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Journal Article
Kariuki M, Otieno CF, Ng'anga M. "Validity of random blood glucose as a predictor of the quality of glycaemic control by glycated haemoglobin in out-patient diabetic patients at kenyatta national hospita.". 2002. Abstract

Patients with diab etes mellitus in Kenya come to the hospital for followup visits very infrequently. For most of these patients their blood glucose monitoring is done only on the day of visit to the doctor. Objective: To determine how well the physician - based morning random blood level determines or reflects the quality of glycaemic control. Design: Cross - sectional study (morning, random blood glucose taken between 8.00 a.m. and 12.00 noon). Setting: Out - patient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: Patien ts with diabetes mellitus either type 1 or type 2 attending the out - patient clinic. Main outcome measures: Random blood glucose (morning) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Results: The morning random glucose level had a linear relationship with glycated ha emoglobin levels taken simultaneously. A blood glucose level of 7 mmol/l had 92.7% sensitivity for good control (HbA1c£7.8%) on a blood sample which was taken simultaneously and 59.8% specific for the same. When blood glucose cut - off level was raised to 10 mmol/l sensitivity fell to 66.3% for HbAlc£7.8%, and 83.2% specificity for poor glycaemic control (HbAlc>7.8%). There was marked fall in sensitivity of rising random blood glucose level in predicting good glycaemic control in our study, with concomitant r ise in specificity of those high cut - off levels of blood glucose in predicting poor glycaemic control. Conclusion: Morning random blood glucose in the ambulatory diabetic patients related well to simultaneously assayed HbAlc. Blood glucose within usual the rapeutic targets of 4 - 8mmo1/1 predicted good glycaemic control (HbAlc£7.8%) with high sensitivity at the range of 86.3 - 98.4%. In resource - poor settings, the morning random blood glucose assay, which is done in patients who may attend the diabetic clinic in the morning hours, may be used to predict the quality of their diabetic control. However caution should be exercised in its widespread use because its overall applicability may be clinic - specific depending largely on the average metabolic control of the d iabetic population using that clinic. Further studies need to be done to relate HbAlc to blood glucose levels obtained at different times of the day in this population to determine the best predictor of good glycaemic control

Delić J, Savković A, Isaković E. "Variations in the position and point of origin of the vermiform appendix." Medicinski arhiv. 2002;56:5-8. Abstract

There were investigated variations of appendix vermiformis in the place of origin and position. The investigations were carried out on 50 human preparations of adults of both sexes, unintentional choice. The position and relation between intestinum caecum and appendix vermiformis were determined by forensic medical and pathoanatomical autopsy. Place of origin of appendix vermiformis, from wall of intestinum caecum is determined by anatomical dissection. Intestinum caecum has a variable shape and it occurs in two forms: conical, which dominates (56%) and square (44%). It has constant position in fossa iliaca dextra in 100% of 50 investigated cases. Appendix vermiformis is fully variable organ as for position and the place of origin from the wall of intestinum caecum. Dominantly (52%) it has rising position, and two subtypes are present: retrocecal (more expressed-38%) related to the retrocolic subtype (14%). Very frequent position of appendix vermiformis is a falling one (32%), in which pelvic position is more frequent (26%) related to descendent position (6%). Appendix vermifirmis is located subcaecaly in 8% of total number of investigated cases, found in three subtypes. It is found out that ostium appendicis vermiformis has a variable position in the wall of intestinum caecum. It is predominantly placed in the middle of the lower pole of the intestinum caecum (58%), in medial wall it is present in 32%, of all investigated, and in the lateral wall in the least number case 10%. The results of these investigations point out how important is to know variable anatomies of appendix vermiformis, for the clinical image of acute appendicitis is undoubtedly caused by the variable anatomical relations.

Uchino A, Sawada A, Takase Y, Kudo S. "Variations of the superior cerebellar artery: {MR} angiographic demonstration." Radiation medicine. 2002;21:235-238. AbstractWebsite
Tian N, Copenhagen DR. "Visual {Deprivation} {Alters} {Development} of {Synaptic} {Function} in {Inner} {Retina} after {Eye} {Opening}." Neuron. 2001;32:439-449. AbstractWebsite

Visual deprivation impedes refinement of neuronal function in higher visual centers of mammals. It is often assumed that visual deprivation has minimal effect, if any, on neuronal function in retina. Here we report that dark rearing reduces the light-evoked responsiveness of inner retinal neurons in young mice. We also find that 1 to 2 weeks after eye opening, there is a surge ({\textgreater}4-fold) in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic events in ganglion cells. Dark rearing reversibly suppresses this surge, but recovery takes {\textgreater}6 days. Frequency changes are not accompanied by amplitude changes, indicating that synaptic reorganization is likely to be presynaptic. These findings indicate there is a degree of activity-dependent plasticity in the mammalian retina that has not been previously described.

Maurer D, Lewis TL. "Visual acuity: the role of visual input in inducing postnatal change." Clinical Neuroscience Research. 2001;1:239-247. AbstractWebsite

Some crude visual abilities are present at birth, and hence, do not depend on visual experience. However, there are substantial and rapid postnatal improvements. For example, the acuity of newborns is 40 times worse than that of normal adults, largely because of retinal immaturities. Between birth and 6 months of age, there is a five-fold increase in acuity, followed by slow improvement to adult levels by 6 years of age. This review examines the role of visual experience in inducing those improvements by comparing the visual development of normal children with that of children treated for congenital cataracts that blocked patterned visual input until the cataracts were removed surgically and the eyes were given a compensatory optical correction. The acuity of children treated for congenital cataracts does not improve before they receive patterned visual input, but then increases rapidly to reach normal limits by 1 year of age. However, the patients later show permanent deficits in acuity, presumably because the initial deprivation caused damage to the visual cortex. Studies of children who developed cataracts after birth indicate that visual input is also necessary to consolidate cortical connections. Moreover, the deleterious effects of visual deprivation are worse if there was also uneven competition between the eyes — because the deprivation was monocular and there was little patching of the non-deprived eye — but only at some points during development. Thus, the development of visual acuity is shaped by experience-dependent and competitive mechanisms that have different temporal parameters.

Kokwaro JO. "Valerianaceae." Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea.. 2001;4(1):285.
Maurer D, Lewis TL. "Visual acuity: {The} role of visual input in inducing postnatal change." Clinical Neuroscience Research. 2001;1:239-247. Abstract
Nimrod J, Omulo TOM. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and shunt infections in children with non-tumour Hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2000. Abstract

study infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery in children with non-tumour hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A retrospective survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between January 1982 and December 1991. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and forty five patients who underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty five patients underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. There were 107 infection episodes involving 85 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from three months to 12 years. Most of the patients had congenital hydrocephalus. The infection rate was high (24.6%) although comparable to infection rates reported for clean surgery in the hospital. Fever, septic wounds and features of shunt malfunction were the main presenting features. Bacteriological studies confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci as the two most commonly isolated micro-organisms. CONCLUSION: This study emphasises need to reduce infection rate in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Definitive surgical treatment for hydrocephalus was in most cases delayed and this problem was also observed during revision of infected shunts. Late presentation was often due to ignorance and the fact that many patients went for traditional forms of treatment first before going to hospital.

Marty M, Blotman F, Avouac B, Rozenberg S, Valat JP. "Validation of the French version of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire in chronic low back pain patients." Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1998;65(2):126-34. Abstract

To translate and to validate the metrological properties of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire, an instrument designed to evaluate the impact of low back pain on four aspects of patients' lives: daily activities, work and leisure activities, anxiety/depression and social interest.

Atwell RB, Buoro IB, Boreham PF. "Variation in protein concentrations in acute and chronic ascites in Dirofilaria immitis-infected dogs.". 1996. Abstract

Microfilaremic dogs, developing ascites acutely following a reaction to diethylcarbamazine therapy, had similar protein concentrations in their ascitic fluid and plasma. In contrast, in dogs chronically infected with Dirofilaria immitis, the protein concentrations of ascitic fluid were found to be significantly lower than plasma protein concentrations. The acute development of ascites in such dogs is associated with high ascitic protein levels.

Gicheru MM, Olobo JO, Kariuki TM, Adhiambo C. "Visceral leishmaniasis in vervet monkeys: immunological responses during asymptomatic infections." Scand. J. Immunol.. 1995;41(2):202-8. Abstract

Nine vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were infected intradermally with 8 x 10(7) virulent L. donovani promastigotes. Four animals developed clinical visceral leishmaniasis and died over a period of 18 months. The remaining five animals have remained asymptomatic for a period of 3 years now. Attempts to isolate parasites from spleen and liver through biopsies were fruitless. Immunological responses of these subclinically infected animals were examined. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analyses demonstrated Leishmania specific antibodies in these animals, but the antibody titres were low. When proliferation of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) to Concanavalin A (Con A) of these animals was compared with control 'disease free animals' there were no significant differences in response. However, L. donovani antigen (fixed promastigotes) specific proliferation was demonstrated in the five subclinically infected animals. High and varying levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were secreted in PBMC cultures from the five vervet monkeys when stimulated with either Con A or L. donovani antigens. In control animals, IFN-gamma was only detected when PBMC were stimulated with Con A. Marked delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were demonstrated in the five subclinically infected animals 48 h after injection with formalin fixed promastgotes. It was concluded that the visceral Leishmania disease spectrum due to L. donovani observed in humans could be induced in vervet monkeys and that L. donovani asymptomatic/cryptic infected animals have competent humoral and cellular responses to homologous parasites.

Day S. "Vision development in the monocular individual: implications for the mechanisms of normal binocular vision development and the treatment of infantile esotropia." Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 1995;93:523-581. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to study the vision development in monocular individuals so as to better understand normal binocular vision development and to refine the treatment of infants with infantile esotropia. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects with one clinically normal eye and one eye with no vision (no light perception or history of enucleation) are studied. In addition to measurement of standard parameters of development such as visual acuity, measurement of motion processing is made by both optokinetic and electrophysiologic techniques. A comparison is made of vision development among three populations: the monocular population, the normal population, and patients with a history of infantile esotropia. Such comparison is made to study the relative effects of interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. The monocular population represents individuals who have interruption of binocularity, whereas the infantile esotropia population has both interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. RESULTS: The OKN data suggest that the monucular population is more similar to the normal population than the esotropia population. The electrophysiologic data shows a statistically significant difference in the three populations. Motion processing is more fully developed in the monocular population than in the infantile esotropia population when compared to the normal population. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The development of motion processing appears to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal experience during the first year of life. 2. Monocular subjects have a less abnormal motion processing system when compared to patients with infantile esotropia even when monocularity is congenital. 3. The results indirectly support the premise that prealignment alternate occlusion is of benefit to the patient with infantile esotropia prior to realignment. 4. Development of the motion processing system does not necessarily parallel the development of other binocular functions.

Mwangi JW, Achola KJ, Lwande W, HASSANALI A, Laurent R. "Volatile Components of Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zey.". 1994. Abstract

The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zey. was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Sixty compounds constituting about 96% of the oil were identified. The major constituents were a-pinene (22.2%), germacrene-D (17.9%) and sabinene (12.3%).

Lamberti GA, Lavens P, Lokken P, Maitho TE. "volume 234 (1992), author index.". 1992.
Ngugi PN, MCLIGEYO SO, KAYIMA JK, Otieno LS, Mogere R. "Vascular access for haemodialysis.". 1991. Abstract

In a fifteen month period (August 1987 to November 1988) forty patients requiring haemodialysis had 83 angioaccess procedures performed. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts and arteriovenous fistulae were the commonest procedures, comprising 56 (67%) and 20 (24%) of the patients respectively. Subclavian catheters and artificial grafts were used less frequently. Nephrologists and senior house officers attached to the Renal Unit were responsible for fashioning A-V shunts and inserting subclavian catheters while the A-V fistulae were fashioned by the urologists and vascular surgeons. The commonest complication of A-V shunts were clotting, occurring in 31 (55.4%) followed by bleeding in 14 (25%). Eight (32%) of the A-V fistulae never functioned from the beginning. It is noted that we are still very dependent on A-V shunts for vascular access in end stage renal disease (ESRF) patients and this is associated with an unacceptable level of complications. This dependency on A-V shunts in ESRD patients should be stopped or phased out. A-V fistulae should be used more frequently. Their constructions should be well thought out, executed and supervised by the few surgeons who are versed in them together with their follow-ups

Onyango FE, Agwanda RO, Wafula EM, Macharia WM, Mirza NM. "Verbal autopsy: a tool for determining cause of death in a community.". 1990. Abstract

Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of broncho pneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable.

N LG. "Viral Hepatitis.". 1988.
Martin S, Schröder H. "Voiceless Vowels in Toposa." Afrikanische Arbeitspapiere. Schriftenreihe des Kölner Instituts für Afrikanistik.. 1987;12::17-26.
Schröder H, Schröder M. "Vowel harmony in Toposa." Afrikanische Arbeitspapiere. Schriftenreihe des Kölner Instituts für Afrikanistik.. 1987;12::27-35.
Kokwaro JO. "Vegetation analysis of the upper Teleki Valley of Mt. Kenya and adjacent areas." Journal of East African Natural History Society. 1981;171:1-8.
Kasili EG, Wamola IA, Pamba HO, Shiramba T, Broekman JM. "Various pathological manifestations of leprosy: a multidisciplinary study.". 1979.
D.N. Kariuki and S.F.A. Kettle, & Ti Soi Sang. "Vibrational Spectra of molecular crystals of impure metal carbonyls".". 1976.
"V.I. Gavrilov." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):510.
Magazine Article
Shah PS. "Vanishing trees- The sad story of life." African Fund for Endangered Wildlife 2 (2003):11.vanishing_trees-_sad_story_of_life.pdf
Kokwaro JO. Vegetation map of Mount Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Survey of Kenya; 1988.
Newspaper Article
Kanyinga K. "Vision forestalls war and keeps economy steady." Sunday Nation, March 25, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Voter rationality shaped poll outcome." Sunday Nation, August 13, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Violence won’t win radicalisation fight." Daily Nation, July 18, 2015.
Oduor AS. "VAT." Sunday Standard (2013):11. Abstract

Pals, hereunder is my poem on VAT, whose abridged version was published on page 11 of the Sunday Magazine, of the Sunday Standard on September 29, 2013.


VAT, what is that?
Vatable, invertable, convertable,
Inclusive, exclusive and compulsive.
If all be vatable, what then is left?.

VAT on BAT, CAT, DAT, FAT,............and ZAT
Spare the parts, for a raid on gas is pinching the purse.
Essential goods and non-essential commodities, so all are paying through the nose;
Infants, elephants, guilty and innocent, all are instantly feeling the heat.

Make ammends and mend the fence before it is late, and irredeemable damage is done.
Capital flight is calmnly winning the fight,
Manufucturers are mindfully moving away and across,
Unemployment and all other social ills, will surely grow.

Consumers are spoiling for a fight, ‘cause economic gains made, have rapidly gone down the drain.
Milk and malt, sugar and salt, flower and flour all alike,
Boots and books, gas and glass, all slapped with VAT.
Zero the VAT, free the sales, grow the base and lessen the burden, so that the common man may live.

Make them buy the little they buy, for by the way, multitudes are tiranny of numbers of sorts, and grow the little wider cake that is sought for, by all.
Otherwise, stiffle the sales by the common man and face the music of capital flight and fight for relevance, already thrown out of the window.

Taxable is not all, so exempt one or two,
If you so much care, as you claim you do.
Are we duped or dopped all the same, for a struggling folks eking life?
No matter the matter, Mater hospitals the mother, and all is sick and depressed in the depression.

Rich and paupers all alike, the common denominator, is the grave.
Hurt not the gas, the flour, the oil and all, for the sake of all.
When the present percentage is passed, ill-timed evil will lurk, to the chagrins and the detriment of all, and not just a few,
So then, VAT is that!.

ALFRED SAMSON ODUOR’S COLLECTION OF POEMS, HE is an ongoing MBA student at the Universtity of Nairobi, A graduate of B A honours in Economics and Mathematics degree of Egerton University, Administrator at the University of Nairobi and Pastor at World Mission Agency a k a Winners Chapel International, Nairobi. E-mail addresses:, and

and Thairu FAON. "Varsity develops jigger repellent." The Star Newspaper, Kenya, May 31, 2012:17.
Ogeng’o J, Misiani M, Adel M, Kevin O, Martin I, Acleus M. Variant Termination of the Common Carotid Artery in a Black Kenyan Population.; 2014.
Research Paper
Ssozi, J; Akundabweni LSM; NA. Verifying the premium value of selected African indigenous vegetables in target sites of the Lake Victoria basin.; 2012. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to verify the premium value in terms of nutritional and economic potential of selected African indigenous vegetable plants (AIVPs) along the Lake Victoria basin. Partial findings of this study being reported are on the smallholder farmer indigenous knowledge of vegetable production and utilisation in Jinja (Uganda) and Vihiga (Kenya). A survey was conducted to establish the status and level of utilisation of indigenous vegetable plants. whereby total of 163 households in each site were interviewed. Vegetables selected by smallholder farmers for production trials and nutrient quality analysis were Cleome gyandra (Saga, Eiyobyo/Ejobyo), Amaranthus lividus (Booga, Doodo), Solanum scarbrum (nakati) as indigenous vegetables. Solanum melongena (egg plant), Daucus carota (carrot), Capsicum spp. (pepper) were selected as the exotic vegetables. Laboratory analysis of these vegetables for phyto-nutrient characterisation is ongoing. The survey revealed that most farmers (90%) engaged indigenous vegetable farming for both food consumption and income generation. Most farmers regarded exotic vegetable farming as an income generation venture rather than home consumption. Most farmers were knowledgeable of the health and medicinal benefits of the indigenous vegetables.

Mogotsi, K; Nyangito MM; NDM. Vulnerability of rural agro-pastoral households to drought in semi-arid Botswana.; 2012. Abstract

A survey was carried out during the 2009/10 season to examine the vulnerability of agro-pastoral communities to drought shocks in Bobonong and Kgalagadi North Sub-districts. The key drivers of vulnerability of households included: gender of the household head, livestock sales, advance preparations before drought, size of arable land under cultivation, the number of drought-tolerant crops planted, as well as, the overall yield of such crops. Although the main determinants of household vulnerability differed between the two study areas, Bobonong nonetheless had a higher percentage of highly vulnerable households. However, the two study areas still had a substantial number of vulnerable households – further underlining the seriousness of drought risk among agro-pastoralists in Botswana. Thus, timing and form of intervention, including from the government, is critical and a one-size-fits-all approach to alleviating adverse impacts of drought may not always be appropriate.

Okello, J.J; Gitonga MOARZ; J; R. Value chain analysis of the Kenyan poultry industry: The case of Kiambu, Kilifi, Vihiga, and Nakuru Districts.; 2010. Abstract

The Kenyan poultry industry is characterized by dualism, comprised of both smallholder and large-scale poultry producers. The industry is characterized by two main production systems namely (i) the commercial hybrid poultry production system and (ii) the indigenous poultry production system. This study examines the poultry industry in Kenya with the aim of identifying the actors, assessing poultry and poultry product flows, and highlighting some of the policies and regulations relevant to potential outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Kenya. Specific aims included: i) Characterizing the structure of the value chain; ii) Assessing the relative importance of specific flows of poultry and poultry products; iii) Identifying the various actors involved in the poultry trade and their linkages; iv) Providing insights on potential pathways of HPAI introduction in the value chain The study was conducted in Kikuyu and Ndeiya Divisions in Kiambu District, Vihiga and Sabatia Divisions in Vihiga District, Nakuru and Rongai Divisions of Nakuru District, and Kikambala and Ganze Divisions of Kilifi District. The study areas were selected based on their relative density of poultry populations. A value chain approach was employed that entailed the use of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with various stakeholders including hatcheries, farmers, input sellers, processors, retailers and other intermediaries in four different value chains: commercial broilers, commercial layers/eggs, indigenous chicken, and guinea fowl/ducks.

G.N. M. The value of pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999.
Swazuri MA. The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya .; 1996. Abstract

The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya Kenya is one of the coastal states that lie in the eastern part of Africa. For a long time now Kenyan valuation practice has been concentrated on land-based resources. Valuation of farms, houses, offices, industries etc. are now quite familiar in everyday life. However, a "new" era is now becoming important in world resources affairs, an area in which the valuation profession in Kenya can also participate. This area is the coastal or marine environment, where many sectors of the economy such as energy, transport and research are now increasingly turning to use. Whereas professional valuers in other countries have expanded their scope into these environments, the valuation profession in Kenya has been slow to realise its potential in the same. And because the full economic potential of the resources of the Kenyan coast is not known with certainty, it is logical to carry out studies of their estimation. Unlike land-based resources waterfront properties along the coastline Possess somewhat peculiar characteristics which imply that a free market or a purely price competitive mechanism will not allocate these resources properly. It is even worse for the methods of valuation which can be employed in such cases. Identification and exploitation of resources have to be enhanced by proper methods of the resources' estimation for them to be worthwhile. Two notable characteristics of the waterfront properties located along the Kenyan coastline are the extremitie in values of similar properties, sometimes even in the same localities, and the exclusive use of the market comparison method in such property valuations. This study contends that extremities in values have arisen from the use of improper methods for valuieing waterfront properties. And the method being used currently in the valuation disregards a number of important factors, most of which are difficult to quantify using the market comparison method. This study aims, therefore, to present better ways of valuing waterfront lands . .The valuation of waterfront lands 1.'3 influenced by both site- oriented, such as size and non-site-oriented variables like reasons for sale, date of transaction and so on. Evidence from the valuation pr ac t i.ce s in the study area suggests that only site-oriented characteristics of property are considered during valuations and this leads to either under valuation or overvaluation of these properties. Although some factors are not directly on the property being valued, they· are actually significant influences of value, and disregarding them altogether is not reasonable. The valuation method proposed in this study considers both site and non-site oriented factors. Using conventional multiple regression analysis (CMRA) it has been shown here that the choice of value- influencing variables is more scientific, more reasonable and less subjective than in the ordinary Comparison Method . Choice of influencing variables for valuation purposes is a necessary step if proper values have to be estimated. Many valuations have had faults because of inability to identify and measure these factors. Several regressiGn methods of valuation have been tried in this study, ranging from the simple mul tiple regression analysis to rank transformation regression. Each of- the methods has its merits and demerits, in most cases in terms of their usefulnes and accuracy involving waterfront lands. Conventional Multiple Regression Analysis (CMRA) and Rank Transformation Regression (RTR) were foun.d ·to be the best of the lot, accounting for 49% and 51% of the variation in property values in the area respectively. However, RTR seems to have the methodological problem of how to rank factors affecting value before using them in the procedure. While it is appealing and quite rational to rank factors, the criteria to be used for the ranking is contentious. CMRA was, therefore, found to be a 'better' method, because it produced better results in all the various tests the models underwent. For example, CMRA had a relatively high R2 of 49.1%, a relatively low MSE value of 13612 and the smallest Cp value of 277. CMRA's ability to rank the independent variables within itself during analysis can easily be understood by both the valuer and client, and is applicable in practice. Using the same methods, it was found that SIZE of property is the most important factor affecting value in the study area. The larger the size, the higher the value, although other factors such as width of the beach area (AREA), VIEW of the ocean waters, availability of water SPORTS on the beach etc, have also to be considered. Furthermore, no single factor alone can be used as the only basis for estimating values of waterfront lands. Despite the study advocating for the use of CMRA in waterfront valuations, _there are very few instances where the valuer will not use some form of comparison in the valuation process. Whether it is in the choice of independent variables or in the measurement of these variables, the principles of comparison have to be utilised to arrive at objective values. After all, valuation is all about the market, and if the valuer disregards the market trends then his valuation will be somewhat incomplete.

Mutiga J. VALUE ADDITION AND ATTITUDE CHANGE IN LANGUAGE REVITALIZATION: THE CASE OF KITHARAKA. Nairobi; 2014. Abstractvalue_addition_and_attitude_change.pdf

Many studies, including Anchimbe (2007), Whiteley (1974) and UNESCO (1953) have sought to establish that language loyalty or the lack of it does relate to the presence or death of linguistic identity. Further, it has been claimed that it is within the context of language contact that people become aware of the status of their language against another’s language. People may also observe a greater degree of loyalty to the language of an ethnic group to which they do not belong, because of value they may attach to it compared to their own language and the benefits they may deem to accrue by this allegiance. If this state of affairs is left unchecked, the resultant language shift may lead to the death of the less prestigious of the languages in question. A purposeful value addition and attitude change according to Paulston (1994:16-17) will regenerate and reverse the loss and “give new life to a dead language” especially if there is increased use of the language, as a result of change of attitude and increased functions for general communication, literacy and education.
In this chapter I will highlight factors that led to the marginalization of Kitharaka. Further, I will give examples of other currently or formally marginalized languages of Kenya. I will then narrow down to specifically examine and illustrate the role played by literacy and on-going mother tongue education programme in the revitalization of Kitharaka.

JOAB OOKO. VALUE PREMIUM AND INDUSTRY TYPE: EVIDENCE FROM THE NAIROBI STOCK EXCHANGE. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstractvalue_premium_and_industry_type_2.pdf

Investors will always want to invest in projects than can guarantee higher returns than others, holding risk constant. They therefore tend to employ strategies that will contribute to the realization of higher returns. One of the most frequently used strategies is value investing where investors purchase value stocks rather than growth stocks in order to be benefit from potential long term performance of value stocks in the form of superior average returns. In finance, the word value premium refers to the excess return expected as a result of investing in value stocks as opposed to growth stocks. This study sought to find out whether there exists a value premium at the NSE when stocks are sorted on the basis of book to market value, and whether
industry type plays a role in value premium. It’s indicative from the study that value stocks outperformed growth stocks for the period under study. This is consistent with other studies done in Kenya. Muhoro (2004) tested a value premium of 0.64 for the period 1999-2002 at the NSE and Ngigi (2006) also tested the existence of value premium at the NSE. The result of the test in this study , conducted at 0.05 confidence level is that there exist value premium at the NSE. When stocks are grouped according to industries, there still exists value premium. Industrial and allied sector have the highest value premium of 4.125 while agricultural sector have the lowest value premium of -1.162. Therefore for a value strategist at the NSE, industrial and allied sector stocks are the best to invest in while agricultural sector stocks are the worst to invest in. The findings are also consistent with findings from similar studies in other markets in the world. Previous studies show that for 60 plus years value has outperformed growth. The conclusion of this study is that there exists a value premium at the N.S.E when stocks are sorted on the basis of B/M ratio . However there exists no significant difference in value premium across industries. This implies industry type is not a significant determinant of value premium.

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