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Webb T, Maina EN, Soni S, Whittington J, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland A. "In search of the psychosis gene in people with Prader-Willi syndrome." American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 2008;146:843-853. Abstract
n/a
Webb T, Maina EN, Soni S, Whittington J, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland A. "In search of the psychosis gene in people with Prader-Willi syndrome." Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 2008;146(7):843-53. Abstract

The two main causes of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are a paternally derived deletion in the maternally imprinted 15q11-q13 region or UPD(15)mat. Both mechanisms result in a loss of the active paternal contribution to the region. The affective psychosis associated with PWS has been found to be mainly confined to the propositi with UPD(15)mat rather than to those with a deletion. This suggests that the psychosis may be related to the presence of two copies rather than a single copy of a gene or genes located in the distal half of the region which is paternally imprinted, but maternally active, and whose loss results in Angelman syndrome (AS). A large population-based study of PWS allowed the identification of 12 people with a 15q11-q13 deletion who had suffered psychotic episodes and four adults with UPD(15)mat who so far had not. When these people were investigated using microsatellite markers, the 12 with a deletion were found to have two maternally derived copies of a narrow region between D15S975 and D15S661 making them effectively disomic for these loci. Thus all of the people with psychosis had two active copies of any imprinted genes in the region while all non-psychotic people (including controls) had only one. Quantitative RT-PCR studies suggest that a lack of expression of FLJ33332, either as a result of or resulting in gene dysregulation, may be associated with psychosis in PWS.

Weboko FI, Nyongesa BS, Makhanu MN, Santos MS, Luna KDG, Dey GES, Viloria IL. "Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Pulpotomy for Apexogenesis of an Immature Permanent Molar. A Case Report." Endodontic Society of the Philippines journal . 2020;32(1):16-21.
Wegener J;, Gathuma JM. "The role of the marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus (Lesson)) in Kenya in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.".; 1975. Abstract

In experiments, adult marabou storks were fed with hydatid fluid of viable Echinococcus cysts obtained from sheep and goats. On microscopic examination of the birds' faeces no scolices were found, the only remaining undigested parts of the parasites fed being the chitinous hooks of the rostellum. The feeding trials have shown that the marabou does not play a role in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.

Weinberg GA, Spitzer ED, Murray PR, Ghafoor A, Montgomery J, Tupasi TE, Granoff DM, EM W. "Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Haemophilus isolates from children in eleven developing nations. BOSTID Haemophilus Susceptibility Study Group." Bull. World Health Organ.. 1990;68(2):179-84. Abstract

The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 426 isolates of Haemophilus species, which were collected as part of a worldwide study of the etiology of acute respiratory disease in children in selected developing countries, were determined. Eleven antibiotics were tested using the recently described Haemophilus Test Medium. There was a low prevalence of antibiotic resistance; 6% of strains were resistant to ampicillin, and 1.6% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Strains resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol were recovered only from Thailand. Susceptibility to penicillin G was also determined; the minimum inhibitory concentrations for penicillin and ampicillin were concordant within one 2-fold dilution in 97% of the isolates. Thus, Haemophilus isolates were as susceptible to penicillin G as they were to ampicillin, and penicillin resistance was infrequent overall. These data provide support for the current protocols for the management of acute respiratory infections in children in developing countries, in which penicillin G is a first-line agent.

Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Weis JF, McClelland SR, Jaoko W, Mandaliya KN, Overbaugh J, Graham SM. "Short communication: Fc gamma receptors IIa and IIIa genetic polymorphisms do not predict HIV-1 disease progression in Kenyan women." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2015;31(3):288-92. Abstract

Genetic polymorphisms of the Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) IIa and IIIa have been implicated in the rate of HIV-1 disease progression, but results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine the association between these polymorphisms and disease progression in a cohort of HIV-1 seroconverters from Mombasa, Kenya. Neither FcγRIIa nor FcγRIIIa genotypes were predictive of set point viral load, viral load increase, CD4 decline, or HIV-1 disease progression (time to CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3), death, or treatment initiation). Our results suggest that FcγR polymorphisms might not be an important indicator of viral control and disease progression in this population.

Weis JF, McClelland RS JMKNOGSMWJ &. "Fc Gamma Receptors IIa and IIIa Genetic polymorphisms do not predict HIV-1 disease progression in Kenyan women. ." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses (in print). 2014.
Weiss JM, Glazer HI, Pohorecky LA, Brick J, Miller NE. "Effects of chronic exposure to stressors on avoidance-escape behavior and on brain norepinephrine." Psychosom Med. 1975;37(6):522-34. Abstract

A single exposure to a severe stressor (either cold swim or inescapable shock) impairs subsequent performance in a shuttle avoidance-escape task (1), a deficit attributed to reduction in brain noradrenergic activity produced by these stressors. In the present paper, two experiments are described which examine how repeated exposure to such stressors affects (a) shuttle avoidance-escape performance (Experiment 1), and (b) aspects of brain norepinephrine metabolism (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that, whereas subjects receiving the single exposure to cold swim or shock showed a large avoidance-escape deficit, subjects that received repeated exposure to these stressors for 14 days performed similarly to the control group that received no stressor. Experiment 2 showed that, whereas subjects that received one session of the inescapable shock stressor showed a lower level of norepinephrine in hypothalamus and cortex than did subjects that received no shock, subjects that received repeated exposure to inescapable shock or cold swim showed neurochemical "habituation." Subjects that received repeated shock showed elevated tyrosine hydroxylase activity and no depletion of norepinephrine level, and both repeated shock and cold swim caused a decrease in uptake of 3H-norepinephrine by slices of cortex in vitro. Thus, it is concluded that the behavioral and neurochemical changes that were observed after the stressful conditions studied are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in avoidance-escape responding following exposure to these stressful events are due to changes in brain noradrenergic activity.

Weke P, Aduda J, Ngare P, Mwaniki IJ. "Financial Time Series Modelling of Trends and Patterns in the Energy Markets." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2016;6:324-337. Abstract

Energy use is behind virtually everything a person comes into contact with. The energy industry has rapidly expanded and become increasingly interdependent. In developed economies, the increase in energy consumption indicates a reliance on energy and its related products for continued and sustainable economic growth and development. Developing economies also rely on the development of energy resources to drive their growth. Energy was once viewed just as a utility, and an enabler with limited consumer interest, but now, it is key in the struggle for sustainable future economic growth [1] [2].
Energy prices, which are largely linked to oil prices, are a major concern for most economies. The recent financial crises and their ripple effects and after shocks have been largely unprecedented in terms of timing, speed and magnitude of impact on the world economies. Forecasting of crude oil prices is important for better investment and risk management and policy development, and econometric models are the most commonly used.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Credit Scoring for M-Shwari Using Hidden Markov Model." European Scientific Journal12. 2016;12(15):176-188. Abstract

The introduction of mobile based Micro-credit facility, M-Shwari, has heightened the need to develop a proper decision support system to classify the customers based on their credit scores. This arises due to lack of proper information on the poor and unbanked as they are locked out of the formal banking sector. A classification technique, the hidden Markov model, is used. The poor customers’ scanty deposits and withdrawal dynamics in the M-Shwari account estimate the credit risk factors that are used in training and learning the hidden Markov model. The data is generated through simulation and customers categorized in terms of their credit scores and credit quality levels. The model classifies over 80 percent of the customers as having average and good credit quality level. This approach offers a simple and novice method to cater for the unbanked and poor with minimal or no financial history thus increasing financial inclusion in Kenya.

Weke, Patrick; Davis Bundi Ntwiga and Kirumbu MK. "Trust Model for Social Network Using Singular Value Decomposition." Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems. 2016;14(3):296-302. Abstract

For effective interactions to take place in a social network, trust is important. We model trust of agents using the peer to peer reputation ratings in the network that forms a real valued matrix.
Singular value decomposition discounts the reputation ratings to estimate the trust levels as trust is the subjective probability of future expectations based on current reputation ratings.
Reputation and trust are closely related and singular value decomposition can estimate trust using the real valued matrix of the reputation ratings of the agents in the network.
Singular value decomposition is an ideal technique in error elimination when estimating trust from reputation ratings. Reputation estimation of trust is optimal at the discounting of 20 %.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Consumer Lending Using Social Media Data." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2016;3(2):1-8. Abstract

Consumer credit has been around for a long period of time but the dynamics observable from the consumers makes it hard to credit score and lend to the consumers. This difficulty results in the poor being excluded from receiving credit as they lack financial history. We analyze the limitations of the traditional consumer lending models due to use of historical data, and look at the benefits that could arise by incorporating social media data in credit scoring process for consumer lending. A review of the research progress made in using social media data for consumer scoring and lending process is presented. We found that social media data offers rich, vast and attractive information on changing trends and shifting demographics in credit underwriting of existing consumers and new consumers with minimal or no financial history. This data advances the lending process by widening the data set available and capture of new markets that are excluded from financial services.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB, Manene M, Mwaniki I. "Trust and Distrust: A Reputation Ratings Approach." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology (IARJSET). 2016;3(2):111-114. Abstract

Agents’ reputation ratings in a social network form a real valued matrix which is discounted with singular value decomposition (SVD) to estimate the trust and distrust levels of agents. SVD eliminates noise as future expected trust and distrust are based on current reputation ratings. A discounting of 20 percent is optimal, further discounting does not improve error reduction. Reputation and trust are closely related. Distrust is different from trust and reputation. Distrust is similar to trust negation; and trust is similar to distrust negation.

Weke P, Ratemo C. "Estimating IBNR Claims Reserves for General Insurance Using Archimedean Copulas." Applied Mathematical Sciences: Journal of Theory and Applications. 2013;7(25):1223-1237.Website
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "DISCOURSE CONNECTIVITY:THE CASE OF LUBUKUSU.". In: Relevance Theory Circuit - Kaizemeir Dolny Poland. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2007. Abstract
Discourse connectivity, according to those who propose discourse and text grammars and leaning towards the code model (Harris 1952, Longacre 1983, Dooley and Levinsohn 2000), say it is a purely linguistic matter. However, discourse connectivity also relies on context, the context of the discourse itself, that of the speaker and that of the hearer. This later position is proposed in an inferential model (Sperber & Wilson 1986/95). This inferential model suggests that sentence structure alone determines only a fraction of what is communicated and context plays a crucial role in the determination of meaning hence to link individual sentences in creating a discourse requires linkages beyond a language code. It is these linkages over and above the code that connect with context and thereby allow for utterance comprehension. Blass 2006:7 argues that, intuitive judgements of well formedness and ill formedness of discourse depend upon the connectivity occurring between and within sentences of a language. The argument by Blass is that to create discourse harmony, it is inevitable to integrate both linguistic and non linguistic features to achieve discourse connectivity which enables utterance comprehension. This paper will examine discourse connectivity linkage as manifested in the particle nono and its allomorphic realization ne of the Lubukusu - a Bantu language spoken in western Kenya. The aim is to show the diversity of use for this particle while emphasizing its idiosyncratic usage that is specific to Lubukusu speakers.
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This book is designed to address a course unit under the open and distance learning programme. The book specifically addresses basic issues of classical grammar. Students of Linguistics will realize later in their studies that the title of this book is rather ambitious considering the volume of work under Traditionalist linguistics even as this book has specific interest to Syntax. Syntax examines the rules for sentence structure in languages. To understand sentence structure, the book is packaged in a two step way that would help even non linguists to grasp some seminal issues under Syntax within Traditional linguistics.
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "Aspects of Discourse Structure.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. Upcoming (Orient Blackswan); 2012. Abstract
It is debatable whether speakers of any language are wholly responsible for discourse organization of an utterance or whether recipients indirectly impose on speakers an organizational paradigm for the success in communication. While some linguists  advocate for the latter position, the former argument is embraced by those who see communication as fundamentally designed for recipients who indirectly impose structure to it. This former position is held by scholars who see recipient design as a fundamental principle for any interaction. This paper argues for a blending of both positions using illustration from Lubukusu language while arguing that milieu informed by the application of politeness principles is responsible for discourse organization. The paper will focus on the use of particles in Lubukusu and show how relevance theory proposed by Sperber & Wilson (1986/95/2002/2004) captures this blend.
Wekesa MN, Okoth MW, Abong’ GO, Muthoni J, Kabira JN. "Effect of Soil Characteristics on Potato Tuber Minerals Composition of Selected Kenyan Varieties." Journal of Agricultural Science;. 2014;6(12).wekesa_2014a_effect_of_soil_characteristics_potato.pdf
Wekesa VD, Ogeng’o JA, Siongei CV, Elbusaidy H, Iwaret M. "Demographics of patients admitted with Traumatic Intracranial Bleeds in Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent Afr J Surg. 2013;18(3):67-70.
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "THE NOTION OF FAITHFULNESS vs CONTEXT IN TRANSLATION. BY, MALOBA WEKESA,.". In: PUBLISHED PAPER FOR CONFERENCE IN LAPAMPA ARGENTINA. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2009. Abstract
Translations being representations of texts in other languages can be communicatively successful if these texts are faithful representations of the originals. This means that the posterior text must resemble the anterior text closely enough in respects relevant to the target audience.  The relevance theory, using the notions of interpretive resemblance and interpretive use, constraints the divergence of possible text interpretations between anterior and posterior texts. However, the notions of interpretive use and resemblance make assumption that each utterance will carry along a context that can faithfully be carried over to the posterior text. This paper will argue that "full meaning" of an utterance is a mirage even with interpretive resemblance and use since context is not replicable between languages.  The paper will explore how unfaithful a posterior text can be especially when translators "invent" new context to illustrate a previously unknown concept in the posterior text from the anterior text. The paper will use for illustration, excerpts from the Ten Commandments of the bible as translated in the Lubukusu version of the same - Endakano Empia.
Wekesa B, Miriti E, Moturi CA. "Agent-based Vulnerability Assessment of Government Web Applications." NNGT Int. J. on Internet and Web Applications. 2015;2( International Journals of N&N Global Technology(IJNNGT)):1-6. Abstract

While most governments, including the government of Kenya, have improved their performance through allowing more information exchange using web support, there is increased spread of information crimes targeting government web applications. Structured Query Language (SQL) injection and Cross Site Scripting attack (XSS) are ranked as the two top most vulnerability attacks by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) top 10, 2013 vulnerability list. Recently there have been massive attacks on a number of websites including the government of Kenya. Agent orientation is emerging as a dominant research area and as a new paradigm in provision of solutions to problems. Agents provide developers and designers with a way of structuring applications around autonomous and communicative elements. In this paper, we present a solution that uses multi-agents to detect both SQL injection and XSS attacks vulnerabilities on web applications. The system has been developed using Java programming language and Prometheus methodology as an Agent Oriented Software. It will specifically target websites in development environment
for testing the vulnerabilities before being hosted in the production environment. We have also incorporated the testing of already hosted websites for the two vulnerabilities. The proposed system will help web developers and owners of websites to fix the vulnerabilities and enhance the entire security.

WEKESA MRMALOBA. "ADVANCED ENGLISH STRUCTURE.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. University of Nairobi Press; 2011. Abstract

At what point does language structure become advanced? This is a legitimate question since language necessarily is a very advanced concept of human beings. Moreover, having taken years learning language as a student is an indictment to this advanced concept. However, the mention of an advanced course sends wrong signals to students to mean that a course is complicated. The notion of 'advanced courses' being deemed complicated needs to be disabused by the simple understanding that the finer details that may have been overlooked previously take center stage at the advanced stage. The thrust of this book is to look at the finer details of the English language within certain theoretical bearings.

Wekesa DM. "Understanding Discourse at Word Level." 16th Triennial ACLALS Conference. 2013.understanding_discourse_at_word_level.pdf
Wekesa V, Mwang'ombe NJM, Musau CK, Kiboi JG. "Causes and Risk Factors of Non-traumatic Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage among Patients at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Kenya Wekesa, V.; Mwang'ombe, N.J.M.; Musau, C.K. & Kiboi, J.G." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2011;16(3):75-79. Abstract

Background: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) has been shown to have a global incidence of 2-49 cases per 100 000 population, and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is a scarcity of data regarding this condition in Kenya. This paper presents the causes and risk factors for this condition in patients presenting to our hospital.
Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. All patients admitted between December 2010 and March 2011 with a diagnosis of SAH, were included in the study. A total of 55 patients with SAH were recruited in the study.
Results: Slightly more females suffered from SAH than men, with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.1. The mean age was 47.6 years with a modal age group being 41-50 years. Intracranial aneurysms were seen in 29% of patients, the commonest location being in the anterior communicating artery (31%). Arterio-venous malformations were seen in 4% of patients. 51% of the patients had poorly controlled hypertension. Other risk factors included alcohol intake (31%), cigarette smoking (15%), and use of hormonal contraceptives was reported in 22% female study subjects.
Conclusion: In our population, the commonest cause of spontaneous SAH is aneurysmal bleeds mainly in the anterior circulation. Further, most of the risks involved in causation of SAH are modifiable therefore interventions such as proper blood pressure control should be put in place so as to reduce the burden of this disease.

WEKESA MRMALOBA. "THE BIBLIC LANGUAGE DILEMMA: THE COMPETING INTERESTS OF ENGLISH vs LUBUKUSU.". In: Published paper By Orient Blackswan 2008: Indegeneity:Representation and Intepretation, Edited by G.N Devy, Geoffrey V. Davis,K.K Chakravarty. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2008. Abstract
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WEKESA MRMALOBA. "COHESION AND DEIXIS IN PRACTICE: The Case of an Opinion Column.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. VDM Verlag, Saarbrucken, Germany.; 2011. Abstract
Readers of Newspapers may regard an opinion column text by a specific writer as popular and judge another opinion column text as bland. Granted, the basis of judgement by readers may be extra linguistic. However, it is possible to track and attribute part of the judgement by some readers as having a basis on language use. If the argument to choose one text over another exists in language, then we can account for this using linguistic tools.Such an account can give a glimpse to the judgement on how one text is popular while another is not.This book exploits linguistic tools in examining a journalese text to show how the smallest details that enable sentences to glue together have an impact in overall textual harmony.
Wekesa V, Mwang'ombe NJM, Musau CK, Kiboi JG. "Causes and Risk Factors of Non-traumatic Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage among Patients at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Kenya ;." East and Central African Journal of Surgery.. 2011;16(3):75-79. Abstract

Background: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) has been shown to have a global incidence of 2-49 cases per 100 000 population, and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is a scarcity of data regarding this condition in Kenya. This paper presents the causes and risk factors for this condition in patients presenting to our hospital.
Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. All patients admitted between December 2010 and March 2011 with a diagnosis of SAH, were included in the study. A total of 55 patients with SAH were recruited in the study.
Results: Slightly more females suffered from SAH than men, with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.1. The mean age was 47.6 years with a modal age group being 41-50 years. Intracranial aneurysms were seen in 29% of patients, the commonest location being in the anterior communicating artery (31%). Arterio-venous malformations were seen in 4% of patients. 51% of the patients had poorly controlled hypertension. Other risk factors included alcohol intake (31%), cigarette smoking (15%), and use of hormonal contraceptives was reported in 22% female study subjects.
Conclusion: In our population, the commonest cause of spontaneous SAH is aneurysmal bleeds mainly in the anterior circulation. Further, most of the risks involved in causation of SAH are modifiable therefore interventions such as proper blood pressure control should be put in place so as to reduce the burden of this disease.

Wekesa VD, Ogeng’o JA, CV S, H E, Iwaret M. "Pattern of Traumatic Intracranial Bleeds at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent Afr J Surg. 2013;18(2):70-74.
Welch 1 RW, Njoroge K, Habgood RM. "Selection for increased grain protein production in Barley.". In: Barley Genetics IV (Chapter 5), Pp 271-278. Edinburgh University Press; 1981.
Wellington, N; Ekaya, Joseph; Gathuma M, Boniface; Makau F;, Dickson, M; Nyariki. Guidelines For Emergency Livestock Off -take Handbook.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s agricultural sector accounts for 20–30% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Of this, the livestock sector alone makes a contribution of about 50%. Thus, livestock contributes heavily to the GDP and food security of its population. It also provides the necessary thrust for other forms of development in the country. Recent statistics indicate that currently over 50% of the country’s livestock population is based in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which form about 80% of the country’s land area. However, comparative international statistics show that livestock contributes 88% of the total agricultural output in Botswana even though the country has half Kenya’s livestock population and is of less agricultural potential. Thus, there is a huge potential contribution that livestock can make to the Kenyan national economy. Unfortunately, this sector receives only 10% of the government’s agricultural expenditure and less than one per cent of total spending, yet it is estimated that Kenya’s potential to export livestock products if adequately exploited would earn more than the earnings from tea and coffee combined. This then calls for new thinking about livestock development strategies to harness the arid landsThe livestock sector accounts for 90% of employment and more than 95% of household incomes in the ASALs. Most of the livestock slaughtered in major urban centres originates in these areas, with an annual slaughter of about 1.6 million Tropical Livestock Units. Kenya’s livestock from the ASALs is worth Kshs 60 billion (US$800 million). The internal livestock trade in trade in thepastoral areas alone nets in about 6 billion shillings (US$80 million )a yearIn the arid areas of the ASALs, arable crop production is not possible without some form of irrigation; while in semi-arid areas rainfall may be sufficient for certain types of crops, requiring special management techniques. Therefore, except for the areaunder cropping, the rest of the arid areas is used for livestock......

Wen X, Li G, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Peng B, Wong LM, Wang S, Xiong Q. "Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering." Nanoscale. 2014;6:132-139. Abstract
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Wen X, Li G, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Peng B, Wong LM, Wang S, Xiong Q. "Flexible and tunable metamaterials and their applications in sensing.". In: APS March Meeting Abstracts. Vol. 2014.; 2014:. Abstract
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Wen P, Wang Y, Wang N, Zhang S, Peng B, Deng Z. "Preparation and characterization of melamine-formaldehyde/Ag composite microspheres with surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial activities." Journal of colloid and interface science. 2018;531:544-554. Abstract
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WENWA-AKINYI DRODINGA. "The Relationship Between Pyrethrins And The Yellow Pigmentation in Pyrethrum Flowers.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Vol.4, No. 2, pp. 113-119. MBA; 2003. Abstract
o Odinga W.O, Angendu C: ;
Wepukhulu M, Kimenju J, Anyango B, Wachira P.M, G.K K. "Effect of soil fertility manangement practices and Bacillus subtilis on plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystem. 2011;13(1):27-34.
Were HK, Kabira JN, Kinyua ZM, Olubayo FM, Karinga JK, J.Aura, Lees AK, Cowan GH, Torrance L. "Occurrence and Distribution of potato pests and diseases. ." Potato Research, online publication.. 2014.
Were FN, Mukhwana BO, Musoke RN. "Neonatal survival of infants less than 2000 grams born at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(2):77-9. Abstract

Survival of patients is regularly used as a measure of the level and appropriateness of medical care provided by institutions. Newborn services have been evaluated in this manner since the 1960s. Though Kenyatta National Hospital has provided neonatal services for over 25 years, no survival data for the low birth weight infants has been published since 1978.

Were E. “Fani katika tamthilia ya Kiswahili: Uchanganuzi wa kilio cha Haki na Kijiba cha Moyo” . Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Were S;, Olubayo F;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A. "Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller).".; 2011.
Were S,; Olubayo, F.; Nderitu KKJH; D;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A;. " Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller). ). .". In: UON Agro 2011. C.A.V.S; 2011.
Were O, Benn M, Munavu R. "Chinchona Alkaloid from Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii." Planta medica. 1997;63(1):90-92. AbstractFull text link

Investigation of the Tanzanian Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii resulted in
the isolation of the cinchona alkaloid, cinchonidine (2). Conversion of cinchonidine to deoxy-
cinchonidine was achieved in high yield using zinc dust in aqueous sulphuric acid. This
illustrates the first reduction of a quinoline system using these reagents.

Were FH. "Intensified Campaigns to End Use of Lead-Based Paints." The Architect, the Official Magazine of the the Architects Chapter,AAK 10 (2016):28-30.Website
Were FH. Use of human nails as a bio-indicator of heavy metals overload in children. Njue W, Murungi J, Wanjau R, eds. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 2011. Abstract

Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing developing countries. Hair and nail were suggested as more attractive biomarkers among various biopsy materials (teeth, bone, urine, blood and other body fluids) in assessing human metal environmental exposure especially in developing countries because the analysis is economical and not susceptible to contaminations. Recent studies have indicated increasing levels of Pb and Cd in urban and agricultural areas. Studies have identified children as a special risk group as absorption and toxicity of toxic metals is inversely proportional to the age. Absorption of these metals in their gastrointestinal tract also depends on nutritional factors and interaction with other dietary components such as those of Zn, Fe and Ca. This study was therefore set to evaluate the concentration of Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd and Fe in the nails of children (n=200) under the age of six years as bioindicators of risk exposure. The concentrations of these metals were compared in toenails and fingernails samples of children (n=33). The sampling covered schools in both urban and rural settings. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained using a questionnaire. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of the metals. The heavy metal levels in fingernails of children in urban areas were significantly higher than those of rural areas (P < 0.05; df = 168). The mean levels in urban areas were 27.5±1.8mg/g Pb and 0.73±0.08 mg/g Cd while those of rural areas were 19.7±0.9 mg/g Pb and 0.44±0.06 mg/g Cd. The correlation results indicated that high levels of Pb in the fingernail samples negatively correlated with Zn and Fe (R = -0.256 Zn; -0.188 Fe) but not Ca levels while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe (R = -0.241) only. Other factors that were found to have significant influence were socio-economic background, dietary habits and environmental risk exposure. The results also showed that the school location had more influence on the heavy metals level than the area of residence. The children in a school near the highway were found to have a mean of 34.4±3.5 NLm/g Pb as compared to those whose residence was near the highway (31.6±2.8 mg/g Pb), implying that the contaminants are from a common source. The study established that the mean metal levels were generally higher in the toenail than in fingernail samples. However, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05), therefore either the toenail or the fingernail could be used as bio-indicator. The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure and nutritional factors implies that policies and strategies to reduce the heavy metal levels should be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children in this country. This could be facilitated by improving the conditions of the schools and residential areas and sensitizing the general public on nutrition and effects of heavy metals.

Were HK;, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Weidemann HL. "The status of potato leafroll virus in Kenya. Journal of Plant Pathology." Journal of Plant Pathology. 2003;3( 85 ): 153-156.the_status_of_potato_leafroll_virus_in_kenya.pdf
Were M, Ngugi RW, Makau P, Wambua J, Oyugi L. "Kenya’s reform experience: What have we learnt? KIPPRA Working Paper #12."; 2005.
Were E, Curran K, Delany-Moretlwe S, Nakku-Joloba E, Mugo NR, Kiarie J, Bukusi EA, Celum C, Baeten JM. "A prospective study of frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence among African heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples." AIDS. 2011;25(16):2009-18. Abstract

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common worldwide and is an important consideration in couples HIV voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT), especially for HIV-serodiscordant couples (i.e. in which only one member is HIV-infected).

Were FH, Wafula GA, Wairungu S. "Phytoremediation Using Bamboo to Reduce the Risk of Chromium Exposure from a Contaminated Tannery Site in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2017;Vol. 7(16):12-25.
Were FH, Njue W, Murungi J, Wanjau R. "Use of human nails as bio-indicators of heavy metals environmental exposure among school age children in Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2008;393(2-3):376-384. AbstractWebsite

Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing the developing countries. Metal poisoning is usually difficult and expensive to assess or screen in these countries due to limited resources, which means that policies, guidelines, regulations and institutional managements are limited. Hair and nail as biopsy materials were suggested as more attractive biomarkers in assessing heavy metals environmental exposure. This paper deals with quantitative determination of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in fingernails of children (n = 200) in urban and rural areas using atomic absorption spectrometry. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained through a questionnaire. The mean levels of heavy metals in children in urban areas were found to be higher (27.5 ± 1.8 μg/g Pb and 0.73 ± 0.08 μg/g Cd) than in rural areas (19.7 ± 0.9 μg/g Pb and 0.44 ± 0.06 μg/g Cd). The difference was significant (P < 0.05; DF = 168, t-test). Other factors that were found to have significant influence were socio-economic background, health conditions, dietary habits and environmental risk exposure. The results also showed that the school location has more influence on the heavy metals level than the area of residence. The children in a school near the highway were found to have a mean of 34.4 ± 3.5 μg/g Pb as compared to those who lived near the highway (31.6 ± 2.8 μg/g Pb), however the difference was not significant (P > 0.05), suggesting a common source of contaminants in the areas. The correlation results also indicated that a high level of Pb in the nail influenced negatively Zn and Fe but not Ca levels (R = − 0.256 Zn; − 0.188 Fe) while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe only (R = − 0.241). The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure, and nutritional status implies that policies and actions to reduce heavy metal levels must be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children and by extension the general public in this country.

Were F, Ayieko P, English M, Githanga D. "Characteristics of admissions and variations in the use of basic investigations, treatments and outcomes in Kenyan hospitals within a new Clinical Information Network ." Archives of Diseases of Childhood. 2016;101:223-229. Abstractarch_dis_child-2016-ayieko-223-9.pdf

Background Lack of detailed information about hospital activities, processes and outcomes hampers planning, performance monitoring and improvement in low-income countries (LIC). Clinical networks offer one means to advance methods for data collection and use, informing wider health system development in time, but are rare in LIC. We report baseline data from a new Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya seeking to promote data-informed improvement and learning. Methods Data from 13 hospitals engaged in the Kenyan CIN between April 2014 and March 2015 were captured from medical and laboratory records. We use these data to characterise clinical care and outcomes of hospital admission. Results Data were available for a total of 30 042 children aged between 2 months and 15 years. Malaria (in five hospitals), pneumonia and diarrhoea/dehydration (all hospitals) accounted for the majority of diagnoses and comorbidity was found in 17 710 (59%) patients. Overall, 1808 deaths (6%) occurred (range per hospital 2.5%–11.1%) with 1037 deaths (57.4%) occurring by day 2 of admission (range 41%–67.8%). While malaria investigations are commonly done, clinical health workers rarely investigate for other possible causes of fever, test for blood glucose in severe illness or ascertain HIV status of admissions. Adherence to clinical guideline-recommended treatment for malaria, pneumonia, meningitis and acute severe malnutrition varied widely across hospitals. Conclusion Developing clinical networks is feasible with appropriate support. Early data demonstrate that hospital mortality remains high in Kenya, that resources to investigate severe illness are limited, that care provided and outcomes vary widely and that adoption of effective interventions remains slow. Findings suggest considerable scope for improving care within and across sites.

WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE, WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE. "Wanjala G., .". In: The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4 Issue 2,2010 Pp. 10-35, ISSN 2079 - 3383. School of Education, UoN; 2010. Abstract
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Were FH. Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals among Industrial Workers and Related Occupational Health Effects in the City of Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Kamau GN, Shiundu PM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

The study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals among factory workers (N = 282) and their related adverse health effects in Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Sets of whole blood, spot urine, scalp hair and personal breathing zone air samples were collected from these workers in various sections of 6 different plants, and analysed for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. This method of analysis was validated using certified reference whole blood samples, BCR®-635 and BCR®-636. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) in production sections as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 ug/rrr' in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 ug/m' in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 ug/rrr' in steel and scrap welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 ug/nr' in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 ug/rn" in leather and tannery, and 5.5 ± 3.6 !!g/m3 in the pharmaceutical plant. The average airborne Pb levels in production sections were significantly high (P < 0.05) when t·.... .• compared to those in their respective office areas, which was: 23.9 ± 6.9 ug/rrr', 18.8 ± 1.6 ug/m", 23.5 ± 5.8 ug/m:', 13.8 ± 3.0 ug/rn", 8.0 ± 2.7 ug/m" and 2.1 ± 0.2 ug/nr'. In all cases, the average airborne Pb levels in production areas markedly exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety Health Administrations' Permissible Exposure Limit of 50 ug/rrr' ~ over an 8-hour Time-Weighted Average except for leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Blood lead (BPb) levels of all employees correlated positively (r = 0.86) with airborne Pb. All the determined mean BPb values in production workers exceeded 30 ug/dl, proposed by of the American Conference of Governmental for Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) biological exposure indices (BEls), except for employees in leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Similarly, levels of Cd, Ni and Cr in the ambient air correlated positively (r = 0.99 Cd, 0.89 Ni and 0.84 Cr, N = 282) with those in the urinary samples. The production areas of steel and scrap welding plant had the highest mean levels of 0.13 ± 0.05 ug/rrr' Cd and 10-:-3±4.3 ug/rrr' Ni in the breathing zone air compared to those in the other plants. In this* facility, 50% (20 of 40) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of employees had urinary Ni and Cd levels that exceeded the ACGIH BEls. The average airborne Cr levels of 23.4 ± 11.6 ug/rrr' were highest in production areas of leather and tannery industry, where urinary mean Cr levels of 35.2 ± 12.1 ug/g exceeded the BEIs. Nearly 71% (22 of 31) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of leather tanners and steel and v scrap welders, respectively had urinary Cr levels that exceeded this limit. A positive correlation of r = 0.55 Cr; 0.61 Pb; 0.58 Cd and 0.30 Ni was also observed in the levels between these metals in the ambient air and hair samples. The relationship between levels of heavy metals in the hair and other biomarkers of exposure further indicated correlation coefficient values (r) of 0.57 for urinary-Cr; 0.51, urinary-Cd; 0.21, urinary- Ni; 0.59, blood-Pb; and 0.42 for blood-Cd. The results also established that a high proportion of steel and scrap welders (47.3%, N 19), battery recyclers (39%, N = 16) and battery manufacturers (37.5%, N = 15) had hypertensive range of blood pressure with high incidences of cardiovascular diseases and related symptoms, which were associated with significantly high levels of Pb and Cd. Almost 10.7% of production workers (N = 233) were anaemic, which was associated with elevated levels of BPb. Leather tanners (48.3%, N = 15) and steel and scrap welders (47.5%, N = 19) had high prevalence of respiratory illnesses that were marked by severely reduced forced' vital capacity (FVC) .' . and forced expiratory volume of air in thi -(l.i;t second (FEV i). These were indication of airway obstructions. It was further observed that leather tanners (41.9%, N = 13) and steel and scrap welders (40.0%, N = 13) had high occurrences of dermatological conditions that manifested in the form of rashes and itching and which were associated with elevated airborne levels of Cr and Ni.

Were S;, Olubayo F;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A. "Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller).".; 2011.
Were F, bwibo. "THE CONTRIBUTION OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT DEATHS TO INFANT MORTALITY.". 2009;8:374-377. Abstractcontribution_of_vlbw_infants.pdf

Background: Infant mortality remains high in many developing countries in which the contribution of deaths among infants born very low birth weight (VLBW) may be considerable. This contribution has however not been quantified in most such countries. This paper explores a model that can be used in this respect.
Objective: To determine the contribution of very low birth weight infants towards the overall infants deaths in Kenya.
Design: Prospective cohort study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kilifi District Hospital.
Subjects: Very low birth weight infants followed up for a period of one year.
Results: The neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortalities for the cohort were 442, 139 and 581/1000 respectively. These were thirteen, three and seven times higher than the national averages respectively. Of the national birth cohort of 1,300,000 during that year, it was estimated that between 15,600 (1.2%) and 24,700 (1.9%) were born VLBW. Given this VLBW infant burden and extrapolating the infant mortality observed in this study to the general population, between 9,064 (8.9%) and 14,351(14.2%) of the 101,400 (78/1000) infants who die during infancy in the country are born VLBW.
Conclusion: The cohort reports very high infant mortality for VLBW infants when compared to the general population. Despite constituting less than 2% of the birth cohort, these infants contribute between 8.9% and 14.2% of all infant deaths.

Were FH. "Take the Lead on Lead." UN Environment; OurPlanet (2017):44-45.Website
Were O, Munavu R. "Cinchona alkaloid from Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp cottonii ." Planta Medica. 1997;63(6):578.
Were SA, Narla R, Mutitu EW, Muthomi JW, Munyua LM, Roobroeck D, Vanlauwe B, E J. "Biochar and vermicompost soil amendments reduce root rot disease of common bean (Phaseolous Vulgaris L.)." African Journal of Biological sciences. 2021;3(1):176-196.
Were J. H. MJK. "Classification of Operators With the Property ." GJPAM. 2013;vol.9(no.1):13-24 .
and Werikhe, G. KORCNMW. "Status and process analysis of koche, a traditional pastoral meat product in Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2019;9(6).
Werner G, Oduor-Okelo D, Otiang'a-owiti GE, Wango EO, Onyango DW. "Morphological characterization of the seminiferous cycle in the goat (Capra hircus): A histological and ultrastructural study.". 2000. Abstract

The cycle of spermatogenesis/seminiferous cycle was investigated in the goat testis using both light and electron microscopy techniques. Using the various cell associations and the accompanying changes in spermatid shape and location, the cycle was divided into eight (8) successive stages. The cycle began with the accomplishment of spermiation (stage 1) and ended with apical migration and close attachment of late maturation phase spermatids at the Sertoli cell apex accompanied by adluminal retention of residual bodies with dense staining inclusions (stage 8). The early stages of the cycle (stages 1–4) were therefore characterized by the presence of only one generation of spermatids, the second one appearing only after the division of secondary spermatocytes in stage 4. Consequently, stages 5–8 had two generations of spermatids; Golgi or cap phase as well as maturation phase spermatids. Although stages 5 to 7 appeared as distinct entities, stages 6 and 7 were rather short-lived and considered as continuations of stage 5. Therefore, the 8 stages of the cycle in the goat were further condensed into 6 main divisions. The duration of each stage was estimated by the frequency of occurrence in sections. Among these, stage 1 had the highest frequency (34%) followed by stages 5–7 (27%). Stages 8 and 4 had the shortest frequency (up to 9%) while stages 2 and 3 had 13% and 12% respectively. These results indicate that, like most domestic species, goats have a cycle of 8 stages with 6 main divisions, the longest being stage 1.

Werunga KP, Khainga SO, Musau P, Emarah M, Lumarai L. "Use of combined paracetamol and low dose ketamine in pain control during change of dressings in burn patients.". 2011. Abstract

To determine the effectiveness of Paracetamol and low dose Ketamine in controlling burn pain during dressings. Setting: The burns ward of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, a 750 bed capacity tertiary centre in Western Kenya. Subjects: Consenting patients were recruited to the study on admission. Babies and minors had consent given by their parents or guardians. Results: Of the Fifty nine patients who were recruited into the study, seventy percent of them were children. Male to Female ratio was 1.2:1. There was statistically significant change in the pain score on both FLACC and VAS (both p<0.001) after the introduction of low dose Ketamine with Paracetamol. The patients and healthcare providers were satisfied with the new mode of pain management during change of dressings for burn wounds. Conclusion: The use of oral Paracetamol combined with the low dose intravenous Ketamine, is effective in controlling burn pains during change of dressings. It is a safe and cheap alternative, that can be applied in remote and resource limited medical facilities.

Wesonga FD;, Kitala PM;, Gathuma JM;, Njenga MJ;, Ngumi PN. "An assessment of tick-borne diseases constraints to livestock production in a smallholder livestock production system in Machakos District, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

The principle objective of the study was to determine the tick- borne diseases constraints to livestock production in Machakos District. The survey was carried out in eight randomly selected sub- locations spread across the district. Two hundred farmers were recruited into the study. All cattle from the selected farms were bled to determine the prevalence of tick- borne diseases. Clinical examination of sick animals was carried out during the survey. Questionnaires with questions designed to identify and rank various tick- borne disease production constraints, occurrence of tick- borne diseases, mortality and disease control strategies were administered. A total of 634 zebu and 15 cross- breed (Friesian-zebu crosses) cattle were sampled on the 200 farms for blood parasite infections (serology and direct parasite detection) and tick infestation. From the farmers’ perceptive, East Coast fever (ECF) and anaplasma were ranked as the main tick -borne diseases prevalent in the district. Although babesia was not ranked as one of the main tick-borne diseases in the district by the farmers, serological analysis did indicate a high prevalence of the disease. Tick challenge was high in seven of the eight sub-locations where the survey was carried out. The most common tick species were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Boophilus decoloratus. Veterinary services in the district are inadequate with up to 92 % of the farmers in one of the sub-locations treating their sick animals without the assistance of qualified veterinary personnel.

Wesonga, P.W, Mukoya-Wangia S, Njoka JT, Maina JG. "PROFITABILITY OF ECONOMIC STIMULUS PROGRAM (ESP) FISH FARMING ADOPTERS IN MAKUENI COUNTY, KENYA." European American Journals. 2016;2(3):1-12.
Wesongah JO, Guantai AN. "Isolation and Characterization of Antichloramphenicol Antibodies using SDS Page." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(3):174-180. Abstract2016_-_isolation_and_characterization_of_antichloramphenicol_antibodies.pdf

Background: Antichloramphenicol antibodies can be produced in small or large animals depending on the requirement of the researcher. Previously most researchers have raised antibodies in small animals such as rabbits due to their easy availability and handling. In the present study antichloramphenicol antibodies were produced in large animals because large volumes of serum was needed for various studies.

Objective: The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize antichloramphenicol antibodies produced in camels, donkeys and goats for development of a CAP Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

Methods: The methods employed were SDS-PAGE electrophoresis which involved the analysis of crude and purified goat, camel and donkey antichloramphenicol antibodies. Purification of the antichloramphenicol antibodies was carried out by precipitation using ammonium sulphate. Immunization of experimental animals was carried out using standard immunological methods.

Results: The results indicated that the crude anti-CAP antibody produced in camels, goats and donkeys showed 7 protein bands of molecular sizes 11.7, 40, 61.6, 134.3, 145, 169.5 and 182 kda. However the protein band of molecular weight 11.7 kda was not observed in the purified antibody from the 3 animal species. The protein bands of the camel appeared smaller and were more distinct as compared to those of donkeys and goats.

Conclusion: From this study it was concluded that purified camel antibodies are smaller and more specific followed closely by goat antibodies and donkey antibodies.

Keywords: anti-chloramphenicol (CAP) antibodies, camels, goats and donkeys

West K, Bugenyi F, Kulindwa K, Olago DO, Odada EO. "East African RiĞ alley Lakes.". 2004.Website
West K, Bugenyi F, Kulindwa K, Olago D, Odada EO. "East African RiĞ alley Lakes.". 2004.Website
West KW, Stephens B, Vane DW, Grosfeld JL. "Intussusception: current management in infants and children." Surgery. 1987;102:704-710. Abstract
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Westercamp M, Agot KE N-ABRCJ. "Circumcision preference among women and uncircumcised men prior to scale-up of male circumcision for HIV prevention in Kisumu, Kenya." AIDS Care. . 2012;24(2):157-66. AbstractWebsite

Following the endorsement by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) of male circumcision as an additional strategy to HIV prevention, initiatives to introduce safe, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services commenced in 2008 in several sub-Saharan African communities. Information regarding perceptions of circumcision as a method of HIV prevention, however, is largely limited to data collected before this important endorsement and the associated increase in the availability of VMMC services. To address this, we completed a community-based survey of male circumcision (MC) perceptions in the major non-circumcising community in Kenya, which is the current focus of VMMC programs in the country. Data was collected between November 2008 and April 2009, immediately before VMMC program scale-up commenced. Here we present results limited to women (n = 1088) and uncircumcised males (n = 460) to provide insight into factors contributing to the acceptability and preference for MC in those targeted by VMMC programs. Separate multivariable models examining preference for circumcision were defined for married men, unmarried men, and women. Belief in the protective effect of circumcision on HIV risk was strongly associated with preference for MC in all models. Other important factors included education, perceived improvement in sexual pleasure, and perceptions of impact on condom utilization. Identified barriers to circumcision were the belief that circumcision was not part of the local culture, the perception of a long healing period following the procedure, the lack of a specific impetus to seek out services, and the general fear of pain associated with becoming circumcised. A minority of participants expressed beliefs suggesting that behavioral risk compensation with increased MC prevalence and awareness is a possibility. This work describes the early impact of a large-scale VMMC program on beliefs and behaviors regarding MC and HIV risk. It is hoped that our findings may offer guidance into anticipating potential impacts that similar programs may observe in populations throughout Eastern Africa.

Westermann C JJ, Kitonyi GW LTJ. "Is hereditary telangiectasia rare in the black race? The first sub-Saharan mutation Haemophilia ." Haemophilia. 2011;(17):244.
Wetende E, Olago D, Ogarac W. "Perceptions of climate change variability and adaptation strategies on smallholder dairy farming systems: Insights from Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya." Environmental Development. 2018;27:14-25. AbstractWebsite

Climate change and variability is bound to impact Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems as a result of overreliance on rainfed fodder production; yet climate models project increased frequencies of droughts that have a bearing on the Length of Growing Period. Similarly higher environmental temperatures are partly attributed to biome-range shifts, implying a likelihood of emerging and re-emergence of livestock and fodder diseases and pests. Nonetheless not much is documented of perceptions and adaptation strategies employed by Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems geared towards resilience to climatie shocks. By employing a mixed method approach that included household surveys, focused group discussions and statistical data analysis using SPSS package, this study aimed to bridge some of the existing gaps in adaptation strategies on Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems in Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya. Survey results obtained from 100 households and Focused Group Discussions revealed that the climate of the study location was perceived to have changed, with droughts singled out as the most frequent. These perceptions were consistent with long-term climate data analysis which affirmed that all seasons, i.e. MAM, JJA, and DJF with the exception of SON showed longterm drying trends. Similarly, environmental temperature showed upward trends in both maximum and minimum temperatures that were perceived to be the cause of proliferation of noxious weeds previously associated with hotter areas of the Sub-County. Typologies of adaptation strategies used in the study showed that adaptation options were limited since these were viewed through a narrow lens of disease control by regular spraying and maize stovers as supplementary livestock feed during fodder dearth periods. This study recommends that besides awareness creation of adverse impacts of climate change and variability, facilitation for ease of access to technologies that ameliorate its adverse effects ought to be put in place. Additionally, empirical studies on consequences of biome range shifts on pasture and fodder productivity, and future possible impacts of diseases on Bos taurus breeds associated with climate change and variability should be undertaken.

WG C, GW D, MO N, FK N, JM M. "Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants." Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103(7):650-2.
WHITELAW, D.D., KAAYA, G.P., MOULTON, J.E., Moloo SK, MURRAY M. "Susceptibility of different breeds of goats in Kenya to experimental infection with Trypanosoma congolense. ." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 1985;17:155-165.
Whittow GC, Mathiu PM. "SEABIRD TEMPERATURE REGULATION.". 1992.
Whitworth JA, Kokwaro G, Kinyanjui S, Snewin VA, Tanner M, Walport M, Sewankambo N. "Strengthening capacity for health research in Africa.". 2008.
Widmer M, Piaggio G, Nguyen TMH, Osoti A, Owa OO, Misra S, Coomarasamy A, Abdel-Aleem H, Mallapur AA, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Lumbiganon P, Patel AB, Carroli G, Fawole B, Goudar SS, Pujar YV, Neilson J, Hofmeyr JG, Su LL, Ferreira de Carvalho J, Pandey U, Mugerwa K, Shiragur SS, Byamugisha J, Giordano D, Gülmezoglu MA. "Heat-Stable Carbetocin versus Oxytocin to Prevent Hemorrhage after Vaginal Birth." N Engl J Med. 2018;379(8):743-752. Abstract

Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death. Oxytocin is the standard therapy for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, but it requires cold storage, which is not available in many countries. In a large trial, we compared a novel formulation of heat-stable carbetocin with oxytocin.

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Baguiya A, Bonet M, Cecatti JG, Brizuela V, Curteanu A, Minkauskiene M, Jayaratne K, Ribeiro-do-Valle CC, Budianu M-A, Souza JP, Kouanda S. "Perinatal outcomes among births to women with infection during pregnancy." Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(10):946-953. Abstract

This study is part of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS). It aimed to estimate neonatal near-miss (NNM) and perinatal death frequency and maternal risk factors among births to women with infection during pregnancy in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC).

"Frequency and management of maternal infection in health facilities in 52 countries (GLOSS): a 1-week inception cohort study." Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8(5):e661-e671. Abstract

Maternal infections are an important cause of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. We report the main findings of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study, which aimed to assess the frequency of maternal infections in health facilities, according to maternal characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of core practices for early identification and management.

Baguiya A, Bonet M, Cecatti JG, Brizuela V, Curteanu A, Minkauskiene M, Jayaratne K, Ribeiro-do-Valle CC, Budianu M-A, Souza JP, Kouanda S. "Perinatal outcomes among births to women with infection during pregnancy." Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(10):946-953. Abstract

This study is part of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS). It aimed to estimate neonatal near-miss (NNM) and perinatal death frequency and maternal risk factors among births to women with infection during pregnancy in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Brizuela V, Cuesta C, Bartolelli G, Abdosh AA, Abou Malham S, Assarag B, Castro Banegas R, Díaz V, El-Kak F, El Sheikh M, Pérez AM, Souza JP, Bonet M, Abalos E. "Availability of facility resources and services and infection-related maternal outcomes in the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study: a cross-sectional study." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(9):e1252-e1261. Abstract

Infections are among the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. The Global Maternal Sepsis and Neonatal Initiative, launched in 2016 by WHO and partners, sought to reduce the burden of maternal infections and sepsis and was the basis upon which the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) was implemented in 2017. In this Article, we aimed to describe the availability of facility resources and services and to analyse their association with maternal outcomes.

V
Vogel JP, Souza JP, Gülmezoglu MA, Mori R, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Carroli G, Laopaiboon M, Fawole B, Ganchimeg T, Zhang J, Torloni MR, Bohren M, Temmerman M. "Use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in 29 countries: an analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Lancet. 2014;384(9957):1869-77. Abstract

Despite the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with preterm birth, little evidence is available for use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS) to assess coverage for these interventions in preterm deliveries.

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Rouet F, Foulongne V, Viljoen J, Steegen K, Becquart P, Valéa D, Danaviah S, Segondy M, Verhofstede C, Van de Perre P. "Comparison of the Generic HIV Viral Load assay with the Amplicor HIV-1 monitor v1.5 and Nuclisens HIV-1 EasyQ v1.2 techniques for plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation of non-B subtypes: the Kesho Bora preparatory study." J. Virol. Methods. 2010;163(2):253-7. Abstract

The implementation of cost effective HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays in resource-poor settings is of paramount importance for monitoring HV-1 infection. A study comparing the analytical performance of three HIV-1 RNA assays (Generic HIV Viral Load, Amplicor v1.5 and Nuclisens EasyQ v1.2) was performed on 160 plasma samples from 160 consecutive antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1-infected pregnant women assessed for eligibility in the Kesho Bora trial aimed at prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in three African countries (Burkina Faso, Kenya and South Africa). Correlation and agreement of results of the three assays were assessed for plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation in specimens harbouring mainly sub-subtype A1, subtype C, and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 02_AG and CRF06_cpx. Good degrees of correlation and agreement were observed between these HIV-1 RNA assays. However, nine (9/160, 5.6%) strains detectable with the Generic HIV Viral Load assay were not detected by either the Amplicor (n=7) or EasyQ (n=2) test. One strain (0.6%) was missed with the Generic HIV Viral Load assay. Further, concordantly positive plasma samples harbouring CRF02_AG and CRF06_cpx yielded significantly higher HIV-1 RNA concentrations when tested by Generic HIV Viral Load, as compared to Amplicor v1.5 (mean differences, +0.33 and +0.67 log(10) copies/ml; P=0.0004 and P=0.002, respectively). The Generic HIV Viral Load assay accurately quantified the majority of the non-B HIV-1 subtypes assessed in this study. Due to its low cost (approximately 10 US $/test), this assay performed with open real-time PCR instruments is now used routinely in the Kesho Bora trial and may be recommended in other African settings.

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Widmann M, Warsame AH, Mikulica J, Johannes von Beust, Ndetei D. "Khat use, PTSD and psychotic symptoms among Somali refugees in Nairobi: a pilot study." Frontiers in public health. 2014;2:71. AbstractWebsite

n East-African and Arab countries, khat leaves are traditionally chewed in social settings. They contain the amphetamine-like alkaloid cathinone. Especially among Somali refugees, khat use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms. We assessed khat-use pat-terns and psychiatric symptoms among male Somali refugees living in a disadvantaged urban settlement area in Kenya, a large group that has not yet received scientific atten- tion. We wanted to explore consume patterns and study the associations between khat use, traumatic experiences, and psychotic symptoms. Using privileged access sampling, we recruited 33 healthy male khat chewers and 15 comparable non-chewers. Based on extensive preparatory work, we assessed khat use, khat dependence according to DSM- IV, traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychotic symptoms using standardized diagnostic instruments that had been adapted to the Somali language and culture. Hazardous use patterns like chewing for more than 24 h without interruption were frequently reported. All khat users fulfilled the DSM-IV-criteria for dependence and
85% reported functional khat use, i.e., that khat helps them to forget painful experiences. We found that the studied group was heavily burdened by traumatic events and post- traumatic symptoms. Khat users had experienced more traumatic events and had more often PTSD than non-users. Most khat users experience khat-related psychotic symptoms and in a quarter of them we found true psychotic symptoms. In contrast, among control group members no psychotic symptoms could be detected. We found first evidence for the existence and high prevalence of severely hazardous use patterns, comorbid psychiatric symptoms, and khat use as a self-medication of trauma-consequences among male Somali refugees in urban Kenyan refugee settlements. There is a high burden by psychopathology and adequate community-based nterventions urgently need to be developed.
Keywords: khat, PTSD, psychotic symptoms, khat-related psychosis, Somali refugees in Kenya

Widmer M, Piaggio G, Nguyen TM, Osoti A, Owa OO, Misra S, Coomarasamy A, Abdel-Aleem H, Mallapur AA, Qureshi Z, Lumbiganon P. "Heat-Stable Carbetocin versus Oxytocin to Prevent Hemorrhage after Vaginal Birth." New England Journal of Medicine. 2018;379(8):743-752. AbstractWebsite

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death. Oxytocin is the standard therapy for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, but it requires cold storage, which is not available in many countries. In a large trial, we compared a novel formulation of heat-stable carbetocin with oxytocin.

Methods: We enrolled women across 23 sites in 10 countries in a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial comparing intramuscular injections of heat-stable carbetocin (at a dose of 100 μg) with oxytocin (at a dose of 10 IU) administered immediately after vaginal birth. Both drugs were kept in cold storage (2 to 8°C) to maintain double-blinding. There were two primary outcomes: the proportion of women with blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents, and the proportion of women with blood loss of at least 1000 ml. The noninferiority margins for the relative risks of these outcomes were 1.16 and 1.23, respectively.

Results: A total of 29,645 women underwent randomization. The frequency of blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents was 14.5% in the carbetocin group and 14.4% in the oxytocin group (relative risk, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.06), a finding that was consistent with noninferiority. The frequency of blood loss of at least 1000 ml was 1.51% in the carbetocin group and 1.45% in the oxytocin group (relative risk, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.25), with the confidence interval crossing the margin of noninferiority. The use of additional uterotonic agents, interventions to stop bleeding, and adverse effects did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Conclusions: Heat-stable carbetocin was noninferior to oxytocin for the prevention of blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents. Noninferiority was not shown for the outcome of blood loss of at least 1000 ml; low event rates for this outcome reduced the power of the trial. (Funded by Merck Sharpe & Dohme; CHAMPION Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000870651 ; EudraCT number, 2014-004445-26 ; and Clinical Trials Registry-India number, CTRI/2016/05/006969 .).

Wien, H.C., S.C. Stapleton, D.N. Maynard, C. McClurg, and R.O. Nyankanga, Riggs D. "Regulation of female flower development in pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) by temperature and light.". 2002.
Wiesmann UN, DiDonato S, Herschkowitz NN. "Effect of chloroquine on cultured fibroblasts: release of lysosomal hydrolases and inhibition of their uptake." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1338-43.
Wiesmann UN, DiDonato S, Herschkowitz NN. "Effect of chloroquine on cultured fibroblasts: release of lysosomal hydrolases and inhibition of their uptake." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1338-43.
Wikler KC, Rakic P. "Distribution of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina of diurnal and nocturnal primates." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1990;10:3390-3401. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Wikler KC, Rakic P. "Distribution of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina of diurnal and nocturnal primates." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1990;10:3390-3401. AbstractWebsite
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Wilkinson E, Budimir M, Ahmed AK, Ouma G. "Informations et Services Climatiques dans les pays du Programme BRACEd." Informations Pour la Résilience. 2015. AbstractOverseas Development Institute

L'accès, l'utilisation et l'application d'informations météorologiques et climatiques en Afrique et en Asie augmentent.• Cependant, les utilisateurs finaux sont confrontés à différents défis au niveau de l'application des informations qu'ils reçoivent. Cela est lié à la qualité des produits d'information, au fait de ne pas disposer des données aux échelles appropriées et aux difficultés en matière de communication et d'interprétation des renseignements produits. Les informations climatiques doivent être axées sur le service et intégrées à la prise de décision, de l'échelon national au niveau des communautés.

Wilkinson E, Budimir M, Ahmed AK, Ouma G. "Climate Information and Services in BRACED Countries." BRACED Resilience Intel. 2015;(1). Abstractclimate_information_and_services_in_braced_countries.pdfOverseas Development Institute

Access to sound climate information is vital for anticipating climate-related risks and adapting to climate change. As such, it is recognised as an essential input to projects being funded by the Building Resilience and Adaptation
to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) programme.

Wilkister Nakami, HM Mutembei OC, Githigia SM. "Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Sheep and Goats in the Fora and Mona Populations during Drought Mitigation in Marsabit County of Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology. 2015;1:84-87. Abstract
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Willems P, Ogira PN, Mutua F, Abdo G, Kabubi J, Fahmi AH, Sonbol M, Lotfy A, Kimaro TA, Mkhandi S, Opere A, Ibrahim YA, Kizza M, Tadesse L, Motaleb AM, Farid S, Zaki A, Al-Weshah R. "Regional Flood Frequency Analysis for the River Nile Basin." Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen. 2009;55(4):555-570. AbstractLirias

Regional differences have been investigated in the probabilities of high and low river flow extremes along the river Nile basin in eastern Africa. This has been done on the basis of statistical extreme value analysis applied to about one hundred flow gauging stations spread over the basin. The statistical analysis results have been combined with physical sub-basin characteristics such as topography and land use. The research has been conducted within the framework of the FRIEND/Nile project, which focuses on regional hydrology research cooperation between the main Nile countries (Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda) and the Flemish universities. The high- and low-flow statistics developed can be used in water engineering and civil engineering design applications. Of equal importance are the supratechnical research outputs, among which enhancement of water-related transboundary research cooperation in the Nile region. During the course of the project, trust among the researchers and water managers from the different Nile countries gradually increased, data sharing enhanced, and politically sensitive issues (on transboundary water sharing) became debatable.

Willems P, Ogiramoi NP, Mutua F, Abdo G, Kabubi J, Fahmi AH, Sonbol M, Lotfy A, Kimaro TA, Mkhandi S, Opere AI. "Regional Flood Frequency Analysis for the River Nile Basin." Bull. Séanc. Acad. R. Sci. Outre-Mer / Meded. Zitt. K.Acad. Overzeese Wet.. 2009;55(4):555-570.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M.; Thamsborg,S.M.; Nansen, P., Kyvsgaard, N.C., Bogh, H.O.; Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (2001). The epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of Dairy Cattle in Central Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 33: 173-187.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Munyua, W.K. and Kanyari, P.W.N. (1994). Recovery and identification of Besnoitia and other coccidia from cat faeces around Kabete in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42: 187-191.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kanyari, P.W.N., Allonby, E.W., Wilson, A.J. and Munyua, W.K.(1982): Trypanotolerance and economics among East African goats compared to their crosses with two exotic goat breeds. In: Karbe, E. and Freitas, E.K. (eds) 1982 pp. 93-99.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N., W.K. Munyua, and M.N. Gichigi (2002). Strategic use of moxidectin or closantel in combination with levamisole in the control of nematodes of sheep in the highlands of central Kenya. Acta Tropica 84: 93-100.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Bogh, H.O. and Nansen. P. (1996). The effects of anthelmintic treatment on nematode parasitism and live weight gains of dairy calves in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 44: 125-1.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Githigia, S.M.,Munyua,W.K.,and Kanyari,P.W.N.(1992): Observations of the Pathology of natural Eimeria infections In kids in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 40: 235-237.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K. and Wilson, A.J. (1986): Goat Trypanosomiasis: Trypanotolerance and epidemiology among goat breeds in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 34 (2) 93-97.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kanyari, P.W.N., Allonby, E.W., Wilson, A.J. and Munyua, W.K. (1984): Some economic effects of trypanosomiasis in goats. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 15: 153-160.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Bwangamoi, O., Frank H., Wandera, J.G. and Munyua, W.K. (1971): Gross lesions in natural bovine East Coast Fever at Kabete. Bull. Epiz Dis. Afr. Vol. 19 No. 3; 271-277.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1971. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Maingi, N., Kanyari, P.W.N. and Munyua, W.K. (2004). Gastrointestinal nematode infections in Dorper lambs in semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 52: 160-166.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kanyari, P.W.N., Allonby, E.W., Wilson, A.J. and Munyua, W.K. (1984): Some economic effects of trypanosomiasis in goats. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 15: 153-160.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1984. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N., Gichohi, V.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M. and Thamsborg, S.M. (1997). The epidemiology of nematodes and liver fluke infections in sheep in Nyandarua district ofKenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 45: 27-34.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Bwangamoi, O., Frank H., Wandera, J.G. and Munyua, W.K. (1971): Gross lesions in natural bovine East Coast Fever at Kabete. Bull. Epiz Dis. Afr. Vol. 19 No. 3; 271-277.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1971. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Olaho-Mukani, W. Munyua, W.K., Njogu, A.R. and Mutugi, M.W. Omuse, J.K., and Sayer, P.D. (1992): Application of Antigen-Enzyme immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in camels in Kenya. Proc. Ist Int. camel Conf. 33-36.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., and Munyua, W.K. (1988): Relapses in dogs Experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated With diminazene aceturate or isometamidium chloride. Vet. Parasitol. 27: 199-208.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Rutagwenda, T. and Munyua, W.K. (1984): Prevalence of Camel ticks in the Ngurunit area of Marsabit district Northern, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 33: 167- 169.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Mugera, G.M. and Munyua, W.K. (1973): A study of developmental stages ofTheileria Parva by electron microscopy. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Afr Vol. 21 No.1; 50-66.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1973. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Nansen, P., Kyvsgaard, N.C., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M. and Bogh, H.O. (1998). An abottor survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun. 22: 325-334.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Rutagwenda, T. and Munyua, W.K. (1984): Prevalence of Camel ticks in the Ngurunit area of Marsabit district Northern, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 33: 167- 169.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1984. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Gichohi, V.M., Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1997). The strategic use of closantel and albendazole in controlling naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Kenya highlands. Vet. Res. Commun. 21: 547-557.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Mugera, G.M. and Munyua, W.K. (1973): A study of developmental stages ofTheileria Parva by electron microscopy. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Afr Vol. 21 No.1; 50-66.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1973. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Olaho-Mukani, W., Munyua,W.K., Njogu, A.R., and Mutugi, M.W. (1993): comparison of antibody- and antigen-detection enzyme immunoassays for the detection of trypanosoma evansi in camels. Vet. Parasitol. 45: 231-240.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Olaho-Mukani, W., Munyua, W.K., Njogu, A.R., Mutugi, M.W. and Oketch, G. (1989): Diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei evansi infection using a monoclonal sandwich ELISA technique KEMRI/KETRI Annual Medical Scientific Conference pp 112-114.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Ong'are, J.O., Munyua, W.K., Wilson, A.J. and Rinkanya, F.G.R. (1985): Survey of tick resistance in Kiambu District of Kenya. A comparison of two resistance test methods. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 33 (2): 89-99.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Mugera, G.M, Mworia, G.M. and Munyua, W. K. (1974): The treatment of East Coast Fever using Aureomycin.D. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr. Vol. 21. No.4; 501-505.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1974. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Maingi, N., Munyua, W.K. and Kanyari, P.W.N. (2004). Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminth infections in Dorper sheep in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya. Onderst. J. Vet. Res. 71: 219-226.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N. Bjorn H., Gichohi, V.M., Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1998). Resistance to benzimidazoles and levamisole in nematode parasites of sheep in Nyandarua district of Kenya Acta Tropica 69: 31-40.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K., Githigia, S.M., Mwangi, D.M., Kimoro, C.O. and Ayuya, J.M. (1997). The effects of a controlled-release albendazole capsule (Proftril-captec) on parasitism in grazing Corriedale ewes in Nyandarua district of Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun. 21(2): 85.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Mugera, G.M, Mworia, G.M. and Munyua, W. K. (1974): The treatment of East Coast Fever using Aureomycin.D. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr. Vol. 21. No.4; 501-505.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1974. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma J.M. (1994). Gastrointestinal helminth control practices and anthelmintic resistance on sheep farms in Nyandarua District of Kenya.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Ngeranwa, J.J.N., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Gathumbi, P.K. and Munyua, W.K., (1991): The effects of experimental Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) (brucei) evansi infection on the Fertility of male goats. Vet. Res. Commun. 15: 301-308.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. and Wamakima, D.N. (1979): Serum Transaminase activities in the bovine experimentally infected with East Coast Fever (Theileria parva infection). Bull. Anim. Hlth.Prod. Afr. Vol. 27: 253-256.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1979. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kagira, J.M., Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K. and Kanyari, P.W.N. (2001). Worm control practices and implications for the development of anthelmintics resistance on commercial pig herds in Thika district, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 49: 250-253.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H. and Munyua, W.K. (1994): The efficacy of triclabendazole and oxyclonazide against Fasciola gigantica in naturally infected dairy cattle in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42: 205-209.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K.(1981): Morphology and biology of Theileria parva.in:FAO/SIDA Postgraduate follow-up seminar on Veterinary Pathology held at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete, Kenya 7th-27th September, 1981.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1981. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kagira, J.M., Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K. and Waruiru, R.M. (2002). The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in commercial pig farms in Thika District, Kenya. Bull.Anim.Hlth. Prod. Afr. 50: 1-11.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K. and Ngotho, J.W. (1995). Toxocora vitulorum infections in cattle in Kajiado district, Kenya Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.43: 11-15.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Olaho-Mukani, W., Munyua, W.K., Njogu, A.R., Mutugi, M.W.and Otstyula, M. (1992): Trypanosomal antigen and antibody levels in field camels following treatment with two trypanocidal drugs. Trop. Med. Parasit. 43: 170-172.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Ong'are, J.O., Munyua, W.K. and Wilson, A.J. (1984): A study of the relationship between dipping efficiency and prevalence of Theileria parva in Limuru Division of Kiambu district, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 8(2): 12- 14.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya

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