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. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "v. A cost Effective Method of Ethanol fumigation is small Diesel Engines.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "vi. The African charcoal Stove: It.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1985. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bluegum Timber. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-8 October, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
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45. Spentzou A, Bergin P GCAKC-CASHPDHAH, Piechocka-Trocha A, Wong J ANZALAKDGWGHPJOELF. "Viral Inhibition Assay: A CD8 T-cell neutralization assay for use in clinical trials of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 vaccine candidates." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010;201(5):720-9.
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A. W, S. W, C. O’, S. F, van S. D. "Variation in the carbon footprint of milk production on smallholder dairy farms in Central Kenya, Journal of Cleaner Production." Journal of Cleaner Production 265:121780. 2020.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Voices: The British Council Nairobi.". In: The British Council. ISCTRC; 1996. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
Aduda BO, Boccaccini AR. "Velocity of elastic waves in porous ceramic materials: influence of pore structure." British Ceramic Transactions. 2003;102(3):103-108. Abstract

A review of recently published ultrasonic velocity-porosity data on a variety of porous ceramic materials,
which included information on the pore structure, has been undertaken. These experimental data have been
compared with those calculated using a spheroidal pore model that incorporates information on pore volume
fraction, shape and orientation. Good agreement, especially when fractional porosity is less than ~ 0.25,
between the experimental and calculated values is obtained even when a single ‘effective’ pore shape is
employed in the calculation. The agreement improves if the pore shape at each particular porosity level (the
point-by-point analysis) is used. The predictive ability of the spheroidal pore model is therefore demonstrated.

ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Vulnerability to Food Insecurity and Poverty in the Nyando district of Kenya, in preparation.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atwell RB, Buoro IB, Boreham PF. "Variation in protein concentrations in acute and chronic ascites in Dirofilaria immitis-infected dogs.". 1996. Abstract

Microfilaremic dogs, developing ascites acutely following a reaction to diethylcarbamazine therapy, had similar protein concentrations in their ascitic fluid and plasma. In contrast, in dogs chronically infected with Dirofilaria immitis, the protein concentrations of ascitic fluid were found to be significantly lower than plasma protein concentrations. The acute development of ascites in such dogs is associated with high ascitic protein levels.

Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Mwangi J, Mjahid H, Oloo P. "Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14(2):100-103.risk_scores-euroscore_validation_at_knh-awori-2017.pdf
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B DRESHUNFRANCIS. "Vowel Systems of Kenyan Languages. Paper ready to be presented at a Symposium on African Languages and Linguistics.". In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1978;1(4):229-31. UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
B" "KA, R" "KJ, Amin" "M, E" "CJ. "Vulval- perineal giant condylomata( Buschke Lowenstein tumor) in HIV infected women: case report.". In: Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society 37th Conference. Sirikwa, Eldoret; 2013.
Bebora LC;, Njagi LW;, Mbuthia PG;, Kariuki DI. "Various Manifestations Of Ovarian Carcinoma, Mareks Disease/Leucosis Complex And Rhabdomyoma In Chickens:."; 2008. Abstract

Like any other diseases of poultry, tumours are important to poultry keepers. This is because farmers keep poultry mainly for commercial purposes and are affected by any condition that would cau se death of the chickens or reduce their productivity. There are various tumours that affect chickens, mostly the older ones. This is a report of two manifestations of ovarian carcinoma and two extraordinary manifestations of Marek’s disease/Leucosis compl ex observed in Kenya. Possible impacts on poultry production are discussed.

BEN SIHANYA. "Vicky Kattambo & Sihanya Social Security Law in Kenya monograph in Kluwer Law Internations international Encylopaedia of Laws Klluwer,The Hague Jan.". In: FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, Vol. 30: 161-162. Taylor & Francis; 1999. Abstract

A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.

Blaschke, T.; Donert GKMQTK; F;. "Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society." Information. 2012;3(3):372-390.
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Borna A. Nyaoke, Mutua G, sajabi R, delvin nyasani, Mureithi MW, Anzala O. "Volunteer motivators for participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials in Nairobi, Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2017;https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183788(12).journal.pone_.pdf
of the Broutet N, Fruth U DGSLRPSTIVTCCH 201. "Vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: the way forward." Vaccine. 2014;32(14):1630-7.
Busula AO, Takken W, de Boer JG, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Niels O Verhulst. "Variation in host preferences of malaria mosquitoes is mediated by skin bacterial volatiles." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2017;31(3):320-326.
Bykowski J, Jahan R, Pakbaz SR. "Variant carotid origin of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery mimicking infarct on angiography." Journal of neurointerventional surgery. 2011:jnis–2010. AbstractWebsite
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C O, E M, SK M, Ngechu. Variation of ground water static levels in Nairobi City Since 1927.. New Delhi India ; 2012.
C BL, Njagi L W, Mbuthia P G, DI K. "Various manifestations of ovarian carcinoma and Marek’s disease / leucosis complex in chickens: Case reports .". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-manifestation_of_ovarian_carcinoma_and_chicken.pdf
Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Celum C, Wong KG, Raugi DN, Sorensen S, Stoddard JN, Zhao H, Deng W, Kahle E, Panteleeff D, Baeten JM, McCutchan FE, Albert J, Leitner T, Wald A, Corey L, Lingappa JR. "Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3):e16986. Abstract

Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.

CAROLINE MUTAI. "VERS UNE NOUVELLE APPROCHE DE L." OURNAL ON RESEARCH ON FRENCH TEACHING IN EASTERN AFRICA: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES; 2006. Abstract
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CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Vertical Variations of Wind Power in Kenya. Journal of Discovery and Innovation, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp 73 - 80.". In: Kenya. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1990.
D
D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "van Kooten, G.C., E.H. Bulte and Patrick Kinyua, 1997. Game Cropping and Wildlife Conservation in Kenya: A Dynamic Simulation Model with Adaptive Control, Agricultural Systems 54 (August): 439-462.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
D.N. Kariuki and S.F.A. Kettle, & Ti Soi Sang. "Vibrational Spectra of molecular crystals of impure metal carbonyls".". 1976.
Day S. "Vision development in the monocular individual: implications for the mechanisms of normal binocular vision development and the treatment of infantile esotropia." Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 1995;93:523-581. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to study the vision development in monocular individuals so as to better understand normal binocular vision development and to refine the treatment of infants with infantile esotropia. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects with one clinically normal eye and one eye with no vision (no light perception or history of enucleation) are studied. In addition to measurement of standard parameters of development such as visual acuity, measurement of motion processing is made by both optokinetic and electrophysiologic techniques. A comparison is made of vision development among three populations: the monocular population, the normal population, and patients with a history of infantile esotropia. Such comparison is made to study the relative effects of interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. The monocular population represents individuals who have interruption of binocularity, whereas the infantile esotropia population has both interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. RESULTS: The OKN data suggest that the monucular population is more similar to the normal population than the esotropia population. The electrophysiologic data shows a statistically significant difference in the three populations. Motion processing is more fully developed in the monocular population than in the infantile esotropia population when compared to the normal population. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The development of motion processing appears to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal experience during the first year of life. 2. Monocular subjects have a less abnormal motion processing system when compared to patients with infantile esotropia even when monocularity is congenital. 3. The results indirectly support the premise that prealignment alternate occlusion is of benefit to the patient with infantile esotropia prior to realignment. 4. Development of the motion processing system does not necessarily parallel the development of other binocular functions.

Delić J, Savković A, Isaković E. "Variations in the position and point of origin of the vermiform appendix." Medicinski arhiv. 2002;56:5-8. Abstract

There were investigated variations of appendix vermiformis in the place of origin and position. The investigations were carried out on 50 human preparations of adults of both sexes, unintentional choice. The position and relation between intestinum caecum and appendix vermiformis were determined by forensic medical and pathoanatomical autopsy. Place of origin of appendix vermiformis, from wall of intestinum caecum is determined by anatomical dissection. Intestinum caecum has a variable shape and it occurs in two forms: conical, which dominates (56%) and square (44%). It has constant position in fossa iliaca dextra in 100% of 50 investigated cases. Appendix vermiformis is fully variable organ as for position and the place of origin from the wall of intestinum caecum. Dominantly (52%) it has rising position, and two subtypes are present: retrocecal (more expressed-38%) related to the retrocolic subtype (14%). Very frequent position of appendix vermiformis is a falling one (32%), in which pelvic position is more frequent (26%) related to descendent position (6%). Appendix vermifirmis is located subcaecaly in 8% of total number of investigated cases, found in three subtypes. It is found out that ostium appendicis vermiformis has a variable position in the wall of intestinum caecum. It is predominantly placed in the middle of the lower pole of the intestinum caecum (58%), in medial wall it is present in 32%, of all investigated, and in the lateral wall in the least number case 10%. The results of these investigations point out how important is to know variable anatomies of appendix vermiformis, for the clinical image of acute appendicitis is undoubtedly caused by the variable anatomical relations.

Dorothy McCormick. "Value Chains and the Business System: Applying a Simplified Model to Kenya’s Garment Industry.". In: Weaving Through Reforms:Business Systems in Africa. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2001. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Njeri K. "Value Chains in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Challenges in Shifting from the Old Global Regime of Import Substitution to a More Liberalised Global Regime. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Variation of Coordinates Method in Geodetic Networks.". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1972.
Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

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FB A, PM M, PI M, J O’o. "Variant anatomy of the jugular Foramen: An osteological study." Academia Anatomica International. 2016;2(2):38-43. Abstractvariant_anatomy_of_the_jugular_foramen_an_osteolog.pdf

Background:
Jugular foramen lesions are among the major complications
of skull base surgery. Morphological variations in the structure are pertinent
during interpretation of skull base radiographs and in surgical procedures
within the foramen. This study therefore aimed at describing the
morphology of the jugular foramen in a Kenyan population.
Methods:
One
hundred and five adult skulls from the Nairobi National Museums were
used. Jugular foramen septation, dome and dimen sions were studie d
extracranially. Statisti cal analysis was performed using SPSS (Version
21.1 IBM).
Results:
Septation was present in 202 (96.2%) jugular
foramina, type I partial septation being the most common (78.7%). A
dome was observed in 81 (38.6%) jugular foramina. Respectively, the
mean right and left anteroposterior dimensions were 11.17
±
2.05mm
vs.8.88
±
2.30mm (p <0.001), mediolateral dimensions 17.47
±
2.18mm vs.
15.30
±
2.53mm (p <0.001), jugular dome depth 12.38
±
2.64 mm vs.
11.25
±
2.15 mm (p=0.054), posterior wall thickness7.95
±
2.20mm vs.
9.68
±
1.98mm (p <0.001) and medial wall thickness 3.73
±
1.10 mm vs.
3.73
±
0.98mm (p = 0.992).
Conclusion:
Partial septation, asymmetry in
dimensions and a wide range in the dome depth of the jugular foramen
were frequent. Preoperative imaging of jugular foramen morphology is
therefore recommended to avoid inadvertent injury to its contents and
surrounding structures owing to variability.

Feller MB. "Visual system plasticity begins in the retina." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. Abstract

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

Feller MB. "Visual {System} {Plasticity} {Begins} in the {Retina}." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. AbstractWebsite

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Vasculitis in HIV: report of eight cases. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):656-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):656-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe vasculitis in HIV patients, their CD4 levels, anatomical sites affected and clinical patterns. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kisumu District Hospital and Nairobi Rheumatology Clinic between January 2002 and May 2005. SUBJECTS: Eight patients with HIV and vasculitis. RESULTS: Eight patients (four males and four females) were recruited with an age range of 24-61 years, mean 33.13 years. Five had central nervous system vasculitis and three had peripheral vasculitis. The CD4 counts were low, range 2-200 cells/mm3 (mean of 79.25 cells/mm3), normal levels of CD4 are 355-1298 cells/mm3, indicating severe immunosuppression. Two patients tested positive for HBV (hepatitis B virus). CONCLUSION: HIV associated vasculitis is recognised and may be complicated by coinfection with hepatitis viruses. It occurs at low CD4 counts. Central nervous system involvement is a common site. Management is multidisciplinary.
Frenea, J.; Bonneaua MD; S. "Velocity Measurements Grease – Lubricating Film of a Sliding Contact.". 2008. Abstract

Experimental results of the velocity distribution in a grease-lubricated cylindrical sliding contact are obtained. A comparison is made with the theoretical results of a parabolic velocity distribution similar to that of a Newtonian fluid, derived from a Bingham plastic flow model. This equation compares very well with the experimental results.

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G.N. M. The value of pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999.
Gathara D, Malla L, Ayieko P, Karuri S, Nyamai R, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Variation in and risk factors for paediatric inpatient all-cause mortality in a low income setting: data from an emerging clinical information network." BMC Pediatrics. 2017. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND Hospital mortality data can inform planning for health interventions and may help optimize resource allocation if they are reliable and appropriately interpreted. However such data are often not available in low income countries including Kenya. METHODS Data from the Clinical Information Network covering 12 county hospitals' paediatric admissions aged 2-59 months for the periods September 2013 to March 2015 were used to describe mortality across differing contexts and to explore whether simple clinical characteristics used to classify severity of illness in common treatment guidelines are consistently associated with inpatient mortality. Regression models accounting for hospital identity and malaria prevalence (low or high) were used. Multiple imputation for missing data was based on a missing at random assumption with sensitivity analyses based on pattern mixture missing not at random assumptions. RESULTS The overall cluster adjusted crude mortality rate across hospitals was 6 · 2% with an almost 5 fold variation across sites (95% CI 4 · 9 to 7 · 8; range 2 · 1% - 11 · 0%). Hospital identity was significantly associated with mortality. Clinical features included in guidelines for common diseases to assess severity of illness were consistently associated with mortality in multivariable analyses (AROC =0 · 86). CONCLUSION All-cause mortality is highly variable across hospitals and associated with clinical risk factors identified in disease specific guidelines. A panel of these clinical features may provide a basic common data framework as part of improved health information systems to support evaluations of quality and outcomes of care at scale and inform health system strengthening efforts.

Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
Gichaga FJ, Kipkore SK. "Violation of Traffic Laws in Selected Roads in Nairobi.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi; 1980.
Gicheru MM, Olobo JO, Kariuki TM, Adhiambo C. "Visceral leishmaniasis in vervet monkeys: immunological responses during asymptomatic infections." Scand. J. Immunol.. 1995;41(2):202-8. Abstract

Nine vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were infected intradermally with 8 x 10(7) virulent L. donovani promastigotes. Four animals developed clinical visceral leishmaniasis and died over a period of 18 months. The remaining five animals have remained asymptomatic for a period of 3 years now. Attempts to isolate parasites from spleen and liver through biopsies were fruitless. Immunological responses of these subclinically infected animals were examined. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analyses demonstrated Leishmania specific antibodies in these animals, but the antibody titres were low. When proliferation of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) to Concanavalin A (Con A) of these animals was compared with control 'disease free animals' there were no significant differences in response. However, L. donovani antigen (fixed promastigotes) specific proliferation was demonstrated in the five subclinically infected animals. High and varying levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were secreted in PBMC cultures from the five vervet monkeys when stimulated with either Con A or L. donovani antigens. In control animals, IFN-gamma was only detected when PBMC were stimulated with Con A. Marked delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were demonstrated in the five subclinically infected animals 48 h after injection with formalin fixed promastgotes. It was concluded that the visceral Leishmania disease spectrum due to L. donovani observed in humans could be induced in vervet monkeys and that L. donovani asymptomatic/cryptic infected animals have competent humoral and cellular responses to homologous parasites.

Gitao, C.G., Khalif, others. Validation of camel milk standards. Isiolo, 8-11 May: KEBS; 2016.dks_2062_2016__pasteurized_camel___milk_1.docx
Githigia SM, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Cooper ME, Cooper JE. "veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". Submitted.Website
Graven SN, Browne JV. "Visual {Development} in the {Human} {Fetus}, {Infant}, and {Young} {Child}." Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. 2008;8:194-201. AbstractWebsite

The development of the visual system is the most studied of the sensory systems. The advances in technology have made it possible to study the neuroprocesses at the cellular and circuit level. The physical structure of the eye develops early in fetal life, whereas the neurocomponents and connections develop in later fetal and early neonatal life. The development of the visual system involves genetic coding, endogenous brain activity, exogenous visual stimulation after birth at term, and protected sleep cycles, particularly rapid eye movement sleep. Before birth at term, the fetus requires no outside visual stimulation or light. The critical element in development of the visual system before birth at term is protection of rapid eye movement sleep and sleep cycles. Sleep deprivation or disruption in utero and early months of neonatal life causes significant interference with visual development resulting in loss of the topographic relationships between the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, and the primary visual cortex in the infant.

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H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1993. Abstract

Over a six-month-period, from 1st March 1988 to 30th September 1988, 127 patients suspected of having ectopic gestation at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) were referred for sonographic examination, of whom 100 (78.7%) had enough data for a final diagnosis. During sonography, ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in 31 (31%) patients, out of whom 15 (48.4%) were confirmed to have ectopic gestation at laparotomy. Of the 69 who were thought to have other gynaecological disorders at sonographic examination, 2 (2.9%) were later found to have other ectopic gestation at surgery. Of the 17 patients who had ectopic gestation finally, extrauterine gestational sac with a demonstrable foetal pole were observed in only 6 (35.3%) cases, thus allowing a confident diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy by sonography. An empty, bulky uterus, demonstrable adnexal mass, pseudo-gestational sac and fluid in the culde-sac, together improved the sonographic positive predictive value to 67.0%. This study has shown that sonography can be used in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy at the KNH. However, in order to improve its reliability, further studies are recommended involving a combination of pregnancy test and sonography. PIP: Between March and September 1988 at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, clinicians included all patients (127) referred for ultrasonography due to suspected ectopic pregnancy (age range, 18-45 years) in a study to determine whether ultrasonography can be used to accurately diagnose ectopic pregnancy. The researchers examined only the records of 100 patients who had data adequate enough to make a final diagnosis. Based on sonography, clinicians believed 31 women had an ectopic pregnancy, but laparotomy confirmed that just 15 (48.4%) of these women actually had an ectopic pregnancy. Based on sonography, they did not suspect ectopic pregnancy in the other 69 patients, but laparotomy revealed that 2 patients (2.9%) did indeed have an ectopic pregnancy. Thus, the overall ectopic pregnancy rate among the 100 women was 17%. The remaining 83 women had other gynecological conditions. 52.9% of the women with an actual ectopic pregnancy had a pseudogestational sac, which had a positive predictive value of 53% and a negative predictive value of 90%. A pseudogestational sac had a sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 90%. Just 6 ectopic pregnancy cases (35.3%) had an extrauterine gestational sac with a clear fetal pole and a fetal heart beat. An enlarged uterus was more common in women with an ectopic pregnancy than in those with other conditions (82.4% vs. 51.8%; p .05). Every ectopic pregnancy case had a complex adnexal mass compared to just 48.2% of those with other conditions (p .001). When a woman had all these conditions combined–an empty, enlarged uterus; distinct adnexal mass; a pseudogestational sac; and fluid in the cul-de-sac-sonography's positive predictive value increased to 67%. The researchers recommended additional studies using a combination of the urinary pregnancy test and sonography to improve sonography's reliability. PMID: 8181431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Over a six-month-period, from 1st March 1988 to 30th September 1988, 127 patients suspected of having ectopic gestation at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) were referred for sonographic examination, of whom 100 (78.7%) had enough data for a final diagnosis. During sonography, ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in 31 (31%) patients, out of whom 15 (48.4%) were confirmed to have ectopic gestation at laparotomy. Of the 69 who were thought to have other gynaecological disorders at sonographic examination, 2 (2.9%) were later found to have other ectopic gestation at surgery. Of the 17 patients who had ectopic gestation finally, extrauterine gestational sac with a demonstrable foetal pole were observed in only 6 (35.3%) cases, thus allowing a confident diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy by sonography. An empty, bulky uterus, demonstrable adnexal mass, pseudo-gestational sac and fluid in the culde-sac, together improved the sonographic positive predictive value to 67.0%. This study has shown that sonography can be used in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy at the KNH. However, in order to improve its reliability, further studies are recommended involving a combination of pregnancy test and sonography. PIP: Between March and September 1988 at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, clinicians included all patients (127) referred for ultrasonography due to suspected ectopic pregnancy (age range, 18-45 years) in a study to determine whether ultrasonography can be used to accurately diagnose ectopic pregnancy. The researchers examined only the records of 100 patients who had data adequate enough to make a final diagnosis. Based on sonography, clinicians believed 31 women had an ectopic pregnancy, but laparotomy confirmed that just 15 (48.4%) of these women actually had an ectopic pregnancy. Based on sonography, they did not suspect ectopic pregnancy in the other 69 patients, but laparotomy revealed that 2 patients (2.9%) did indeed have an ectopic pregnancy. Thus, the overall ectopic pregnancy rate among the 100 women was 17%. The remaining 83 women had other gynecological conditions. 52.9% of the women with an actual ectopic pregnancy had a pseudogestational sac, which had a positive predictive value of 53% and a negative predictive value of 90%. A pseudogestational sac had a sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 90%. Just 6 ectopic pregnancy cases (35.3%) had an extrauterine gestational sac with a clear fetal pole and a fetal heart beat. An enlarged uterus was more common in women with an ectopic pregnancy than in those with other conditions (82.4% vs. 51.8%; p .05). Every ectopic pregnancy case had a complex adnexal mass compared to just 48.2% of those with other conditions (p .001). When a woman had all these conditions combined–an empty, enlarged uterus; distinct adnexal mass; a pseudogestational sac; and fluid in the cul-de-sac-sonography's positive predictive value increased to 67%. The researchers recommended additional studies using a combination of the urinary pregnancy test and sonography to improve sonography's reliability. PMID: 8181431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRODARIMASUMI. "Vocational Training Guidebook: Kenya Author: Odari H. MasumiJournal: The Nairobi Journal of Literatureate of Publication:.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1996. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

and H. Indangasi MOAM. "Value Creating Education in Kenya: Building a Humane Society." Kenya Literature Bureau. 2018.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Variations in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk in a Kenyan population. Mburu KS, Alexander O.J., Hassan Saidi, Bernard N. Int. J. Morph. 2010; 28(1): 199-204.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Variations in the formation of supraclavicular brachial plexus in Kenyans. Olabu B, Ogeng’o J, Kirsteen A, Saidi H. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2: 9-14.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Variant anatomy of the uterine artery in a Kenyan population. Obimbo MM, Ogengo J, Saidi H. Int J. Gynaecol Obstet. 2010; 1: 49-52.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
Hegde D, Hegde SD. "Variables in right iliac fossa anatomy and their relevance to appendicectomy: improving knowledge and practices." Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2008;21:165-170. Abstract

The anatomy of the right iliac fossa was reappraised with the intention of improving, open appendicectomy. The surface anatomy was studied on volunteers and the internal topography was examined during the operation of appendicectomy. Our findings vary slightly from prevailing knowledge which is mostly based on cadaver anatomy. Our findings suggest that McBurney's point is very close to the rectus sheath in some individuals and in most subjects it does not overly base of appendix. Surgical teaching through most of the 20th century stressed safety and recommended large incisions with generous exposure, allowing surgeons to operate yet not appreciate these variables. An attempt is made to provide a precise account of the variables in right iliac fossa anatomy to help surgeons operate using smaller, minimally invasive incisions with the inevitable reduced exposure of local anatomy. The proximity of the base of the appendix to the ileocaecal junction raises concern that burial of the appendicular stump might distort local anatomy.

Hitti J, Richardson BA, Wald A, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J, Ongecha-Owuor F, Roxby AC, Drake AL. "Valacyclovir Suppressive Therapy Reduces Plasma and Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA Levels During Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Randomized Trial.". 2012. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown. Methods. Between April 2008 and August 2010, we conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of twice daily 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo beginning at 34 weeks gestation in 148 HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected pregnant Kenyan women ineligible for highly active antiretroviral therapy (CD4 > 250 cells/mm3). Women received zidovudine and single dose nevirapine for PMTCT and were followed until 12 months postpartum. Results. Mean baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 3.88 log10 copies/mL. Mean plasma HIV-1 was lower during pregnancy (−.56 log10 copies/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], −.77 to −.34) and after 6 weeks postpartum (−.51 log10 copies/mL; 95% CI, −.73 to −.30) in the valacyclovir arm than the placebo arm. Valacyclovir reduced breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection at 6 and 14 weeks postpartum compared with placebo (30% lower, P = .04; 46% lower, P = .01, respectively), but not after 14 weeks. Cervical HIV-1 RNA detection was similar between arms (P = .91). Conclusions. Valacyclovir significantly decreased early breast milk and plasma HIV-1 RNA among women receiving PMTCT.

HM M. "Veterinary Response." in standard operating procedures for staff working in disasters, London; 2013.
I
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS. "Velle W., Kanui T.I., Aulie A. Sjaastad V. Ruminal escape and apparent degradation of amino acids administered intraruminally in mixtures to cows. J. of Dairy Science 81 (1998) 3231 .". In: Symposium of the Kenya Society of Neuroscientists and Kenya Association for the study of Pain, 2002 4P (Abs). Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Ilako D, Mwangi C, Karimurio J. "Vision of Public Service Vehicle (PSV) drivers and road traffic accidents in Nairobi city.". 2006. Abstract

Objectives: To assess the vision of PSV drivers operating in Nairobi city and to establish whether poor sight is associated with the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Nairobi city bus and matatu (small vans and minibuses) terminuses. Subjects: 539 randomly selected PSV drivers. Results: Sixty eight percent of the drivers did not have their sight checked during driving test. Drivers with inadequate vision were more frequently involved in accidents than those with adequate vision but difference was not statistically significant (p=0.76). Drivers with cataracts were 3 times more likely to be involved in accidents than those without (p=0.007). Conclusions: Majority of PSV drivers do not undergo visual acuity testing before acquiring driving licenses. Recommendation: Visual acuity testing should be made mandatory when applying for and renewing driving licenses.

Imbahale SS, WR M, Orindi B, Githeko AK, Takken W. "Variation in malaria transmission dynamics in three different sites in Western kenya." Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;912408.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Babusa H. Vazi la Mhudumu na Hadithi Nyingine Kutoka Afrika Mashariki. Nairobi: E.A. E. P; 2017.vazi_la_mhudumu.pdf
Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Maniania NK. "V. Tumuhaise, S. Ekesi*, SA Mohamed, PN Ndegwa 2." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2015;35(1):34-47.
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JA O, P K, H S, Tharao MK. "Variant Anatomy of the Hepatic Artery in Adult Kenyans.". 2007.
JA O, P K, H S, Tharao MK. "Variant Anatomy of the Hepatic Artery in Adult Kenyans.". 2007.
JE C, ME C, Nyaga P N, Gathumbi P K, Njagi L W. "Veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual scientific conference. Safari park hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-veterinary_forensic_medicine.pdf
Jeroen Spitzen, Koelewijn T, Mukabana RW, Takken W. "Visualization of house-entry behaviour of malaria mosquitoes." Malaria journal. 2016;15(1):233.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Validity of the vaginal discharge algorithm among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya. Fonck K, Kidula N, Jaoko W, Estambale B, Claeys P, Ndinya-Achola J, Kirui P, Bwayo J, Temmerman M. Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Feb;76(1):33-8.". In: Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Feb;76(1):33-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vulnerability of women in an African setting: lessons for mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention programmes. Gaillard P, Melis R, Mwanyumba F, Claeys P, Muigai E, Mandaliya K, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M. AIDS. 2002 Apr 12;16(6):937-9.". In: AIDS. 2002 Apr 12;16(6):937-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vitamin A supplementation and genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among HIV-1-infected women: a randomized clinical trial. Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Corey L, Overbaugh J, Lavreys L, Richardson BA, Wald A, Mandaliya K, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. J Infect Di.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Apr 15;189(8):1466-71. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2004. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB OOKO. VALUE PREMIUM AND INDUSTRY TYPE: EVIDENCE FROM THE NAIROBI STOCK EXCHANGE. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstractvalue_premium_and_industry_type_2.pdf

Investors will always want to invest in projects than can guarantee higher returns than others, holding risk constant. They therefore tend to employ strategies that will contribute to the realization of higher returns. One of the most frequently used strategies is value investing where investors purchase value stocks rather than growth stocks in order to be benefit from potential long term performance of value stocks in the form of superior average returns. In finance, the word value premium refers to the excess return expected as a result of investing in value stocks as opposed to growth stocks. This study sought to find out whether there exists a value premium at the NSE when stocks are sorted on the basis of book to market value, and whether
industry type plays a role in value premium. It’s indicative from the study that value stocks outperformed growth stocks for the period under study. This is consistent with other studies done in Kenya. Muhoro (2004) tested a value premium of 0.64 for the period 1999-2002 at the NSE and Ngigi (2006) also tested the existence of value premium at the NSE. The result of the test in this study , conducted at 0.05 confidence level is that there exist value premium at the NSE. When stocks are grouped according to industries, there still exists value premium. Industrial and allied sector have the highest value premium of 4.125 while agricultural sector have the lowest value premium of -1.162. Therefore for a value strategist at the NSE, industrial and allied sector stocks are the best to invest in while agricultural sector stocks are the worst to invest in. The findings are also consistent with findings from similar studies in other markets in the world. Previous studies show that for 60 plus years value has outperformed growth. The conclusion of this study is that there exists a value premium at the N.S.E when stocks are sorted on the basis of B/M ratio . However there exists no significant difference in value premium across industries. This implies industry type is not a significant determinant of value premium.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vaginal lactobacilli, microbial flora, and risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and sexually transmitted disease acquisition.Martin HL, richardson BA, Nyange PM, Lavreys L, Hillier SL, Chohan B, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss J. In.". In: Infect. Diseases 1999 Dec; (180(6): 1863-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vitamin A and risk of HIV-1 seroconversion among Kenyan men with genital ulcers. MacDonald KS, Malonza I, Chen DK, Nagelkerke NJ, Nasio JM, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Sitar DS, Aoki FY, Plummer FA. AIDS. 2001 Mar 30;15(5):635-639.". In: AIDS. 2001 Mar 30;15(5):635-639. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vitamin A deficiency and the acute phase response among HIV-1-infected and -uninfected women in Kenya. Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Bankson DD, Lavreys L, Wener MH, Overbaugh J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. J Acquir Immu.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Oct 1;31(2):243-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Validation of a modified commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 immunoglobulin g antibodies in saliva. Chohan BH, Lavreys L, Mandaliya KN, Kreiss JK, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Martin HL Jr. Clin Diagn L.". In: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001 Mar;8(2):346-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Infect Dis. Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA, Emery S, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Bankson DD, Ndinya-Achola JO,.". In: Epub 2002 Mar 22. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Julius A. Ogeng’o, Charles O. Masaki SSJMAMRMK. "Variant anatomy of renal arteries in a Kenyan population." Annal of Transplantation. 2010;15(1)(15(1)):1-6.
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K DRNDERUFM. "Verminous Pneumonia in topi (Damaliscus korrigum) in Masai Mara area of Kenya.". In: journal. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1978. Abstract
Six Topi (Damaliscus korrigum) from the Masai Mara area of Kenya were examined.  All had lungworm nodules. The nodules were generalized in distribution among the lung lobes.  These nodules were essentially hepatized lung tissue with adult worms, larvae and eggs with marked cellular reaction accompanying the infection. The cell types were mostly lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, giant cells and eosinophils. The worms were identified as protostrongylus africanus.
K.V T, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology . 2012.
Kabinga SK, Kayima J, MCLIGEYO SO, Wambugu B, NGIGI J, Chege R, Mutiso J. "Vascular thrombosis in patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis using indwelling venous catheters: Case reports and literature review." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2017;36(1):110-117. Abstract

Vascular access is key in patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. Thrombosis is a
significant contributor of access – associated morbidity. There are several documented risk factors that
predispose to thrombosis in patients with end stage renal disease. These include: inflammation, erythropoietin
therapy, hypotension, diabetes and old age among others. Treatment of thrombosis in these patients is
challenging. We present three cases of acute vascular thrombosis attended to in the Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi-Kenya, East Africa, renal department in one week and literature review.
Keywords: Vascular thrombosis; Haemodialysis catheter; endstage renal disease.

Kabira WM. "Validating Women’s Knowledge and Experiences." Pathways to African Feminism and Development ,Journal of the African Women’s Studies Centre, University of Nairobi.. 2014.
Kabo M, Nyangito MM. "Vulnerability to drought, adaptation and coping strategies among agro-pastoral communities in Botswana.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

With the increased threat of climate change effects on the African continent, this study was carried out to document the coping mechanisms against the rampant droughts by the agropastoral communities in Botswana. The study was carried out in Kgalagadi North and Bobonong. Effects of drought in these areas included livestock death, reduced crop yields, low pasture production and increased distances to water livestock. Coping measures included enrolling into government’s labour intensive Public Works Programme, harvesting larvae of Imbrasia belina with food or turning to other sources of income, and storage of crops during good harvests. Other means were planting drought resistant crops, supplemental livestock feeding, transferring livestock to better areas, and selling off animals. These methods however did not ameliorate farmers’ problems. There is therefore need to have more holistic research efforts to tackle the effects of drought in Botswana and elsewhere in Africa.

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Variations in the pattern of formation of Human Rectus sheath among Kenyans. Braz. J. Morphol. Sci., 2009, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 84-90.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath from the aponeuroses of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles shows regional variations. These variations may influence the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath. Specimens were collected during autopsies from thirty one subjects (16 male, 15 female) aged 18-70 years old. The rectus sheath was exposed through gentle dissection of the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall. Five millimeter thick sections were harvested and processed for light microscopy. Both walls of the rectus sheath were made up of three distinct zones: superficial, intermediate, and deep. The superficial and deep zones were fibroelastic while the intermediate zones comprised compact bundles of collagen fibres. In the anterior wall of the rectus sheath, these bundles above and below the arcuate line, respectively, were obliquely and transversely disposed. The bundles of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath were, however, transversely aligned. In conclusion, the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath is determined by its pattern of formation. This sheath is mainly formed by the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis.
KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "V. Sundar, K. wa Gachigi, D.M. McCauley, K. Markowski and R.E. Newnham, "Electrostriction Measurements in Diffuse Phase Transition Materials and Perovskite Glass Ceramics", Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics (.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kanyinga K. "Voter rationality shaped poll outcome." Sunday Nation, August 13, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Violence won’t win radicalisation fight." Daily Nation, July 18, 2015.
Kanyinga K. "Vision forestalls war and keeps economy steady." Sunday Nation, March 25, 2017.
Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, Leveille SG, Gona P, Cromwell J, Hayman LL. "Validation of the nonlaboratory-based Framingham cardiovascular disease risk assessment algorithm in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities dataset." Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine. 2017;18:936-945. Abstract
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Kariuki M, Otieno CF, Ng'anga M. "Validity of random blood glucose as a predictor of the quality of glycaemic control by glycated haemoglobin in out-patient diabetic patients at kenyatta national hospita.". 2002. Abstract

Patients with diab etes mellitus in Kenya come to the hospital for followup visits very infrequently. For most of these patients their blood glucose monitoring is done only on the day of visit to the doctor. Objective: To determine how well the physician - based morning random blood level determines or reflects the quality of glycaemic control. Design: Cross - sectional study (morning, random blood glucose taken between 8.00 a.m. and 12.00 noon). Setting: Out - patient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: Patien ts with diabetes mellitus either type 1 or type 2 attending the out - patient clinic. Main outcome measures: Random blood glucose (morning) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Results: The morning random glucose level had a linear relationship with glycated ha emoglobin levels taken simultaneously. A blood glucose level of 7 mmol/l had 92.7% sensitivity for good control (HbA1c£7.8%) on a blood sample which was taken simultaneously and 59.8% specific for the same. When blood glucose cut - off level was raised to 10 mmol/l sensitivity fell to 66.3% for HbAlc£7.8%, and 83.2% specificity for poor glycaemic control (HbAlc>7.8%). There was marked fall in sensitivity of rising random blood glucose level in predicting good glycaemic control in our study, with concomitant r ise in specificity of those high cut - off levels of blood glucose in predicting poor glycaemic control. Conclusion: Morning random blood glucose in the ambulatory diabetic patients related well to simultaneously assayed HbAlc. Blood glucose within usual the rapeutic targets of 4 - 8mmo1/1 predicted good glycaemic control (HbAlc£7.8%) with high sensitivity at the range of 86.3 - 98.4%. In resource - poor settings, the morning random blood glucose assay, which is done in patients who may attend the diabetic clinic in the morning hours, may be used to predict the quality of their diabetic control. However caution should be exercised in its widespread use because its overall applicability may be clinic - specific depending largely on the average metabolic control of the d iabetic population using that clinic. Further studies need to be done to relate HbAlc to blood glucose levels obtained at different times of the day in this population to determine the best predictor of good glycaemic control

Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, Leveille SG, Gona P, Cromwell J. "Validation of the Non-laboratory Based Framingham Algorithm in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Dataset." Circulation. 2016;134:A14620. Abstract
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Kasili EG, Wamola IA, Pamba HO, Shiramba T, Broekman JM. "Various pathological manifestations of leprosy: a multidisciplinary study.". 1979.
Kedogo JL, Eyase F, Bulimo W, Asudi G, Kimani F, Muhia DM, Aluvaala E. "Validation of a Biomeme Smartphone-Based DNA Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Human Malaria at the Point of Care ." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2020;33(3):31-44.202032-article_text-506081-1-10-20201207.pdf
Keter LK, Mwikwabe NM, Mbaabu MP, Sudheer HM, Festus M Tolo, Dhanani P, Orwa JA. "Validation of Safety and Efficacy of Antitussive Herbal Formulations. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics.". 2013;2(1):26-31.
Khalif A, Gitao, C.G., others. Validation of camel milk standards. Garissa, 2-5 May: KEBS; 2016.dks_2061_2016_raw_camel_milk-1.docx
Kiai, Wambui and Ngugi M. Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex Epidural Hematoma Manifesting with Bilateral Upper Limb Decerebrate Posture: Case Report." EAMJ. 2009;86(6):300-304. AbstractWebsite

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex epidural haematoma manifesting with bilateral upper limb decerebrate posture: case report." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(6):300-4. Abstract

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

Kigen C, Abungu DNO. "Voltage Controller for Radial Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation." International Journal Of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(3).
Kihiko D. "Venomous snake bite injuries at Kitui District Hospital." The Annals of African Surgery. 2013;10(1):15-20.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Voice through the Thickets of Separateness: A Tribute to Margaret Laurence's Long Drums and Cannons.". In: Margaret Laurence Newsletter 10 (2000): 3-8. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000. Abstract

Kimani SM, Alexander OJ, Hassan S, Bernard MN. "Variations in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk in a Kenyan population." Intenational Journal of Morphology 2010. 2010;28(1):199-204 .
Kimuyu PK. "Voluntary Co - operation and Altruism as Value Options.". In: Sychar Draft Discussion Paper.; 2009.
Kinyua K, Okunya OL. "Validity and reliability of teacher-made tests: Case study of year 11 physics in Nyahururu District of Kenya." African Educational Research Journal. 2014;2(2):61-71.
Kipchirchir IC. "The Versatility of the Negative Binomial Distribution in Describing Dispersion." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2011;5(1):65-78.
Kiplagat AK;, Mugendi D;, Mburu J. "Valuation of the Economic Role of NTFPs Consumption by Rural Households Living Around Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Rural households greatly depend on non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to sustain livelihoods, more so in meeting household basic daily needs. Specifically in Kakamega forest households depend on NTFPs such as firewood to meet household energy needs, herbal medicines for ailment treatment, pastures to feed household stock, thatch grass to maintain shelters, and fruits and vegetables for food. Since these direct products are obtained from the forest free of charge and have no efficient market, their economic contribution to rural household economy remains unknown yet their role is factually immense. Establishing the economic value of NTFPs consumed by households therefore becomes very necessary in understanding the actual contribution NTFPs make in the sustenance of rural livelihoods. This study estimated and compared economic value of NTFPs consumed by rural households living around Kakamega forest using three valuation approaches namely: substitutes’ prices method direct prices method and opportunity cost of time method. Socioeconomic, institutional and geophysical data that included household characteristics such as age, gender, household sizes, occupations, land and liverstock ownership, NTFPs consumption quantities (and that of coresponding substitutes), time expended on extraction, time values, prices of NTFPs (and the substitutes)on local retail markets, distances to the forests and forest management regimes were collected in the areas surrounding Kakamega forest using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results show that the substitute value is highest followed by directly priced value and lastly by the value generated through the opportunity cost of time, with an annual average consumption of US $120, US$92 and US$78, respectively, per household. The paper concludes with important policy recommendations for conservation of Kakamega forest.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Viral hepatitis in India. Natl Med J India. 2006 Jul-Aug;19(4):203-17.". In: Natl Med J India. 2006 Jul-Aug;19(4):203-17. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a hepatitis registry and formulation of government-supported prevention and control strategies.
Kokwaro JO. "Vegetation analysis of the upper Teleki Valley of Mt. Kenya and adjacent areas." Journal of East African Natural History Society. 1981;171:1-8.
Kokwaro JO. "Vegetation.". In: Ecological survey of the Kamburu/ Gitaru hydroelectric dam area of Kenya. Stockholm: Ecological Bulletin No.29; 1979.
Kokwaro JO. "Valerianaceae." Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea.. 2001;4(1):285.
Kokwaro JO. Vegetation map of Mount Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Survey of Kenya; 1988.
Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

L
Lamberti GA, Lavens P, Lokken P, Maitho TE. "volume 234 (1992), author index.". 1992.
Liza L, mwaura F. "The Variability in the Generation, Disposal and Recycling of Mobile Phone E-waste According to Social Classes in Lang’ata Area, Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2016;Vol. 4(No. 2):42-51.
Lugusa KO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi YA, Crane TA. "Value chain analysis of grass seeds in the drylands of Baringo County, Kenya: A producers." Pastoralism. 2016;6:6. Abstract
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Lukhoba CW, Siboe GM. "The value of ethnobotanical data in the preliminary search and identification of potential drug plants. The 9th symposium of the Natural Products Research network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA).". In: The 9th symposium of the Natural Products Research network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA).; 2001. Abstract

Traditional medicine has utilized plants to palliate, cure and/or prevent diseases in both humans and
animals. The acquisition of knowledge has been through trial and error, and observation. Today, the enhanced search for botanical drugs throughout the world has increased the need for accurate means of identifying plants with possible pharmacological and biological activity. A number of methodologies have been used in selecting plants likely to possess pharmacological properties, but many have recorded low success rates. Data reported in this paper reveal that the accuracy of identification of these herbal drugs for pertinent ailments using ethnobotanical data is almost as accurate as techniques applied in modern medical practice. This paper discusses the value of ethno - botanical data in the preliminary search for potential drug plants.

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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Versatile IEEE-488 Data Acquisition and Control Routines for Diode Array Spectrophotometer.". In: J. Automatic Chem., 13(3), 83-92,. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract
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M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Validating the utility of the angular leaf spot resistance markers for marker-assisted selection outside the original mapping population (Submitted).". In: Presented at Pan-African Bean breeders. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFMWANG&#39;OMBENIMRODJ, M DROMULOTOM. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and shunt infections in children with non-tumour Hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East African Medical Journal, May 2000 (Accepted).". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):386-90. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery in children with non-tumour hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A retrospective survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between January 1982 and December 1991. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and forty five patients who underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty five patients underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. There were 107 infection episodes involving 85 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from three months to 12 years. Most of the patients had congenital hydrocephalus. The infection rate was high (24.6%) although comparable to infection rates reported for clean surgery in the hospital. Fever, septic wounds and features of shunt malfunction were the main presenting features. Bacteriological studies confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci as the two most commonly isolated micro-organisms. CONCLUSION: This study emphasises need to reduce infection rate in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Definitive surgical treatment for hydrocephalus was in most cases delayed and this problem was also observed during revision of infected shunts. Late presentation was often due to ignorance and the fact that many patients went for traditional forms of treatment first before going to hospital.
M MK. "A Visit to Father and Mother.". In: The Stranger and other Stories. Nairobi, Kenya.: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1989.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Virutamasen P, Leepipatpaiboon S, Kriengsinyot R, Vichaidith P, Ndavi PM, Sekkade-Kigondu CB, Mati JKG, Forrest MG, Dikkeschei LD, Wolthers BG, and d'Arcangues C: Pharmacodynamic Effects of Depot-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) Administered to Lactatin.". In: The XI International Conference on Aids, Vancouver, Canada 1996. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Verbal autopsy: a tool for determining cause of death in a community. East Afr Med J . 1990 Oct; 67 ( 10 ): 693-8 . PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Mirza NM , Macharia WM , Wafula EM , Agwanda RO , Onyango FE .". In: East Afr Med J . 1990 Oct; 67 ( 10 ): 693-8 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable. PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. MK. "A Visit to Father and Mother.". In: The Winner and Other Stories. Nairobi, Kenya.: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1994.
M.W N, A.O M, J.K M. "Vitamin A supplementation awareness among mothers of children under five years old at Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, ." Kenya. East African Journal of Public Health. 2010;7(3):238-246.
Macharia PN;, Ekaya WN. "Vegetation degradation and its influence on rangeland of condition and trend in semi-arid Mashuru division, Kajiado district, Kenya :oil."; 2005. Abstract

Rangeland condition and trend in Mashuru s. .DivIsion of Kajiado District in Kenya has been deteriorating in terms of grazing capacity due to degradation of vegetation resources. Therefore a research study was conducted in 2001/2 with the objective of analyzing the types of vegetation degradation, their causes and their influence on rangeland condition and trend. The results ofthe qualitative study showed that excessive use of the woody species by humans for woodfuel, building and fencing materials, medicine and ornamentals had led ,I I to vegetation degradation due to loss of cover, change in plant composition and biodiversity. On the other hand, overgrazing and ecological succession of the grazing ]ands had led to bush encroachment and thickening. These types of vegetation degradation have had an overall effect of loss of grass cover and hence loss of grazing capacity for livestock, especially cattle. The causes of vegetation decrease or increase over the last 30 years have been due to deforestation (trees and shrubs), bush encroachment and thickening, change in plant species composition and natural calamities such as droughts, wild fires and armyworm invasions at various times. The overall results indicated that there has been a downward trend in range condition over the last 30 years which had affected livestock productivity. There is need therefore, for concerted efforts to be made to reverse or halt further vegetation degradation in the area through the participation of the local people, governmental and non-governmental organizations presently involved in rehabilitation and conservation of vegetation resources in the area.

MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Vernonia and Epoxidized Linseed and Soybean Oils; as Low Reactive Diluents in Alkyd Coatings.". In: Pigments & Resin Technology,3(23), 3-7. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994. Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
Mande JO, Mbugua SW, Buoro IBJ, Gathumbi PK. "Volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritic hip joints of adult dogs.". 2003. Abstract

Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesia. The hip joints were evaluated according to the severity of osteoarthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. The dogs were euthanased, the hip joints opened and the lignlllelltulll capitis fellloris dissected out ill toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r = -0.75) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing severity of osteoarthritis as assessed by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis.

Marco S, Karimurio J, Kariuki M, Lubanga P. "Visual loss and ocular involvement in adult patients with intracranial neoplasms in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2007;13:15-20. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular manifestations in adults
with intracranial neoplasms.
Design: Cross sectional hospital based study
Settings: Neurosurgical Clinic and Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) from November 2005 to January 2006.
Subjects: 60 adult with intracranial neoplasm (32 females and 28 males)
Results: 31(52%) of the studied patients had not had any previous eye examination. Ocular symptoms were reported in 44 (73%) patients. 38 (63%) had colour vision defects, 20 (33%) papilloedema, 16 (27%) bilateral optic disc atrophy, 16 (27%) defective extra-ocular motility, 11(18%) bilaterally blind, 10 (17%) nystagmus, 6 (10%) proptosis and 4 (7%) diplopia. Only 11 (18%) of the patients had normal visual field. 40 (67%) were booked for routine follow-up at the Kenyatta Eye Clinic while 9 (15%) were referred for Low Vision Assessment. All the 11 (18%) blind patients were referred for rehabilitation.
Conclusion: Majority (73%) of patients attending the KNH Neurosurgical Clinic and those admitted in Neurosurgical ward have ocular involvement and visual loss. Colour vision defects were the commonest manifestations while total blindness was the most serious complication.
Recommendation: Neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists should work together as a team to ensure timely and comprehensive assessment and management of all patients with intracranial tumours both pre-operative and post-operatively. Stable patients with irreversibly visual impairment and blindness should be referred for Low vision therapy and rehabilitation.

Marika NMK. Videoteleconferencing (VTC) Adoption In Higher Education In Kenya.. Kenyatta International Conference Centre; 2010.
Marika NM, Ganesh PP. "Video-Based Distance Learning Using Videoteleconferecing Technology in Institutions Higher Education in Kenya.". In: ORSEA Conference. Kenyatta International Conference Centre; 2011.
Mark A, Nikita M, Fred M, Jimmy M, Hassan M, Paul O. "Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14. Abstract
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MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "V Klauss, KHM Kollmann, UC Schaller (book chapter) HIV .". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
Martin S, Schröder H. "Voiceless Vowels in Toposa." Afrikanische Arbeitspapiere. Schriftenreihe des Kölner Instituts für Afrikanistik.. 1987;12::17-26.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "V. Klauss, T. L.". In: Klin. Mbl. Augenheilkd. 197 (1990). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "V Klauss, KHM Kollmann, UC Schaller (book chapter: HIV Infektionen und die dritte Welt, In: M Zierhut, L Hansen, G Jahn (Hrsg.):Viruserkrankungen des Auges, Kadenverlag 2007.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
Marty M, Blotman F, Avouac B, Rozenberg S, Valat JP. "Validation of the French version of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire in chronic low back pain patients." Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1998;65(2):126-34. Abstract

To translate and to validate the metrological properties of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire, an instrument designed to evaluate the impact of low back pain on four aspects of patients' lives: daily activities, work and leisure activities, anxiety/depression and social interest.

Mathai LW. Vaccum assisted wound closure in the dog. Nairobi- Clinical studies department: University of Nairobi; 2011.
MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "Vitamin A Deficiency and its Risk Factors among preschool and school aged children in Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal, 79:355 - 359.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2002. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Maurer D, Lewis TL. "Visual acuity: the role of visual input in inducing postnatal change." Clinical Neuroscience Research. 2001;1:239-247. AbstractWebsite

Some crude visual abilities are present at birth, and hence, do not depend on visual experience. However, there are substantial and rapid postnatal improvements. For example, the acuity of newborns is 40 times worse than that of normal adults, largely because of retinal immaturities. Between birth and 6 months of age, there is a five-fold increase in acuity, followed by slow improvement to adult levels by 6 years of age. This review examines the role of visual experience in inducing those improvements by comparing the visual development of normal children with that of children treated for congenital cataracts that blocked patterned visual input until the cataracts were removed surgically and the eyes were given a compensatory optical correction. The acuity of children treated for congenital cataracts does not improve before they receive patterned visual input, but then increases rapidly to reach normal limits by 1 year of age. However, the patients later show permanent deficits in acuity, presumably because the initial deprivation caused damage to the visual cortex. Studies of children who developed cataracts after birth indicate that visual input is also necessary to consolidate cortical connections. Moreover, the deleterious effects of visual deprivation are worse if there was also uneven competition between the eyes — because the deprivation was monocular and there was little patching of the non-deprived eye — but only at some points during development. Thus, the development of visual acuity is shaped by experience-dependent and competitive mechanisms that have different temporal parameters.

Maurer D, Lewis TL. "Visual acuity: {The} role of visual input in inducing postnatal change." Clinical Neuroscience Research. 2001;1:239-247. Abstract
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MBATIAH PMWENDA. Vipanya vya Maabara. NAIROBI: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation (winner of the Wahome Mutahi Prize); 2007.
Mbithi PM;, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN. Veterinary handbook on Routine Operative Surgical Procedures.; 2013. AbstractWebsite
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Mbithi PM;, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN. Veterinary handbook on Routine Operative Surgical Procedures.; 2013.Website
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "van't Hoog AH, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Marum LH, Otieno JA, Misore AO, Nganga LW, Decock KM. Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Western Kenya: operational issues. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Nov 1;40(3):344-9.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract

Red Cross Children's Hospital, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town, South Africa.

OBJECTIVE: To draw attention to the sub-optimal care that HIV-infected children are receiving in Africa. DATA SOURCES: Relevant published literature. DATA SYNTHESIS: Sub-optimal response to paediatric HIV infection has aggravated the negative impact that the epidemic has had on child health in Africa. Recently the African Network for the Care of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (ANNECA) released an advocacy statement that called for the optimisation of prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for children affected by the AIDS pandemic. Effective prevention strategies if comprehensively implemented, could prevent more than 500 000 paediatric infections per annum at current antenatal HIV prevalence rates. Improved care that includes universal utilisation of early diagnostic testing systems, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, nutritional support and the timely introduction of antiretroviral therapy could improve the quality of life and lifespan of most infected children. CONCLUSION: Political leaders, public health officials and fellow child health professionals are urged to redouble their efforts to reverse the magnitude of the paediatric epidemic in Africa.

PMID: 17685215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Vernacular Issues in Built Form: A Case Study of the Gusii of Western Kenya. Thesis Project Research, Department of Architecture, University of Nairobi, 1983.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.

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