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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "SKADHAUGE, E., WARUI, C.N., KAMAU, J.M.Z. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1984) Function of the lower intestine and osmoregulation in the ostrich:preliminary anatomical and physiological observations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 69, 809-818.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Skandalakis JE, Colborn GL. Skandalakis' {Surgical} anatomy: the embryologic and anatomic basis of modern surgery. Vol. 2. Athens, Greece: PMP; 2004. Abstract
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Aftab Z, Wladis A. "Skandalakis' {Surgical} {Anatomy}." Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 2008;8:97-98. AbstractWebsite
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Skandalakis L, Colborn G, Weidman T, Skandalakis J, Skandalakis P. "Skandalakis' {Surgical} {Anatomy}: {The} {Embryologic} {And} {Anatomic} {Basis} {Of} {Modern} {Surgery}.". In: {SKANDALAKIS}' {SURGICAL} {ANATOMY}: {The} {Embryologic} and {Anatomic} {Basis} of {Modern} {Surgery}. Athens, Greece: Paschalidis Medical Publications; 2004:. Abstract
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Poole DC, Copp SW, Ferguson SK, Musch TI. "Skeletal muscle capillary function: contemporary observations and novel hypotheses." Experimental physiology. 2013;98:1645-1658. Abstract

The capillary bed constitutes a vast surface that facilitates exchange of O2, substrates and metabolites between blood and organs. In contracting skeletal muscle, capillary blood flow and O2 diffusing capacity, as well as O2 flux, may increase two orders of magnitude above resting values. Chronic diseases, such as heart failure and diabetes, and also sepsis impair these processes, leading to compromised energetic, metabolic and, ultimately, contractile function. Among researchers seeking to understand blood-myocyte exchange in health and the basis for dysfunction in disease, there is a fundamental disconnect between microcirculation specialists and many physiologists and physiologist clinicians. While the former observe capillaries and capillary function directly (muscle intravital microscopy), the latter generally use indirect methodologies (e.g. post-mortem tissue analysis, 1-methyl xanthine, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, permeability-surface area product) and interpret their findings based upon August Krogh's observations made nearly a century ago. 'Kroghian' theory holds that only a small fraction of capillaries support red blood cell (RBC) flux in resting muscle, leaving the vast majority to be 'recruited' (i.e. to initiate RBC flux) during contractions, which would constitute the basis for increasing surface area for capillary exchange and reducing capillary-mitochondrial diffusion distances. Experimental techniques each have their strengths and weaknesses, and often the correct or complete answer to a problem emerges from integration across multiple technologies. Today, Krogh's entrenched 'capillary recruitment' hypothesis is challenged by direct observations of capillaries in contracting muscle, which is something that he and his colleagues could not do. Moreover, in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, application of a range of contemporary physiological technologies, including intravital microscopy of contracting muscle, magnetic resonance, near-infrared spectroscopy and phosphorescence quenching, combined with elegant in situ and in vivo models, suggest that the role of the capillary bed, at least in contracting muscle, is subserved without the necessity for de novo capillary recruitment of previously non-flowing capillaries. When viewed within the context of the capillary recruitment hypothesis, this evidence casts serious doubt on the interpretation of those data that are based upon Kroghian theory and indirect methodologies. Thus, today a wealth of evidence calls for a radical revision of blood-muscle exchange theory to one in which most capillaries support RBC flux at rest and, during contractions, capillary surface area is 'recruited' along the length of previously flowing capillaries. This occurs, in part, by elevating capillary haematocrit and extending the length of the capillary available for blood-myocyte exchange (i.e. longitudinal recruitment). Our understanding of blood-myocyte O2 and substrate/metabolite exchange in health and the mechanistic basis for dysfunction in disease demands no less.

J.O O. "Skilled Immigrants in Botswana." The Brain drain, in African Insight. 2000;30(2):56-64.
Oucho JO. Skilled Immigration in Botswana: Retrospect and Prospect. University of Botswana; 2003.
Adolf W, Dossaji SF, Seip EH, Hecker E. "Skin irritant deterpene orthoesters of the daphanane type fropm Peddiea africana and P. Volkensii,." Phytochemistry. 1985;24:2047-2049. AbstractWebsite

From roots of Peddiea volkensii (Thymelaeaceae) the irritant factors and and from roots of P. africana
the irritant factor Aj were isolated. Their structures are the 9,13,14-ort/io-(2,4,6-decatrienoates) of 5/8-
hydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7a-oxide (Vi) and of 5^,12iS-dihydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7a-oxide (Aj) and the 12-0-acetate of the latter (Vj). Factors V i and do not exhibit tumour-promoting activity in the standard initiation-promotion protocol on mouse skin, although is a moderate irritant.

Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi N., Nyaga, P. N., Njagi, L. W., Bebora LC, Michieka JN. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestation in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province of Kenya." Avian Pathology. 2013.
Sabuni ZA, Mbuthia PG, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Michieka JN. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestation in indigenous chickens in Eastern province of Kenya." Research Journal of Poultry Sciences. 2013;6(3):53-58.sabuni_et_al._2013-ectopara.lesions-research_journal_of_poultry_science.pdf
Mbuthia PG, A. SZ, N. M, N. NP, L. N, C. BL, N. MJ. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province of Kenya. ." Research Journal of Poultry Sciences.. 2013;6(3):53-58.
Verhulst N., Mukabana W.R., Takken W, R.mallegange. "Skin microbiota volatiles as odour baits for the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae." Entomologia Experimentalis et applicata. 2011;139:170-179.
Seifert AW, Kiama SG, Seifert MG, Goheen JR, Palmer TM, Maden M. "Skin shedding and tissue regeneration in African spiny mice (Acomys).". 2012. Abstract2012.skin_hedding_and_tissue_regeneration_in_african_spiny_mice_acomys..pdf

Abstract
Evolutionary modification has produced a spectrum of animal defence traits to escape predation, including the ability to autotomize body parts to elude capture. After autotomy, the missing part is either replaced through regeneration (for example, in urodeles, lizards, arthropods and crustaceans) or permanently lost (such as in mammals). Although most autotomy involves the loss of appendages (legs, chelipeds, antennae or tails, for example), skin autotomy can occur in certain taxa of scincid and gekkonid lizards. Here we report the first demonstration of skin autotomy in Mammalia (African spiny mice, Acomys). Mechanical testing showed a propensity for skin to tear under very low tension and the absence of a fracture plane. After skin loss, rapid wound contraction was followed by hair follicle regeneration in dorsal skin wounds. Notably, we found that regenerative capacity in Acomys was extended to ear holes, where the mice exhibited complete regeneration of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, dermis and cartilage. Salamanders capable of limb regeneration form a blastema (a mass of lineage-restricted progenitor cells) after limb loss, and our findings suggest that ear tissue regeneration in Acomys may proceed through the assembly of a similar structure. This study underscores the importance of investigating regenerative phenomena outside of conventional model organisms, and suggests that mammals may retain a higher capacity for regeneration than was previously believed. As re-emergent interest in regenerative medicine seeks to isolate molecular pathways controlling tissue regeneration in mammals, Acomys may prove useful in identifying mechanisms to promote regeneration in lieu of fibrosis and scarring.

Romanovsky AA. "Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation." Acta Physiologica (Oxford, England). 2014;210:498-507. AbstractWebsite

This review analyses whether skin temperature represents ambient temperature and serves as a feedforward signal for the thermoregulation system, or whether it is one of the body's temperatures and provides feedback. The body is covered mostly by hairy (non‐glabrous) skin, which is typically insulated from the environment (with clothes in humans and with fur in non‐human mammals). Thermal signals from hairy skin represent a temperature of the insulated superficial layer of the body and provide feedback to the thermoregulation system. It is explained that this feedback is auxiliary, both negative and positive, and that it reduces the system's response time and load error. Non‐hairy (glabrous) skin covers specialized heat‐exchange organs (e.g. the hand), which are also used to explore the environment. In thermoregulation, these organs are primarily effectors. Their main thermosensory‐related role is to assess local temperatures of objects explored; these local temperatures are feedforward signals for various behaviours. Non‐hairy skin also contributes to the feedback for thermoregulation, but this contribution is limited. Autonomic (physiological) thermoregulation does not use feedforward signals. Thermoregulatory behaviours use both feedback and feedforward signals. Implications of these principles to thermopharmacology, a new approach to achieving biological effects by blocking temperature signals with drugs, are discussed.

Lu W, Liu S, Li B, Xie Y, Adhiambo C, Yang Q, Ballard BR, Nakayama KI, Matusik RJ, Chen Z. "SKP2 inactivation suppresses prostate tumorigenesis by mediating JARID1B ubiquitination." Oncotarget. 2015;6(2):771-88. Abstract

Aberrant elevation of JARID1B and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is frequently observed in many diseases including prostate cancer (PCa), yet the mechanisms on the regulation of JARID1B and H3K4me3 through epigenetic alterations still remain poorly understood. Here we report that Skp2 modulates JARID1B and H3K4me3 levels in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in mouse models. We demonstrated that Skp2 inactivation decreased H3K4me3 levels, along with a reduction of cell growth, cell migration and malignant transformation of Pten/Trp53 double null MEFs, and further restrained prostate tumorigenesis of Pten/Trp53 mutant mice. Mechanistically, Skp2 decreased the K63-linked ubiquitination of JARID1B by E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, thus decreasing JARID1B demethylase activity and in turn increasing H3K4me3. In agreement, Skp2 deficiency resulted in an increase of JARID1B ubiquitination and in turn a reduction of H3K4me3, and induced senescence through JARID1B accumulation in nucleoli of PCa cells and prostate tumors of mice. Furthermore, we showed that the elevations of Skp2 and H3K4me3 contributed to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in mice, and were positively correlated in human PCa specimens. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel network of SKP2-JARID1B, and targeting SKP2 and JARID1B may be a potential strategy for PCa control.

I.O JUMBA, S.M KISIA. "Skull abnormalities in the Waterbuck Kobus Ellipsiprymnus Defassa (Ruppel 1935) in the Rift Valley Lake Systems of Kenya.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian (Journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association) 23, 85-86. August 1998 Issue. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. Abstract

|7 Skulls of the waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprynnus defassa) ithree lake systems of the central Kenyan Rift Valley (viz. tfakuru, Elementaita and Naivasha) were examined for bnormalities, as a result of chronic signs of ill health, in ome of the animals in the region. The waterbuck were ulled randomly and weighed. Several parameters were leasured. A post mortem examination was carried out on ach of the animals culled. Bone samples were stripped F all tissue by boiling. The skulls were weighed and amined for any abnormalities. The teeth were used for eing the animals.
lemean age of the waterbuck was 5.1±1.7 years. 67% of Bimals in poor body condition showed skeletal normalities including pathological eruption and growth • wear of teeth. The teeth had black stains along the gual and buccal surfaces but no evidence of fluorosis. |je abnormalities observed in the skulls could be uted to mineral imbalances in some of the areas in the al Kenyan Rift Valley region. Abnormal eruption of i could in turn play a role in poor feeding of the affected als thus contributing to poor health.

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Slack RCB and WAMOLA I.A. Amoxil Single Dose in Treatment of Male Uncomplicated Gonorrhoea. Brit. J. of Venerology (1979).". In: Brit. J. of Venerology (1979). IBIMA Publishing; 1979. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Slack RCB WAMOLA I.A and Douglas WS. A Comparison of Oral Doxycycline and Intramuscular Penicillin in the Treatment of Acute Gonorrhoea in Male (Paper presented to East and Central Physicians Conference, Zambia, June, 1975).". In: (Paper presented to East and Central Physicians Conference, Zambia, June, 1975). IBIMA Publishing; 1975. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Slack, RCB, WAMOLA I. A and Douglas, S W. Antimicrobial Sensitivities of Neisseria gonorrhoea in Nairobi and Treatment of Schedules. EAMJ research, Vol. No. 2.3 (1977), Pg 83-87.". In: EAMJ research, Vol. No. 2.3 (1977), Pg 83-87. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Slack, RCB, WAMOLA I.A Githahu K and Kabiru, J. Non-specific Urethritis diagnosis and Treatment with Viramycin: Paper presented to Kenya Medical Association meeting .". In: Paper presented to Kenya Medical Association meeting . IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Othieno C, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Sleep Disorders."; 2006.
Kuria MW. "Sleep Disorders Chapter 5.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Sliding spark spectrometry: A pulsed plasma technique for the direct trace element analysis of non-conducting solids and dielectric surface layers.". In: Proceedings of the 2 nd International School on Plasma Diagnostics & Technology, 4 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2002. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Sliding spark spectroscopy of sediment samples.". In: J. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 374, 756 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2002. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
Makanya AN, Kavoi BM, Kihurani DO. "Slight volume changes in the duck lung do not imply a fundamental change in the structure of the parenchyma." Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia. 2020. Abstract

Slight changes in lung volume have previously been reported in ducks. We studied the functional structure of the lung of the domestic duck using classical anatomical techniques as well as ultrasound monitoring to unravel the causes of such changes. Later dorsal and medioventral secondary bronchi were superficially positioned and covered with a thin transparent and collapsible membrane, internally lined with a cuboidal to squamous epithelium. The lung parenchyma was rigid, with atria well supported by septa containing smooth muscles, interparabronchial septa reinforced by collagen fibres, and blood capillaries supported by epithelial plates. On ultrasound monitoring, an outward and inward movement of the lung surface during inspiration and expiration, respectively, was evident at the region where the airways were covered by the thin membranes. The movements plausibly facilitated air movement in the lung just like the air sacs. We conclude that volume changes in the duck lung occur due to a slight morphological adaptation rather than a change in the archetypical design of the avian lung parenchyma.

E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Slope Instability in Slope Management and Mining. A case study of the Upper Sele Valley, Southern Italy. Z.Geomorph. N.F. Suppl.Bd. 87 Berlin.". In: Proceedings of workshop on . RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1993. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Gichaga FJ. "Slow Sand Filtration Pilot plant Construction.". In: IRC/MOH/MOWD/UON Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Mwega FM. "Slum and non - slum enterprises market survey: A case study of Mathare Valley in Nairobi, Kenya." A survey of 200 enterprises in Mathare Valley and 50 in the neighbouring non - slum areas undertaken for the National Christian Council of Churches (NCCK) and financed by ILO. 1990.
Mwega FM. "Slum and non - slum enterprises market survey: A case study of slum areas of Nairobi, Kenya." A surv ey of 400 enterprises located in seven major slum areas of Nairobi and 250 enterprises located in the neighbouring non - slum areas financed by ILO. 1990.
Syagga, PM; Mitullah WV; GSK. "Slum Upgrading Lessons Learned in Nairobi.". 2001.
Bahemuka MJ. "Slum upgrading Programme in Nairobi, Kenya, human settlement challenge for African countries.". In: World UNHabitat Forum. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2010.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Slyker JA, Lohman BL, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Reilly M, Wee EG, Dong T, McMichael AJ, Rowland-Jones SL, Hanke T, John-Stewart G. Modified vaccinia Ankara expressing HIVA antigen stimulates HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells in ELISpot assays of HIV-1 exposed infants. Va.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract

Red Cross Children's Hospital, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town, South Africa.

OBJECTIVE: To draw attention to the sub-optimal care that HIV-infected children are receiving in Africa. DATA SOURCES: Relevant published literature. DATA SYNTHESIS: Sub-optimal response to paediatric HIV infection has aggravated the negative impact that the epidemic has had on child health in Africa. Recently the African Network for the Care of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (ANNECA) released an advocacy statement that called for the optimisation of prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for children affected by the AIDS pandemic. Effective prevention strategies if comprehensively implemented, could prevent more than 500 000 paediatric infections per annum at current antenatal HIV prevalence rates. Improved care that includes universal utilisation of early diagnostic testing systems, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, nutritional support and the timely introduction of antiretroviral therapy could improve the quality of life and lifespan of most infected children. CONCLUSION: Political leaders, public health officials and fellow child health professionals are urged to redouble their efforts to reverse the magnitude of the paediatric epidemic in Africa.

PMID: 17685215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dorothy McCormick, Wamalwa HN. "Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Trade and Development in Africa.". In: SMEs Trade and Development. Geneva; 2015.
Wamalwa H, McCormick D. "Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Trade and Development in Africa.". In: Paper prepared as a background document for the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) Flagship Report, ‘SME Competitiveness 2015: SMEs, Trade and Development’ and for presentation at the ITC Workshop . Geneva, Switzerland; 2015.
Caroline, N., Anne, N., Harriet K. "Small And Medium Enterprises Training For Survival In A Competitive World. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 12(19), 181. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016.v12n19p181.". 2016. Abstract

This study explored the influence of Total Quality Management practices on performance of Small and Medium Enterprises. Youth Projects in Kajiado County, Kenya were used as the target population. One of the key TQM management practices is training of employees. The study sort to determine the influence of training of employees on performance on SMEs. The study was carried out on 168 youth group projects in Kajiado County.Questionnaires and interviews were used as research instruments. For triangulation purpose, the interview schedule was used to confirm the information captured by the questionnaire. Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources. The study used mixed method approach in the collection and analysis, to capture both the qualitative and quantitative data.Spearman’s correlation was used to test the relationship between training and performance of SMEs. The analyses indicated a moderately positive relationship between training and performance of SMEs in Kajiado county which was statistically significant rs=0.400, p=0.600.Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, it is recommended that to improve the performance of the youth groups, they should strive to ensure their product in the market is superior. This can only be ensured by equipping their employees with proper skills, knowledge and values through training.

Njeri KM. "Small and Medium manufacturing enterprises formation and development in central Kenya: Entrepreneurship of Plodding along?". In: Small Enterprises:Flexibility and Networking in African Context. Nairobi: Longhorn; 1996.
JOHN DRYABS. "Small Business Centres for Collective Use and Management.". In: Business Journal V, III No.7, Nairobi,. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1983. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
YABS DRJOHN. "Small Business Powers Development. The role of Small Scale Business in Economic Developent in Kenya.". In: Ufanisi Journal No.47. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; Submitted. Abstract

The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  

Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N. "Small Enterprise Clusters: Fishing and Vehicle Repair in Kenya.". In: Small Enterprise Clusters. Sussex, UK: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Pedersen O. "Small Enterprise Development: A Network Approach.". In: Flexibility and Networking in an African Context., pp. 301-314. Nairobi: Longhorn. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Small Enterprise Development: Problems, Policy, and Practice.". In: Fishing and Vehicle Repair in Kenya. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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MALLANS DRRAMBOCHARLES. "SMALL ENTERPRISES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT .". In: Small Enterprises Management and Development. European Psychiatric Journal; 2004.
Dorothy McCormick. "Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in an African Context.". In: "Firm Linkages: Importance for Industrial Structure and Performance." Paper presented at national workshop for Multi-country Study of Private Enterprise Development, Nairobi. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Mwaura F, and Zech B. "Small man-made reservoirs and the future of integrated watershed management in Kenya." Hekima Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences . 2003;(2(1):67-79. AbstractWebsite

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

Mwaura F. Small Reservoirs and Rural Water Supply in Kenya: Balancing Landuse, Catchment Structure and Water Quality. Proceedings of the 12th International Stockhold Water Symposium, August 15. Stockholm City; 2002. Abstract

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

M MRNJOKAJOHN. "Small Scale Enterprise in Nairobi: The socio-cultural factors influencing investment patterns among informal sector women entrepreneurs. IDS Working Paper No. 523. December.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 1998. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Ongeri BO. "Small Scale Horticultural farming along the Kenyan Highways and Local economic development: Exploring the effect of factor prices." International Review of Research in Emerging Markets and the Global Economy (IRREM) . 2014;(ISSN: 2311-3200) Vol: 1( Issue 3):pages 102-119.
. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Small scale manufacture of replacement crankshaft Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology (JAST) vol 4 (1) 2002 pp 83-90.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2002. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Small Scale Rice Irrigation Projects in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at the Joint Seminar on Irrigation Policies in Kenya and Zimbabwe. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Small Towns in Kenya". Procedings of IAHS World Congress on Housing Technology and Change, Birmingham, England, pp 150 - 175.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
"Small-Scale Farmer as Entrepreneur: Some Theoretical Issues” in McCormick, D. and Pedersen, P.O. (eds.) ." Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in an African Context. Nairobi: Longhorn. 1996:pp. 100-112.
Wanyoike, MM; Wahome RG. "Small-scale farming systems."; 2004.
Wanyoike MM;, Wahome RG. "Small-scale farming systems."; 2004.
Aura C, Okronipa H, Olela P, Mojica L, Forella K, Otuo P, Bageant E, Obuya J, Onyango H, Ochieng J. "Small-scale fishing households facing COVID-19: The case of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". 2021.
ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "SMALL-SCALE PRIVATE TRANSPORT SERVICES IN KENYAN URBAN AREAS: Review of transport needs of the poor, private transport services and Policy Recommendations. A report prepared for the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA), Final D.". In: A report prepared for the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA), Final Draft, July 2002. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
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ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Smallholder Credit for Rural Development in Kenya: Origins and Future Perspectives' in ULF Himmelstrand, et al. eds. Development in an African Perspective, James Currey Publishers, London 1994 ISBN 0-85255-221-1.". In: "From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment - Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate". International Union of Crystallography; 1994. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
M J, DK M. "Smallholder Credit Repayment Performance in Lugari Division, Kakamega District, Kenya." In Eastern Africa Economic Review. 1992;8(2).
Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". 2011. Abstract

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Addisu A, Olago D, Wandiga S, Oriaso S, Amwata DA. "Smallholder Farmers Vulnerability Level to Climate Change Impacts and Implications to Agricultural Production in Tigray Regional State, Northern Ethiopia." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, Academic Research Publishing Group . 2019; 5(12): 237-250. Abstractideas.repec.org

Vulnerability to climate change impact is the most pressing issues for less developed countries whose economy mainly depends on the agricultural sector. The demand for food is growing swiftly whereas impacts of climate change on the global food production are increasing. More area specific research outputs and evidences-based policy directions are needed to tackle the ever changing climate and to reduce its impacts on the agricultural production. The aim of this study was to investigate subsistence farmer household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and its associations with household’s agricultural production. Then primary data was collected from 400 households from Kolla Temben District, Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Multistage sampling techniques were applied to select households for interview from the district. In the first stage, 4 Kebelles (Kebelle - administration unit) were selected randomly out of 27 Kebelles and then400 households were selected for interview through systematic random sampling techniques (Figure 1). Multiple regressions were used to examine the associations between household’s vulnerability to climate change impacts and agricultural production. Grounded theory and content analysis techniques were use to analyze data from key informant interviews and focus group discussions. For every single unit increase in household vulnerability to climate change impacts, there was an average agricultural production decrease between 16.99 and 25.83 (Table 4). For single unit increase in household’s vulnerability to climate change impact, there was a decrease of total crop production, Total income, total livestock, total food consumption and food consumption per adult equivalent. Rainfall decrease, small farmland ownership, steep topography, frequent flood occurrences and large family size are among the major factors that negatively affect household’s agricultural production and total income. The more the vulnerable the households, the less in total annual crop production, total livestock size, total income from agricultural production and the more dependent on food aid). There is a negative association between household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and agricultural production (crop production, total livestock ownerships and total income from crop production). More access to irrigation and agricultural fertilizers, improved varieties of crops, small family size, improve farmland ownership size, more access to education and Agricultural Extension services are an effective areas of intervention to improve household’s resilient, reduce households vulnerability level to climate change impacts and increase household’s total agricultural production.

Ndathi AJN, Nyangito, Moses M, Musimba NKR. "Smallholder farmers' feed material conseryation strategies in the tropical drylands of South-eastern Kenya.". 2012. Abstractabstract11.pdfWebsite

Availability of feed is the major constraint to livestock production in the drylands of southeastern Kenya. ln an effort to address this problem, this study was carried out to identify and rank feed material conservation strategies being used by the Kamba agropastoralists inhabiting this region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to household heads of households selected using agro-ecological zones and systematic sampling using the road transect method. Ranking was done using the pairwise method white data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Feed conservation strategies identified being used in the study area were leaving the feed standing in the field, harvesting and placing the feed on tree branches or putting in an open wooden rack, roofed wooden rack or a granary. The granary was ranked the most effective structures followed by the tree branches, the roofed wooden racks and tastly the open wooden racks. However, a granary could only store small amounts of feed material hence the roofed wooden rack was more popular.

Ndathi AJN, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Smallholder farmers’ feed material conservation strategies in the tropical dry-lands of South-eastern Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2012;24 ((6)). Abstract

Availability of feed is the major constraint to livestock production in the drylands of southeastern Kenya. In an effort to address this problem, this study was carried out to identify and rank feed material conservation strategies being used by the Kamba agro-pastoralists inhabiting this region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to household heads of households selected using agro-ecological zones and systematic sampling using the road transect method. Ranking was done using the pairwise method while data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

Feed conservation strategies identified being used in the study area were leaving the feed standing in the field, harvesting and placing the feed on tree branches or putting in an open wooden rack, roofed wooden rack or a granary. The granary was ranked the most effective structures followed by the tree branches, the roofed wooden racks and lastly the open wooden racks. However, a granary could only store small amounts of feed material hence the roofed wooden rack was more popular.

Key words: Dry season, feed conservation, structures, ranking

Mwalusepo S, Massawe ES, Affognon HD, Okuku GO, Kingori S, Mburu DM, Ong’amo GO, Muchugu E, Calatayud P-A, Landmann T, Muli E, Raina SK, Johansson T, Ru BPL. "Smallholder farmers’ perspectives on climatic variability and adaptation strategies in East Africa: The case of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, Taita and Machakos Hills in Kenya." Earth Science & Climatic Change. 2015;6(10):01-09.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Smart Electrochemical Biosensors: From advanced materials to ultrasensitive devices.". In: Electrochimica Acta, Accepted for publication (2009). Elecro-chimica Acta; 2010. Abstract
Omowunmi A. Sadik, Samuel K. Kallavi and Austin Aluoch The specificity, simplicity, and inherent miniaturization afforded by advances in modern electronics have allowed electrochemical sensors to rival the most advanced optical protocols. One major obstacle in implementing electrochemistry for studying biomolecular reaction is its inadequate sensitivity. Recent reports however showed unprecedented sensitivities for biomolecular recognition using enhanced electronic amplification provided by new classes of electrode materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots). Biosensor technology is one area where recent advances in nanomaterials are pushing the technological limits of electrochemical sensitivities, thus allowing for the development of new sensor chemistries and devices. This work focuses on our recent work, based on metal-enhanced electrochemical detection, and those of others in combining advanced nanomaterials with electrochemistry for the development of smart sensors for proteins, nucleic acids, drugs and cancer cells
Wanjohi LM, Moturi CA. "Smartphones Supporting Monitoring Functions: Experiences from Sweet Potato Vine Distribution in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Digital Technologies for Agricultural and Rural Development in the Global South. Oxfordshire: CAB International; 2018.
Gachahi MW, Ngaruiya B, Kimani GN. "SMASSE trained teacher characteristics and primary school pupil achievement in mathematics and science." IIJARER. 2014;2(7)(vol 2(7)2360-7866):152-159.
Gherardi., Francesca., Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "The smell of Danger: Chemical recognition of fish predators by the invasive Crayfish Procambarus Clarkii." Freshwater Biology. 2011;56(8 ):1567-1578.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Smith AW, Hatcher J, Mackenzie IJ, Thompson S, Bal I, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Okoth-Olende C, Oburra H, Wanjohi Z.Randomised controlled trial of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media in Kenyan schoolchildren.Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33.". In: Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1996. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) are disappointing and uncertain, especially in developing countries. Because CSOM is the commonest cause of hearing impairment in children in these countries, an effective method of management that can be implemented on a wide scale is needed. We report a randomised, controlled trial of treatment of CSOM among children in Kenya; unaffected schoolchildren were taught to administer the interventions. METHODS: We enrolled 524 children with CSOM, aged 5-15 years, from 145 primary schools in Kiambu district of Kenya. The schools were randomly assigned treatments in clusters of five in a ratio of two to dry mopping alone (201 children), two to dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids (221 children), and one to no specific treatment (102 children). Schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. The primary outcome measures were resolution of otorrhoea and healing of tympanic membranes on otoscopy by 8, 12, and 16 weeks after induction. Absence of perforation was confirmed by tympanometry, and hearing levels were assessed by audiometry. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial because they took non-trial antibiotics. There was no evidence of differences in timing of withdrawals between the groups. FINDINGS: By the 16-week follow-up visit, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% (95% CI 42-59) of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, compared with 22% (14-31) of those who received dry mopping alone and 22% (9-35) of controls. Similar differences were recorded by the 8-week and 12-week visits. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% (10-21) in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% (5-20) in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% (3-23) in the control group. The proportion with resolution in the dry-mopping alone group did not differ significantly from that in the control group at any time. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times. INTERPRETATION: Our finding that dry mopping plus topical and systemic antibiotics is superior to dry mopping alone contrasts with that of the only previous community-based trial in a developing country, though it accords with findings of most other trials in developed countries. The potential role of antibiotics needs further investigation. Further, similar trials are needed to identify the most cost-effective and appropriate treatment regimen for CSOM in children in developing countries. PIP: 524 children aged 5-15 years with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were enrolled in a study to determine the effectiveness of different treatment regimens. The subjects were from 145 primary schools in Kenya's Kiambu district. 201 children received dry mopping treatment, 221 received dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids, and 102 received no treatment. Participating schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial for taking non-trial antibiotics, with no evidence observed of differences in the timing of withdrawals between the two groups. At 16 weeks of follow-up, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, 22% of children who received dry mopping alone, and 22% of untreated children. Similar differences were observed at 8 and 12 weeks of follow-up. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% in the control group. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times.

O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Smith AW, Hatcher J, Mackenzie IJ, Thompson S, Bal I, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Okoth-Olende C, Oburra H, Wanjohi Z.Randomised controlled trial of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media in Kenyan schoolchildren.Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33.". In: Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33. MEDICOM; 1996. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) are disappointing and uncertain, especially in developing countries. Because CSOM is the commonest cause of hearing impairment in children in these countries, an effective method of management that can be implemented on a wide scale is needed. We report a randomised, controlled trial of treatment of CSOM among children in Kenya; unaffected schoolchildren were taught to administer the interventions. METHODS: We enrolled 524 children with CSOM, aged 5-15 years, from 145 primary schools in Kiambu district of Kenya. The schools were randomly assigned treatments in clusters of five in a ratio of two to dry mopping alone (201 children), two to dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids (221 children), and one to no specific treatment (102 children). Schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. The primary outcome measures were resolution of otorrhoea and healing of tympanic membranes on otoscopy by 8, 12, and 16 weeks after induction. Absence of perforation was confirmed by tympanometry, and hearing levels were assessed by audiometry. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial because they took non-trial antibiotics. There was no evidence of differences in timing of withdrawals between the groups. FINDINGS: By the 16-week follow-up visit, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% (95% CI 42-59) of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, compared with 22% (14-31) of those who received dry mopping alone and 22% (9-35) of controls. Similar differences were recorded by the 8-week and 12-week visits. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% (10-21) in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% (5-20) in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% (3-23) in the control group. The proportion with resolution in the dry-mopping alone group did not differ significantly from that in the control group at any time. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times. INTERPRETATION: Our finding that dry mopping plus topical and systemic antibiotics is superior to dry mopping alone contrasts with that of the only previous community-based trial in a developing country, though it accords with findings of most other trials in developed countries. The potential role of antibiotics needs further investigation. Further, similar trials are needed to identify the most cost-effective and appropriate treatment regimen for CSOM in children in developing countries. PIP: 524 children aged 5-15 years with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were enrolled in a study to determine the effectiveness of different treatment regimens. The subjects were from 145 primary schools in Kenya's Kiambu district. 201 children received dry mopping treatment, 221 received dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids, and 102 received no treatment. Participating schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial for taking non-trial antibiotics, with no evidence observed of differences in the timing of withdrawals between the two groups. At 16 weeks of follow-up, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, 22% of children who received dry mopping alone, and 22% of untreated children. Similar differences were observed at 8 and 12 weeks of follow-up. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% in the control group. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Smith JS, Moses S, Hudgens MG, Agot K, Franceschi S, Maclean IW, Ndinya-Achola JO, Parker CB, Pugh N, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ, Bailey RC.Human papillomavirus detection by penile site in young men from Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Nov;34(11):928-34.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Nov;34(11):928-34. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracthuman_papillomavirus_detection_by_penile_site_in_young_men_from_kenya.pdf

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on whether sampling from the penile shaft or urethra increases detection of penile HPV infection in men beyond that found in the glans and coronal sulcus. METHODS: Within a randomized clinical trial, a validation study of penile sampling was conducted in Kisumu, Kenya. Young men (18-24 years) were invited to provide penile exfoliated cells using prewetted Dacron swabs to determine the best site for HPV detection. beta-Globin gene PCR and HPV DNA type GP5+/6+ PCR status were ascertained from 3 anatomical sites. RESULTS: A total of 98 young HIV-seronegative, uncircumcised men participated. Penile HPV prevalence varied by anatomical site: 50% in penile exfoliated cells from the glans, coronal sulcus, and inner foreskin tissue; 43% in the shaft and external foreskin tissue; and 18% in the urethra (P <0.0001). For each anatomical site, over 87% of samples were beta-globin positive. Beyond that found in the glans/coronal sulcus, urethral sampling resulted in no increase in HPV positivity and shaft sampling resulted in an additional 7.3% of overall HPV positivity. The prevalence of high-risk HPV positivity varied by anatomical site: 39% in glans/coronal sulcus, 31% in shaft, and 13% in the urethra (P <0.0001). HPV 16 was the most common type identified. DISCUSSION: Penile HPV prevalence was approximately 50% among young men in Kisumu, Kenya. Urethral sampling for HPV detection in men added no sensitivity for HPV detection over that found from sampling the glans/coronal sulcus and penile shaft. These data will help inform studies on HPV transmission dynamics, and on the efficacy of HPV prophylactic vaccines on penile HPV carriage in men.

KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Smith, G.R., Turner, A. and Kibe, M.K. (1985). Immunogenicity of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 (13) Viii.". In: Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 (13) Viii. University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
Bacteriophage clones containing ribosomal RNA genes of Theileria parva were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. Physical mapping studies revealed 2 ribosomal DNA units, which were distinguishable by restriction enzyme site polymorphisms in flanking sequences. The cloned ribosomal DNA units were mapped to 2 separate T. parva chromosomes. Analysis of sequences contained in lambda EMBL3 recombinants, together with Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA and data on the copy number of the rRNA genes, suggested that the rDNA units were not tandemly repeated. This organisation of ribosomal transcription units is similar to that described for other genera of apicomplexan protozoa, but 2 rDNA units, each containing single copies of the rRNA coding genes, would be the lowest copy number described for any eukaryote in which amplification of rRNA genes is not known to occur. EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which were revealed using rRNA gene probes, separated T. parva stocks into 2 categories. Nucleotide sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal transcribed spacer DNA revealed 2 different ITS sequences derived from rDNA transcription units within the genome of a cloned T. parva parasite. Polymorphism was also observed between ITS sequences amplified from the DNA of different T. parva stocks. A synthetic oligonucleotide derived from T. parva Uganda ribosomal ITS DNA sequences hybridised to DNA from the T. parva Uganda stock, but not to the DNA of the T. parva Muguga stock. This oligonucleotide is potentially useful as a marker for the T. parva Uganda stock.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Smith, J.L.; Biamah, E.K.; Otieno, J.O.,(1988). Simulating Rainfall, Runoff and Soil Erosion using a Distributed Parameter Model (ANSWERS) The Kenya Engineer, Journal of the Institution of Engineers of Kenya. July/August, 1988.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
SO ML. "Smoking–an emerging risk factor for renal diseases. .". In: East African Medical Journal. 75(7)377-378, 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract

The health, economic and social costs of smoking are enormous and well known to physicians. Smoking results in a lot of morbidity and mortality mainly related to cardiovascular disease, cancer and pulmonary disease. The effect of smoking on the kidneys is little appreciated. It is the purpose of this review article to give evidence from available literature that smoking is indeed deleterious to the kidneys and may result in progression of chronic renal failure to end stage renal disease. It is concluded that nephrologists, and indeed all physicians, should make a concerted effort to save their patients from this vice.

Maitai CK, Talalaj S, Talalaj D, Njoroge D. "Smooth muscle stimulating substances in the stinging nettle tree Obetia pinnatifida." Toxicon. 1981;19(1):186-8.
Opere A. SMR 207: Fundamentals of Cloud Physics and Atmospheric Pollution. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
king'oo p.k. SMS based system to provide first aid information in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015.
Mbindyo BS. Snake Bites in Kenya.; 1975.
Dunstan Kaburu, Nderitu JH, John Kamanu, Chemining’wa G. Snap bean Integrated Crop Management booklet. UON; 2012.snap_bean_integrated_crop_management_booklet.doc
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Snow RW, Molyneux CS, Njeru EK, Omumbo J, Nevill CG, Muniu E, Marsh K.The effects of malaria control on nutritional status in infancy.Acta Trop. 1997 Apr 30;65(1):1-10.". In: Acta Trop. 1997 Apr 30;65(1):1-10. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Both malaria and undernutrition are major causes of paediatric mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITBN) during a randomized controlled trial on the Kenyan coast significantly reduced severe, life-threatening malaria and all-cause childhood mortality. This paper describes the effects of the intervention upon the nutritional status of infants aged between 1 and 11 months of age. Seven hundred and eighty seven infants who slept under ITBN and 692 contemporaneous control infants, were seen during one of three cross-sectional surveys conducted during a one year period. Standardized weight-for-age and mid-upper arm circumference measures were significantly higher among infants who used ITBN compared with control infants. Whether these improvements in markers of nutritional status were a direct result of concomitant reductions in clinical malaria episodes remains uncertain. Never-the-less evidence suggests that even moderate increases in weight-for-age scores can significantly reduce the probability of mortality in childhood and ITBN may provide additional gains to child survival beyond their impressive effects upon malaria-specific events.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Snow, R.W., Omumbo, J., Lowe, B.S., Njeru, E.K., Hawley, W.A., Nahlen, B.L., and Marsh, K. Paediatric anaemia at community and hospital levels in high and low intensity P. falciparum transmission areas of Kenya. Acta Tropica 1997, 65:1-10.". In: Acta Tropica 1997, 65:1-10. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) that may influence health seeking behaviour of caretakers of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at Nyanza provincial hospital in Kenya between March and September 1993 to identify socio-demographic and economic factors that may influence health seeking behaviour of primary caretakers of children with SCD. All caretakers accompanying children under the age of 18 years to the Sickle Cell Clinic were eligible. Guardians accompanying children to the clinic were interviewed using pretested questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis method was used to categorise questionnaire items into domains (knowledge, attitude and belief) and to investigate for association between certain socio-demographic factors and KAB. Seventy five per cent of the 108 respondents interviewed were mothers and 16.7% fathers. Seventy eight percent knew SCD to be hereditary while 55% knew how the disease presents in childhood. Only 42% associated SCD with increased risk of infection. Many felt severe infections are largely preventable and that prevention would reduce their anxiety and illness related costs. In factor analysis, variables loaded almost exclusively on "Attitudes" and "Beliefs" factors. Only family size was found to influence caretaker attitudes (p = 0.0095) and beliefs (p = 0.0034). Education, monthly income, occupation and religion had no significant influence. The majority of caretakers had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards SCD in children. Interventions aimed at management of SCD or prevention of its sequelae would be well accepted. Factor analysis is recommended for statistical analysis of KAB data. The effect of family size on attitudes and behaviour needs further evaluation.
Kabira WM. "So Near yet so far." . American Journal of Arts and Humanities, 1, A1-A11. 2016.
"J.O.Amimo", "S.Thumbi", "B.O.Inyangala", "J.O.Jung'a", "R.O.Mosi". "Soci-economic characteristics and perceptions of cattle keeepers and constraints to cattle production in Western Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2011;23(6).
Munyoki JM, Mulwa AS. Social Science Research: A hand Book. Nairobi: Downtown Publishers and printers, Nairobi; 2011.
Munyoki JM, Mulwa AS. Social Science Research: A hand Book. Nairobi: Downtown Publishers and printers, Nairobi; 2011.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "A social and cultural history of Kenya in the 19th and 20th centuries.". In: Longman, Nairobi (Ed.). Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Kimani VN, Mitoko G, McDermott B;, Grace D, Ambia J, Kiragu MW, Njehu AN, Sinja J, Monda JG, Kang’ethe EK. "Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium fromurban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of nondairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

Kimani VN, Mitoko G, McDermott B, Grace D, Ambia J, Kiragu MW, Njehu AN, Sinja J. "Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium fromurban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of nondairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "The Social and Political Challenges of a new Kenya.". In: paper presented at the ICPAK 9th Annual Seminar on facing challenges of a new Kenya. Whitsands Beach Hotel, Mombasa, 11th - 15th May.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Nyamongo IK. "Social Attitudes and Family Planning in Rural Kenya." World Health Forum. 1993;Vol. 12(1):75-76.
C.A. M-M. Social Bi-annual Report, July 2013 - February 2014. Nairobi: Total Exploration and Production Kenya ction Kenya; 2014.
Nyangena W, T.Sterner. "Social Capital and rural institutions in Kenya - Is Machakos unique." Chinese Business Review. 2009;8(10):1-8.
Muia D, Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Social Capital as a Coping Mechanism for Women Small Scale Traders in the Informal Economy in Nairobi, Kenya ." Journal of Social Welfare and Human Rights . 2018;6(1):13-20.
Njeri KM, Meleckidzedeck K. Social Capital, Micro and Small Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation.. Addis Ababa: OSSREA; 2005.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Social change and Educational reform.". In: A paper delivered as a public lecture in Kisumu, Kakamega and Kitale in Jan. 1979. Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
n/a
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Characteristics of the Residents of the Kamburu and Gitaru Area, in R. S. Odingo (Editor). An African Dam-Ecological Survey of Kamburu/Gitaru Hydro-electrical Dam Area, Kenya, Ecological Bulletins No. 29, Swedish Natural Science Research Counci.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1979. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Characteristics of thr Residents of the kamburu and gitaru area, in R. S. Odingo(Editor), An African Dam-ecological Survey of Kamburu/ Gitaru hydro-electrical dam Area, Kenya, Ecological bulletins no.29,Swedish natural science Research Council,.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1979. Abstract
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R.M O. "Social Conflict: Its causes, effects and management.". In: Empowerment fo r Reconciliation and Peace with Justice (ERPJ). series of places; 1998.
Hatcher AM, Romito P, Odero M, Bukusi EA, Onono M, Turan JM. "Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: implications for the health of pregnant women.". 2013. Abstract

More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women and four with male partners, and in-depth interviews with service providers, we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence such as forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual - gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics and community norms - shape high rates of violence.

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The Social Context of Christianity in Colonial and Post Colonial Africa, in Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. III Nos. 1 & 2.".; 1988. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

Cheben DP, Karamunya J. "Social cultural factors influencing community participation in community projects among the residents in Pokot South Sub-County, Kenya ." American Based Research Journal . 2016;Vol.5 (issue 11,Nov 2016 ISSN(2304-7151)):69-77.
Rego AB. "Social Degradation and desertification” in Muyanda - Mutebi, P. ." Social Degradation and desertification” in Muyanda - Mutebi, P. . 1996.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Social Dialogue in Public Emergency Services.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Social Dialogue in Public Emergency Services: A Case Study of Kenya. WP.216, Print Version:92-2-115737-7 (Geneva: ILO Sector Programme, 2004).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Simiyu V. "Social Differenciation in Kenya since 1963.". In: Mizizi. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press-; 2012.
Otieno SP, Ozor GN, Wabernde K. "Social Drama: Umulumgbe Men Funeral Ritual Performance." International Journal of Language and Literature. 2017;vol.5(Issue 2):pp.197-210.
TURFENA MRSODHIAMBOKAREN. "The Social ecology of literacy and achievement in primary schools of Kenya. _ Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1990. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Social Economic and Land use indicators. Chapter 9 pp. 113-132. National Land Degradation assessment and mapping in Kenya. Government of Kenya, Royal Netherlands Government and UNEP 1997.". In: Social Economic and Land use indicators. Chapter 9 pp. 113-132.Government of Kenya, Royal Netherlands Government and UNEP 1997. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Akpata, D.O. G& ER. "Social Economic status of secondary schools interscholastic athletes in Nairobi province, Kenya." Journal of International Council for Physical Education, Recreation, Sports and Dance . 2002;353(2):28-30.
E.N. PN. "Social epidemiology in Africa slowing the heterosexual transmission of AIDS.". 1991. Abstract

AIDS Soc. 1991 Jan-Feb;2(2):7-8.
Social epidemiology in Africa: slowing the heterosexual transmission of AIDS.
Ronald A, Ndinya-achola JO, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Brunham R, Plummer FA.
Abstract
PIP:
Analyzing why the rate of transmission of AIDS varies widely in Africa is the basis for designing strategies for intervention. Promiscuity, i.e. high rates of sex partner change, is not the only reason for rapid transmission, but it is a prerequisite for the explosive spread seen in certain groups. High frequency groups include mobile single men and prostitutes. Research and strategies must focus on sex practices, concepts of personal vulnerability, and possibility of behavioral change. The sexually transmitted diseases that are thought to increase susceptibility to HIV, i.e., genital ulcer diseases, can be controlled with appropriate strategies. Male circumcision is associated with lower HIV seroprevalence. Thus strategies must be concentrate on sustained prevention among high STD transmitters, providing early, effective care for STDs, increasing economic alternatives for women, and offering voluntary circumcision where culturally acceptable.
PMID:
12343101
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ronald A, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Brunham R, Plummer FA. "Social epidemiology in Africa: slowing the heterosexual transmission of AIDS.". 1991. Abstract

Analyzing why the rate of transmission of AIDS varies widely in Africa is the basis for designing strategies for intervention. Promiscuity, i.e. high rates of sex partner change, is not the only reason for rapid transmission, but it is a prerequisite for the explosive spread seen in certain groups. High frequency groups include mobile single men and prostitutes. Research and strategies must focus on sex practices, concepts of personal vulnerability, and possibility of behavioral change. The sexually transmitted diseases that are thought to increase susceptibility to HIV, i.e., genital ulcer diseases, can be controlled with appropriate strategies. Male circumcision is associated with lower HIV seroprevalence. Thus strategies must be concentrate on sustained prevention among high STD transmitters, providing early, effective care for STDs, increasing economic alternatives for women, and offering voluntary circumcision where culturally acceptable.

Ayiemba EHO. "Social Groups .". 1984.Website
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Social Health Insurance Scheme for all Kenyans: Opportunities and sustainability potential. Enos Njeru, Robert Arasa & Mary N. Nguli. 49p. ISBN 9966-948-18-x. (ttp://www.ipar.or.ke/dp60dp.pdf).". In: Discussion Paper No. DP060/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Olungah OC. "Social Identities and political mobilization.". In: the case of Kenya in the run-up to 2013 general elections. Nairobi; 2012.
Opiyo-Akech N. Social Impact Assessment for 2D seismic survey in Block 9: Africa Oil B.V.; Wajir County. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2014.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Social Indicators and Integrated Developemnt Planning: The Case of Kenya.". In: Social-Economic Studes, No. 12. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Kamau G. "Social interactions and returns to farm inputs in smallholder agriculture in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(15):180-201.
John G. Social Interactions in Agriculture. Concepts, Measurement and Applications. Saarbrücken: VDM-Verlag Dr. Müller; 2010.
R.M O. "Social Isolation of the rural old and the concomitant disequilibrium.". In: the first International Conference on Ru ral Aging, A global challenge. Charleston Civic Center, Charleston, West Virginia, USA; 2000.
C N. "The social meanings of death from HIV /AIDS: an African interpretative view ." Culture, Health and Society. 2000;2(2):1-14.
Ngugi J, Kimotho S, Muturi S. "Social Media Use By The Deaf In Business At Nairobi, Kenya." AJBUMA JOURNAL. 2018;4(3). Abstractdeaf_use_of_social_media_in_21st_century_business.pdfWebsite

Social media for business is the new frontier for deaf Kenyans, due to the information gap they often experience as they navigate a largely speaking and hearing world. This case studyon the use of social media platforms for business by the deaf in Nairobi includes a special emphasis on the convergence of their natural visual language, sign language with video technology. The research is important to boost socio economic livelihoods of deaf Kenyans for equality in development as well as integrate the Kenyan business industry with the innovation and creativity introduced by the signing „genre‟ of business communication. The results of the study indicate that the dialectical gap between the deaf and hearing is significantly reduced as sign language users can informally interact and exchange ideas, information and updates on business. In addition, the general boost in vocabulary originating from deaf people‟ interest in on-line communication in Kenya is highlighted. It is recommended that the recent immersion of the Kenyan deaf community in the use of smartphones and dissemination of instant messaging needs to be enhanced, as it may yield answers to societal inclusion, while also highlighting deaf cultural pride proponents of the deaf business people‟ creativity.
KeyWords:Deaf, social media, business, Kenya

Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti, Jocelyn Davies PKSGEOYMSBMMA. "Social Network Analysis provides insight in the Epidemiolgy of African Swine Fever." Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2016;2016.
Mbugua, M., Nzuma, M.J., Muange, J. "Social networks and Ex-post risk management among smallholder farmers in Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2019;6(1):30-39.
Mbugua M, Nzuma JM, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social Networks and Household Food Consumption Smoothing in the Presence of Idiosyncratic Shocks: Insights from Rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2020.1715344.
Mbugua M, Nzuma J, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social networks and household food consumption smoothing in the presence of idiosyncratic shocks: insights from rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;30(3):383-393.
Muhingi WN, Mutavi T, Kokonya D, Simiyu NV, Musungu B, Obondo A, Kuria MW. "Social Networks and Students’ Performance in Secondary Schools: Lessons from an Open Learning Centre, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;6(21):171-177.
E. DROWAKAHFRANCIS. Social Philosophy. Nairobi: The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2009. AbstractWebsite

An instruction manual for teaching Social philosophy to third year students in the department of philosophy.

Maclure R;, Gakuru O;, Sotelo M. "Social policies and marginalized urban youth: centrist prescriptions and divergent practices .". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Although conditions of risk confronting urban youth are most visible in the immediate contexts of family and community, the degree to which specific social policies affect the status of adolescence is less understood. Between 1999 and 2002, with support from the International Development Research Centre, a team of researchers in Canada, Kenya and Nicaragua undertook a comparative inquiry into policy changes designed to influence social services impinging on the welfare of marginalized urban youth. Qualitative case studies focused on three stages of policy: a) the politics and macro-level forces underlying the formulation of social policies that affect urban youth; b) the institutional dynamics of policy implementation within selected urban sites and corresponding relations between units of local government and civil society organizations; and c) the actions and perspectives of groups of individuals who have been engaged in, and affected by, these policy processes. Despite the diversity of contexts and policies examined, case study findings revealed how the formulation of youth-oriented policies are shaped by dominant discourses that rarely accommodate the perspectives of youth themselves. Likewise, the implementation of such policies constitutes a complex set of practices that are subject to negotiation and different forms of appropriation, and therefore often exacerbate the marginalization of urban youth. In keeping with the qualitative and collaborative design of the project, the research helped to generate inter organizational dialogue within the communities that were the sites of inquiry. It also fostered insights regarding the role of collaborative international research as a catalyst for cross-national dialogue and a knowledge base for grassroots rights-oriented social change.

R.M O. "Social Policy and the role of the Individual in regulating Business Crime.". In: BEN - Africa International Convention. the BEN - Africa International Convention held at the Fair View Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2000.
Ocharo RM, Mukami KL. "Social Predictors of Food Insecurity: The Case of Yatta Constituency, Machakos County, Kenya. ." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences.. 2020;3(1):86-95.
C.M K, I.W M. Social Problems and Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi-ODEL; 2012.
Kahigi CM, Muasya IW. "Social Problems and Education.". 2012. Abstract
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Irungu, Patrick; Ndirangu L; OJ. Social Protection and Agricultural Development in Kenya.; 2009. Abstract

This paper focuses on social protection programs in Kenya’s agriculture. A case study approach was used where three cases were examined: (a) emergency seed distribution in the arid and semi-arid lands and remote areas which are inadequately served by the formal seed sector, (b) hunger and safety net programme in northern Kenya, and (c) Njaa Marufuku Kenya. The study found that while social protection programs/strategies are necessary to cushion vulnerable groups from covariate risk, these have not been properly domesticated in the Kenyan policy and legal frameworks. In fact, the national response to shocks and stresses among the vulnerable groups has largely been ad hoc. Emergency interventions have been implemented in rather haphazard and knee-jerk approach with minimal strategic policy focus. And even where social safety nets have been implemented, these have largely been untargeted, uncoordinated and humanitarian in nature. Hence, although some efforts have been made in the past to entrench social protection in the Kenyan society (e.g., the Equity Bill, the Affirmative Action Bill and the Constitutional Review), these initiatives have suffered from lack of political goodwill, ethnic and class chauvinism and political patronage. There is therefore need to for the Kenyan society as a whole to re-define its strategic direction with regard to empowering poor households to enable them cope with shocks. The starting point would be to design a comprehensive social protection policy which is now in progress.

Bahemuka. MJ. "Social Protection and The Rule of Law. The Emerging Challenges for the African Region." Institute of Social Studies, Havana, Cuba; 2007.
Wairire GG, Mwabeyo Z. "Social protection policies for orphaned and vulnerable children in East Africa.". In: World Conference for Social Work themed ‘Social Work and Social Development 2012: Action and Impact. Stockholm - Sweden; 2012.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Social Provision in Low-Income Countries: New Patterns and Emerging Trends (editor), with Cecilia Ugaz and Gordon White, Oxford: Oxford University Press, May 2001.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Mwabu GM;, Nganda BM;, Masai WS;, Gakuru ON;, Kirimi JB. "Social Provisioning in Kenya: Towards a Pluralistic System .". 2000.Website
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Reality and Sociology of Knowledge, Thought and Practice - A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1974, East African Literature Bureau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Reality and Sociology of knowledge, thought and Practice-A Journal of the philosophical Association of kenya,Vol.1,No.2, 19784, east African literature Bereau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Social Science Research for Paralegal Workers.". In: Chapter 3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Mulwa AS. Social Sciences Research. Nairobi, Kenya: Downtown; 2012.
W. MATHUG. "Social Studies ."; 1969. Abstract
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