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2022
Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Stephen K. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11.
Odhiambo P, Odhiambo EA. "Computational Simulation Methods for the Magnus Lift – Driven Wind Turbines." International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT). 2022;11(6):174-181.
Hashim I, Onyari JM, Omosa LK, Maru SM, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Karpoormath R. "Conglomeratin: A new antibacterial flavonol derivative from Macaranga conglomerata Brenan (Euphorbiaceae)." Natural Products Research. 2022:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2022.2061481.hashim_et_al_2022_natural_products_research.pdf
Kimaru J, Mutembei H.M MJK. "Cost-benefit analysis of Hay production in different farm sizes in Kajiado County." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2022;85(3):1-4.
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Omosa LK, Derese S, Efferth T, Spiteller M. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from the seeds of Dracaena steudneri Engl against leukemia cancer cell lines." Phytomedicine Plus. 2022;2(2):100234.alexe_et_al_2022_phytomedicine_plus.pdf
Hoang NT, Nguyen VT, Tuan NDM, Manh TD, Le P-C, Tac DV, Mwazighe FM. "Degradation of dyes by UV/Persulfate and comparison with other UV-based advanced oxidation processes: Kinetics and role of radicals." Chemosphere. 2022.Website
Ng'etich DK, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Kibegwa FM. "Diversity of Gut Methanogens and Functional Enzymes Associated With Methane Metabolism in Smallholder Dairy Cattle." research square . 2022;2022.
Wango GM, Esadia, N. "Dog owners report fewer depression symptoms and a greater sense of social support during the pandemic." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):48-49.
Malenje EM, Missohou A, Tebug SF, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K. "Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal." research square . 2022.
Malenje EM, Ayao Missohou SFT, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K. "Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal.". 2022.
and Ndeke AN*1, 4 MHM1 KCK2 MJK1 BOAMZ3. "Effect of Acetaminophen on the Estrous Cycle and Reproductive Hormones of Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2022;11(3):392-395.392-395.pdf
Hoang NT, Mwazighe FM. "Effect of operating conditions on the yield of 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid for tracing OH radical in an electrochemical process." Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin. 2022;77(5):286-299. AbstractWebsite

The boron-doped diamond electrode has been widely applied in electrochemical process for wastewater treatment based on the generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH). This study investigated the formation efficiency of 2-HTA through the interaction between •OH radical and terephthalic acid (TA) to monitor the •OH formation. Results show that the 2-HTA formation efficiency did not depend on the initial concentration of scavenger (here, TA) in the investigated range of 0.1 to 1 mM TA. Meanwhile, other factors, such as current density, supporting electrolyte, sodium hydroxide have a significant influence. The optimal condition was established: concentration of electrolyte (0.05 M Na2SO4); initial concentration of TA (0.1 mM); concentration of NaOH (1 mM); current density (j = 20 mA cm–2). The selectivity of TA was evaluated by Faradaic efficiency (η) and hydroxylation yield (γTAOH), indicating that Faradaic efficiency (η) for 2-HTA formation was in the range of 10–5–10–7, while the hydroxylation yield of •OH (γTAOH) into 2-HTA was 0.03–0.12.

OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong' GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang'ombe AW. "Effect of pulping methods on the physicochemical properties of the Kenyan red and white‐fleshed guava pulp." JSFA Reports. 2022;2(3):131-142.
Wanyama HN, Karega LN, Chimoita EL. "Effect of Use of Tacit Knowledge Transfer Techniques on Organizational Performance of Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization Researchers." Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &Sociology. 2022;0(10)(0(10): 492-502):DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2022/v40i1031103.effectof_use_of_tacit_knowledgetransfer_techniques.pdf
Ochami AE, ONURA CN, Omari DS, 2 DAN. "Effects of strategic Managemnent practices on growth of poultry layers production Enteprises in Nyaribari Chache Sub-County Kisii County." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Growth Evaluation . 2022;03(02):551-563.
Sherida WP, Vincent MO, O WS, Duke Gekonge Omayio, Okumu MO. "Estimation and human health risk assessment of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues in raw milk collected in Kenya." Research. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.74748.1 . 2022.
Ali H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022;2022:11.
Al H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicin. 2022;2022:11.
Wafula, WM, Wasonga OV, Koech OK, Kibet S. "Factors influencing migration and settlement of pastoralists in Nairobi City, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2022;12(2).
Wafula WM, Wasonga OV, Koech OK, Kibet S. "Factors influencing migration and settlement of pastoralists in Nairobi City, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2022;12(1):1-14.
A. Jesang, A.N. Kipyegon MMHMEO. "FARM-LEVEL FACTORS AFFECTING DAIRY GOAT ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN KENYA." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 2022;85(Special):250-261.goat_ai_publication_2022-_ascah_et._mutembei.pdf
A J, AN K, HM M, EO M. "Farm-level factors affecting dairy goat artificial insemination in Kenya ." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2022;85:250-261.
L. G, A W. "Financing the Future of the WHO ." Lancet. 2022;399(10334):1445-1447.
MW N, GO O, M M, W S. "Frequency of thyroid dysfunction among rheumatoid arthritis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." afr j Rheumatal. 2022;10(1):34-44. Abstractfrequency_of_thyroid_dysfunction_among_ra_patients_at_knh.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis
(RA) affects 0.5-1% of the adult
population. A higher prevalence of
thyroid dysfunction is observed in
patients with RA compared to the
general population.
Objectives: To establish the
frequency of thyroid dysfunction
among ambulatory RA patients and
to describe the association between
thyroid dysfunction and the patients’
socio-demographic characteristics,
clinical characteristics, level of disease
activity, and their functional status.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
descriptive study.
Methods: Adult patients on follow
up for RA at the outpatient clinic were
sampled. Sociodemographic data was
recorded. The Clinical Disease Activity
Index (CDAI) and Health Assessment
Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were
computed from examination findings
and questionnaires respectively. A
venous blood sample was analyzed for
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH),
free triidothyronine (fT3), and free
tetraiodothyronine (fT4). This data
was analyzed to determine frequencies
and associations.
Results: Seventy-six patients were
recruited into the study. Sixty-one
participants were female. The mean
TSH level was 5.8Miu/L. The frequency
of thyroid dysfunction was 47.4%.
Overt hypothyroidism was the most
common form of thyroid dysfunction at
39.5% while 6.6% had Sick Euthyroid.
Majority of the participants, 75%, had
low disease activity, mean CDAI was
11.6. Forty-one (53.9%) participants
had no disability, mean HAQ was
0.5. Correlations between thyroid
dysfunction and advancing age,
duration of disease, level of disease
activity, and functional disability did
not attain statistical significance.
Conclusion: Thyroid dysfunction
is common among patients with RA
with no significant association found
between thyroid dysfunction sociodemographic characteristics, clinical
characteristics, level of disease activity,
and functional status.
Key words: Thyroid dysfunction,
Rheumatoid arthritis, Disease activity,
Functional disability
Introduction
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a
symmetric polyarthritis with a variety
of systemic manifestations. In the
general population thyroid dysfunction
affects 1-10% of adults, with variations
in geographical areas, age and sex1
.
The causes of thyroid dysfunction
include; iodine deficiency, infections
and autoimmune associated thyroid
disease2
. Thyroid dysfunction is more
prevalent in patients with autoimmune
diseases such as RA. This is attributed
to overlap of autoimmune conditions
that are initiated by loss of tolerance to
self-antigens3
.
The burden of thyroid dysfunction
among RA patients has been found
to vary between 6-47% in various
studies. The entire spectrum of thyroid
dysfunction has been described,
however, hypothyroidism occurs
more frequently. Patients with thyroid
dysfunction have higher RA disease
activity scores and poorer functional
status measured using the

Miriti P, Otieno DJ, Chimoita E, Bikketi E, Njuguna E, Ojiewo CO. "Gender gaps in sorghum productivity: evidence from male- and female-managed plots in Uganda." Development in Practice. 2022;(https://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/09614524.2022.2069228).gender_gaps_in_sorghum_productivity_evidence_from_male_and_female_managed_plots_in_uganda.pdf
Miriti P, Otieno DJ, Chimoita E, Bikketi E, Njuguna E, Ojiewo C. "Gender gaps in sorghum productivity: Evidence from male- and female-managed plots in Uganda." Development in Practice. 2022.
Runtuwene LR, Sathirapongsasuti N, Srisawat R, Komalamisra N, Tuda JSB, EMongan A, Aboge GO. "Global research alliance in infectious disease: a collaborative effort to combat infectious diseases through dissemination of portable sequencing." BMC Research Notes . 2022;(2022) 15:44 .
Simon PB, Junga JO, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka E, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Kabange D, M KM, Dieudinné RVK, Ochieng JW, Pelle R. "Haplotype analysis of the mitochondrial DNA d-loop region reveals the maternal origin and historical dynamics among the indigenous goat populations in east and west of the Democratic Republic of Congo." Ecology and evolution. 2022;13(2):e8713.
Heng YY, Asad I, Coleman B, Menard L, Benki-Nugent S, Faridah H Were, Karr CJ, McHenry MS. "Heavy metals and neurodevelopment of children in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review." PLOS ONE. 2022;17(3).
Kairania R, Onyango-Ouma W, Ondicho TG, Kigozi G. "HIV status disclosure and antiretroviral therapy adherence among children in Masaka region, Uganda." African Journal of AIDS Research. 2022;21(3):1-10.
Mwinzi JM. "Human Face in Education: A Philosophical Analysis and Critique." Social Sciences, Humanities and Education Journal (SHE Journal). 2022;3(3):335-347.
Mwinzi JM. "Identity and Ownership of Education in Africa as Enlightened by African Aboriginal Philosophy." International Dialogues on Education Journal. 2022;9(2):1-23.
Wafula KM, Karanja NN, Karuku GN, Esilaba AO. "In-situ Water harvesting technologies and fertilizer rates increase maize and bean yield in the Semi-Arid Katumani, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems . 2022;25(3).
M.Mugambi M. "Inculcating Values Among Learners in Schools: An Analysis of Global Practices and Approaches." Journal of Education and Training . 2022;9(2):178-188.
Misango, G.V, Nzuma, M.J., Irungu, L.W., Kassie, M. "Intensity of adoption of integrated pest management practices in Rwanda: A fractional logit approach." Heliyon. 2022;https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e08735.
Njuru SN, Njogu PM, Mugo HN, Thoithi GN. "Is tablet splitting a potential pitfall in drug therapy? A case study of amlodipine tablets." Pharmaceut. Jour. Kenya. 2022.
Hoang NT, Manh TD, Nguyen VT, Thy Nga NT, Mwazighe FM, Nhi BD, Hoang HY, Chang S, Chung W, Nguyen DD. "Kinetic study on methylene blue removal from aqueous solution using UV/chlorine process and its combination with other advanced oxidation processes." Chemosphere. 2022;308(3):136457.Website
Wango GM, Ngerema D, Owang S. "Languishing and Assisting People Get on their Feet." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):7-9.languishing_and_assisting_people_get_on_their_feet.pdf
Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. Learning and capabilities development: Case studies of East African social enterprises. https://www.ikeasocialentrepreneurship.org/en/useful-reads/learning-capabilities-development; 2022.
J.G.N. K, J. NI. "Levels of Essential Elements in selected Persea Americana varieties as Potential Minerals." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). 2022;Accepted on 14th August, 2022.
Njuguna CN, Odiemo LO. "Loaded but Applauded: The Relationship between Workload and Job Satisfaction among High School Teachers in Kiambu County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2022;10(2):43-50.
Johnson L, Onjala J. "Logic of the Belt and Road Initiatives Early Eastern Africa Node: Economic, Demographic and Political Economy Rationales." Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies,. 2022;accepted January 28 2022.
Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO. "Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (Bambusa Vulgaris)." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment . 2022;8-no1.
J.K.M., A.K., M. DN, K JGN, S.O.W, A.G.W. "Microbial Fuel Cell Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos on Loam Soil Inoculated with Bio-Slurry. ." American Journal of Environment and Climate. 2022;1(1):34-41.
Su R, Wu J, Hu J, Ma L, Ahmed S, Zhang Y, Abdulraheem MI, Birech Z, Li L, Li C, Wei W. "Minimalizing Non-Point Source Pollution Using a Cooperative Ion Selection Electrode System for Estimating Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil." Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022;12:810214.
Kariuki MI, Mwangi JM, Muturi PG. "Moderating effect of age in the relationship between debt literacy and indebtedness of formal sector employees in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP). 2022;12(7):532-44.
Chepkirui C, Bourgard C, Gilissen PJ, Ndakala A, Derese S, Gütlin Y, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "A new β-hydroxydihydrochalcone from Tephrosia uniflora, and the revision of three β-hydroxydihydrochalcones to flavanones." Fitoterapia. 2022;158:105166.
Obonyo FO, Maingi N, Samuel Maina Githigia, Kimeli P, Nyaboga EN. "Occurrence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in donkeys from central Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2022;54(1):1-11.
Obonyo  FO, Maingi N, Githigia  SM, Kimeli P, Nyaboga EN. "Occurrence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in donkeys from central Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2022;54(1):77.
Mwinzi JM. "Ontological and Epistemological Relevance: the Cause for Philosophical Coherence and Excellence in Education." Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies. 2022;2(4):103-116.
N ONURAC, J JAMESG, W MUTHUMBIA, W WANG’ONDUV, A SIGANAD. "Performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae fed on formulated diets containing Spirulina platensis and Eisenia fetida ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2022;3(2).
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwangombe AW. "Physicochemical and Processing Qualities of Guava Varieties in Kenya." International Journal of Fruit Science. 2022;22(1):329-345.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO, Maloba KN, Nderitu JG. "Preclinical efficacy testing of three antivenoms against Naja ashei venom-induced lethality." Toxicon: X 14 (2022) 100124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxcx.2022.100124 . 2022.
Barre A, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Gitao CG. "Prevalence of Brucellosis in Camel Slaughter Population in Garissa County, Kenya. ." OSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2022;15(1):39-46.
Kamuti NM, Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Githigia SM, Keya EA. "Prevalence, Etiology and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine International. 2022.
Kamuti NM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Githigia SM, Keya EA. "Prevalence, etiology and risk factors associated with occurrence of canine cutaneous myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;Vol. 2022(ID 5699060):9 pages .
Tangus CJ, Chege JN, Karanja DN, Gachuiri CK. "The prevalence,intensity and spectrum of gastrointestinal parasites in selected sheep farms in Kasarani sub-county, Nairobi County, Kenya." to Hindawi Journal of veterinary medicine international. 2022.
Kimani PK´ethe, Mbuge D, Gitau AN. "Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics Containing Immobilized Superabsorbent Polymer Particles for Air Conditioning in Grain Dryers, Applied Engineering in Agriculture." American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2022;38(2)(ISSN 0883-8542).
Omweri LG, Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. "Quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-based oral care products in Nairobi, Kenya." F1000Research. 2022;11:343. Abstract

Background: The oral cavity harbors many microbes that may cause diseases, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. Progressive inflammation from periodontal diseases may lead to gum detachment from the teeth. Povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses and gargles are broad-spectrum antimicrobial products that effectively manage dental caries and periodontal diseases and eliminate plaques. This study was conducted in Nairobi County, Kenya to establish the quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine oral care products by determining the content of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and compliance with labeling requirements.
Methods: A total of 34 samples (from 15 brands) of povidone-iodine and 15 samples (from nine brands) of chlorhexidine were collected from retail pharmacies using convenience sampling. All samples were subjected to labeling analysis, identity, and assay tests. Potentiometric titration was used to assay povidone-iodine in the samples, while chlorhexidine was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to British Pharmacopeia 2017 specifications.
Results: All samples complied with identification tests. Moreover, 47.1% of povidone-iodine and 66.7% of chlorhexidine products complied with pharmacopoeial assay specifications. Five povidone-iodine (14.7%) and four chlorhexidine (26.7%) samples had missing label information on the storage conditions and the address of the manufacturer.
Conclusions: Strict adherence to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) by manufacturers of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouthwashes/gargles is necessary to guarantee quality assured products in the market. Regular post-market surveillance and regulatory enforcement of standards are instrumental in minimizing the circulation of poor-quality products.

D O, J.N O, A.S O. "Quantification and Characterization of Tannins in Plectranthus barbatus Andrews Water Extracts in Nyamira County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. . 2022;Articles in Press.
Mwinzi JM. "A Radical Shift in Education Practice and the Question of Ethical Reflection in Pandemic Era. ." Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies. 2022;2(3):98-108.
M. MM, I RK. "Redesigning university Education in Kenya: The what, Why and How?" IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2022;27(8):40-56 .redesigning_university__education.pdf
Wango GM. "Rejection: What Happens and Why Rejection Hurts so Deeply - and What to do About it." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):25-30.
Mwinzi JM. "Religion, Rationality and Justice – A Cause for Critical Reflection in the Contemporary Society." Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies. 2022;2(4):85-102.
Watene G-A, Aboge G, Gitau G, Nthiwa D, Bett B. "Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Coxiella Burnetii Infecting Cattle Raised In Pastoral Areas Of Narok, Kenya." Research square. 2022.
Mbayaki CW, Karuku GN. "Soil hydraulic properties of a chromic Luvisol in Katumani, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems . 2022;25(3).
Ochieng’ P, Nyandega IA, Wambua B. "Spatial-temporal analysis of historical and projected drought events over Isiolo County. Kenya." Journal of Theor Appl Climatol, Austria, part of Springer Nature . 2022.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Wahome RG, Githigia S, Johnson N, Roesel K. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Githigia S, Johnson N, Raphael Wahome KR. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
K G, T M, J N, MO O. "Studies on the ethnopharmacology, antimicrobial activity, and toxicity of Catha edulis (Vahl.) Endl., in Sprague Dawley rats.". 2022;([version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. F1000 Research 2022, 11:286):https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.109243.1.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Synthesis and characterisation of ionomer-type cements from alkaline activated kaolinite." Non-crystalline solids: X. 2022;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nocx.2021.100079.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D. "Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable cellulose-based polymer hydrogel.". In: Nanotechnology in Paper and Wood Engineering Fundamentals, Challenges and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom 50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights res; 2022.
Osiro OO, Kariuki DK, Joyce K G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Ionomer-type Cements from Alkalin-Activated Kaolinite." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids-X. 2022;13(100079):2-10.
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2022;36(9):2321-2328.
Owang S, Ngatia L. "Token, Taken or Toxin: Stop the ride, Taking a Break from Social Media." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(2):22-24 .
Degu A, Mekonnen A, Njogu P. "Treatment outcome among prostate cancer patients in Africa: A systematic review." Cancer Investigation. 2022.
Zhang Y, Li L, Zhang H, Shang J, Li C, Naqvi SMZA, Birech Z, Hu J. "Ultrasensitive detection of plant hormone abscisic acid-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy aptamer sensor." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2022;414:2757-2766 .
Mwinzi JM. "Universality and Particularity: the Cause for Inconsistency in Acquisition of Knowledge." Social Sciences, Humanities and Education Journal (SHE Journal). 2022;3(2):294-305.
Muasya JN. "University Students Perceptions and Experiences of Quid Pro Quo Transactions in Kenya." Journal of Studies in Education . 2022;12(2):49-64.
J O’o, BN B, V M, I C. "The Unusual High Origin Radial Artery in a Black Kenyan Population; a Cadaveric Study." Ethiop J Health SCI. 2022;32(2):445-452. Abstract223352-article_text-545874-1-10-20220328.pdfWebsite

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The anatomy of the radial artery draws great interests among anatomists for its frequent involvement in variations. Equally, these variations have gained significant attention from clinicians because of the preference to use the radial artery for catheterization. The commonest of radial artery variations involve its site of origin. In published literature, data on this variations exist, but the prevalence of such variations in a Kenyan population has hitherto been unknown.
METHODS: Sixty-two upper limbs from 50 formalin-fixed cadavers were studied during dissection in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi.
RESULTS: Fifty-four (87.1%) radial arteries arose within the cubital fossa, while eight (12.9%) had a high origin. Out of the eight high arteries, two (3.2%) branched off from the axillary artery, another two (3.2%) were branches of the proximal third of the brachial artery and four (6.5%) arose from the middle third of the brachial artery. The high origin radial arteries were more common on the right upper limbs (5 out of the 8 cases). Both axillary and brachial origins were seen bilaterally.
CONCLUSION: The present study details important variations in the anatomy of the radial artery in a Kenyan population. With the radial artery being utilized during clinical, surgical and radiological interventions so frequently, an increased understanding and anticipation of such topographic variances is paramount.

A. K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Voltage Recovery from Pesticides Doped Tomatoes, Cabbages and Loam Soil Inoculated with Rumen Waste: Microbial Fuel Cells. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (IJSRSET).. 2022;9(2):172-180.
P S. "Women’s economic empowerment: From deprivation to sustenance." Kardan Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities . 2022;5(1):1-14.
Githaka NW, Kanduma EG, Wieland B, Darghouth MA, Bishop RP. "Acaricide resistance in livestock ticks infesting cattle in Africa: Current status and potential mitigation strategies." Current Research in Parasitology & Vector-Borne Diseases. 2022:100090. Abstract
n/a
Lee AC, Peng B, Du K, Kung H-H, Monserrat B, Cheong S-W, Won CJ, Blumberg G. "Chiral Electronic Excitations in a Quasi-2D Rashba System BiTeI." arXiv preprint arXiv:2202.03569. 2022. Abstract
n/a
Lee AC, Peng B, Du K, Kung H-H, Monserrat B, Cheong SW, Won CJ, Blumberg G. "Chiral electronic excitations in the quasi-two-dimensional Rashba system BiTeI." Physical Review B. 2022;105:L161105. Abstract
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Deng Y, Liu L, Li MY, Jiang M, Peng B, Yang Y. "A data-driven wheel wear prediction model for rail train based on LM-OMP-NARXNN." Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering. 2022:1-11. Abstract
n/a
Collins M, Ngetich C, Owido M, Getange D, Harris R, Bargul JL, Bodha B, Njoroge D, Muloi D, Martins DJ, others. "Detection of Antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in Dromedary Camels and Co-Grazing Sheep in Northern Kenya Using an Ehrlichia ruminantium Polyclonal Competitive ELISA." Microorganisms. 2022;10:916. Abstract
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Dimba EAO, Newa F, Macharia J, Nyanumba MD. "Determinants of acceptance of eHealth technology by Health Care Practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2022;99:4450-4460. Abstract
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Marufu C, Kisumbi BK, Osiro OA, Otieno FO. "Effect of finishing protocols and staining solutions on color stability of dental resin composites." Clinical and Experimental Dental Research. 2022;8:561-570. Abstract
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Niu Y-T, Qing F-Z, Li X-S, Peng B. "Inhomogeneous strain and doping of transferred CVD-grown graphene." Rare Metals. 2022;41:1727-1734. Abstract
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Zhang Q, Nam J-S, Han J, Datta S, Wei N, Ding E-X, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Skakalova V, Khan AT, others. "Large-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conductor Overcoming Performance–Yield Tradeoff." Advanced Functional Materials. 2022;32:2103397. Abstract
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Lepore CM, Kamau L, Kanduma E. "Molecular Prevalence of Entamoeba Species among Diarrheal Patients in Eastern Kenya." European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology. 2022;3:39-46. Abstract
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Githaka NW, Bishop RP, Šlapeta J, Emery D, Nguu EK, Kanduma EG. "Molecular survey of Babesia parasites in Kenya: first detailed report on occurrence of Babesia bovis in cattle." Parasites & vectors. 2022;15:1-11. Abstract
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Meng T, Shi M, Guo Y, Wang H, Fu N, Liu Z, Huang B, Lei C, Su X, Peng B, others. "Multifunctional Ag-coated CuO microbowl arrays for highly efficient, ultrasensitive, and recyclable surface-enhanced Raman scattering." Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2022;354:131097. Abstract
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Peng B, Bouhon A, Slager R-J, Monserrat B. "Multigap topology and non-Abelian braiding of phonons from first principles." Physical Review B. 2022;105:085115. Abstract
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Peng B, Chen Z, Li Y, Liu Z, Liang D, Deng L. "Multiwavelength magnetic coding of helical luminescence in ferromagnetic 2D layered CrI3." Iscience. 2022;25:103623. Abstract
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Su G, Gao A, Peng B, Hu J, Zhang Y, Liu F, Zhang H, Zhan P, Wu W. "Observation of in-plane exciton–polaritons in monolayer WSe2 driven by plasmonic nanofingers." Nanophotonics. 2022. Abstract
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Liu Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Gong T, Li Y, Niu Y, Cheng Y, Lu H, Deng L, Peng B. "Observation of intrinsic crystal phase in bare CrI3 ferromagnetism." arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.13312. 2022. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alu A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons (vol 600, pg 75, 2021)." NATURE. 2022. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhou H, Liu Z, Li Y, Shang Q, Xie J, Deng L, Zhang Q, Liang D. "Pattern-Selective Molecular Epitaxial Growth of Single-Crystalline Perovskite Arrays toward Ultrasensitive and Ultrafast Photodetector." Nano Letters. 2022;22:2948-2955. Abstract
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Peng B, Bouhon A, Monserrat B, Slager R-J. "Phonons as a platform for non-Abelian braiding and its manifestation in layered silicates." Nature Communications. 2022;13:1-15. Abstract
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Mwakumanya M, Ng’ong’a FA, Mutinda C K, Maina EN. "Phytochemical analysis and safety evaluation of ethanol roots extract of Erythrina sacleuxii hua in Wistar albino rats." Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2022;16:126-140. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alù A, others. "Publisher Correction: Optomechanical dissipative solitons." Nature. 2022. Abstract
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Omweri LG, Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. "Quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-based oral care products in Nairobi, Kenya." F1000Research. 2022;11:343. Abstract
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2021
Faris AA, Akuon PO, Kalecha VO. "BER Performance of SSK Sequence Modulation.". In: IEEE AFRICON 2021. Arusha, Tanzania; 2021.
G N, A N. "MANAGERS’ LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IN DE: A CRITICAL DETERMINANT OF TUTOR-LEARNER INTERACTION IN BLENDED LEARNING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.". In: 4TH ANNUAL FORENSIC VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIM SUPPORT CONFERENCE, KENYA. Nairobi, Kenya; 2021.
A N, NM G. "Transformational leadership for School Principals as victims of Covid 19 Pandemic.". In: 4TH ANNUAL FORENSIC VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIM SUPPORT CONFERENCE, KENYA. Nairobi, Kenya; 2021.
Chikwana N, Maina EN, Gavamukulya Y, Bulimo W, Wamunyokoli F. "Antiproliferative Activity, c-Myc and {FGFR}1 Genes Expression Profiles and Safety of Annona muricata Fruit Extract on Rhabdomyosarcoma and {BALB}/c Mice." Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2021:30-46. AbstractWebsite
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Rwigi S, Ouma G, Ouma C, Oloo F, Wekesa S, Olang L. "Effects of rainfall variability on water availability in the drylands of Northern Kenya under a changing climate.". In: AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.; 2021. Abstract

The availability of water in the dryland regions is a function of climatic and land conditions, which determine the amount and distribution of atmospheric water and subsequent partitioning of that water into different hydrological components. Rainfall variability in the drylands affects water, food and livelihood security in the sensitive landscapes. For effective water resource management, it is important to quantify the effect of rainfall variability on the available water resource components to support food security, given that a majority of livelihoods in the drylands are dependent on rainfall. This study assessed rainfall variability and its effects on stream flows in the dryland regions of Turkana County in Northern Kenya. The Coefficient of Variation (CV), Standardised Precipitation Anomaly (SPA) and Mann-Kendal test approaches were used to determine variability and trends of rainfall. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was employed to simulate hydrological components, including surface runoff, interflow, groundwater flow and the eventual water yield in the streams. The model simulations were driven by the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station CHIRPS and the Coordinated Regional Climate Downloading Experiment CORDEX projected rainfalls to establish the current and future water availability respectively. From the results, CV values ranging from 20 to 99% were obtained indicating that the region experiences moderate to high rainfall variability, often resulting in moderate to extreme floods and droughts in the area. The model simulations indicated that the stream-flows are increasing towards the 2020s decade compared to what was flowing in the 1980s decade, as observed between 1981 and 2020 using rainfall. This is probably a result of the increased rainfall observed in this region over the las four decades. Using Representative Concentration Pathways RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projected rainfall scenarios, the model indicated that future stream flows will be higher than present. The findings show that, in the face of climate change scenarios, proper land management is required to promote water and food security in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa in the future

Geno KPO, Ralwala AO. "Assessment of Heat Stress Exposure on Construction Workers in Hot and Humid Environments during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period.". In: (Re)Setting Built Environment Theory and Practice in a Post-pandemic World: Disrupted Buildings or Design for Disruption. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online (virtual) conference, JKUAT; 2021.
Koteng POG, Ralwala AO. "Assessment of Heat Stress Exposure on Construction Workers in Hot and Humid Environments during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. .". In: (Re)Setting Built Environment Theory and Practice in a Post-pandemic World: Disrupted Buildings or Design for Disruption. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online (virtual) conference, JKUAT; 2021.
Akinyi J, Mwaniki A, Gichamba A, Kariuki D, Chand P, Munene S, Nyakinyua C, Nzangi B, Akinyi V, Betsy M, Cosmas K, Mwangi M. "NanoSatellite Platform for the University of Nairobi (NaSPUoN) Student Project.". In: 72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Dubai, United Arab Emirates (presented online); 2021.
• Matara SM, • Siriba DN, • Kiema JBK, • Musyoka SM. "Predicting Displacement Effects of Tectonic Movements on the Kenyan Geodetic Reference Frame Network (KENREF).". In: FIG e-Working Week 2021. Netherlands; 2021.
Ralwala AO. "Honouring National Heroes through Architecture: a case of the Presidential Mausoleum. .". In: Modern Heritage (in the Anthropocene) in collaboration with University of Cape Town; UNESCO; UNESCO World Heritage Centre; African World Heritage Fund; UCL Bartlett School of Architecture; PAMOA; ICCROM; ICOMOS & IUCN. the Cape Town Conference on ‘Modern Heritages of Africa’ 22-24 September ; 2021.
Mutembei PH. "Insights of Sustainable Livestock Production.". In: KCSAP 2021. Naivasha Resort; 2021.
Matara SM, Siriba DN, Kiema JB, Musyoka SM. "Predicting Displacement Effects of Tectonic Movements on the Kenyan Geodetic Reference Frame Network (KENREF) .". In: Working eWeek. Netherlands; 2021.
Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Julius Oyugi, Musabyimana JP, Kinengyere AA, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenoviruses in East Africa Community partner states of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda: A systematic review and meta-analysis (2007–2020)." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(4):e0249992-. Abstractjournal.pone_.0249992.pdfjournal.pone_.0249992.pdfWebsite

Background Viruses are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Human influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory-syncytial-virus, and adenoviruses are among the leading cause of ARTIs. Epidemiological evidence of those respiratory viruses is limited in the East Africa Community (EAC) region. This review sought to identify the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, and adenoviruses among cases of ARTI in the EAC from 2007 to 2020. Methods A literature search was conducted in Medline, Global Index Medicus, and the grey literature from public health institutions and programs in the EAC. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction. We used a random effects model to pool the prevalence estimate across studies. We assessed heterogeneity with the I2 statistic, and Cochran’s Q test, and further we did subgroup analysis. This review was registered with PROSPERO under registration number CRD42018110186. Results A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria for the studies documented from 2007 to 2020. The overall pooled prevalence of adenoviruses was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6–21, N = 28829), respiratory syncytial virus 11% (95% CI: 7–15, N = 22627), and parainfluenza was 9% (95% CI: 7–11, N = 28363). Pooled prevalence of reported ARTIs, all ages, and locality varied in the included studies. Studies among participants with severe acute respiratory disease had a higher pooled prevalence of all the three viruses. Considerable heterogeneity was noted overall and in subgroup analysis. Conclusion Our findings indicate that human adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus are prevalent in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. These three respiratory viruses contribute substantially to ARTIs in the EAC, particularly among those with severe disease and those aged five and above.

Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, Omangi S. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(1):e0246248-. AbstractWebsite

Transportation infrastructure, such as railways, roads and power lines, contribute to national and regional economic, social and cultural growth and integration. Kenya, with support from the Chinese government, is currently constructing a standard gauge railway (SGR) to support the country’s Vision 2030 development agenda. Although the actual land area affected by the SGR covers only a small proportion along the SGR corridor, a significant proportion of the area supports a wide range of ecologically fragile and important ecosystems in the country, with potential wider impacts. This study used a qualitative content analysis approach to gain an understanding and perceptions of stakeholders on the potential ecological impacts of the interactions between the SGR and the traversed ecological systems in Kenya. Three dominant themes emerged: 1) ecosystem degradation; 2) ecosystem fragmentation; and 3) ecosystem destruction. Ecosystem degradation was the most commonly cited impact at while ecosystem destruction was of the least concern and largely restricted to the physical SGR construction whereas the degradation and fragmentation have a much wider footprint. The construction and operation of the SGR degraded, fragmented and destroyed key ecosystems in the country including water towers, protected areas, community conservancies and wildlife dispersal areas. Therefore, we recommend that project proponents develop sustainable and ecologically sensitive measures to mitigate the key ecosystem impacts.

Ogana W, Juma VO, Bulimo WD. "A SIRD model applied to COVID-19 dynamics and intervention strategies during the first wave in Kenya." medRxiv. 2021:2021.03.17.21253626. AbstractWebsite

The first case of COVID-19 was reported in Kenya in March 2020 and soon after non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were established to control the spread of the disease. The NPIs consisted, and continue to consist, of mitigation measures followed by a period of relaxation of some of the measures. In this paper, we use a deterministic mathematical model to analyze the dynamics of the disease, during the first wave, and relate it to the intervention measures. In the process, we develop a new method for estimating the disease parameters. Our solutions yield a basic reproduction number, R0 = 2.76, which is consistent with other solutions. The results further show that the initial mitigation reduced disease transmission by 40% while the subsequent relaxation increased transmission by 25%. We also propose a mathematical model on how interventions of known magnitudes collectively affect disease transmission rates. The modelled positivity rate curve compares well with observations. If interventions of unknown magnitudes have occurred, and data is available on the positivity rate, we use the method of planar envelopes around a curve to deduce the modelled positivity rate and the magnitudes of the interventions. Our solutions deduce mitigation and relaxation effects of 42.5% and 26%, respectively; these percentages are close to values obtained by the solution of the SIRD system. Our methods so far apply to a single wave; there is a need to investigate the possibility of extending them to handle multiple waves.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Clinical TrialNot a clinical trialFunding StatementNo funding supportAuthor DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:KNH-UoN Ethics and Research Committee https://erc.uonbi.ac.keAll necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).YesI have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesData sources: All the data used is in the public domain [1, 44, 56, 57]

Scriven YA, Mulinge MM, Saleri N, Luvai EA, Nyachieo A, Maina EN, Mwau M. "Prevalence and factors associated with HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in treatment-experienced patients in Nairobi, Kenya: A cross-sectional study." Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(40):e27460. Abstract

An estimated 1.5 million Kenyans are HIV-seropositive, with 1.1 million on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the majority of them unaware of their drug resistance status. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors, and the variables associated with drug resistance in patients failing treatment in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study utilized 128 HIV-positive plasma samples obtained from patients enrolled for routine viral monitoring in Nairobi clinics between 2015 and 2017. The primary outcome was human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutation counts determined by Sanger sequencing of the polymerase (pol) gene followed by interpretation using Stanford's HIV Drug Resistance Database. Poisson regression was used to determine the effects of sex, viral load, age, HIV-subtype, treatment duration, and ART-regimen on the primary outcome.HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were found in 82.3% of the subjects, with 15.3% of subjects having triple-class ART resistance and 45.2% having dual-class resistance. NRTI primary mutations M184 V/I and K65R/E/N were found in 28.8% and 8.9% of subjects respectively, while NNRTI primary mutations K103N/S, G190A, and Y181C were found in 21.0%, 14.6%, and 10.9% of subjects. We found statistically significant evidence (P = .013) that the association between treatment duration and drug resistance mutations differed by sex. An increase of one natural-log transformed viral load unit was associated with 11% increase in drug resistance mutation counts (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.11; 95% CI 1.06-1.16; P < .001) after adjusting for age, HIV-1 subtype, and the sex-treatment duration interaction. Subjects who had been on treatment for 31 to 60 months had 63% higher resistance mutation counts (IRR 1.63; 95% CI 1.12-2.43; P = .013) compared to the reference group (<30 months). Similarly, patients on ART for 61 to 90 months were associated with 133% higher mutation counts than the reference group (IRR 2.33; 95% CI 1.59-3.49; P < .001). HIV-1 subtype, age, or ART-regimen were not associated with resistance mutation counts.Drug resistance mutations were found in alarmingly high numbers, and they were associated with viral load and treatment time. This finding emphasizes the importance of targeted resistance monitoring as a tool for addressing the problem.

Zheng Y, Yang X-W, Schols D, Mori M, Botta B, Chevigné A, Mulinge M, Steinmetz A, Schmit J-C, Seguin-Devaux C. "Active Components from Prevent HIV-1 Entry by Distinct Mechanisms of Action." Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(9). Abstract

is widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa for treating many diseases, including HIV-1 infection. We have recently described the chemical structures of 28 compounds isolated from an alcoholic crude extract of barks and roots of , and showed that six bioactive compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that the six compounds block HIV-1 entry into cells: oleanolic acid, palmitic acid, taxifolin, piceatannol, guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, and a novel compound named as cassiabrevone. We report, for the first time, that guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone inhibit HIV-1 entry (IC of 42.47 µM and 30.96 µM, respectively), as well as that piceatannol interacts with cellular membranes. Piceatannol inhibits HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber assay mimicking the female genital tract, as well as HSV infection, emphasizing its potential as a microbicide. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) showed that pharmacophoric groups of piceatannol are strictly required to inhibit HIV-1 entry. By a ligand-based in silico study, we speculated that piceatannol and norartocarpetin may have a very similar mechanism of action and efficacy because of the highly comparable pharmacophoric and 3D space, while guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone may display a different mechanism. We finally show that cassiabrevone plays a major role of the crude extract of by blocking the binding activity of HIV-1 gp120 and CD4.

Tanyi WN, Gachuno O, Odero T, Farquhar C, Kimosop D, Mayi A. "Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy among children and adolescents living with HIV in the Mbita Sub-County Hospital, Homa Bay- Kenya." Afr Health Sci. 2021;21(Suppl):18-24. AbstractWebsite

Adequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to the successful treatment of children and adolescents living with HIV. Continuous ART Adherence is the key factor for virologic suppression and stability of the immune system and prevents the occurrence of opportunistic infections. Children and adolescents struggle with adherence to ART for various reasons, including a poor psychosocial support system and clinic attendance.

Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Correction to: Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):57.
Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Joubert F, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Limited diversity in the CD8+ antigen-coding loci in Theileria parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa." Vet Parasitol. 2021;291:109371. Abstract

Theileria parva infections in cattle causes huge economic losses in the affected African countries, directly impacting the livelihood of the poor small-holder farmers. The current immunization protocol using live sporozoites in eastern Africa, is among the control measures designed to limit T. parva infections in cattle. However, the ability of the immune protection induced by this immunization to protect against field parasites has been compromised by the diversity of the parasite involving the schizont antigen genes. Previous studies have reported on the antigenic diversity of T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa, however, similar reports on T. parva parasites particularly from cattle from southern Africa remains scanty, due to the self-limiting nature of Corridor disease. Thus, we evaluated the diversity of CD8+ T-cell regions of ten schizont antigen genes in T. parva parasites associated with Corridor disease and East Coast fever (ECF) from southern and eastern Africa respectively. Regions of schizont antigen (TpAg) genes containing the CD8+ T-cell epitopes (CTL determinants) were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood of T. parva positive samples, cloned and sequenced. The results revealed limited diversity between the two parasite groups from cattle from southern and eastern Africa, defying the widely accepted notion that antigen-encoding loci in cattle-derived parasites are conserved, while in buffalo-derived parasites, they are extensively variable. This suggests that only a sub-population of parasites is successfully transmitted from buffalo to cattle, resulting in the limited antigenic diversity in Corridor disease parasites. Tp4, Tp5, Tp7 and Tp8 showed limited to absence of diversity in both parasite groups, suggesting the need to further investigate their immunogenic properties for consideration as candidates for a subunit vaccine. Distinct and common variants of Tp2 were detected among the ECF parasites from eastern Africa indicating evidence of parasite mixing following immunization. This study provides additional information on the comparative diversity of TpAg genes in buffalo- and cattle-derived T. parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa.

Dean WH, Buchan J, Gichuhi S, Philippin H, Arunga S, Mukome A, Admassu F, Lewis K, Makupa W, Otiti J, Kim MJ, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma versus conventional training alone: the GLAucoma Simulated Surgery (GLASS) trial. A randomised controlled, educational intervention efficacy trial in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe." Br J Ophthalmol. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background/aim: Glaucoma accounts for 8% of global blindness and surgery remains an important treatment. We aimed to determine the impact of adding simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma.

Methods: We designed a randomised controlled, parallel-group trial. Those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. Fifty-one trainee ophthalmologists from six university training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled by inclusion criteria of having performed no surgical trabeculectomies and were randomised. Those randomised to the control group received no placebo intervention, but received the training intervention after the initial 12-month follow-up period. The intervention was an intense simulation-based surgical training course over 1 week. The primary outcome measure was overall simulation surgical competency at 3 months.

Results: Twenty-five were assigned to the intervention group and 26 to the control group, with 2 dropouts from the intervention group. Forty-nine were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Surgical competence at baseline was comparable between the arms. This increased to 30.4 (76.1%) and 9.8 (24.4%) for the intervention and the control group, respectively, 3 months after the training intervention for the intervention group, a difference of 20.6 points (95% CI 18.3 to 22.9, p<0.001). At 1 year, the mean surgical competency score of the intervention arm participants was 28.6 (71.5%), compared with 11.6 (29.0%) for the control (difference 17.0, 95% CI 14.8 to 19.4, p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results support the pursuit of financial, advocacy and research investments to establish simulation surgery training units and courses including instruction, feedback, deliberate practice and reflection with outcome measurement to enable trainee glaucoma surgeons to engage in intense simulation training for glaucoma surgery.

Trial registration number: PACTR201803002159198.

Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):18. Abstract

Access to quality, effective lifesaving uterotonics in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains a major barrier to reducing maternal deaths from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to assess the costs of care for women who receive different preventative uterotonics, and with PPH and no-PPH so that the differences, if significant, can inform better resource allocation for maternal health care.

Mwangi KW, Macharia RW, Bargul JL. "Gene co-expression network analysis of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse fly vector." Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):74. Abstract

Trypanosoma brucei species are motile protozoan parasites that are cyclically transmitted by tsetse fly (genus Glossina) causing human sleeping sickness and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. African trypanosomes display digenetic life cycle stages in the tsetse fly vector and in their mammalian host. Experimental work on insect-stage trypanosomes is challenging because of the difficulty in setting up successful in vitro cultures. Therefore, there is limited knowledge on the trypanosome biology during its development in the tsetse fly. Consequently, this limits the development of new strategies for blocking parasite transmission in the tsetse fly.

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