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Abuya PE. "• Past Reflections, Future Insights: African Asylum Law and Policy in Historical Perspective ." International Journal of Refugee Law . 2007;1(19):51-95.
Abuya PE. "• Consequences of a Flawed Presidential Election ." Legal Studies . 2009:127-148.
Abuya PE. "• The Pain of Love: Spousal Immigration and Domestic Violence in Australia—A Regime in Chaos?" Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal . 2003;3(12):673-707.
Abuya PE. "• Refugee Status Determination in Australia: Breaking the Rules? ." Liverpool Law Review . 2004;3(25):225-251.
Abuya PE. "• Refugee Status Imtaxaan in Kenya: An Empirical Survey ." Journal of African Law . 2004;2(48):187-206.
Abuya JM, Wambugu MN. "An Analysis of the Pattern of Findings on the Mediastinum in the Computerised Tomography Chest in Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research (2013). 2013;1(3):11-19. Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to assess the pattern of findings in the Mediastinum in Computersied Tomography chest based on a study of major hospitals in Kenya. CT Scan chest was performed in patients suspected to have pathologies in the chest mediastinum. This was a one year prospective study done in four major radiological centres in Nairobi, namely Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the Nairobi Hospital, Medical Imaging and Therapeutic Centre (MITC) and the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. It was carried out on diverse dates from May 1st 1999 to April 30th 2000. There were a total of 101 patients studied out of 376 done CT chest in these four centres. Out of these, 28 were from KNH, Nairobi Hospital 27, MITC 40, and Aga Khan 6 patients. The overall male: female ratio was 2.48:1 with an age range of 2 months to 80 years. Most patients were over 60 years (35.64%) and the commonest clinical presentation was chest pain (21.19%). The major finding was lymph node enlargement. In all patients, a chest radiograph had been done and the commonest finding was a widened mediastinum (34.11%). Majority of the patients referred for CT Scan (23.76%), the clinicians did not give a specific clinical diagnosis. CT scan was able to delineate these masses and give a near exact diagnosis in the majority of these cases. CT scan showed most of the masses in the middle mediastinum (51.49%) and these were mainly lymph node enlargement. Most of the mediastinal masses (53.47%) were benign. The study recommends that CT Scan chest should be done routinely in suspected chest mediastinal pathologies. The study contributes important knowledge to studies of the pathologies in the Mediastinum.

Abuya PE, Mukundi G. "• Assessing Asylum Claims in Africa: Missing or Meeting Standards? ." Netherlands International Law Review . 2006;2(53):171-204 .
Abuya PE, Nyaoro D. "• Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Victims of Persecution and Armed Conflict in South Africa." Hastings International & Comparative Law Review . 2009;1(32):1-54 .
Abuya PE, Ikobe C. "• Challenges Facing Internally Displaced Persons: Reflections on Kenya ." Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies . 2010;233(274).
Abuya PE. "• Asylum Law: Temporary and Permanent Protection Programs in Australia―Solutions or Created Problems? ." Tolley’s Journal of Immigration, Asylum & Nationality Law . 2004;2(18):115-137.
Abuya PE. "• Legislative Changes to the Temporary Refugee Regime in Australia: Three Steps Forward? ." Tottel’s Journal of Immigration, Asylum & Nationality Law . 2004;4(18):262-264.
Abuya PE. "• Revisiting Liberalism and Post-Colonial Theory in the Context of Refugee Applications ." Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights . 2006;2(24):193-227 .
Abuya PE. "• Reinforcing Refugee Protection in the Wake of the War on Terror ." Boston College International and Comparative Law Review. 2007;2(30):277-330 .
Abwova V.V., Mbeo P.N. TKLJKAM. "Formulation of Furosemide Dispersible Tablets for Use in Paediatrics." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;18:61-66.
AC Guzha, Rufino MC, Okoth S, S Jacobs, Nóbrega RLB. "Impacts of land use and land cover change on surface runoff, discharge and low flows: Evidence from East Africa." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2018;15:49-67.
Acevedo JL, Shah RK, Neville HL, Poole MD. "Cystic hygroma." Medscape Reference [actualizado 22 Jul 2011]. Disponível em: http://emedicine. medscape. com/article/994055-overview. 2009. Abstract
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Achia TNO, Mwambi H, Weke P. "Statistical Properties of the Dorfman-Sterrett Group Screening Procedure with Errors in Decision." South African Statist. J.. 2014;48(2014):1-18. Abstract

Summary:
Methods that reduce the cost and time involved in detecting defective or nonconformal members of a large population have been explored extensively in the quality control literature.
These methods have also found extensive application in insect-vector, rodent-bacterium and blood screening. Group-screening designs are plans that identity defect factors in a large population by initially pooling factors together and then classifying each pool as nonconformal (NC) or conformal (C). Individual testing is then carried only amongst individual factors in pool that are found to be nonconformal. A modifications of this strategy, suggested by Sterrett (1957), proposes a reversion to a group test, in a group declared defective, upon detection of the first nonconformal factor and then carrying out individuals testing only if the new group is nonconformal. This procedure is referred to as the Dorfman-Sterrett procedure in the literature.
The statistical properties of the restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure, where the number of reversion to a group test is predetermined, has found little discussion in the literature. This study uses a testing of hypothesis approach to compare the performance of the Dorfman-Sterrett procedure with the Dorfman procedure assuming that factors or groups can be misclassified. Under the testing of hypothesis approach, using a 2g fractional factorial design, cost functions which are linear functions of expected total number of incorrect decisions and the expected.

and Achia, T.N.O; Manene OJAMMM. "The Restricted Dorfman- Sterrett Group-screening procedures without errors in decisions." ICASTORJournal of Mathematical Sciences. 2010;4(2):153-163. AbstractFull text link

This thesis is a study on the Dorfman-Sterrett group-screening designs assuming equal a-prior probabilities of items being defective. Based on a clear theoretical framework, we have studied both restricted and unrestricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure without and without errors in decision, deriving expressions for expected number of tests (and cost functions), which are used to compare the performance of this procedures with the Dorfman procedure. \lVehave give an alternative approach to determining the expected number of tests in an unrestricted Dorfman-Sterrett design. The restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure without errors in decision has also be examined, giving conditions under which the restricted procedure converges to the unrestricted procedure. vVe have shown that for most prevalence rates, the two-stage Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs just as well as the unrestricted procedure. We have in this thesis also examined the Restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure with error in decision. Expressions for the expected number of runs and cost functions have been derived. The results, based on the expected proportional red uct.ion in testing over individual testing, indicate that the single-step Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs better than the Dorfman procedure for all the prevalence rates less than 30%. The result.s also indicate the t.here is little. if any, difference in performance between the single-step and the two-step Dorfman-Sterrett procedures. For the multi-step Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures without errors in decision we have derived the expected number. of runs and compared this results with the expected number of runs for the Dorfman procedure and the multi-step DorfmanSterrett procedure. In. addition, cost functions and expected number of tests for the multi-step Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures with errors in decision have also been derived. The results indicate that the modified procedure perform slightly better than Dorfman procedure fer most prevalence rates but is less efficient than the Dorfman-Sterrett procedure. The expressions for expected number of runs and the expected number of incorrect decisions in screening with errors are derived using vVatsons testing of hypothesis approach. Under the testing of hypothesis approach group factors are tested using orthogonal fractional factorial designs of the type giveil in Plackett and Burman (1946). We have also derived expressions for expected number of runs for both the restricted and the unrestricted Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures. The results indicate that the Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs better than the Dorfman procedure for prevalence rates less than 30%. There is also a greater saving for larger prevalence rates. There is a saving of 3~2%in using the Modified procedure instead of the Dorfman procedure when p = 0.29 compared with a s~,ving of 0.18% for p = 0.001. The results however indicate that Sterrett's procedure is more efficient than t.he Modified procedures for prevalence rates less than 30%. These figures seem to disprove the a.ssertion by Huang et al (1089) that a modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedure is more efficient than Sterrett's procedure when the a-priori probability of an item being defective, P. is somewha.t higher (though still quite low) .

ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1987). Testosterone profiles, spermiogram and gonadal histology in the dog Proc.(Proc. Interna. Conf. Reprod. In Mammals and Man -Nairobi, Kenya 23-27 November, 1987.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng J, Odenyo F. "Enhancing access to Information in the Gender Discourse: A case of University of Nairobi Library." Pathways to African Feminism and Development: Journal of African Women’s Studies . 2016.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1988). Epididymal membrane androgen binding protein: Purification and characterization (Abstract).". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1988. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. and Gombe, S. (1991). Plasma and testicular testosterone and related gonadol parameters on early pubertal and adult dogs. Discovery and Innovations 4 (3): 53-58.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1991. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Wango, E.O.; Odongo, H.O.; Oduma, J.; Oduor Okelo, D. (1995).Effects of 6-Hydroxydopamine on testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in-vitro. Acta Biologica Hungarica. 46(1):75-85.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1995. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1987). Purification and characterization of cauda epididymal cellular androgen binding protein. (Proc. Internat. Conf. Reprod. In Mammals and Man.Nairobi, 23-27 November, 1987.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG MRSASEEYANNE. "How to write Assignment, Term papers and Projects in Higher Institutions of Learning, Exact Concept (2005).". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2005.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1990). A possible membrane bound androgen receptor protein in the dog cauda epididymis. Cell Biology International Reports, 1990.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1990. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng AA, Gunga.O.Samson, Guantai.J.Mboroki. "East Africa Journal of Humanities and Science ." East Africa Journal of Humanities and Science . 2012.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.: Waindi, E.N.; Gombe, S. & Wango, E.O. (1994).Partial purification of a putative membrane bound androgen binding protein in the dog cauda epididymis. Int. J. Biochem.26(4): 583-588.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1994. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Wango, E.O.; Makawiti, D.W.; Oduor Okelo, D.;Schuler, G. & Hoffmann, B. (1997). In-vivo and in-vitro effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on the synthesis of progesterone and estradiol.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1997. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A. (1998). The effect of graded doses of heptachlor - a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide - on the reproductive performance of adult female (sprague dawley) rats. Ph.D Thesis.University of Nairobi.". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1998. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A. (1988). Isolation and characterization of cauda epididymis cellular androgen binding protein. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1988. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng J. "Beyond parliamentary representation What representation: counting the numbers!". In: Annual University of Nairobi Womens colloquim. Nairobi; 2015.
Achieng, B.O; Rambo OCM & PA. "Influence of Physical Facilities as a component of Institutional Capacity on Academic Performance of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Usigu Division – Bondo District, Kenya." International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences. ISSN: 2249 – 5894 Volume 5, Issue 1, January, 2015 - USA. Http://www.ijmra.us . 2015;5(1).
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Leke, R.J.I.; Oduma, J.A.; Bassol-Mayagoita, S.; Bacha, A.M. & Grigor, K.N. (1993). Regional and Geographical variations in infertility: Effects of environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. Environ. Health Persp. Suppls. 101 (Suppl 2): 73-80.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1993. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng BO, Nzuve FM, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM. "Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10(6):85-94.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Wango, E.O.; Oduor Okelo, D.; Makawiti, D.W. & Odongo, H.O. (1995). In-vivo and in-vitro effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on female sex steroid hormone production in rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.111C(2):191-196.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1995. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng B. O; Rambo C.M. & Odundo P.A.(2015). "Assessment of the Influence of the Level of Human Resources as a component of Institutional Capacity on Academic Performance of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Usigu Division – Bondo District, Kenya." Published in International Journal of Marketing and Technology. ISSN: 2249 – 1058 . 2015;5(5).
ACHIENG’ L, M. D. JOSHI, OGOLA EN, KARARI E. "Adequacy of Blood Pressure Control, and Level of Adherence to Antihypertensive therapy at Kenyatta N Hospital." East Afri Med Journal. 2009;86(11):499-506.Website
Achilla RA, Wurapa EK, Bulimo WD. "Respiratory adenovirus Species Circulating In Kenya, 2007-2010.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2011. Abstract

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Achilla R, Majanja J, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Schnabel D. "Sentinel surveillance of pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Kenya in the period August-November 2009." Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:E286. AbstractWebsite
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Achilla RA, Bulimo WD, Majanja JM, Wadegu MO, Mwangi J, Mwangi JW, Njiri JO, Opot BH, Wurapa EK. "Influenza surveillance in Kenya2006-2013: experiences and lessons learned.". 2014. Abstract
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Achilla R, Bulimo W, Schnabel D. "An Evaluation of the Epidemiology of Adenovirus Infections in Kenya Using a Sustained Laboratory-Based Sentinel Surveillance System." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2008;12:e303-e304. AbstractWebsite
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Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Opot. BH, Wurapa. EK. "Respiratory Adenovirus Species Circulating in Kenya From 2007-2010. .". In: 2nd MEDICAL AND VETERINARY VIROLOGY RESEARCH-2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Opot. BH, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Osuna. F, Nyambura. JM, Ocholla. SO, Mitei. KM, Wurapa. EK. "Drastic decline of pandemic (2009) H1N1 Influenza cases in sentinel surveillance sites in Kenya; May 2011-May 2012.". In: International Society for Influenza and other respiratory virus diseases conference. Munich Germany.; 2012. Abstract
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Achilla. R, Bulimo. W, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. E. Characterization of Adenoviruses Circulating in Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Opot. BH, Wurapa. EK. Influenza surveillance in Kenya2006-2013: experiences and lessons learned . Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya.; 2014. Abstract

Background: Influenza sentinel surveillance at the KEMRI-National Influenza Centre (NIC) was rolled out in 2006. A team of collaborators from Kenya Medical Research Unit (KEMRI), US Army Medical research unit –Kenya (USAMRU-K) and Centre for Disease Control-Kenya (CDC) came together to produce a document that was used to initiate Influenza surveillance in 8 civilian hospitals and 5 military hospitals across Kenya. Setting up the surveillance sites required a lot of input from the laboratory personnel, the principal investigator, field site coordinators and field staff including clinical/nursing officers and laboratory technologists.Methods: Prior to opening any of the sentinel sites, the field staff were brought to central Lab in Nairobi for a one week intensive training on Biosafety, Quality Assurance and all the Site Specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). These included sample transportation, sample collection, Inclusion and exclusion criteria and sample rejection SOPs among others.An influenza starter pack was then sent to the respective sites including transport media, cool boxes, Dry shippers, nasopharyngeal swabs, documentation, SOPs among other Laboratory supplies Patient samples were transported weekly to the NIC in dry shippers to maintain cold chain by courier. On reception in the central laboratory a robust inventory system was put in place and tests were conducted first by real time PCR.Results: Eight Sentinel sites were activated over a period of one year. A total of 17980 samples were collected during this time period. On analysis approximately 25% of the samples showed positive results on analysis. Upper respiratory viruses discovered recently like HMPV and HCoV were later introduced to the study through student programs. By real time PCR a total of 1067 influenza A and Influenza B 879 were detected. Virus Isolation yielded 2847 Isolates. Of these the most isolated virus was adenovirus at 21% and respiratory syncitial virus at 19%.Discussion and Conclusion: Over the past eight years a lot of information was acquired through this robust surveillance program. 75% of the samples still remain undiagnosed and could be a potential source for novel viruses. Next Gen sequencing would be instrumental in detected what made the patient ill enough to have fevers of >38 degrees centigrade. This program also played a significant role during the 2009 pandemic H1N1 outbreak and still has capacity to detect MERS CoV currently circulating in the Middle East and H7N9 circulating in China. Influenza and other Upper respiratory tract viruses’ surveillance remains critical in Kenya where tourism, is a major income earner. The capacity to not only detect but disseminate information in a timely manner can help contain potential outbreaks and arrest potentially dangerous situations.

Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. "Pharmacological activities of gutenburgia cordifolia." International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1997;35(1):60-62. Abstract

A methanol extract of Gutenburgia cordifolia showed a greater fall in diastolic than systolic blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. The plant extract produced cardiodepressant activity on isolated rabbit heart and caused contraction on isolated rabbit ileum. The contraction was re¬duced but not abolished with atropine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, the contraction was abolished by atropine, the presence of an acetylcholine-like compound in the plant extract is indicated.

Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. "Pharmacological activities of gutenburgia cordifolia.". 1997. Abstract

A methanol extract of Gutenburgia cordifolia showed a greater fall in diastolic than systolic blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. The plant extract produced cardiodepressant activity on isolated rabbit heart and caused contraction on isolated rabbit ileum. The contraction was re¬duced but not abolished with atropine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, the contraction was abolished by atropine, the presence of an acetylcholine-like compound in the plant extract is indicated.

Achola MA. "Youth, Poverty and Destitution in Nairobi: 1945-60.". In: Past and Past Perspective. IFRA and British Institute in Eastern Africa in Nyeri; 2006.
Achola EA, Basweti NO, Barasa D. "EKEGUSII DP AND ITS SENTENTIAL SYMMETRY: A MINIMALIST INQUIRY." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. 2015;2(2):93-107.
Achola EA, Basweti NO, Barasa D. "Ekegusii DP and its Sentential Symmetry: A Minimalist Inquiry." International Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2015;2(2):93-107.
Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Munenge RW. "Pharmacological activities of gardenia jovis-tonantis.". 1994. Abstract

A methanol extract derived from Gardenia jovis-tonantis showed bronchodilator activity isolated guinea pig trachea. The extract also showed cardiorelaxant activity isolated rabbit heart and caused a rapid fall ill diastolic pressure ill anaesthetised rats

Achola MA. "Nationalism and the Struggle for Independence in Kenya.". In: The Contribution of the Luo and Abaluyia. Naivasha; 2006.
Achola MA. "Maternal and Child Welfare in Nairobi to 1960.". In: Maternal and Child Welfare in Nairobi to 1960. Ruaraka,Nairobi; 2006.
Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:27-35.
Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health . 2020;12(2):27-35.
Achwoka D, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Munywoki P, Achia T, Akolo M, Muriuki F, Muthui M, Kimani J. "High prevalence of non-communicable diseases among key populations enrolled at a large HIV prevention & treatment program in Kenya." Plos one. 2020;15:e0235606. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Munywoki P, Achia T, Akolo M, Muriuki F, Muthui M, Kimani J. "High prevalence of non-communicable diseases among key populations enrolled at a large HIV prevention & treatment program in Kenya." PloS one. 2020;15:e0235606. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen T-H, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Achia T, others. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC public health. 2019;19:1-10. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen T-H, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Achia T, others. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC public health. 2019;19:372. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen TH, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, R M, Achia T, Katana A, Ng'ang'a L, Cock D. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC Public Health. . 2019; 3;): doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6716-2.(19(1):372.
Aciita PM, Wanjohi J. "Factors influencing augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya: A case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services, Meru County." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):82-103. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

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Provision of water services is squarely a devolved function and counties have the bigger role of ensuring their residents have access to clean and safe water. In this regard many strategies have been put in place to ensure water available is adequate. These efforts have faced a myriad of challenges which has greatly affected service delivery. Water is one of the most important natural resource and the availability of safe water is critical not just for health reasons, but also for social and economic development. The purpose of the study was to establish the factors influencing implementation of augmentation of water treatment projects by county government in Kenya; a case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services. The specific objectives of this research project were to determine the influence of financial resources, leadership, staff competency and political factors on the augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design and the target population was 135 management and heads of sections which included county executive committee members (CECM), Chief officers, county directors, MEWASS management/technical staff and Members of County Assemblies (MCA’s). The study adopted a census which allowed all the 135 respondents to participate in the study, however only 109 respondents returned their questionnaires representing an approximate response rate 81%. Data was collected using a questionnaire. To test reliability of this questionnaire Split half method was applied in Isiolo water and Sewerage Company.
Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and …

Ackello-Ogutu, Chris; Okoruwa V; BGN. Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa.; 2012. Abstract

This briefing paper is one of the 10-part Global Development Network (GDN) Agriculture Policy Series for its project, ‘Supporting Policy Research to Inform Agricultural Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia’. It is based on a longer synthesis paper, Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, which draws on extensive published and unpublished research. It will be of value to policymakers, experts and civil society working to improve agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 180 million food-insecure people live in Sub-Saharan Africa, over 21 per cent of the African population. These are among the world’s most vulnerable people, poorly equipped to respond to the threat of climate change, demographic stresses, or spikes in global food prices. This briefing examines how improvements in agriculture might help to achieve g

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "R. W. Vaughan, A. M. ADAM, et. al. Major histocompatibility complex class I and II Polymorphism in chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 27: 149-153, 1990.". In: Journal of Neuroimmunology. 27: 149-153, 1990. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990. Abstract
Thirty-one chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) patients have been typed for HLA-A, -B and -C antigens serologically and for HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP class II genes by RFLP analysis. Our results confirm a previously reported slight association with HLA-B8 and identify a stronger association with HLA-Cw7.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, Subacute demyelinating polyneuropathy in twelve Human Immunodeficiency Virus seropositive patients in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Neurosciences. 1: 92-92, 1993.". In: African Journal of Neurosciences. 1: 92-92, 1993. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, J Nganga and C Muthaura: The profile of N-acetylator status in healthy African volunteers. E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1981. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM, Hyperuricaemia as a cause of benign positional vertigo: European Journal of Neurology. 6: s85. 1999.". In: European Journal of Neurology. 6: s85. 1999. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999. Abstract
The prevalence of antibodies against Leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in Sudan with active L. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. Screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (DAT) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). Sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agglutination reaction below the cut-off titre. Testing of the same sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), against a lysate of L. donovani promastigotes, showed reaction rates above the cut-off optical density in cows (47.6%), goats (13.6%), and in rats (4.1%). No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, bone-marrow or spleen of Nile rats.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. And H. J. Rogers: Gas-liquid chromatographic assay of aminoglutethimide And high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of its acetyl metabolite in biological Fluids. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1985;15(2):176-8.". In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1985;15(2):176-8. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985. Abstract
A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Environmental Protection in the Tomsk Region of the Russian Federation: A Case Study.Environ Manage. 2000 Nov;26(5):585.". In: Environ Manage. 2000 Nov;26(5):585. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000. Abstract

Implementation of environmental management in Russia is undergoing rapid changes. Federal responsibility rests with the Russian Federation State Committee for Environmental Protection (RFSCEP) and is delegated at regional level to local State Committees for Environmental Protection (SCEPs). This paper focuses on the functioning of the SCEP for Tomsk oblast' (region) in Siberia, which is strongly committed to forging constructive links with regional government, academia, industry, and environmental NGOs. Considerable difficulties exist for SCEPs in Russia, however, and prominent among these are (1) a rigidly vertical civil service structure, with separate organs having responsibility for different natural resources, persisting from Soviet times, which hinders effective intergrated and holistic environmental management; and (2) a lack of open access to environmental information from military and quasi-military sites

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM, Bhatt SM, Otieno LS.Beh.". In: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. Vol. 9 issue 3, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM:Human genetics in the Holy Qur'an and Sunna.J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2003;33(1):44-5.". In: J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2003;33(1):44-5. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, S. M. Bhatt. and L. S. Otieno: Behcet.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Aug;64(8):558-60. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM, Maritim MC.Pseudoxanthoma elasticum in a patient with sickle cell disease: case report. East Afr Med J. 2008 Feb;85(2):98-101.". In: The Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Anaesthesilogists. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2008. Abstract
An 18 year female sickler (HbSS) presented with repeated history of epistaxis and bleeding gums. Features consistent with pseudoxanthoma elasticum were observed, such as hyper-extensile redundant skin folds in the neck, axilla, inguinal areas and abdomen. The skin biopsy showed swollen, clumped and fragmented elastic fibres and calcium deposits in the deep and mid reticular dermis, consistent with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. This is a well recognised complication of sickle cell disease which has not been described in Kenya.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, P. F. Atkinson, S. M.Hall, R. A. C. Hughes, and W. A. Taylor: Chronic Experimental allergic neuritis in Lewis rats. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 15: 249-264, 1989.". In: Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1989 May-Jun;15(3):249-64. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989. Abstract
An experimental chronic relapsing demyelinating neuropathy was produced by immunizing adult Lewis rats with bovine myelin in low (2.5 mg) and high (5 mg) doses, with and without Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the adjuvant. Each regime produced a similar disease course: acute severe hind limb weakness was followed by apparent recovery and then reappearance of mild neurological deficit with occasional spontaneous exacerbations. The partially recovered animals were relatively resistant to reimmunization with myelin. Immunization of four-week-old rats with myelin in complete adjuvant produced disease with a similar course. Subsequent immunization of these juvenile rats with adjuvant alone precipitated exacerbations. In the late stages, the prominent changes in peripheral nerves and nerve roots were axon loss, axonal regeneration and remyelination while inflammatory cell infiltration was confined to occasional foci. Onion bulb formation was extremely common in the dorsal root ganglia and affected in particular the nerve fibres close to the dorsal root ganglion cells. The cells forming the onion bulbs resembled the satellite cells surrounding the axon hillocks. Onion bulb formation also occurred in the portion of the ventral roots adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion but was rare elsewhere. Immunocytochemistry revealed only occasional lymphocyte infiltration but there was increased Class I and Class II MHC antigen expression throughout the peripheral nervous system. The results are relevant to the interpretation of biopsies from patients with chronic demyelinating neuropathy of possible inflammatory or autoimmune origin.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a case report.East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993. Abstract
A 27 year old female with AIDS and disseminated histoplasmosis is presented. The clinical features include fever, weight loss, productive cough, splenomegaly and moderate pallor. The initial working diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was made terminally from bone marrow aspirate examination. Disseminated histoplasmosis with its varied clinical picture is likely to be missed in a patient with AIDS, and therefore a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. PIP: A 27-year old female from Nairobi was admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital in May 1991. She presented with a 4-week history of productive cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. She acknowledged a history of contact with a patient known to have pulmonary tuberculosis. She has never received a blood transfusion. She was single and para 3 + 0. Examination revealed a sick patient, with moderate pallor, fever of 38 degrees Celsius, and who was wasted with moderate dehydration and oral thrush. There was no finger clubbing, lymphadenopathy, or pedal edema. Chest examination revealed bilateral basal pneumonia. The spleen was palpable 4 cm below the costal margin; the liver was not enlarged. The rest of the examination was normal. On admission, complete blood count showed a haemoglobin of 5.4 g/dl, total white cells were 12.5 x 10-9/L, with 82% polymorphonuclear cells and 18% lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 85 mm/hour, and platelet count was normal. The anemia was normocytic, normochromic, and no malaria parasites were seen. Urea and electrolytes and liver function tests were normal. Sputum showed no acid fast bacilli on Ziel-Neelson Stain. HIV-1 antibodies were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Bone marrow aspirate revealed a hypercellular marrow with reversed M:E ration, dyserythropoesis, reticulum cell hyperplasia, plentiful golden yellow pigment, and clumps of Histoplasma capsulatum. Chest X-ray showed bilateral basal pneumonia. She was treated with antibiotics and intravenous fluids, but she remained febrile, her general condition progressively deteriorated, and she died a week after admission. Treatment for histoplasmosis had not been commenced, and no postmortem examination was carried out.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM.Relations among open-closed mindedness, social desirability and depression in students facing a critical situation involving authority. Nurs Res Conf. 1973;(9):241-76. No abstract available.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1973. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED, M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Some effects of the rising case load of adult HIV-related disease on a hospital in Nairobi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, I. D. Bradbrook, H. J. Rogers: The simultaneous assay of aminoglutethimide and Its acetyl metabolite by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology . 15: 176-178, 1985.". In: Journal of Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology . 15: 176-178, 1985. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985. Abstract
A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Mukhtar MM, Sharief AH, el Saffi SH, Harith AE, Higazzi TB, Adam AM, Abdalla HS.Detection of antibodies to Leishmania donovani in animals in a kala-azar endemic region in eastern Sudan: a preliminary report. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Jan-Feb;94(1):33.". In: Environ Manage. 2000 Nov;26(5):585. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000. Abstract
The prevalence of antibodies against Leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in Sudan with active L. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. Screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (DAT) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). Sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agglutination reaction below the cut-off titre. Testing of the same sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), against a lysate of L. donovani promastigotes, showed reaction rates above the cut-off optical density in cows (47.6%), goats (13.6%), and in rats (4.1%). No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, bone-marrow or spleen of Nile rats.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM, Hughes RA, Payan J, McColl I.Peripheral neuropathy and hyperthermia. Lancet. 1987 May 30;1(8544):1270-1. No abstract available.". In: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. Vol. 9 issue 3, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM; Benign Positional Vertigo as a clinical manifestation of Hyperuricaemia- RECENT DISCOVERY Journal of Neurological Sciences 187: s222. 2001.". In: RECENT DISCOVERY Journal of Neurological Sciences 187: s222. 2001. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, R. C. Hughes, J. Payan, I. McColl: Peripheral neuropathy and hyperthamia Lancet I : 1270-1271, 1987.". In: Lancet I : 1270-1271, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 10: 710-712, 2005.". In: Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2005 Jul;10(7):710-2. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the pattern of occurrence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in Kenya. Study design Prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study of clinical, encephalographic and natural history of CJD, backed by histology in as many patients as possible. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with the criteria laid down by WHO expert committee for diagnosis of CJD were recruited between January 1990 and May 2004. We analysed the clinical features and electroencephalography of all participants and took brain biopsies from four patients. RESULTS: There were four definite, seven probable and two possible cases. The electroencephalographic and histological features were typical of sporadic CJD. CONCLUSION: Sporadic CJD occurs in Kenya and the clinical, encephalographic and histological features were no different to those described elsewhere. Although we did not see variant, hereditary and iatrogenic forms of CJD, neurologists should not exclude these in making diagnoses
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. Multiple sclerosis and epidemic in Kenya. 12: East Afr Med J. 1989 Aug;66(8):503-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Aug;66(8):503-6. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A.M. ADAM. Unusual form of motor neuron disease in Kenya. 10: East Afr Med J. 1992 Feb;69(2):55-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Feb;69(2):55-7. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992. Abstract
Over the period November 1978 to October 1988, 46 cases of motor neuron disease were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. One case was seen in private practice. A bimodal age distribution of the disease was identified with a peak in the fourth decade of life and another peak in the sixth decade of life. The disease seen in the fourth decade of life was different as seen in other parts of the world in that the majority of patients tended to present with very rapidly progressive disease despite the primary presentation with limb symptoms and signs. Serum cholinesterase activity in five of these patients and five of the classical motor neuron disease revealed no abnormalities. This unusually rapidly progressive disease in young adults has not been described anywhere. The disease seen in older age groups and especially in patients over fifty years of age was not different from the one seen in other parts of the world.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED, M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Some effects of the rising case load of adult HIV-related disease on a hospital in Nairobi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40. Taylor & Francis; 1998. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, Progressive multi-system degeneration : Report of five cases. Health Line 1: 82 .". In: Report of five cases. Health Line 1: 82 . Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1997. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, H. J. Rogers, S. A. Amiel, and R. D. Rubens: The effect of acetylator phenotype On the dispostion of aminoglutethimide . British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18:495-505, 1984.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Oct;18(4):495-505. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
Adam, A.M; Rogers HJ, Bradbrook ID;, Rogers HJ. "High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and acetylaminoglutethimide in biological fluids.". 1985. Abstract

A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, Neurological manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in a Large teaching hospital in Africa. Advances in Neurology. J. S. Chopra et al editors, Amsterdam Elsevier science publishers, 1999.". In: J. S. Chopra et al editors, Amsterdam Elsevier science publishers, 1999. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999. Abstract
The prevalence of antibodies against Leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in Sudan with active L. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. Screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (DAT) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). Sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agglutination reaction below the cut-off titre. Testing of the same sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), against a lysate of L. donovani promastigotes, showed reaction rates above the cut-off optical density in cows (47.6%), goats (13.6%), and in rats (4.1%). No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, bone-marrow or spleen of Nile rats.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, D. O. Orinda: Focal kinesigenic choreoathetosis preceding the development of Steele .". In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 49: 957- 959, 1986. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Adam AM. "Structural, thermal, morphological and biological studies of proton-transfer complexes formed from 4-aminoantipyrine with quinol and picric acid.". 2013. Abstract

4-Aminoantipyrine (4AAP) is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, biochemical experiments and environmental monitoring. However, residual amounts of 4AAP in the environment may pose a threat to human health. To provide basic data that can be used to extract or eliminate 4AAP from the environment, the proton-transfer complexes of 4AAP with quinol (QL) and picric acid (PA) were synthesized and spectroscopically investigated. The interactions afforded two new proton-transfer salts named 1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-aminium-4-hydroxyphenolate and 1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-aminium-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate for QL and PA, respectively, via a 1:1 stoichiometry. Elemental analysis (CHN), electronic absorption, spectrophotometric titration, IR, Raman, (1)H NMR and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the new products. The thermal stability of the synthesized CT complexes was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analyses, and the morphology and particle size of these complexes were obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that PA and 4AAP immediately formed a yellow precipitate with a remarkable sponge-like morphology and good thermal stability up to 180°C. Finally, the biological activities of the newly synthesized CT complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results indicated that the [(4AAP)(QL)] complex exhibited strong antimicrobial activities against various bacterial and fungal strains compared with standard drugs.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM; Unusual cause of severe muscle stiffness: Historical aspects of genetics. The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. IV: 142-145. 2000.". In: The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. IV: 142-145. 2000. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM: Skull radiographic measurements of normals and patients with basilar impression Use of Landzert.". In: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. Vol. 9 issue 3, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM: Benign positional vertigo and hyperuricaemia. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):376-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):376-8. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. Co-author in Multi Center trial of azathioprine in Multiple sclerosis. Lancet. I: 179-183, 1988.". In: Lancet. I: 179-183, 1988. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1988. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAMS MROLOO. ""Comment on article by Ludeki Chweya "The State and Rural Development: Transcending the Centralization-Decentralization Debate,.". In: Regional Development Dialogue: Local Governance and Poverty Alleviation in Africa, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 2004.; 2005. Abstract
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ADAMS DOLOO. "East Africa: One Identity or Multiple Identities?". In: East African Scenarios Project Research Compendium. NAIROBI: Society for International Development; 2007.
ADAMS MROLOO. "Out For The Count: The 1997 Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya, Uganda.". In: Marcel Rutten, Alamin Mazrui and Francois Grignon, (eds.), Fountain Publishers, 2001.; 2001. Abstract

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ADAMS DOLOO. "Commentary on article by Ludeki Chweya “The State and Rural Development: Transcending the Centralization-Decentralization Debate".". In: in Regional Development Dialogue: Local Governance and Poverty Alleviation in Africa. NAIROBI: Spring; 2004.
Addae-Mensah, Achenbach H, Thoithi G, Waibel R, Mwangi J. "Epoxychiromodine and other contituents of Croton megalocarpus." Phytochemistry. 1992;31:20552058.
Addae-Mensah, Muriuki G, Thoithi GN, Karanja C, Wandera C, Waibel R, Achenbach H. "Constituents of the stem bark and twigs of Croton macrostachy(u)s." Fitoterapia. 1992;LXIII:81-82.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Jacques M. Kabaru, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and Thermal Degradation Properties of Silk from African Wild Silkmoths." J. APPL. POLYM. SCI. 2012;(DOI: 10.1002/APP.37873):5-15.
Addis Teshome, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, Nguku EK. "Study on Weight Loss and moisture Regain of Silk Cocoon Shells and Degummed Fibers from African Wild Silkmoths." Journal of Entomology. 2011;8(5):450-458. AbstractWebsite

Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} A study was conducted to determine weight loss and moisture regain properties of silk cocoon shells, shell layers and degummed fibers of the four African wild silkmoths Anaphe panda, Argema mimosae, Epiphora bauhiniae and Gonometa postica and compare "with the industry standard mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori. No. significant difference was observed between the moisture regain of the wild silk fibers after degumming. However, there were significant differences in weight loss and moisture regain between cocoon shells as well as shell layers. E. bauhiniae had the lowest weight loss and moisture regain of 23.19 and 5.64%, respectively while G. postica had the highest weight loss and moisture regain, 56.84 and 9.05%, respectively. The SEM micrographs also showed the presence of remnant sericin gum on the fibers surface. In both A. panda and E. bauhiniae, the outer shell layers had the lowest moisture regain and highest weight loss while the inner layer of E. bauhiniae and middle layer of A. panda lost the least weight. The physical structure and chemical composition ofthe cocoon shells and fibers contribute towards the variation in the moisture regain and weight loss and these features may have commercial implications due to their direct effect on the resulting fabric

Addis Teshome, Vollrath F, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Onyari J. "Study on the microstructures of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers." International Journal of Biological Biomolecules. 2012;Vol. 50 (1):63-68.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Vollrath F. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silks from African wild silkworms." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2012;DO:1.0.1002/APP.37873:1-9.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silks from African wild silkworms." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2012;DOi 1.0.1002/APP.37873:1-9.
Addis Teshome, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Onyari J. "Study on the microstructures of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers." International Journal of Biological Biomolecules. 2012;50(1):63-68.
Addisu A, Olago D, Wandiga S, Oriaso S, Amwata DA. "Smallholder Farmers Vulnerability Level to Climate Change Impacts and Implications to Agricultural Production in Tigray Regional State, Northern Ethiopia." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, Academic Research Publishing Group . 2019; 5(12): 237-250. Abstractideas.repec.org

Vulnerability to climate change impact is the most pressing issues for less developed countries whose economy mainly depends on the agricultural sector. The demand for food is growing swiftly whereas impacts of climate change on the global food production are increasing. More area specific research outputs and evidences-based policy directions are needed to tackle the ever changing climate and to reduce its impacts on the agricultural production. The aim of this study was to investigate subsistence farmer household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and its associations with household’s agricultural production. Then primary data was collected from 400 households from Kolla Temben District, Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Multistage sampling techniques were applied to select households for interview from the district. In the first stage, 4 Kebelles (Kebelle - administration unit) were selected randomly out of 27 Kebelles and then400 households were selected for interview through systematic random sampling techniques (Figure 1). Multiple regressions were used to examine the associations between household’s vulnerability to climate change impacts and agricultural production. Grounded theory and content analysis techniques were use to analyze data from key informant interviews and focus group discussions. For every single unit increase in household vulnerability to climate change impacts, there was an average agricultural production decrease between 16.99 and 25.83 (Table 4). For single unit increase in household’s vulnerability to climate change impact, there was a decrease of total crop production, Total income, total livestock, total food consumption and food consumption per adult equivalent. Rainfall decrease, small farmland ownership, steep topography, frequent flood occurrences and large family size are among the major factors that negatively affect household’s agricultural production and total income. The more the vulnerable the households, the less in total annual crop production, total livestock size, total income from agricultural production and the more dependent on food aid). There is a negative association between household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and agricultural production (crop production, total livestock ownerships and total income from crop production). More access to irrigation and agricultural fertilizers, improved varieties of crops, small family size, improve farmland ownership size, more access to education and Agricultural Extension services are an effective areas of intervention to improve household’s resilient, reduce households vulnerability level to climate change impacts and increase household’s total agricultural production.

Addisu A, Daniel O, Shem W, Philip O, Silas O. "Household’s adaptive capacity level to climate change impacts and food security in Northern Ethiopia, Kolla Temben District." International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research and Innovations . 2017;5(3):9-13. Abstractresearch publish

This study was conducted in Kolla Temben district of the Tigray regional state, north Ethiopia. The main
aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between households’ adaptive capacity to climate change and
food security status. Data on generic and area specific indicators of food security status, adaptive capacity and
other factors were collected from 400 households and were statistically analysed. The study revealed that there was
a statistically significant positive relationship between adaptive capacity to climate change and food security status.
Rainfall fluctuation, small land holding, pest and insect infestation were found to be among the area specific
determinants of household’s food security status in the arid and semi-arid areas of northern Ethiopia. The
recommended solutions to improve household’s food security in the ever-changing climate were: institutionalize
measures to improve household’s adaptive capacity to climate change; reverse household’s vulnerability level to
climate change impacts through evidence based policy initiatives, and; revise existing system to deal with new
infestations of pests. Policy decision makers should also give attention to climate change impact research to
moderate damages related to climate change as the climate will continue to change for many decades regardless of
the extent of global efforts on mitigation.

Adebambo AO, G. Bjørnstad, W. Bulimo, H. Jianlin, G. Kierstein, L. Mazhani, B. Podisi, J. Hirbo, K. Agyemang, C. Wollny, T. Gondwe, V. Zeuh D, Tadelle, G. Abebe, P. Abdoulaye, S. Paco, L. Serunjogi, M. Abrerrahman, R. Sow, S. Weigend, R. Sanfo, F. Gaye, E. Ssewanyana, M. D. Coulibaly, B. Teme, VSF(Sudan), Hanotte. O. "Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Analysis of South Western Nigerian Chicken." Archivos de Zootecnia. 2009;58:637-643. Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop segment was sequenced for a total of 98 individuals of domestic chicken from South Western Nigeria. Domestic chicken populations were: Anak titan (Israeli breed,n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzleXOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (Indian breed,n= 3), Normal (n= 55), Naked neck (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for the analysis. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in the samples, 15 for Nigerian indigenous chicken population, 1 for Giriraja and 1 for Anak titan from 23 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nigerian indigenous and Anak titan chicken were all grouped under clade IV, while the Indian Giriraja was under clade IIIc. Clade IV had 16 haplotypes, while clade IIIc had one haplotype. AMOVA analysis indicates that 97.32% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within population and 2.68% between populations. Our results suggest single multiple maternal origins for the South Western Nigerian domestic chicken.

Adebanji A, Achia T, Ngetich R, Owino J, Wangombe A. "Spatial Durbin Model for Poverty Mapping and Analysis.". 2008.
Adeka R, Lukhoba C, Odhiambo J, Maundu P. "Morphological Traits as Indicators of Bitterness in Traditional Vegetables: The Case of Spider Plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) in Kenya." Asian Journal of Research in Botany. 2019;2(3):1-15.
Adekunle AA;, Ellis-Jones J;, Ajibefun I;, Nyikal RA;, Bangali S;, Fatunbi O;, Ange A. "Agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from multiple-stakeholder approaches."; 2012.
Adeline VL, Dimba EAO, Wakoli KA, Njiru AK, Awange DO, Onyango JF, Chindia ML. "Clinicopathologic features of ameloblastoma in Kenya: a 10-year audit." Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2008;19:1589-1593. Abstract
n/a
Adelowo O, Mody GM, Tikly M, Oyoo O, Slimani S. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;7(1):1-6. Abstracts41584-021-00603-4_1_2.pdf

Abstract
|
Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152853. AbstractPhytomedicine

Description
Background
While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of isoflavones: osajin (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-4ˈ-methoxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (2) and biflavonoids: chamaejasmin (3), 7,7″-di-O-methylchamaejasmin (4) and campylospermone A (5), a dimeric chromene [diphysin(6)] and an ester of ferullic acid with long alkyl chain [erythrinasinate (7)] isolated from the stem bark and roots of the Kenyan medicinal plant, Ormocarpum kirkii. The mode of action of compounds 2 and 4 was further investigated.
Methods
The cytotoxicity of compounds was determined based on the resazurin reduction assay. Caspases activation was evaluated using the caspase-Glo assay. Flow …

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5 …

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. Abstract

Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural product research. 2019;33(18):2609-2617. AbstractNatural product research

Description
A new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyvigvexin A (1) and a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dimethoxybitucarpin B (2) were isolated from the leaves of Lonchocarpus bussei and the stem bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx, respectively. The extract of L. bussei also gave four known isoflavones, maximaisoflavone H, 7,2′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 6,7,3′-trimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, durmillone; a chalcone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin; a geranylated phenylpropanol, colenemol; and two known pterocarpans, (6aR,11aR)-maackiain and (6aR,11aR)-edunol. (6aR,11aR)-Edunol was also isolated from the stem bark of L. eriocalyx. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by resazurin assay using drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Significant antiproliferative effects with IC50 values below 10 …

Aden A, Dimba EAO, Ndolo UM, Chindia ML. "Socio-economic effects of khat chewing in north eastern Kenya." East African medical journal. 2006;83:69. Abstract
n/a
Adeola O, Meru AK, Kinoti MW. "Kenya’s blooming flower industry: enhancing global competitiveness.". In: Africa’s Competitiveness in the Global Economy. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham; 2018.
Adero AO, Baki P, Kotze P, Mito CO. "Features of the Night-Time F-Region Currents over Equatorial Africa (August, 2001)." International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences. 2014;4(4):101-104.
Adero MO, Amugune NO, Akunda E, Kinyamario JI. "INCIDENCE AND CONTROL OF SEED-BORNE FUNGAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH POST-GERMINATION MORTALITY IN SEEDLINGS OF Melia volkensii GURKE." Journal of Experimental Biology. 2013;1:4.
Adeyinka K Akanbi MM. Towards semantic integration of heterogeneous sensor data with indigenous knowledge for drought forecasting. Vancouver, BC, Canada : ICM; 2015. Abstract

In the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, various heterogeneous ubiquitous devices would be able to connect and communicate with each other seamlessly, irrespective of the domain. Semantic representation of data through detailed standardized annotation has shown to improve the integration of the interconnected heterogeneous devices. However, the semantic representation of these heterogeneous data sources for environmental monitoring systems is not yet well supported. To achieve the maximum benefits of IoT for drought forecasting, a dedicated semantic middleware solution is required. This research proposes a middleware that semantically represents and integrates heterogeneous data sources with indigenous knowledge based on a unified ontology for an accurate IoT-based drought early warning system (DEWS).

Adeyinka K Akanbi MM. "A Framework for Accurate Drought Forecasting System Using Semantics-Based Data Integration Middlewarev." International Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries. 2015;171:pp 106-110 . AbstractFull text link

Technological advancement in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has made it become an invaluable component of a reliable environmental monitoring system; they form the ‘digital skin’ through which to ‘sense’ and collect the context of the surroundings and provides information on the process leading to complex events such as drought. However, these environmental properties are measured by various heterogeneous sensors of different modalities in distributed locations making up the WSN, using different abstruse terms and vocabulary in most cases to denote the same observed property, causing data heterogeneity. Adding semantics and understanding the relationships that exist between the observed properties, and augmenting it with local indigenous knowledge is necessary for an accurate drought forecasting system. In this paper, we propose the framework for the semantic representation of sensor data and integration with indigenous knowledge on drought using a middleware for an efficient drought forecasting system.
Keywords
Middleware Internet of things Drought forecasting Semantic integration Ontology Interoperability Semantic technology 

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Participation of Commercial Banks in the Development of Small Enterprise Sector in Kenya.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Globalization of the Food and Agricultural Economy: Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Artists in Development: Creativity Workshop Report and Exhibition.". In: Makerere University. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
Adhiambo C, Forney JD, Asai DJ, LeBowitz JH. "The two cytoplasmic dynein-2 isoforms in Leishmania mexicana perform separate functions." Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.. 2005;143(2):216-25. Abstract

Eukaryotic organisms with cilia or flagella typically express two non-axonemal or "cytoplasmic" dyneins, dynein-1 and dynein-2. Interestingly, we find that Leishmania mexicana is unusual and contains two distinct cytoplasmic dynein-2 heavy chain genes (designated LmxDHC2.1 and LmxDHC2.2) along with a single dynein-1 heavy chain (LmxDHC1). Disruption of LmxDHC2.2 resulted in immotile parasites that had a rounded cell body. Although they assume amastigote morphology, immunoblot analysis of these cells demonstrates protein expression consistent with the promastigote stage. Ultrastructural analysis revealed non-emergent flagella that lacked the paraflagellar rod and an axoneme with deficiencies in several components. We confirmed the absence of paraflagellar rod proteins PFR1 and PFR2. These results show that LmxDHC2.2 is required for flagellar assembly and also participates in the maintenance of promastigote cell shape. In contrast to the results with LmxDHC2.2, we were unable to generate homologous disruptions of LmxDHC2.1. This result suggests that, unlike LmxDHC2.2, LmxDHC2.1 is an essential gene in Leishmania. Together, these findings demonstrate that the two dynein-2 heavy chain isoforms in Leishmania perform distinct functions. The observation that the genomes of Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma brucei also contain two dynein-2 isoforms suggests that this unusual aspect of cytoplasmic dynein is a conserved feature of the kinetoplastids.

ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "Pattern of road traffic fatalities in Nairobi M.P Okemwa, E.A Rogena, F Rana, D.G Gatei.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "New Product Development in the Micro Enterprise Sector, Report from fieldwork undertaken in Maputo, Mozambique.". In: Faculty of ADD, University of Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract

Various stakeholders come together to conceptualise, analyse and commercialise new products. This was the case recently when designers, artisans, marketers and facilitating institutions came together to engage in new product development for the micro enterprise sector. Through the effort of Terra Nuova (the facilitating agency), Department of Design (providing designers), Aid to Artisans and Institute for the Development of Local Industry (IDIL), Undugu Kenya and artisans in both Kenya and Mozambique, a number of new products were developed. The artisan works in difficult circumstances in many parts of Africa such as Mozambique and Kenya. Most artisans provide technical and entrepreneurial inputs in the enterprises and are therefore invariably referred to as artisans and entrepreneurs in this report. They support their families from proceeds of the enterprise. Often they do not pay attention to detail and not enough attention to product quality. Inspite of this, the benefits of the artisan's products to many people far outweigh these shortcomings. Customers buy from micro enterprises because their prices are fair. The entrepreneurs understand the customer tastes in terms of colour and form, and the entrepreneurs provide easy payment terms and are available or easily accessible to them. The entrepreneurs often work near their ancestral homes so they understand the culture and traditions of the customers they serve. This can be deduced from observations, interviews and sales figures. Product development can take the form of an innovation, change of use, adaptation and bundling of features among other things. This report outlines the process of product development that was undertaken in Mozambique in the course of the project. Lueti is a set of coasters developed through a product design process that took into account the various stakeholders in the success of a product. These were the designer, marketer and artisan all working together. The process involved a critical examination of material, the ability of the artisan and the availability of a market. The availability of good quality and varied hard wood in Mozambique also influenced the identification of the product. The working environment at IDIL, where equipment and machinery for working wood was also complementary to the product development. In the case of lueti there was redefinition of use and adaptation. The idea was developed through consultation, sketching and specification. A prototype was developed and after further consultation and modification a series of three coasters were available for test marketing. Lueti coasters design was inspired by the afro-comb. Afro combs can be found in most parts of the world particularly where afro hair is predominant. The original combs were made from wood whereas the more conventional ones are made from plastic. The basic shape remains the same with the teeth on one side and a handle on the other side. Whereas the basic shape has remained the same, nowadays you can find combs whose main use is adornment on walls.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Cattle and Small Ruminant Breeds Utilization and Assessment of the Impact of Breeding schemes on livestock productivity in East and Central Africa (2005 -2007) CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ASARECA AARNET.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2007. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "You, Yourself and Your Portfolio.". In: Faculty of ADD, University of Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract

Designers, architects and artists have invariably relied on their portfolios to record their work and to exhibit their capabilities. Unfortunately there is very little reference from which to draw tips on how to effectively utilize a portfolio. Sometimes the attention given to the production of the work is not complemented with strong oral and visual, presentations. The continued failure to pay due attention to portfolio has led to loss of job opportunities. The portfolio can open doors and close them with equal speed. To people shopping for jobs, it's a calling card, the advance guard, the marketing tool, often the only opportunity to make an impression. Many companies do not hire people but rather hire portfolios. When a prospective employer requests for a portfolio it is because they are seeking certain attributes or traits that may be of service to them. Typically, the employer will say they are looking for somebody "creative". How does your portfolio show that you are creative? Is it in the way it is organized? The work you have put in it? Or is it the bag/booklet? The answer to this is "all of the above". It does not do good work justice if it's put together in a tattered envelope. Neither can a very expensive bag/booklet camouflage bad work. There must be a sense of your presence in the work you do, the way you do it, the way you present it and what you want to do with it. And, not to forget, what you want the work to do for you.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Voices: The British Council Nairobi.". In: The British Council. ISCTRC; 1996. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "A gender differentiated analysis of the profitability and constraints in use of Improved Fallow in Western Kenya. CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ECAPAPA (just concluded).". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "J Accid Emerg Med. 2000 Nov;17(6):421-2. Non-penetrating chest blows and sudden death in the young.Thakore S, Johnston M, Rogena E, Peng Z, Sadler D.". In: J Accid Emerg Med. 2000 Nov;17(6):421-2. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Sudden death in the young after low energy anterior chest wall impact is an under-recognised phenomenon in this country. Review of the literature yields several American references to commotio cordis, mainly in the context of sporting events. Two cases are reported of sudden death in young men as a result of blunt impact anterior chest wall trauma. It is suggested that these cases draw attention to a lethal condition of which many practitioners are unaware.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Kaloli Letterforms; Registered by the International Typeface Corporation (ITC).". In: Makerere University and University of Nairobi, FADD. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract

Design has, over the years been a reflection of creative individuals who seek to foster a style. In the early part of the 21st Century designers experimented with free form and looked for relationships with the environment particularly nature. Designers examined the things that nature provided such as seeds the stars, animals and the clouds and combined these with their innermost selves in order to conceive creative form. Then, as it is now, the early chemistry worked to produce design that touches the depths of the viewer's sout while reflecting the designer's own perceptions of visual experience. This concept is manifested and reflected in the development of Kaloli letterfbrms that were developed after an intensive creativity workshop that brought together Africa's artists and designers. In order to appreciate this letterform, this paper outlines the motivation, aesthetic and artistic qualities and7 the functional capacity of Kaloli letterfbrms. Design has a unique relationship with nature and it has been stated that design is a reflection of nature. This implies that design is a custodian of nature and, has the duty to protect, reflect and enhance the position of nature in human life. Paul Klee (1879-1933), one of the greatest architect and designer, stated that, '...artistic form without direct connection to natural form was inconceivable.' If we examine the design around us. we can say that it is inspired by the flora and fauna, the birds and the bees, the things that infer good feelings, in the process, the things that infer bad or unpleasant or dangerous feelings become secondary. Kaloli is not dangerous, but, as a source of inspiration for letterforms. it was as unlikely as any dangerous snake.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "P. M. Guthiga, J. T. Karugia, and R. A. Nyikal .". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2007. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Application of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in Product Design within Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Mozambique and Kenya.". In: Mozambique. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract

Designers, architects and artists have invariably relied on their portfolios to record their work and to exhibit their capabilities. Unfortunately there is very little reference from which to draw tips on how to effectively utilize a portfolio. Sometimes the attention given to the production of the work is not complemented with strong oral and visual, presentations. The continued failure to pay due attention to portfolio has led to loss of job opportunities. The portfolio can open doors and close them with equal speed. To people shopping for jobs, it's a calling card, the advance guard, the marketing tool, often the only opportunity to make an impression. Many companies do not hire people but rather hire portfolios. When a prospective employer requests for a portfolio it is because they are seeking certain attributes or traits that may be of service to them. Typically, the employer will say they are looking for somebody "creative". How does your portfolio show that you are creative? Is it in the way it is organized? The work you have put in it? Or is it the bag/booklet? The answer to this is "all of the above". It does not do good work justice if it's put together in a tattered envelope. Neither can a very expensive bag/booklet camouflage bad work. There must be a sense of your presence in the work you do, the way you do it, the way you present it and what you want to do with it. And, not to forget, what you want the work to do for you.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Informal Sector in Migori; A Baseline Survey.". In: Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Risk Preference and Optimal Crop Combinations in Kahuro Division of Murang.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Lands on Campus, Report: African Design Perspectives as Discussed by PJ Aranador (Philippines).". In: Faculty of Architecture, Design and Development, facilitated by Product Design and Development Center, Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract

The Department of Design, University of Nairobi recently hosted internationally reknowed Filipino Design Consultant, PJ Aranador. This event was a milestone, in many ways, for design in Kenya in that we had a distinguished designer, with an equally distinguished audience, discussing an important economic aspect lof national development. PJ is a design consultant for all major Philippine Trade Fares and a product development consultant for his government. He has been interviewed by CNNs' Elsa Klench in "Style:. And, "PJ" products sell on the international market with the buy line - "Style made modern". These styles include casual wear, swim wear and youthful clothes. PJ also indulges in interior and industrial design. The lecture included slides, posters and transparencies and was attended by a record assembly of over 100 participants from the major tertiary institutions in Kenya that offer design courses such as Evelyn College of Design, Marion Institute College, The Kenya Polytechnic and the University of Nairobi itself". This is the first assembly of these various tertiary institutions in pursuit of one goal - to listen and share in the experience of a fellow designer. PJ, on his part, gave a broad overview of the design profession, touching on its importance as an economic activity and its difference and similarities with Fine art. Design engages art and other factors in conception, but is driven by market forces because design is primarily, a marketing function. Design must concern itself with production unlike Art, which is not driven by reproduction. As a function of marketing, designers need to be sensitive to consumers of their products.

Adhiambo C, Blisnick T, Toutirais G, Delannoy E, Bastin P. "A novel function for the atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 in the assembly of the trypanosome flagellum." J. Cell. Sci.. 2009;122(Pt 6):834-41. Abstract

The atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 has been shown to traffic in sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans, where it participates in signalling processes but not in cilia construction. In this report, we demonstrate that RABL5 colocalises with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins at the basal body and in the flagellum matrix of the protist Trypanosoma brucei. RABL5 fused to GFP exhibits anterograde movement in the flagellum of live trypanosomes, suggesting it could be associated with IFT. Accordingly, RABL5 accumulates in the short flagella of the retrograde IFT140(RNAi) mutant and is restricted to the basal body region in the IFT88(RNAi) anterograde mutant, a behaviour that is identical to other IFT proteins. Strikingly, RNAi silencing reveals an essential role for RABL5 in trypanosome flagellum construction. RNAi knock-down produces a phenotype similar to inactivation of retrograde IFT with formation of short flagella that are filled with a high amount of IFT proteins. These data reveal for the first time a functional difference for a conserved flagellar matrix protein between two different ciliated species and raise questions related to cilia diversity.

ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "Burkitt , versus diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a practical approach Bellan C, Lazzi S, Defalco G, Rogena EA, Leoncini L.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) is listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid tumours as an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, characterized by a high degree of proliferation of the malignant cells and deregulation of the c-MYC gene. The main diagnostic challenge in BL is to distinguish it from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While in children BL and DLBCL types probably do not differ clinically, and the differential diagnosis between BL and DLBCL may theoretically appear clear-cut, in adults daily practice shows the existence of cases that have morphological features, immunophenotypic and cytogenetics intermediate between DLBCL and BL, and cannot be classified with certainty in these categories. Distinguishing between BL and DLBCL is critical, as the two diseases require different management. This review summarizes the current practical approach, including the use of a large panel of antibodies, and cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic techniques, to distinguish between BL, DLBCL and the provisional category of B-cell lymphoma, unclassificable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, now listed in the updated WHO classification. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Stamp series for Postal Corporation of Kenya: Design and illustration of .". In: Postal Corporation of Kenya. ISCTRC; 2006. Abstract
This article seeks to identify some of the factors underlying regional variation in child mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey are used for the purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of child mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two mortality groups: High (HLM) and Low (LMP). The results show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP were significantly high than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the differences in the variation in child mortality between the two regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to nature or structure of relations between mortality and explanatory variables.
Adholla M-, Ruigu G. "The Development of Coffee Production in K enya."; 1978.

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