th April 2013.; 2013. Abstract

This paper is a discussion of the Practices and experiences of the Centre for Open and Distance Learning in developing distance education in the University of Nairobi. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning which is an independent unit of the University is mandated to collaborate with internal Schools, Faculties, Institutes and Centres to develop Distance education for diversification, access and enrichment of the learning/teaching system of the University of Nairobi.

Data for this paper was obtained through documentary analysis, observation, reports on the activities and interviews with stakeholders in distance education. Data obtained were analyzed and the findings reported in this paper.

This paper will discuss the structural setting put in place which enables the centre to undertake its tasks and mandate through collaboration with internal schools, faculties, centres and institutes. units in carrying out its mandate. In particular, the paper describes the specific units of the Centre which are key in implementing distance education. These are: print materials development unit; audio and visual material development unit; evaluation, research and quality control unit; e-learning unit and learner support and programmes coordination unit.

The paper further elaborates on the operations of the processes taken by the Centre namely the sensitization process, process of material development in print and electronic, quality assurance mechanisms in place, the coordination arrangements put in place and the learners support services available for the learners.

The paper stresses that although there are many ways of acquiring instructional materials namely through adoption, adaption or developing, the practice at the Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been largely to develop their own material but use other sources for support because of the uniqueness of the University of Nairobi programmes. The paper further elaborates on the practice of material development in which the centre plays the role of instructional designing while the collaborating departments provide the subject content.

This paper elucidates the role of the Centre for Open and Distance Learning in providing orientation to subject tutors for efficient and effective tutoring and to learners for copying with the requirements and expectations of open and distance education.

The paper also discusses the challenges that are faced by the Centre for Open and Distance Learning and the collaborating units in implementing distance education programs in the university. Key among them being policy issues, infrastructural and human resource capacity and technical capability of lecturers tutoring on-line.

Finally the paper discusses the outcomes which include: instructional materials developed; new open distance and e-learning programs developed and mounted; increased competency of faculty members and better Co-ordination open, distance and e-learning programs of the university.

In conclusion, the paper recommends that open, distance and e- learning should be embraced further by the university as it can provide solutions to the challenges facing the university and the entire education sector not only in Kenya but also to the rest of Africa.

Mulama SJ. “Usimulizi katika Utenzi wa Siri Li Asirali’. E.M. DM, K.W. PW, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Mungai AFG. “Urban Village” an urban design for Pasadena. Califonia: University of Califonia; 1988.
D K, W. O, P. M, N L, E A. "“Upper Echelons Theory and Research: A review of Theory and Empirical Literature 28 Years Later”." Business Administration Management. 2012;2(10):697-703.
Atieno R, Benjamin Okech, Mitullah WV. "“Understanding the Business Systems in Kenya: Firm Response to Changing Market Environment in the Metal Products Sector”.". In: Regional workshop on Business Systems in Africa . Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
.W.Okuku M. “Uchanganuzi wa Kiisimu wa baadhi ya matini za Kiswahili: mtazamo wa Pragmatiki Leksia’’ . E.M. DM, J PH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
K. AF, O. MW, F. OC. "“Transfusion haemosiderosis in spite of regular use of Desferrioxiamine-Case Report”." East. Afr. Med. J.. 2004;81:326-328.
Ngugi M. "“Towards Professionalization in Kenyan Journalism.”.". In: Presentation at the Media Forum of the Media Council of Kenya.; 2012.
Kunyanga C. "“This is how Agriculture can drive Vision 2030”." The Standard (2018).
T O, A K. "“The Triplex Mundus as a Global Trope in Euphrase Kezilahabi’s Rosa Mistika.” .". In: Contemporary African Societies and Cultures. Seoul: Dahae Publishing Co.Ltd; 2017.
Kibera FN. "“The Transfer of Western Marketing Know-how to East Africa” ." Journal of Business Administration, Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka,. 1988;14:462-83.
and Maweu HWJM. "“The tension between ethics and ethnicity: Examining journalists' ethical decision-making at the Nation Media Group in Kenya”." Journal of African Media Studies. 2014;Volume 6(Issue 2):165-181.
Kibera FN. "“The Role of the Cooperative Movement in Kenya’s Socioeconomic Development”, ." Journal of Business Administration, University of Dhaka,. 1995;21(1&2):101-114.
Atieno R, Shem AO. "“The Role of Social Policy in Development: Health, Water and Sanitation in East Africa”.". In: Social Policy in Sub-saharan African Context: In search of an Inclusive Development. UNRISD and Palgrave; 2007.
Atieno R, Kanyinga K. "“The Revitalisation of Kenya Cooperative Creameries (KCC): The Politics of Policy Reforms in the Dairy Sector in Kenya”." Future Agricultures Working Paper. IDS, Sussex, Future Agricultures Consortium. 2007.
Muleka J. "“The Paradoxes of Form and Style.” ." The Nairobi Journal of Literature, Kenya.. 2010;1(6):55-64.
Wasamba P, Shenk E. "“The Need to Move On: Learning from Oral Narratives in Kenya.” ." Rapportage: Journal of Literary Essays, Interviews, and Profiles . 2008;Vol. xi:78-83.
Wanjala G. "“The Meaning of Quality in Teacher Education : Some Policy Implications for Educational Planning .”." The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research . 2011;5 (1): 1-10 . Abstract

Decline in quality education has become one of the major challenges facing the education sector as the government tries to widen access to basic education. To address these challenges , the major thrust has been to develop feasible policies , objectives , strategies , programmes and activities to guide the development of the sector. For instance , the strategies proposed by MPET for primary education included increasing access and participation as well as raising relevance and quality. However , the quality of education cannot be improved without improving the teacher. Consequently , many primary school teachers went back to school and enrolled in degree courses at universities.This paper discusses the attempt to assess the extent to which the teachers who enrolled in the B.Ed.(Arts) programme of the University of Nairobi have been able to expand their knowledge and pedagogical skills in different subjects. Can these teachers contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the provision and delivery of education? In what ways have they contributed to increased quality in education at the primary school level?

Ngugi CM. "“The Mass Media and the Sustenance of Collective Identifications in Africa.”." Queen: Journal of Rhetoric and Power. 2005;5(Special Issue).
Ngugi CM. "“The Maasai of Kenya”.". In: “Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora. Los Angeles: ABC-CLIO; 2007.
Muleka J. "“The Knell of Readership: A Case of Censorship in Children’s Literature.”." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2007;1(5):55-65.
Ngugi CM. "“The Kikuyu of Kenya” .". In: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora. Los Angeles: ABC-CLIO; 2008.
"“The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Tiriki Circumcision Rites." in Mizizi, University of Nairobi Press. 2009.
Atieno R. "“The Financial System”.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press ; 2007.
Onjala J. "“The Experience of Chinese Support for Infrastructure: How Relevant is it for Kenya?”.". In: Shikwati James (ed) China-Africa Partnership: The quest for a win-win relationship. Nairobi: Inter Region Economic Network (IREN Kenya); 2012.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“The Environmental Crisis from an African Perspective,”.". In: Peace on Earth and Peace with the Earth. Geneva: World Council of Churches; 2008.
Ngugi M. "“The Dangers of Disciplinary Knowledge.”." Expression Today (1999).
Wasamba P. "“The Concept of Heroism in Samburu Moran Ethos”." Journal of African Cultural Studies. 2009;Vol. 21(No. 2):145-158.abstract.pdf
(Eds) HI/MO. "“The Child Reader as Writer”." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2006;4:30-41.
Dr. Oduor J. "“The Anticipated Benefits of Multilingualism in Education in Kenya” .". In: Africa: Challenges of Multilingualism. Africa: Peter Lang - International Academic Publishers; 2013.
Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Lydia W. Njenga, Lydia W. Njenga, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "“Synthesis and Characterization of Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl)-pyridine Complexes for Photoredox Catalysis.". In: 3rd Nordic Meeting on Organometallic Chemistry. Lund, Sweden; 2015.
Osaaji MG. "“Subverting the patriarchal ideology: A case study of a Samburu Woman oral narrative performer” ." Research in African Literatures. 2009;Volume 40 (Number 1):19-28.
Njihia JM, Mbeche IM. "“Soft" Systems Analysis: Road Construction and Maintenance: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: All Africa Engineers Conference. Kenyatta Conference Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; 1994. Abstract
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Mukhwana A. "“Sheng and Engsh: What They Are and What They Are Not”." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015;2(1).
Karimurio J. The “segment knockout” survey method for large trachoma-endemic districts. Melbourne: Melbourne; 2012. Abstract

Prevalence surveys are mandatory before new trachoma control projects are funded and existing ones continued. When a large administrative district with >200,000 people is surveyed as one trachoma intervention unit, the survey clusters are widely spaced and it is difficult to establish the distribution of the disease at the sub-district level with certainty. As a result, some trachoma-endemic areas in Kenya have been missed out and non-endemic areas included in mass antibiotic treatment. The other challenge is the large sample size required in standard trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surveys that include participants aged >15 years. The main objective of this study was to develop an effective and efficient survey method to justify administration of mass antibiotic treatment for active trachoma. The other objective was to establish the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants, to ensure that the time required to complete a TT survey was the same as the time required to complete a TF survey, while ensuring that the sample was adequately representative of the TT backlog. The costs of surveys and administration of mass antibiotic treatment were determined for comparison of the standard and new survey methods. Data sets for previous surveys were re-analysed to calculate the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants and correction factors to extrapolate the total backlog of TT.

A “Trachoma Survey by Segment” (TSS) method was developed to justify and reduce the cost of mass antibiotic treatment. It was tested in Turkana, a large hyper-endemic district with 543,199 people and Narok, a meso-endemic district with 576,388 people. Each district was divided into five geographical areas (segments). A segment had a population of 100,000–200,000 people. Areas with similar risk of trachoma were aggregated in the same segment. The segments with <10% prevalence of TF in children 1-9 years were excluded (knocked-out) from mass treatment, 10%-30% treated for 3 years and >30% treated for 5 years.

An efficient TT40 survey method was also developed where the backlog of TT was estimated in people >40 years old and correction factors used to extrapolate the total backlog. A TT40 survey required a smaller survey sample than a standard TT survey. The backlog correction factor for the lower age limit of 40 years was 1.1.

In Turkana district 3,962 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF in the whole district was 38.0% (95%CI: 32.2%-43.9%). If the survey was conducted using the standard survey by administrative district method the whole population would have been treated for 5 years. However, the TSS method revealed that two segments needed treatment for 3 years and three segments for 5 years. After mass treatment the areas will be re-surveyed to justify further treatment.

In Narok district 3,998 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF was 11.0% (95%CI: 8.0%-14.0%). The entire district had received three rounds of mass antibiotic treatment prior to this study. If this study was conducted by administrative district method, the whole population could have been treated for another three years. The TSS method identified three non-endemic segments which were excluded (knocked-out) from further treatment.

In Turkana district 2,962 people >40 years were examined and 7.8% (95%CI: 6.8%-8.8%) had TT while in Narok 2,996 people >40 years were examined and 2.9% (95%CI: 2.2%-3.6%) had TT. All the segments in both districts needed TT surgical services.

The cost of a survey by the administrative district method was $15,726 to $28,905, while by the TSS method it was $31,917 to $40,610 ($6,383 to $8,122 per segment). In 2009, the unit cost of administration of mass treatment was $0.20 to $0.42 per person treated. In Turkana district (hyper-endemic setting), the total cost of a survey and administration of mass treatment by the TSS method was $11,705 (1.7%) more expensive that by the administrative district method. In Narok district (meso-endemic setting with clustered trachoma) the survey by TSS method and administration of mass treatment was cheaper by $168,275 (53.2%).

It was concluded that the TSS is an effective trachoma survey method to identify the areas that need mass antibiotic treatment. For short term (<3 years) mass treatment in a hyper-endemic district like Turkana, the TSS method has no advantage over the administrative district method. For long term treatment, the TSS method is recommended because some segments may not require treatment for >3 years. The TT40 is an efficient trachoma survey method to determine the backlog of people with TT.

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