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Orwa OD. SIDA ICT Survey for the Governance, Law and Order Sector (GJLOS). Nairobi Kenya: Swedish International Development Agency; 2004.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Sigman M, Whaley SE, Neumann CG, Bwibo N, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Liang LJ, Murphy SP.Diet quality affects the playground activities of Kenyan children. Food Nutr Bull. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl 2):S202-12.". In: Food Nutr Bull. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl 2):S202-12. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2005. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy. The Annals of African surgery. January 2010 .". In: Int. J. Morphol. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a rare condition that poses a myriad of challenges in diagnosis and management of the patient. It demands on the clinician a high index of suspicion, expeditious treatment involving resuscitation and good judgment in handling of the bowel in face of added potential morbidity and mortality to the mother and fetus. We report a case of gangrenous sigmoid volvulus with a viable third trimester pregnancy and discuss potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Sigmoid Volvulus in pregnancy: Case report.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a rare condition that poses a myriad of challenges in diagnosis and management of the patient. It demands on the clinician a high index of suspicion, expeditious treatment involving resuscitation and good judgment in handling of the bowel in face of added potential morbidity and mortality to the mother and fetus. We report a case of gangrenous sigmoid volvulus with a viable third trimester pregnancy and discuss potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.
Ndurumo MM. "Sign Language Interpreting with Special Reference to Kiswahili.". African Annals of the Deaf. (Online Journal ISSN 1996-0905).; 2008. Abstract
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J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Signal transduction in malaria gametocytes. biochemical pathways in parasites of medical importance.". In: Proceedings of a workshop held at the University of Cape Town from 14-16 January (1998). South African Journal of Science. 271-272. Springerlink; 1998. Abstract
Cultivated Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes reach maturity in vitro in approximately 14-16 days, during which they pass through five morphologically distinct developmental stages. Purification of the earlier developmental stages has not been previously reported. We have modified the standard discontinuous Percoll gradient method for the separation of stage IV and V gametocytes to obtain enriched preparations of those and the earlier P. falciparum gametocyte stages. In contrast to the stages II, III, and IV, the mature stage V gametocytes from our gradient readily transformed into gametes. Such preparations may be useful in research studies on the mechanisms that underlie gametocytogenesis.
Waweru KM, Pokhariyal GP, Mwaura MF. "The Signaling Hypothesis: Evidence From The Nairobi Securities Exchange.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This study investigates the signaling hypothesis by testing the displacement property of dividends. The study uses Ohlson (1995; 2001) model and follows Hand and Landsman (2005) approach. The study however varies the methodology by using pooled Time Series Cross Section data and Panel Corrected Standard Error estimation and also control for size to take care of scale effects. The study’s findings provide further empirical evidence that dividends are used as signals about future earnings prospects of the firm. After following Thakor (2003) approach in testing for the free cashflow hypothesis, the study’s results do not provide evidence in favour of the cashflow hypothesis it is therefore ruled out. The study’s results shed further insights on the controversy regarding the information content of dividend changes about future profitability.

Cheruiyot EK, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Zhang Y, Mrode R, Mujibi FDN. "Signatures of selection in admixed dairy cattle in Tanzania." Frontiers in genetics. 2018;9:607.
Kagereki E, Gakonyo JM SOH. "Significance Bias: An Empirical Evaluation of the Oral Health Literature." BioMed Central Oral Health. 2016.
Nalyanya C, Ndemo B G& JM. "The significance of Faith Based Enterprises in the Dual Roles of Social Good and Economic Development in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015:143-155.
Nyamongo GB. "The Significance of Inter-religious and Inter-cultural Dialogue: The Case of Kenya.". In: Inter-religious and Inter-cultural Dialoge in a Pluralistic World. Constanta Romania; 2016.
Gitonga ER. "Significant others influence on socialization into sport of Kenya Secondary School athletes." African Journal of Educational research and development . 2009;4(1):111-117.
Nzuki H, Karimurio J, Masinde S. "Significant refractive errors in standard eight pupils attending public schools in Kibera Division of Nairobi city." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2006;12:13-14. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of significant refractive errors in standard 8 pupils attending public school.
Design: Cross sectional community based study
Setting: Langata Location of Kibera Division, Nairobi Province
Subjects: All (1,253) year 2003 standard 8 pupils in school during the study
Results: The prevalence of significant refractive errors 10.2%, myopia 9.4%, hypermetropia 0.3% and astigmatism 0.5%. Of these, only 11.7 % (15/128) students had spectacles with the correct power.
Conclusions: About 10.2% of class 8 pupils attending public primary schools in Langata need spectacles but only a few have them.
Recommendation: There is need for a school screening programme offering low cost spectacles so that children who may be having learning difficulties due to lack of spectacles can be identified and assisted promptly.

Ferdowsian HR, Durham DL, Kimwele C, Kranendonk G, Otali E, Akugizibwe T, Mulcahy JB, Ajarova L, Johnson CM. "Signs of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Chimpanzees.". 2011. Abstractabstract_signs_of_mood_and_anxiety_disorders_in_chimpanzees.pdf

In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety disorders?

MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Sikei, G., J. Mburu, and J. Lagat (2008) .". In: Int. J. Environment, Workplace and Employment, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp.32. Ogutu J.O; 2008. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Siku ya Kheri.". In: Mwavyaji Roho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2011.
Magoha GAO. "Sildenafil (Viagra) in the management of male erectile dysfunction in Nairobi. ." East African Medical Journal, 77: 76-79, 2000.. 2000;77:76-79. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of sildenafil (Viagra) in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction in Nairobi.
DESIGN: Prospective open label extension study. SETTING: Urology clinics at the Nairobi Hospital, Kenyatta National Hospital and the author's private clinic in Hurlingham, Nairobi.
PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and nineteen adult male patients with erectile dysfunction.
RESULTS: The age range was 33-80 years with a mean of 62.5 years and a peak incidence in the 60-69 year age group. One hundred and nineteen patients (54.34%) had organic causes, 85 patients (38.81%) had psychogenic causes and 15 patients had mixed causes. Two hundred patients (91.32%) had improved sexual function after treatment with viagra. This improvement was sustained during the study period of sixteen weeks and included improved erectile and orgasmic functions and overall sexual satisfaction. One hundred and fifty seven of these patients responded to therapy with 50 mg of viagra; 40 patients with 25 mg and three patients with 100 mg of therapy. Nineteen patients (8.68%) had no improvement in sexual function after viagra administration. Seven patients (3.2%) had adverse effects which were mild and transient. They included mild headaches in three patients, mild dyspepsia in two patients and facial flushing and nausea and vomiting in one patient, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Oral sildenafil (Viagra) is an effective well tolerated and simple treatment for male erectile dysfunction in the majority of cases. The cost of treatment at about ten United States dollars for the 50 mg tablet is prohibitive and may limit its wide use by many deserving patients in this locality.
PIP: This prospective open-label extension study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of sildenafil (Viagra) in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 219 adult male patients with erectile dysfunction were instructed to take 50 mg, 25 mg, or 100 mg of sildenafil orally 1 hour prior to planned sexual activity, but not more than once every 24 hours. Patients were reviewed at 4-week intervals for 16 weeks to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of the drug. The age range was 33-80 years with a mean of 62.5 years and a peak incidence in the 60-69 year age group. The causes of erectile dysfunction were organic (n = 119, 54.34%), psychogenic (n = 85, 38.81%), and mixed (n = 15). 200 patients (91.32%) had improved sexual function after treatment with Viagra. This improvement included improved erectile and orgasmic functions and overall sexual satisfaction. 157 patients responded to the 50-mg treatment regimen; 40, to the 25-mg regimen; and 3, to the 100-mg regimen. No improvement in sexual function was reported in 19 patients (8.68%) after Viagra administration. In addition, 7 patients reported mild and transient adverse effects of the drug, including mild headache, dyspepsia, facial flushing, nausea, and vomiting. In conclusion, oral sildenafil (Viagra) is an effective well-tolerated and simple treatment for male erectile dysfunction in the majority of cases. However, the cost of treatment may prohibit and limit its wide use by many deserving patients in this area.

Magoha GAO. "Sildenafil (Viagra) in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction in Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 2000;77(2):76-9. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of sildenafil (Viagra) in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction in Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective open label extension study. SETTING: Urology clinics at the Nairobi Hospital, Kenyatta National Hospital and the author's private clinic in Hurlingham, Nairobi. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and nineteen adult male patients with erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: The age range was 33-80 years with a mean of 62.5 years and a peak incidence in the 60-69 year age group. One hundred and nineteen patients (54.34%) had organic causes, 85 patients (38.81%) had psychogenic causes and 15 patients had mixed causes. Two hundred patients (91.32%) had improved sexual function after treatment with viagra. This improvement was sustained during the study period of sixteen weeks and included improved erectile and orgasmic functions and overall sexual satisfaction. One hundred and fifty seven of these patients responded to therapy with 50 mg of viagra; 40 patients with 25 mg and three patients with 100 mg of therapy. Nineteen patients (8.68%) had no improvement in sexual function after viagra administration. Seven patients (3.2%) had adverse effects which were mild and transient. They included mild headaches in three patients, mild dyspepsia in two patients and facial flushing and nausea and vomiting in one patient, respectively. CONCLUSION: Oral sildenafil (Viagra) is an effective well tolerated and simple treatment for male erectile dysfunction in the majority of cases. The cost of treatment at about ten United States dollars for the 50 mg tablet is prohibitive and may limit its wide use by many deserving patients in this locality.
PIP: This prospective open-label extension study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of sildenafil (Viagra) in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 219 adult male patients with erectile dysfunction were instructed to take 50 mg, 25 mg, or 100 mg of sildenafil orally 1 hour prior to planned sexual activity, but not more than once every 24 hours. Patients were reviewed at 4-week intervals for 16 weeks to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of the drug. The age range was 33-80 years with a mean of 62.5 years and a peak incidence in the 60-69 year age group. The causes of erectile dysfunction were organic (n = 119, 54.34%), psychogenic (n = 85, 38.81%), and mixed (n = 15). 200 patients (91.32%) had improved sexual function after treatment with Viagra. This improvement included improved erectile and orgasmic functions and overall sexual satisfaction. 157 patients responded to the 50-mg treatment regimen; 40, to the 25-mg regimen; and 3, to the 100-mg regimen. No improvement in sexual function was reported in 19 patients (8.68%) after Viagra administration. In addition, 7 patients reported mild and transient adverse effects of the drug, including mild headache, dyspepsia, facial flushing, nausea, and vomiting. In conclusion, oral sildenafil (Viagra) is an effective well-tolerated and simple treatment for male erectile dysfunction in the majority of cases. However, the cost of treatment may prohibit and limit its wide use by many deserving patients in this area.

Oyugi J, Otieno-Ayayo ZN, Ochanda H. "The silver cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea as the main diet source for rearing Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2014;4 (17): 1-6.
Jared Owiti Yugi, Otieno-Ayayo ZN, Ochanda H, Mukabana WR. "The silver cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea as the main diet source for rearing Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2014;4(1).
Kyomuhimbo D, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Derese S, Feleni U, Iwuoha EI. "Silver-Zinc Oxide nanocomposite Antiseptic Extract of Bidens Pilosa." SN Applied Sciences. 2019;1:681.
Derese S. "Silver–zinc oxide nanocomposite antiseptic from the extract of Bidens pilosa." Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. 2019;1(7):681. Abstractsilver-zinc_oxide_nanocomposite_antiseptic_from_the_extract_of_bidens.pdf

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs) and zinc oxide–silver (ZnO–Ag-NPs) were biosynthesized based on
the rich matrix of alkaloids, flavones, tannins capping/stabilizing agents present in Bidens pilosa extract. Different plant
parts-root, leaf and seed ware used to prepare the plant extract for synthesis. Also, zinc and silver nitrate salts were
used as precursor materials. The surface plasmon peaks (SPR) based on the UV–Vis results for the Ag-NPs, ZnO-NPs were
located between 408–411 and 365–450 nm respectively. The SPR peaks for the Ag–ZnO-NPs occurred at 300–450 nm
indicating both blue and red shifts. The Ag–ZnO-NPs SPR shifts were associated with possible nanoparticle size reduction
and change in dielectric constant of the synthesis medium. Raman measurement peaks at 356, 484, 1350, 1578,
2435 cm−1 associated with OH, –C==C–, –C–O, S=O, =C–H moieties indicated successful capping. Nanoparticle yield was
temperature dependent and optimal yield could not be tied to a particular plant part as source of extract. Tunneling
electron microscope results showed Ag-NPs and ZnO-NPs were globular/spherical with a diameter range of 2–20 nm.
Interestingly, ZnO-NPs TEM displayed isolated miniaturized globular nanoparticles (< 2 nm) which then joined up to form
a large donut shaped structure indicating different formation mechanisms for the nanoparticles. XRD results showed the
Ag-NPs, ZnO-NPs and the Ag–ZnO-NPs particles were crystalline in nature. The high signal/noise in XRD originated from
possible crystalline biomaterials in the extracts. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental composition results
confirmed successful formation of the nanoparticles. Anti-Microbial activity of the synthesized Ag-NPs, ZnO-NPs and
ZnO–Ag-NPs were studied against gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus
aureus and fungus Candida albicans. Different ZnO: Ag-NPs nanocomposite ratios were used to test for antimicrobial
activity. Optimal antimicrobial activity was attained at Ag-NPs:ZnO-NPs ratio of 4:1 which also displayed the least minimum
inhibition concentration (MIC) and therefore was used as the active ingredient in formulating a hand sanitizing
antiseptic. The formulated antiseptic exhibited good antimicrobial activity.
Keywords

MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Simbant Village and Community Centre Designing With Culture and Community Level Economics in Mind. Thesis Project, Department of Architecture, University of Nairobi, 1983.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Simek MD, Rida WM, Priddy FH, Pung P, Carrow E, Laufer DS, Lehrman JK, Boaz M, Tarragona-Fiol T, Miiro G, Birungi J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, DeHovitz J, Bekker LG, Pitisuttithum P, Paris R, Walker LM, Poignard P, Wri.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Virology 83(14):7337-48; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Simek MD, Rida WM, Priddy FH, Pung P, Carrow E, Laufer DS, Lehrman JK, Boaz M, Tarragona-Fiol T, Miiro G, Birungi J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, DeHovitz J, Bekker LG, Pitisuttithum P, Paris R, Walker LM, Poignard P, Wri.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Journal of Virology 83(14):7337-48; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
Mamiro P, Nyagaya M, Kimani PM;, Mamiro D, Jumbe T, Macha J, Chove B. "Similarities in functional attributes and nutritional effects of magadi soda and bean debris-ash used incooking African traditional dishes.". 2011. Abstract

Magadi soda and bean debris-ash have been used as condiments for a long time by various ethnic groups in East and Central Africa in cooking traditional dishes. The aim of the study was to investigate whether magadi soda and bean debris-ash had similar effects and functional attributes when added to traditional dishes during cooking. Reason for the addition of the two condiments has not been revealed by researchers. Mineral content, in-vitro bioavailability studies and pH of non-ashed and ashed magadi soda and bean debris were evaluated. The results indicated that high concentrations of sodium ions (30.2%) and potassium ions (64.2%) were observed in magadi soda and bean debris-ash, respectively. In-vitro iron and zinc bioavailability decreased significantly with the addition of magadi soda and bean debris-ash in maize, beans and sorghum. Equally, the cooking time was significantly reduced. The mean pH for both magadi soda (9.66) and bean debris-ash (9.75) were not significantly different indicating that both aqueous solutions had alkaline properties. The similarity in properties especially in mineral profile,alkalinity, decreased cooking time and lowered mineral uptake by magadi soda and bean debris-ash explain similar functionality in foods they are added to during cooking. Despite the similarities observed, communities should be informed of the negative nutritional effects of these condiments so as to diversify their meal patterns accordingly

Ndeda JOH, Rabiu AB, Ngoo LHM, Ouma GO. "Similarities In Periods Of Meteorological Variables Over Kenya And Solar Activity Periods." Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). 2009;29(3):43-51. AbstractAFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL)

Using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, we determined the spectral characteristics of some meteorological variables over Kenya and identified the prominent periodicities associated with the variables. The meteorological variables studied are the maximum temperature, mini-mum temperature, average temperature, wind speed, precipitation, relative humidity, solar radia-tion intensity, evaporation and sunshine duration. Data from five terrestrial stations, represent-ing the regional climatic zones in Kenya, were employed in the study. The result reveals periods that are associated with solar activity. It is established that solar forcing is very significant over the Kenyan climate. The Sun-Climate relations were influenced at some locations by local ef-fects such as orography and vegetation.

Keywords: periodicity, solar activity, Sun-climate relations

R MSRJK; AN. "Similarity of Operators in a Complex Hilbert Space." East African Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 2008;vol.1:101-106.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Simonsen JN, Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Black C, Kreiss J, Gakinya MN, Waiyaki P, Veracautaren G, Slaney L, Koss J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Karasira P, Kimata J, Piot P, Cheang M, Ronald AR.HIV infection among lower socio-economic strata prostitutes in Nairobi. AIDS.". In: AIDS 4: 139 - 144, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Simonsen NJ, Cameron DW, Gakinya MN, Ndinya-Achola JO, D'Costa LJ, Karasira P, Cheang M, Ronald AR, Piot P, Plummer FA.Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection among men with sexually transmitted diseased. Experience from a center in Africa. N. Engl. J. Med.". In: N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 274 - 8, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Simonsen PE, Bernhard P, Jaoko WG, Meyrowitsch DW, Malecela-Lazaro M, Magnussen P & Michael E (2002) Filaria dance sign and subclinical hydrocele in two East African communities with bancroftian filariasis. Transactions of the RoyalSociety of TropicalMedi.". In: Transactions of the RoyalSociety of TropicalMedicine and Hygiene, 96, 649-653. Nov 15, 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2002. Abstract
MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. The IFN-y enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-Spot) assay is often used to map HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses. We compared overlapping 15-mer pools with optimized CD8 epitopes to screen ELISpot responses in HIV-infected individuals. The 15-mer pools detected responses to previously undefined epitopes, but often missed low-level responses to predefined epitopes, particularly when the epitope was central in the 15-mer, rather than at the N-terminus or C-terminus. These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Simonsen PE, Magesa SM, Meyrowitsch DW, Malecela-Lazaro MN, Rwegoshora RT, Jaoko WG, Michael E.The effect of eight half-yearly single-dose treatments with DEC on Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigenaemia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jul;99(7):541-7.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jul;99(7):541-7. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
The effect of eight half-yearly treatment rounds with diethylcarbamazine (DEC; 6mg/kg bodyweight) on Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA), a marker of adult worm infection, was followed in 79 individuals who were CFA-positive before start of treatment. Half of these were also microfilariae (mf)-positive. Microfilaraemia decreased rapidly after onset of treatment and became undetectable after four treatments. Circulating antigenaemia also decreased progressively, but at a much slower rate. After two, four and eight treatment rounds, the mean CFA intensity was reduced by 81, 94 and 98%, and the prevalence of CFA positivity was 85, 66 and 57%, compared with pre-treatment, respectively. CFA clearance rates were negatively related to pre-treatment CFA intensities, and were higher among pre-treatment mf-negative individuals than among pre-treatment mf-positive individuals. Even among patients who had pre-treatment CFA intensities above the upper measuring level (32000antigen units), and who continued to have intensities above this level after treatment, a decrease in post-treatment CFA intensities was obvious from a continuous decrease in ELISA optical density values. Repeated DEC therapy thus appears to have a slow but profound and persistent macrofilaricidal effect, which in the long run may be beneficial to populations undergoing DEC-based control interventions by reducing the probability of future morbidity development.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Simonsen PE, Meyrowitsch DW, Jaoko WG, Malecela MN, Michael E.Immunoepidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in two East African communities: Antibodies to the microfilarial sheath and their role in regulating host microfilaraemia.Acta Trop. 2008 Ju.". In: Acta Trop. 2008 Jun;106(3):200-6. Epub 2008 Mar 27. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2008. Abstract
The response pattern of specific antibodies to the microfilarial sheath (sheath-Ab) of the mosquito-borne filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti was investigated in individuals from two East African communities with different levels of endemicity. Individuals from both communities presented a strong inverse relationship between positivity for sheath-Ab and being positive for microfilariae (mf) and circulating filarial antigens (CFA). The prevalence of sheath-Ab positivity was highest in young individuals, but peaked at a younger age in the high (1-14 years) than the low (15-19 years) endemicity community. IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgE intensities to a crude adult filarial worm antigen were higher, and IgG4 intensities were lower, in sheath-Ab positive than in sheath-Ab negative individuals, probably reflecting the infection status of individuals. From the study it appears that individuals become sheath-Ab positive before mf and/or CFA can be detected in the peripheral blood, and only after later disappearance of sheath-Ab from the circulation can CFA and mf be diagnosed. In light of the findings, possible roles of the distinct sheath-Ab in the host-parasite relationship are discussed, and a hypothesis is proposed which suggests that sheath-Ab play an important role in the regulation of host microfilaraemia.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Simonsen PE, Meyrowitsch DW, Jaoko WG, Malecela MN, Mukoko D, Pedersen EM, Ouma JH, Rwegoshora RT, Masese N, Magnussen P, Estambale BB, Michael E.Bancroftian filariasis infection, disease, and specific antibody response patterns in a high and a low endemi.". In: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002 May;66(5):550-9. Taylor & Francis; 2002. Abstract
Bancroftian filariasis infection, disease and specific antibody response patterns in a high and a low endemicity community in East Africa were analyzed and compared to assess the relationship between these parameters and community transmission intensity. Overall prevalences of microfilaremia and circulating filarial antigenemia were 24.9% and 52.2% in the high and 2.7% and 16.5% in the low endemicity community, respectively. A positive history of acute attacks of adenolymphangitis was given by 12.2% and 7.1% of the populations, 4.0% and 0.9% of the adult (> or = 20 years old) individuals presented with limb lymphedema, and 25.3% and 5.3% of the adult males had hydrocele, in the high and the low endemicity community, respectively. Both infection and disease appeared earlier and reached much higher levels in the high than in the low endemicity community. The observed overall and age-specific infection and disease patterns in the two communities were in agreement with the view that these are primarily shaped by transmission intensity. No statistically significant relationships between infection status of fathers and mothers and that of their children were observed in any of the communities for either microfilaremia or for circulating filarial antigenemia. The overall levels (prevalence and geometric mean intensity) of filarial-specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, and IgE were significantly higher in the high endemicity community than in the low endemicity dommunity. Surprisingly, the opposite pattern was found for IgG3. Community transmission intensity thus appears to be an important determinant of observed inter-community variation in infection, disease, and host response patterns in Bancroftian filariasis.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Simonsen PE, Meyrowitsch DW, Mukoko DA, Pedersen EM, Malecela-Lazaro MN, Rwegoshora RT, Ouma J, Masese N, Jaoko WG & Michael E (2004) The effect of repeated half-yearly diethylcarbamazine mass treatment on Wuchereria bancrofti infection and transmission i.". In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 70, 63-71. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2004. Abstract
DBL-Institute for Health Research and Development, Jaegersborg Alle 1D, 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark. pesimonsen@dblnet.dk The effect of eight half-yearly treatment rounds with diethylcarbamazine (DEC; 6mg/kg bodyweight) on Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA), a marker of adult worm infection, was followed in 79 individuals who were CFA-positive before start of treatment. Half of these were also microfilariae (mf)-positive. Microfilaraemia decreased rapidly after onset of treatment and became undetectable after four treatments. Circulating antigenaemia also decreased progressively, but at a much slower rate. After two, four and eight treatment rounds, the mean CFA intensity was reduced by 81, 94 and 98%, and the prevalence of CFA positivity was 85, 66 and 57%, compared with pre-treatment, respectively. CFA clearance rates were negatively related to pre-treatment CFA intensities, and were higher among pre-treatment mf-negative individuals than among pre-treatment mf-positive individuals. Even among patients who had pre-treatment CFA intensities above the upper measuring level (32000antigen units), and who continued to have intensities above this level after treatment, a decrease in post-treatment CFA intensities was obvious from a continuous decrease in ELISA optical density values. Repeated DEC therapy thus appears to have a slow but profound and persistent macrofilaricidal effect, which in the long run may be beneficial to populations undergoing DEC-based control interventions by reducing the probability of future morbidity development.
C. O. Mito, Boiyo RK, and Laneve G. "A simple algorithm to estimate sensible heat flux from remotely sensed MODIS data." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2012;33(19):6109-6121.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "A simple atmospheric systems 'risk indicator' model: Application to fog hazards at Nairobi's Jomo Kenyatta International Airport:.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol 11&12 (Nos. 1& 2) 2003. Eastern and South African Journal; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
Wachira K. "A Simple Blended Learning Model for Teaching the Raspberry Pi.". In: 24th Institution of Engineers of Kenya International Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
N. MJ. "A Simple Computer Model for the Prediction of Chemical Shrinkage and Heat of Hydration of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA)-Cement Paste." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):597-615.
Opinya GN, Pameijer CH, Grön P. "Simple defluoridation procedures for Kenyan borehole water.". 1987. Abstract

Magnesium oxide and bone meal were used as chemical defluoridating agents to reduce excessive amounts of fluoride from artificial water samples which had been prepared to simulate Kenyan water samples with a fluoride concentration ranging from 1 to 9.3 ppm. The water filtrate from bone meal was clear and palatable. The filtrate from magnesium oxide was slightly slimy and cloudy, but palatable. Either of these chemical agents may be used in simple defluoridation procedures in rural and suburban areas using borehole water to reduce the excess fluoride in the water to beneficial non-toxic levels. Both magnesium oxide and bone meal are inexpensive chemicals and readily available in Kenya.

Kennedy O, Abiy Y, Ramni J, Andrew S, Keith S. "A simple field based method for rapid wood density estimation for selected tree species in Western Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;5:e00149.
WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Kiragu AN, Imali V, Aduda B. "A Simple Low Cost Solar Cell Characterization Laboratory Experiment for Senior Undergraduate Students.". 2014. AbstractFull text link

A simple low cost solar cell characterization experiment has been developed for senior undergraduate students in the Department of Physics, University of Nairobi. Experiments were conducted with 20 W and 40 W power solar modules on different sunny days and times at the open roof top of Physics Department, University of Nairobi. It was observed that the current- voltage (I-V) curves obtained for all the measurements were very similar for each module despite the day or time of measurement. The fill factor (FF), short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc), maximum current (Im) and maximum voltage (Vm) were very similar to those supplied by the manufacturer, an indication of reliability and accuracy of the method. The technique eliminates the need for expensive characterization equipment like solar simulators.

Waita, S.M., Simiyu J, Kiragu, A.N., Imali V, Aduda B. A simple low cost solar panel/cell characterization experiment for senior undergraduate Students.; 2015.
Mbugua SK;, Karuri EG;, Muroki NM. "Simple meat preservation methods applicable in rural areas in Kenya."; 1990. Abstract

The paper evaluates simple meat preservation techniques with the potential for application at household or small scale butchers level in rural areas of Kenya. These techniques involve the lowering of water activity of meat and microbial inhibition chemically or physically. The experimental details for preservation by pressing and solar drying, chemical inhibition, quality factors, organoleptic assessment and costs are also discussed

Mbugua SK;, Karuri EG;, Muroki NM. "Simple meat preservation methods applicable in rural areas in Kenya."; 1990. Abstract

The paper evaluates simple meat preservation techniques with the potential for application at household or small scale butchers level in rural areas of Kenya. These techniques involve the lowering of water activity of meat and microbial inhibition chemically or physically. The experimental details for preservation by pressing and solar drying, chemical inhibition, quality factors, organoleptic assessment and costs are also discussed

Harbison, J.E., Mathenge, E.M., Misiani, G.O, Mukabana, W.R., Day JF. "A simple method for sampling indoor-resting malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Africa." Journal of Medical Entomology. 2006;43(3):473-479.
Odongo DO, Irungu LW. "A simple method for storing mosquito blood meals for human DNA profiling." Insect Science and its Application. 2002;22 (2 ):155-158.
Odongo DO, IRUNGU LUCYW. "A Simple Method for Storing Mosquito Bloodmeals for Human DNA Profiling.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

A simple method for storing mosquito bloodmeal samples, which permits extraction and detection of human DNA after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of target DNA sequences, was tested. Abdomens of bloodfed field-collected Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were directly expressed onto filter paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. DNA was extracted and amplified at human hypervariable loci TC11, VWA and D1S80. The amplified products were separated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, visualised by silver staining, and results compared with those from mosquitoes that had been preserved in liquid nitrogen. DNA from blooded abdomens stored on dried filter papers could be amplified with greater than 95 % success for any locus, storage temperature, mosquito species or storage duration. Collection and drying of mosquito bloodmeals directly onto filter paper appears to be a more convenient method for sample transportation and storage than the conventional method involving cryopreservation.

and N. J. Muthama, C. Oludhe OGO. "A SIMPLE MODEL FOR DETERMINING THE POTENTIAL RISKS OF LIGHTNING STROKES OVER THE CITIES OF NAIROBI AND MOMBASA." Journal of African Meteorological Society. 2003;Vol.6 (No. 2):19-24.Lightning.pdf
Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Ouma. GO. "A simple model for determining the potential risks of lightning strokes over the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

environs. Ground based and Satellite-derived meteorological data were utilized in this study and included thunder events, total rainfall, number of rainy days, maximum rainfall in 24 hours, relative humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, wind speed and direction and Cold Cloud Duration (CCD). In the context of disaster management, the synergistic approach to risk management involves four closely related phases, one of which is the scientific analysis of specific hazard. This is the phase addressed in this study. A risk indicator based on physical and statistical characteristics of thunderstorms at the two locations was developed by examining the patterns of deviations from the mean thunderstorm events and their frequencies. Various aspects of the lightning risks at the two areas are described and discussed. Model results indicate that higher risks of lightning stroke occurred during the long rains season (March to May) as compared to the short rains (September to November) season. This was attributed to higher frequency of thunderclouds during the long rains season. The rain generating mechanisms during the long rains were observed to have higher frequencies of thunder events. The dry season (December to February and June to August) exhibits lowest lightning stroke risks. It is hoped that the results from this study may be of use to the various sectors of economy that need to take into account the dangers/risks of lightning strokes into their day to day operations so as to minimise or avert disasters from lightning strokes. Some of the sectors that may benefit from the results of this study include the Kenya Oil Refinery Depots, Kenya Power and Lighting Company, the Chemical and construction industries among others

CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "A simple Model for Determining the Potential Risks of Lightning Strokes over the Cities of Nairobi and Mombasa.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. , Vol. 6, No.2, pp 18-24. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2003.
Ebeshi BU, Bolaji OO, Oluka MN, Edebi VN, Soyinka JO, Guantai AN. "Simple Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Estimation of the Antiretroviral Agent Efavirenz from Human Plasma." British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;4(1):145-157. Abstract2014_-_simple_reversed-phase_high_performance.pdf

Aims: Sequel to the resurgence of TB co-infection in HIV/AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa, efavirenz has become an important component of the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). The objective of this study therefore is to provide a simple reversedphase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of efavirenz in human plasma.

Study Design: Method development and experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya, between October 2009 and September 2010.

Methodology: A 500μl drug-free plasma sample was each placed in six different centrifuge tubes (2ml) and varying aliquots of the stock solution (100μg/ml) of efavirenz were spiked and vortexed for 60sec to give concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16μg/ml for calibration standards and 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0μg/ml for quality control samples. The off-column sample pretreatment was carried out by protein precipitation
using ice-cold acetonitrile. The samples were chromatographed in a phenomenex (C18) 5μm particle size column with 250x4.6mm I.D and UV detection at 254nm using a mobile phase, which was made up of a mixture of solutions A and B. Both consisted of acetonitrile, 25mM ammonium acetate buffer and glacial acetic acid in proportions of 90:10:0.1 and 10:90:0.1(v/v), respectively. The analytical technique was validated for precision, accuracy and analyte recovery.

Results: The calibration plot for efavirenz was found to be linear over the concentration range of 0.5 to 16.0μg/ml with the regression line equation obtained as y=26842x–409.4 and the regression coefficient (R2=0.999), which allows for accurate reading of the concentrations of the test samples. The RSD (%) in intraday and interday assays ranged from 0.44 to 0.78%. Accuracy ranged from 92 to 110% and the recovery was >97%.

Conclusion: This new HPLC method is simple, reproducible and cost-effective and can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of efavirenz in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART as demonstrated in this study.

Ebeshi BU, Bolaji OO, Oluka MN, Edebi VN, Soyinka JO, Guantai AN. "Simple Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Estimation of the Antiretroviral Agent Efavirenz from Human Plasma." Br. J. Pharmaceut. Res. . 2014;4(1):145-157.
Cook J, Kimuyu P, Blum AG, Gatua J. "A Simple Stated Preference Tool for Estimating the Value of Travel Time in Rural Africa.". In: EFD Discussion Paper No. EfD DP 15 -08.; 2015.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Simple Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) Methods for the Separation of Catechins from Fresh Tea Leaves", J.Sci.". In: Technol. (Kenya), 6, series A 119-126 (1985). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
Longair MH, Baker DA, Armstrong DJ. "Simple {Neurite} {Tracer}: open source software for reconstruction, visualization and analysis of neuronal processes." Bioinformatics. 2011;27:2453-2454. AbstractWebsite

Motivation: Advances in techniques to sparsely label neurons unlock the potential to reconstruct connectivity from 3D image stacks acquired by light microscopy. We present an application for semi-automated tracing of neurons to quickly annotate noisy datasets and construct complex neuronal topologies, which we call the Simple Neurite Tracer. Availability: Simple Neurite Tracer is open source software, licensed under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL) and based on the public domain image processing software ImageJ. The software and further documentation are available via http://fiji.sc/Simple\_Neurite\_Tracer as part of the package Fiji, and can be used on Windows, Mac OS and Linux. Documentation and introductory screencasts are available at the same URL. Contact: longair@ini.phys.ethz.ch; longair@ini.phys.ethz.ch

omari HK, Makokha M, Masoud A, Abdalla S. Simplified Arabic Language. Nairobi: Chance Publishers Ltd; 2020.
Okeng'o GO, Malo JO. "A Simplified Formalism for Computing Growth Rates for Perturbations in Standard Cosmology." African Review of Physics, 10:0028. 2015;10 (2015)(ISSN 2223-6589):205-207.
Manyora H. A Simplified Grammar of English. Hillman Publishers; 2008.
Ndegwa R, E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Method for Parameter Determination of a Photovoltaic Module using Manufacturer’s data." Africa Journal of Physical Science. 2020;5:1-9.
Ndegwa, R., E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Simulation Procedure and Analysis of a Photovoltaic Solar System Using a Single Diode Model." Journal of Power and Energy Engineering. 2020;8(9):65-93.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "A Simplified Temperature Prediction Model for Potatoes Stored Under Natural Convection. Journal of Engineers in Agriculture and the Environment. (2)1:70-73.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Simth, WCS and Mwanthi, MA: Tick borne disease .". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009).; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Simtowe F., M., Zeller, A., Phiri, J. Mburu, (2007). Long-run determinants of moral hazard in microfinance: a study of group lending programs from Malawi using panel data. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 46, No. 1: 69-84.". In: Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 46, No. 1: 69-84. Ogutu J.O; 2007. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
Ogot M, Kelly B. "Simulated Annealing Computational Requirements Reduction for Reliability-Based High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Design.". In: 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 2006:. Abstract

Recent research efforts in Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) have concentrated
on the development of optimization methods that incorporate uncertainty present in design
variables and/or from noise variables to perform robust or reliability-based design. This work
presents a simulated annealing (SA) approach within the framework of highfidelity 'black-
box'analysis codes for aerodynamic shape design. The analysis codes are restricted to
inexpensive (seconds per analysis iteration) or moderately expensive (minutes per analysis …

Rwigi SK, Muthama JN, Opere AO, Opijah FJ, Gichuki FN. "Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Surface Water Yields over the Sondu Basin in Kenya." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research. 2016;4(8):160-172. AbstractInternational Journal of Innovation Education and Research

Potential impacts of climate change on surface water yields over the Sondu River basin in the western region of Kenya were analysed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model with climate input data obtained from the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) model. Daily time step regional climate scenarios at a spatial grid resolution of 0.44 Ëš over the Eastern Africa region were matched to the Sondu river basin and used to calibrate and validate the SWAT model. Analysis of historical and projected rainfall over the basin strongly indicated that the climate of the area will significantly change with wetter climates being experienced by 2030 and beyond. Projected monthly rainfall distribution shows increasing trends in the relatively dry DJF and SON seasons while showing decreasing trends in the relatively wet MAM and JJA seasons. Potential changes in water yields resulting from climate change were computed by comparing simulated yields under climate change scenarios with those simulated under baseline conditions.

Kimani MD, G.N K, R.N O, Muhammenda. "Simulating Maize (Zea Mays L.) performance using Aquacrop Model under Varying Irrigation Schedules and Water Depletion Levels in Bura Irrigation Scheme, Kenya.". In: AGRO 2019 Conference & Exhibition. College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science.; 2019.
Rodrigues AJ, Moturi CA. Simulating Plant Pathogen Epidemics. Botswana: Printing and Publishing Company of Botswana; 1993. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

 Muli, M.N., Onwonga, R.N., Karuku, G.N., Kathumo VM, Nandukule MO. "Simulating Soil Moisture under Different Tillage Practices, Cropping Systems and Organic Fertilizers Using CropSyst Model, in Matuu Division, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2015;7(2):26-30.
Omwoyo AM, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Onwonga R. "Simulating Streamflow in Response to Climate Change in The Upper Ewaso Ngiro Catchment, Kenya." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2017;1(2):12-29. Abstract

The study simulated streamflow response under changing climate for Ewaso Ngiro river in Upper Ewaso
Ngiro Catchment (UENC), using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Data from National Centre
for Meteorological research (CNRM) model of Co-Ordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment
(CORDEX) was used to generate climate change scenarios (temperature and rainfall) for representative
concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 from 2021-2080 relative to the baseline 1976-2005. SWAT
model was set up using historical daily rainfall and temperature data, soils, Digital Elevation Model and
land cover map, and calibrated against observed streamflow. Decreasing trend in historical rainfall and
streamflow was observed while increasing trend was observed for temperature. Projections indicated
increasing trend in temperature in both RCPs, with RCP 8.5 having higher increase (1.1-2.60 C) than
RCP 4.5 (1.0-1.70 C). Rainfall was found to increase from March-November, and decreased in
December-February in all scenarios. Change in total annual rainfall ranged from 0.1-18.5% in 20212050
and 1.2-18.7% in 2051-2080, which corresponded to increase in streamflow of 20.9-23.6% and
21.2-28.2% respectively. Streamflow in March-May decreased (-26 to -10%) in all scenarios and
increased in June-February (9-114%). This was found contrary to streamflow patterns simulated in
neighboring catchments where studies indicate increasing streamflow trend in March-May. Streamflow
response was found to be sensitive to changes in rainfall, thus emphasis should be put on water
conservation and catchment management including protection of headwater forests through agroforestry,
afforestation and reforestation.
Key words: Climate change, Streamflow, Simulation, Upper Ewaso Ngiro Catchment

.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Simulation and Control of Poultry Production Systems in Kenya. Proceedings the International Conference on Agricultural Science and Technology (ICAST 2001). 7-9 November 2001, Beijing, P. R. China.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2001. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Hasssanali J. "Simulation Model for Dental Arch Shapes in Humans.". In: East African Medical Journal, November 2004, pp 599 . African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2004. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Hemis M, Singh CB, Jayas DS, Bettahar A. "Simulation of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in Granular Porous Media: Application to the Drying of Wheat.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

A mathematical model was developed to simulate the deep-bed convective drying of Algerian wheat and barley using the characteristics of the selected local varieties. The nonequilibrium model, composed of a system of partial differential equations (PDEs), was solved using temporal and spatial discretization with some simplifying assumptions. The simulated results were compared with experimental data obtained during drying of wheat in deep beds (1-, 5-, and 10-cm depths) in a laboratory dryer under the experimental conditions of 60°C temperature, 10% RH, 0.7 m/s air velocity, and initial grain moisture content of 25.0% (db). The simulation results obtained by the mathematical model were in good agreement with those obtained by experiments carried out on the Algerian wheat.

Muthama NJ, Manene MM, Ndetei CJ. "Simulation of Decadal Precipitation over Nairobi in Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

In investigating Kenya rainfall variability and its relationship to other climatic elements it has become imperative to analyze the irregularly distributed rainfall events in time. To meet this requirement, this study used a stepwise regression technique. The study seeks to improve existing rainfall monitoring and prediction in Nairobi. Monthly rainfall data was fitted to several mathematical functions. The best mathematical model which best simulated the March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall over the three stations of analysis was chosen using a stepwise regression technique. The value of R-squared for the best fit was computed to show the percentage of rainfall information that is explained by the variation in the independent (time) variable. From the results obtained, the stepwise regression technique selected the fourth degree polynomial as the best fit for analyzing the March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall data set. Solar cycle period of ten (10) years was employed to get the fourth degree polynomial variables. Hence from the study, it can be deducted that the 4th degree polynomial function can be used to predict the peak and the general pattern of seasonal rainfall over Nairobi, with acceptable error values. This information can be used in the planning and management of water resources over Nairobi. The same information can be extended to other areas.

Muthama NJ, M Moses Manene, Ndetei CJ. "Simulation of decadal precipitation over Nairobi in Kenya." Journal For Science. 2017;13:43-54. AbstractWebsite

: In investigating Kenya rainfall variability and its relationship to other climatic
elements it has become imperative to analyze the irregularly distributed rainfall events in time.
To meet this requirement, this study used a stepwise regression technique. The study seeks to
improve existing rainfall monitoring and prediction in Nairobi. Monthly rainfall data was fitted
to several mathematical functions. The best mathematical model which best simulated the
March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall over the three stations of
analysis was chosen using a stepwise regression technique. The value of R-squared for the best
fit was computed to show the percentage of rainfall information that is explained by the
variation in the independent (time) variable. From the results obtained, the stepwise regression
technique selected the fourth degree polynomial as the best fit for analyzing the March-May
(MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall data set. Solar cycle period of ten (10)
years was employed to get the fourth degree polynomial variables. Hence from the study, it can
be deducted that the 4th degree polynomial function can be used to predict the peak and the
general pattern of seasonal rainfall over Nairobi, with acceptable error values. This information

Muthama NJ, Kaume CM, Mutai BK, Ng'ang'a JK. "Simulation of Potential Impact of Air Pollution from the Proposed Coal Mining Sites in Mui Basin, Kitui County." . Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):60-72.
J. MN, M. KC, K MB, J.K. N’ang’a. "Simulation of Potential Impact of Air Pollution from the Proposed Coal Mining Sites in Mui Basin, Kitui County." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):60-72. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

The potential for air pollutants transport, dispersion patterns and impacts within and around the Mui basin, Kitui County is simulated. The spatial-temporal distribution of air pollutants from the proposed coal mines was investigated using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectories (HYSPLIT) and dispersion analyses. The spatial distribution of wind patterns was investigated using wind rose to explain the observed air pollution
distribution. The analysis was carried out for the dry and wet seasons of the study area namely: December, January, February (DJF), March, April, May (MAM), June, July, August (JJA) and September, October, November (SON) seasons. From the analysis, the season during which the exposure levels would pose much health threat was established based on frequency of winds blowing in certain direction and speed. By spatial analysis of the
proximity of proposed mines and direction of dominant winds, areas most prone to pollution were delineated. The results showed that winds over the area were generally low and southerly. The residents to the northern and northwestern sectors would be at most at risk should the mining commence. Due to low wind speeds during January and the onset of JJA season, residents and workers at the mine would be affected adversely. The results may contribute to the design of effective control strategies to reduce impact of emitted pollutants.

Keywords:
Pollution, Wind rose, HYSPLIT, Trajectory, Dispersion, Exposure

MUTAI EMMANUELKINYOR. Simulation of Temperatures in a Broiler chicken House in Kenya. ISBN: 978-639-23545-6. Berlin: VDM Verlag Dr, Muller Pub.; 2010.document1.pdf
M DRININDAJOSEPH. "Simulation of The Diurnal Variations in the Atmospheric Variables over Eastern Africa by the GCM.". In: The Second National Workshop on Meteorological Research Applications and Services 5-9 December, 1994. Kenya Met Soc; 1994. Abstract
Meteorological elements are observed to display diurnal and/ or semi diurnal variability. Therefore the ability of the UK 11-level GCM to correctly simulate these diurnal variations of weather elements may be used as a measure of how realistic the model is compared to the real atmosphere. The model is forced by the diurnal variation of insolation. In order to study the diurnal cycle of the GCM, the simulated April 1986 sub-daily fields were kept, sampled at every 6 hours. All the data were instantaneous values, apart from rainfall, snowfall, evaporation and sensible heat fluxes which were each accumulated over each time step (10 minutes) for the 6 hours period. The variables were then averaged over the model month (30 days). The mean daily fields were computed separately for 0600 GMT, 1200 GMT, 1800GMT and 0000 GMT. The diurnal variation of three variables, namely; surface temperature, rainfall and wind were examined. The simulated surface temperature indicated similar diurnal characteristic as the observed. Thus there was an increase in temperature from morning to afternoon, followed by a general decrease at night. The simulated diurnal variation of the precipitation, particularly the afternoon maximum, was consistent with the general observed diurnal variation of precipitation over many areas in East Africa. The simulated wind anomaly vector was observed to rotate clockwise in the northern hemisphere and anticlockwise in the southern hemisphere. Such a diurnal behaviour of the wind has been observed in the real atmosphere. This characteristic is associated with the zonal movement of the region of maximum insolation (low pressure) from east to west.
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Simulation of the Electrolytic Conditions in Concrete by use of saturated CA (OH) Solutions".". In: Trondheim, Norway. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1978. Abstract
1
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Simulation of the Environment in a Poultry House. Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. l(l):37-47.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Simulation of the Impact of Deforestation on Rainfall in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008.
Muhati DF, Ininda JM, Opijah FJ. "Simulation of the Impact of Deforestation on Rainfall in the Lake Victoria Basin.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Over the past four decades, Lake Victoria basin has experienced drastic environmental changes on account of both natural and anthropogenic factors. The natural factors include prolonged droughts and the recent emergence of water hyacinth in the Lake, while anthropogenic factors include the deforestation rates, poor agricultural practices, and destruction of critical wetlands. This study examines the potential impact of deforestation on the rainfall over the lake Victoria basin. To assess the potential impact of deforestation on rainfall over the region, the General Circulation Model (GCM) ECHAM5 was applied. ECHAM5 was used to predict the possible impact of land cover and land use changes on rainfall using land cover and land use scenarios based on the Integrated Model to Assess Global Environment (IMAGE). The projected vegetation cover for 2050 was used to model the impact of deforestation, which indicated a general decrease in the canopy. The results from the model indicate a decrease in rainfall over many parts, although some areas showed increased rainfall. From the study we conclude that while deforestation has an impact on climate, there seem to be a complex interaction between forest and the rainfall generation mechanism.

M DRININDAJOSEPH. "Simulation of the Impact of El-Nino Southern Oscillation on the Short Rains over East Africa.". In: Fourth Meteorological Technical Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa. African Meteorological Society; 1997.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN, FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Simulation of the influence of surface heterogeneity on air flow and convection over Nairobi area: Implication on airquality in the city.". In: Journal of the African Meteorological Society, Vol. 6 No.1 pp. 25-35. SMA; 2005.
Mutai, E B K; Otieno GMMPO; AN;. "Simulation of the Microclimate in Poultry Structures in Kenya.". 2011.
Mutai, E.B.K., Gitau A. N., D.O. M, Otieno P. O. "Simulation of the microclimate in poultry structures in Kenya." Research Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology . 2011;3 (7):579-588.
Mutai EBK, O. OP, D.A M, Gitau AN, Mbuge D. "Simulation of the Microclimate in poutry structures in Kenya." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering & Technology. 2011; Vol. 3 (No. 7 ISSN 2040-7459).
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Simulation of watershed peak runoff discharge using the Nash model Submitted to Discovery and Innovation, Journal of the African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

Dean WH, Buchan J, Gichuhi S, Philippin H, Arunga S, Mukome A, Admassu F, Lewis K, Makupa W, Otiti J, Kim MJ, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma versus conventional training alone: the GLAucoma Simulated Surgery (GLASS) trial. A randomised controlled, educational intervention efficacy trial in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe." Br J Ophthalmol. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background/aim: Glaucoma accounts for 8% of global blindness and surgery remains an important treatment. We aimed to determine the impact of adding simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma.

Methods: We designed a randomised controlled, parallel-group trial. Those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. Fifty-one trainee ophthalmologists from six university training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled by inclusion criteria of having performed no surgical trabeculectomies and were randomised. Those randomised to the control group received no placebo intervention, but received the training intervention after the initial 12-month follow-up period. The intervention was an intense simulation-based surgical training course over 1 week. The primary outcome measure was overall simulation surgical competency at 3 months.

Results: Twenty-five were assigned to the intervention group and 26 to the control group, with 2 dropouts from the intervention group. Forty-nine were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Surgical competence at baseline was comparable between the arms. This increased to 30.4 (76.1%) and 9.8 (24.4%) for the intervention and the control group, respectively, 3 months after the training intervention for the intervention group, a difference of 20.6 points (95% CI 18.3 to 22.9, p<0.001). At 1 year, the mean surgical competency score of the intervention arm participants was 28.6 (71.5%), compared with 11.6 (29.0%) for the control (difference 17.0, 95% CI 14.8 to 19.4, p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results support the pursuit of financial, advocacy and research investments to establish simulation surgery training units and courses including instruction, feedback, deliberate practice and reflection with outcome measurement to enable trainee glaucoma surgeons to engage in intense simulation training for glaucoma surgery.

Trial registration number: PACTR201803002159198.

Chandravanshi BS, Yenesew A, Kebed Z. "Simultaneous determination of iron(III) and vanadium(V) with N-phenylcinnamohydroxamic acid and thiocyanate by extraction-spectrophotometry.". 1985. AbstractWebsite

N-Phenylcinnarnohydroxamic acid (PCHA) reacts with iron(III) and vanadium(V) in the presence of thiocyanate to form water-insoluble orange and green complexes, respectively. The iron(III)-PCHA and vanadium(V)-PCHA-thiocyanate complexes can be quantitatively extracted into toluene and other common organic solvents at pH 1.5–2.0. The absorption spectra and composition of both complexes are described. The effects of foreign ions and of experimental variables on the extraction and determination of the two metal ions are studied. A simple, selective method is described for the simultaneous determination of iron(III) and vanadium(V) by extraction-spectrophotometry; absorbances are measured at 440 and 580 nm. Mixtures can be determined over the range 10−4–10−5 M in each metal. The method was applied successfully to the analysis of standard steels for iron and vanadium.

Oyagi MO, Onyatta JO, Kamau GN, Guto PM. "Simultaneous Determination of Trace Lead (II), Cadmium (II) and Cobalt (II) by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using Polyacrylic acid/Glassy Carbon Electrode." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2015;23(2):324-334.
Oyagi MO, Onyatta JO, Kamau GN, Guto PM. "Simultaneous Determination of Trace Lead (II), Cadmium(II) and Cobalt(II) by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using Polyacrylic acid/Glassy Carbon Electrode." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2015;23(2):324-334.
K DRMUSEVEGEORGE. "Simultaneous open Reduction and Salter Innominate Osteotomy for Developmental dysplasia of the Hip.". In: Scientific Conference of the Kenya Surgical Society. Proceedings 6th College on Thin Film Technology; 2005.
Museve GK. "Simultaneous open reduction and salter innominate osteotomy for developmental dysplasia of the hip.". 2007. Abstract

To highlight the presence of this uncommon developmental disorder in our set up and show that simultaneous open reduction and salter innominate osteotomy can restore normal hip development Design: Prospective study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital between 2002 and 2004. Subjects: Children with typical developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) who were 18 months and above were operated on. Methods: Clinical and radiological assessment of the hips was done and skin traction was applied for between two to four weeks until femoral head came down to the level of the acetabulum. Open reduction, iliopsoas and adductor releases, capsulorraphy and salter innominate osteotomy was then done. The graft was held by two smooth Kirschner (k) wires. Unlike Salter, the femoral head was held in the socket by a smooth Kwire. A hip spica was applied for 12 weeks and thereafter the children were allowed to mobilize freely at their own pace. Follow up clinical and radiological assessment was done. Results: Two female children with three congenital dislocations of the hips were operated. They were 18 months and three and a half years old at the time of the initial surgery. At follow up of between nine and 27 months, there was good initial clinical and radiological outcome. The average acetabular index dropped from an average of 41 degrees pre-operatively to an average of 18 degrees post-operatively. Conclusion: This operation redirects the acetabulum without deepening it, achieving good femoral head coverage. Long term follow is intended. Pooling of patients with this uncommon disorder in our environment is advocated to further develop surgical competency. Early competent screening of new born babies could enable early conservative management with good outcome.

N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. ""Sin: Root Cause of Unfreedom" in E. Kamweru (ed) THE VINEYARD, Nairobi: St. Paul, Vol.8, no3 June 2001.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Sincerity" and "The Death of my Father." Poems in Boundless Voices: Poems from Kenya.Ed. Arthur Luvai. Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1988. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Sindani I.S, McLigeyo S.O: Prevention and control of tuberculosis: a review. African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol 4 (1): 15-19, 1997.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol 4 (1): 15-19, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Sindani I.S., Okelo G.B.A., McLigeyo S.O., Coagulation profile in patients with cerebral malaria. African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, Bhullah VB. The role of chlamydia trachomatis in the aetiology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in Nairobi area, Kenya: a preliminary report.East Afr Med J. 1989 Apr;66(4):264-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Apr;66(4):264-8. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1989. Abstract
A preliminary report of 50 cases of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) studied at the Kenyatta National Hospital to find out the role of chlamydia trachomatis in its aetiology is presented. Endocervical swab cultures were done. There were 2/50 (4.0%) cases positive for chlamydia trachomatis. The role of this pathogen in the aetiology of acute PID is discussed.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sinei SK, Fortney JA, Kigondu CS, Feldblum PJ, Kuyoh M, Allen MY, Glover LH. Contraceptive use and HIV infection in Kenyan family planning clinic attenders.Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70. uon press; 1996. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study of contraception and risk of HIV infection in women. We also measured risk factors for and occurrence of HIV infection in the participants. A cohort of 1537 seronegative women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya was enrolled and followed for up to 12 months per woman. HIV testing was done quarterly. A nested case-control analysis was done with seroconverting women (cases) and 3 matched controls per case, who had detailed interviews and received physical examinations and STD tests. The prevalence of HIV at enrollment was 6.1%; seropositive women were excluded from further analysis. The 12-month life-table cumulative incidence of HIV was 2.1 per 100 women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2). In the nested case-control analysis (17 cases and 51 controls), the crude odds ratio of HIV infection comparing oral contraceptive (OC) users with other women was 3.5 (95%) CI 0.8-21.5), which persisted after control for single confounders at a time. The putative association between OC use sand HIV infection is critical to public health policy, yet no study has been conducted specifically to measure it, yielding weak and conflicting evidence. We intend to conduct a larger study with a similar design as the current pilot study, which confirmed the feasibility of a more definitive project.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, Fortney JA, Kigondu CS, Feldblum PJ, Kuyoh M, Allen MY, Glover LH. Contraceptive use and HIV infection in Kenyan family planning clinic attenders.Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study of contraception and risk of HIV infection in women. We also measured risk factors for and occurrence of HIV infection in the participants. A cohort of 1537 seronegative women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya was enrolled and followed for up to 12 months per woman. HIV testing was done quarterly. A nested case-control analysis was done with seroconverting women (cases) and 3 matched controls per case, who had detailed interviews and received physical examinations and STD tests. The prevalence of HIV at enrollment was 6.1%; seropositive women were excluded from further analysis. The 12-month life-table cumulative incidence of HIV was 2.1 per 100 women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2). In the nested case-control analysis (17 cases and 51 controls), the crude odds ratio of HIV infection comparing oral contraceptive (OC) users with other women was 3.5 (95%) CI 0.8-21.5), which persisted after control for single confounders at a time. The putative association between OC use sand HIV infection is critical to public health policy, yet no study has been conducted specifically to measure it, yielding weak and conflicting evidence. We intend to conduct a larger study with a similar design as the current pilot study, which confirmed the feasibility of a more definitive project.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, M'riara G, Schulz KF, Njage PN, Lamptey PR, Bhullar VB, Mati JK, Rosenthal SM. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis in intra-uterine contraceptive acceptors in Kenya. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1988;7(2):71-3.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1988;7(2):71-3. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1988. Abstract
PIP: The 1725 women presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital in 1984-86 for IUD insertion were screened for cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea before the IUD insertion. 207 (12%) cases of chlamydia trachomatis and 61 (3.5%) cases of Neisseria gonorrhoea were detected. There was no association between the ages of the women and the prevalence of these 2 sexually transmitted pathogens; however, there was a significant relationship between the prevalence of N gonorrhoea and marital status. N gonorrhoea was detected in 6.2% of never-married and 5.2% of formerly married women compared with 2.3% of currently married subjects (p0.001). Although there was no significant relationship between parity and the rate of isolation of the 2 pathogens, infection tended to be lower in women with 5 or more children. Educational attainment was significantly associated with N gonorrhoea infection: 5.1% in women who had 0-7 years of schooling compared with 3.0% in those with 8 or more years of education (p0.05). 12 women with C trachomatis infection were also positive for N gonorrhoea. There was no significant relationship between C trachomatis infection and any of the demographic variables examined. Given the finding that the greatest risk of pelvic inflammatory disease occurs in the 1st month of IUD use, it can be speculated that pathogens are inserted into the uterine cavity at the time of IUD insertion. It is therefore recommended that clients–especially the unmarried, the formerly unmarried, and those with low levels of education–be screened and treated for N gonorrhoea and C trachomatis before an IUD is inserted.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Allen M, Kokonya D. Complications of use of intrauterine devices among HIV-1-infected women.Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1238-41.". In: Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1238-41. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: A WHO expert group and the International Planned Parenthood Federation recommend against use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in HIV-1-infected women based on theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. We investigated whether the risk of complications after IUD insertion is higher in HIV-1-infected women than in non-infected women. METHODS: 649 (156 HIV-1 infected 493 non-infected) women in Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria for insertion of an IUD were enrolled. We gathered information on IUD-related complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, removals due to infection, pain, or bleeding, expulsions, and pregnancies at 1 and 4 months after insertion. Patients' HIV-1 status was masked from physicians. FINDINGS: Complications were identified in 48 of 615 women (11 [7.6%] HIV-1-infected women, 37 [7.9%] non-infected). Incident pelvic inflammatory disease (two [1.4%] HIV-1 infected, one [0.2%] non-infected) and infection-related complications (any tenderness, removal of IUD for infection or pain; ten [6.9%] HIV-1 infected, 27 [5.7%] non-infected) were also rare and similar in the two groups. Complication rates were similar by CD4 (immune) status. Multivariate analyses suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risks for overall complications (odds ratio 0.8 [95% CI 0.4-1.7]) or infection-related complications (1.0 [0.5-2.3]), adjusted for marital status, study site, previous IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse, but a slight increase cannot be ruled out. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that IUDs may be a safe contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-1-infected women with continuing access to medical services. PIP: Both the International Planned Parenthood Federation and the World Health Organization have warned against use of IUDs in HIV-infected women due to theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. No published studies have investigated this concern, however. The validity of this recommendation was investigated in a comparative study of 156 HIV-1-infected and 493 non-infected women from two public family planning clinics (Kenyatta National Hospital and Riruta City Clinic) in Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria for IUD insertion. At 1 and 4 months after insertion, information was collected from physicians–blinded as to the patient's HIV status–on IUD-related complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), removals, expulsions, and pregnancies. Complications were identified in 11 (7.6%) HIV-positive and 37 (7.9%) HIV-negative women. There were only 3 incident cases of PID, 2 of which occurred in HIV-infected women. IUD removal due to pain or infection occurred in 10 (6.9%) HIV-infected and 27 (5.7%) noninfected women. There were no differences in overall IUD complications in HIV-1-infected women by CD4 status (severely, moderately, or mildly immunocompromised). After adjustment for marital status, study site, previous IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse, multivariate analysis suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risks for overall IUD-related complications (odds ratio (OR), 0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-1.7) or infection-related complications (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-2.3). These findings suggest that the IUD may be a safe contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-infected women with continuing access to medical services.

K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Sinei SK, Schulz KF, Lamptey PR, Grimes DA, Mati JK, Rosenthal SM, Rosenberg MJ, Riara G, Njage PN, Bhullar VB, et al. Preventing IUCD-related pelvic infection: the efficacy of prophylactic doxycycline at insertion.Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990 May;97(5):412.". In: Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990 May;97(5):412-9. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi Medical School, Kenya. Most of the small increased risk in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) associated with the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) appears to be caused by bacterial contamination of the endometrial cavity at the time of insertion. This randomized clinical trial of 1813 women in Nairobi, Kenya, assessed the effectiveness of 200 mg of doxycycline given orally at the time of insertion in reducing the occurrence of PID. The rate of this infection in the doxycycline-treated group was 31% lower than that in the placebo-treated group (1.3 and 1.9%, respectively; RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.5). The rate of an unplanned IUCD-related visit to the clinic was also 31% lower in the doxycycline-treated group (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91). Although the significance level (P = 0.17) for the reduction is PID does not meet the conventional standard of 0.05, the results may be suggestive of an effect. Moreover, the reduction in IUCD-related visits (P = 0.004) not only represents an important decrease in morbidity but also substantiates the reduction found for PID. Further studies are needed to corroborate these results. Consideration should be given to the prophylactic use of doxycycline at the time of IUCD insertion as an approach to preventing PID and other IUCD-related morbidity. PIP: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate whether the use of prophylactic doxycycline at intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) insertion can reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women. 1813 women in Nairobi, Kenya, were given 200 mg of doxycycline, taken orally at the time of IUCD insertion. Analysis of the data collected show that the rate of PID infection in the doxycycline-treated group was 31% lower than that in the placebo-treated group. The rate of an unplanned IUCD-related visit to the clinic was also 31% lower in the doxycycline-treated group. Although the significance level (P = 0.17) for the reduction in PID does not meet the conventional standard of 0.05, the results may be suggestive of an effect. In addition, the reduction in IUCD-related visits (P = 0.004) not only represents an important decrease in morbidity, but also substantiates the reduction found for PID. To conclude, the prophylactic use of doxycycline at the time of IUCD insertion appears effective, well tolerated, and cost-effective. Further studies are needed to corroborate these results and consideration should be given to the prophylactic use of doxycycline at the time of IUCD insertion as an approach in preventing PID and other IUCD-related morbidity.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Sinei SKA, Mati JKG, Mungai J, Mailu CKM, Mbugua , Mulandi TN Ndavi PM. Prevalence of anaemia of Pregnancy and the role of Malaria in its aetiology in rural Kenya. J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 3:3:119.1984.". In: J. of Ob. Gy. E & Centr Afric. 3(2); 63, 1984. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sinei, S.K., Fortney, J.A., Sekadde-Kigondu, C.B., et al, Contraceptive Use and HIV Infection in Kenya Family Planning Clinics Attendants. International J. of STD and AIDS Vol. 7, 65-70, 1996.". In: International J. of STD and AIDS Vol. 7, 65-70, 1996. uon press; 1996. Abstract
This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study of contraception and risk of HIV infection in women. We also measured risk factors for and occurrence of HIV infection in the participants. A cohort of 1537 seronegative women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya was enrolled and followed for up to 12 months per woman. HIV testing was done quarterly. A nested case-control analysis was done with seroconverting women (cases) and 3 matched controls per case, who had detailed interviews and received physical examinations and STD tests. The prevalence of HIV at enrollment was 6.1%; seropositive women were excluded from further analysis. The 12-month life-table cumulative incidence of HIV was 2.1 per 100 women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2). In the nested case-control analysis (17 cases and 51 controls), the crude odds ratio of HIV infection comparing oral contraceptive (OC) users with other women was 3.5 (95%) CI 0.8-21.5), which persisted after control for single confounders at a time. The putative association between OC use sand HIV infection is critical to public health policy, yet no study has been conducted specifically to measure it, yielding weak and conflicting evidence. We intend to conduct a larger study with a similar design as the current pilot study, which confirmed the feasibility of a more definitive project.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "Singh Surrendra, Mugivane, F.I. 1987. .". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1987.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Singing with the Night, Edited, Nairobi, East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1975. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bowmer I, Fransen L. "Single dose spectinomycin for the treatment of chancroid: a comparison of 2 g versus 4 g.". 1983.
Hampson L, Maranga IO, Masinde MS, Oliver AW, Batman G, He X, Desai M, Okemwa PM, Stringfellow H, Martin-Hirsch P, AM M, P G, IN H. "A Single-Arm, Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Lopimune (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) as a Treatment for HPV-Related Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease." PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0147917.
Tyndall M, Agoki E, Ombette J, Slaney LA, D'Costa LJ, Plummer FA, Plourde PJ, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Single-dose cefixime versus single-dose ceftriaxone in the treatment of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection."; 1992. Abstract

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a significant adverse effect on reproductive and child health worldwide. The control of STDs such as gonorrhea is therefore an absolute priority. Cefixime, an oral third-generation cephalosporin with in vitro activity similar to that of ceftriaxone, may be an effective candidate for the treatment of gonorrhea. The efficacy of a single oral 400-mg dose of cefixime was compared with that of a single intramuscular 250-mg dose of ceftriaxone for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae urethritis in 190 men and cervicitis in 46 women in Nairobi, Kenya. A bacteriologic cure was recorded in 100% of 63 evaluatable patients treated with ceftriaxone and 118 (98%) of 121 evaluatable patients treated with cefixime. Cefixime, as a single oral dose, is an effective alternative for the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women

Yangyuoru PM, Dhakal S, Yu Z, Koirala D, Mwongela SM, Mao H. "Single-molecule measurements of the binding between small molecules and DNA aptamers." Analytical chemistry. 2012;84(12):5298-5303.
Prof. Wamutiso K. "Siniletee Siasa." An Institute of Kiswahili Research Journal. 2006:36.
Bashir AA RRA, Benda JA SRB. "Sinonasal adenocarcinoma: immunohistochemical marking and expression of oncoproteins." Head Neck. 2003 Sep;25(9):763-71.. 2003. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Relatively little is known concerning the immunohistochemical marking of sinonasal
adenocarcinoma (SNA). The most clinically problematic tumors are those that seem
histologically identical to colonic adenocarcinoma, a neoplasm that may metastasize to the
sinonasal region. To determine whether differentiated immunohistochemical expression of
keratins could differentiate primary from metastatic tumors and to understand the biology of
these tumors, differentiated keratin and oncoprotein expression was investigated.
METHODS:
Eleven patients with sinonasal adenocarcinoma were investigated for expression of cytokeratins
7 and 20 (CK7, CK20), AE 1/3, CAM 5.2, smooth muscle-specific actin, muscle-specific actin,
desmin, S-100, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), p53, and HER-2/neu.
RESULTS:
All sinonasal adenocarcinomas of intestinal type were cytokeratin 7 positive. None of the tumors
showed myoepithelial differentiation. Strong HER-2/neu staining was seen in some tumors.
CONCLUSIONS:
Strong HER-2/neu staining in some cases suggests this oncogene may be involved in the genesis
of SNA. Immunohistochemical staining with cytokeratin 7 may be potentially useful in
differentiating primary from metastatic disease in sinonasal adenocarcinomas of the intestinal
subtype.
Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 763-771, 2003

Olali T. "Sintaksia katika Lugha .". 1996.Website
Wamutiso P. "Sira ya majagina wa kifasihi, kidini na kimapisi.". In: Back to the Basics International conference . Chumba cha Mikutano, Swahili Cultural Centre, Mombasa, KENYA ; 2014.
Ogana W, Juma VO, Bulimo WD. "A SIRD model applied to COVID-19 dynamics and intervention strategies during the first wave in Kenya." medRxiv. 2021:2021.03.17.21253626. AbstractWebsite

The first case of COVID-19 was reported in Kenya in March 2020 and soon after non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were established to control the spread of the disease. The NPIs consisted, and continue to consist, of mitigation measures followed by a period of relaxation of some of the measures. In this paper, we use a deterministic mathematical model to analyze the dynamics of the disease, during the first wave, and relate it to the intervention measures. In the process, we develop a new method for estimating the disease parameters. Our solutions yield a basic reproduction number, R0 = 2.76, which is consistent with other solutions. The results further show that the initial mitigation reduced disease transmission by 40% while the subsequent relaxation increased transmission by 25%. We also propose a mathematical model on how interventions of known magnitudes collectively affect disease transmission rates. The modelled positivity rate curve compares well with observations. If interventions of unknown magnitudes have occurred, and data is available on the positivity rate, we use the method of planar envelopes around a curve to deduce the modelled positivity rate and the magnitudes of the interventions. Our solutions deduce mitigation and relaxation effects of 42.5% and 26%, respectively; these percentages are close to values obtained by the solution of the SIRD system. Our methods so far apply to a single wave; there is a need to investigate the possibility of extending them to handle multiple waves.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Clinical TrialNot a clinical trialFunding StatementNo funding supportAuthor DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:KNH-UoN Ethics and Research Committee https://erc.uonbi.ac.keAll necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).YesI have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesData sources: All the data used is in the public domain [1, 44, 56, 57]

RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Siri ya mama" .". In: Mimba ingali Mimba na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2006.
Kyule MD. The Sirikwa Culture: New evidence from Hyrax Hill. , Department of History, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya ed. Njoro; 1992.
Kyule MD. "The Sirikwa economy: Further work at site II on Hyrax Hill." Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa . 1990;32:21-30.
Kyule MD. "The Sirikwa Economy: Further work at site on Hyrax Hill Nakuru." Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa . 1997;32:21-30.
Buxton B, Wasunna AE, Saunders J, Gillespie IE. "Site of the abnormal stimulus of gastric secretion after small bowel exclusion.". 2007. Abstract

In dogs with either vagally innervated or denervated pouches, the acid responses to a standard meal, a meal which bypassed the greater part of the small bowel, and a meal introduced directly into the small intestine were measured before and after exclusion of 75% of the small bowel.After intestinal exclusion an increase in acid secretion was found in the latter part of the acid response to the standard meal and the intestinal meal. No increase in acid secretion resulted from the meals which bypassed the small bowel. These findings suggest that an increase in stimulation from the remaining small intestine is responsible for the elevation in acid secretion following small bowel exclusion.

Dickson B;D, Pearl FB;, Gang G-Y;, Kahinju S;, Wandibba S. "Site reconnaissance in the Kipsing and Tol River watersheds of Central Kenya: Implications for Middle and Later Stone Age land-use patterns .". 2004. AbstractWebsite

Two seasons of archaeological site reconnaissance and geo-archaeological fieldwork in the Kipsing and Tol river valleys of central Kenya have resulted in (1) the location of 58 surface sites and 13 spot finds and (2) the excavation and dating of 11 alluvial stratigraphic profiles. These data are incorporated with our previous work in the study area to yield a preliminary interpretation of Middle and Later Stone Age tool technologies and land-use strategies during the Late Pleistocene period there. Specifically, the nature of the lithic inventories and observed distribution of archaeological sites suggests that people in the Middle Stone Age employed a “patch choice” resource and land-use strategy while those in the subsequent Later Stone Age period utilized a “logistical” strategy

Njiru FM, Siriba DN. "Site Selection for an Earth Dam in Mbeere North, Embu County—Kenya." Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2018;6(7):113-133.
Zaja OJ. "Siting text, culture, context and pedagogy in literary translation: a theorization of translation in cultural transfer with examples from selected texts in Kiswahili .". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The study of literary translation in Kiswahili has over a long period of time tended to gravitate towards systematic comparisons based on minimalist classical linguistic formalism. This is a scholarly fact that is attested to by a copious presence of academic dissertations, seminar papers as well as critical essays that have engaged literary translation in various ways and from several perspectives. However, most such studies are characterized by normative generalizations and a lack of clear theoretical rigor, which means that scholars have hardly asked; "in what ways has translation been used as a way of figuring out the relations between cultures, particularly in terms of its encounter with changed contexts, cultures, temporality and the pedagogy engendered in such changed circumstances?" This study has sought to move out of such restrictive stances so as to embrace and foreground what may be considered the muted reality of literary translation, a recognition that besides being essentially linguistic, literary translation is also an engagement that explores culture interaction, about which theorists and practitioners cannot afford to offer explications that are self-effacing. It argues that there is a prudent need to view literary translation as process of mediation between cultures, a means of perceiving words both in their abstract senses and in contexts of use, of treating linguistic forms and textual meanings as cues to the perception of cultural nuances, always amenable to inversions, revisions and reshuffling in the contexts of target cultures. In its broadest sense, this study is a critical theoretical rethinking of literary translation that points out the critical and crucial lapses and inadequacies that have characterized its research in Kiswahili. It points out the critical labyrinth in which such research has been entrapped as well as the puerile generalizations that have been generally emblematic of the studies overall. It outlines and critiques the theoretical lacunae that have punctuated literary translation studies in which it argues that such omissions have been nurtured by the use of single variable theories largely based on the minimalist theories of linguistics and language. It is also an engagement and interrogation of such theories which at the same time proposes a composite theoretical paradigm founded on culture, context, temporality and pedagogy and the interplay between them in informing both the theorizing and explications of literary translation. Instead of making arguments in favour of the fidelity of translation to the anterior text, it has argues in favour of the 'relevance' of any given translation to its specific time and domestic audience, to its environment and historical space. This is an emergent paradigm that is informed by contemporary theoretical advances in text linguistics, reader responses theories, text interaction and meaning retrieval, deconstructionism and postcolonialism. The overriding argument and, therefore, the thrust of this study, is that there is an urgent need for theoretical reorientation in which literary translation theorists and practitioners increasingly understand literary translation as cultural interaction, conceptualize it not merely as a form of linguistic exchange but also a process of interlingual exchange that participates in both text production and discursive formations.

of Nairobi KD; SAPI(SAPI) U&. Situating Rural Communities in Nairobi Metropolitan Region.; 2011.
Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Situation Analysis and Technology Value Proposition for Geriatric Care for Philanthropic Social Homes in Kenya.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The growth of the graying population all over the world is showing a great need of incorporating ICT to ensure healthy living. Geriatric persons in philanthropic social homes (PSH) in developing countries are not favored in terms of infrastructure, housing, caregiving as well as privacy since they are in a controlled communal environment. These philanthropic homes, commonly known as `Nyumba za Wazee' in Kenya are slowly gaining reputation as more of the elderly are ostracized because of inheritance or even abandonment. The aim of this paper is to bring fourth the status quo of the geriatric persons living in PSH, the challenges they face, which have tremendous ramifications that leads to strong incentives to usage of low cost technology to alleviate the lives of the elderly towards healthy living in their higher ages. The researchers, through the social department and Board of management of these social homes, carried a research for a period of 3 months in two PSHs, in Nairobi County and Kiambu County. Interviews and storytelling were the two data collection techniques used. The findings from these two PSHs, categorized the challenges as; physical, and psychological challenges. This research argues that low affordable technology solutions will curb these challenges to ensure adequate care and provide decent standards of living for the elderly in PSH.

Ikamari LDE. A situation Analysis of the Health Facilities in Teso District’. Rockefeller Foundation; 2001.
Kimalu PK, Nafula NN, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Kimenyi MS. "A Situational Anal ysis of Poverty in Kenya” Working Paper No. 6." KIPPRA, Nairobi Kenya. 2002.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Situational Analysis of Canine Infertility in Nairobi and its Environs. Departmental Seminar 2008.". In: Departmental Seminar . Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
L O. Situational Analysis of Children in 10 Districts in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya Alliance for the Advancement of Children (KAACR); 2003.
Orina PS, Maina JG, Wangia SM, Karuri EG, Mbuthia PG, Omolo B, Owiti GO, Musa S, Munguti JM. "Situational analysis of Nile tilapia and African catfish hatcheries management: a case study of Kisii and Kirinyaga counties in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(5).situational_analysis_of_nile_tilapia_and_african_c1.pdf
Orina. P. S, Maina. J. G WSM, Karuri.E.G, Mbuthia.P.G OB, Owiti. G. O, Musa. S MJM. "Situational analysis of Nile tilapia and African catfish hatcheries management: a case study of Kisii and Kirinyaga counties in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2014;Volume 26(Article 87).
Kimalu, PK; Nafula NN; MDK; MKMSG;. "A Situational Analysis of Poverty in Kenya."; 2002.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE. "A situational analysis on heart disease in urban and rural Kenya.". In: European Journal of Anatomy. Health Africa.info; 2007.
Rutunga V;, Karanja NK;, Gachene CKK. "Six month-duration Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray planted-fallows for improving maize production in Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

An experiment including planted Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia fallow species and natural fallow was conducted at Maseno, Kenya, for assessing whether these fallows grown on a nutrient depleted land could produce sufficient green manure in six month period, whether their biomass retained on the same plots or transferred to continuously cropped plots with or without added P fertiliser could increase yield of consecutive maize crops and whether it is useful to regularly repeat these fallows on same plots. First fallow was established in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. At harvesting, biomass was recorded, then either incorporated in situ or transferred to continuous cropped plots split with and without added P fertiliser and monitored for the effect in improving consecutive maize crops. The second fallow was managed on this split plot design. The two-planted shrubs fallows produced more than 9 Mg total dry biomass and accumulated 154 to 234 kg N.ha-1, which were significantly higher compared to the production in the natural fallow. The shrubs were also superior to natural fallow for P accumulation (5-22 kg versus 2 kg.ha-1). The aboveground dry biomass harvested from planted T. vogelii and T. diversifolia and either incorporated in situ or transferred into continuously cropped plots increased maize yields by 2.5 folds compared to the unmanured crop, the control. Supplementing the organic materials with an additional 20 kg P inorganic fertilizer increased the 1st maize yield by about 40%. Productivity in the plots with T. vogelii or T. diversifolia aboveground biomass removal was low for the subsequent fallow and maize crops when compared to the performance in plots where biomass was incorporated. To achieve sustained yields of maize in depleted soils requires regular improved fallowing at least one season alternating with one season maize, and additional P inputs

"Six Ts for Effective and Efficient Early Grade Literacy Instruction.". In: Developing Languages in Africa: Social and Educational Perspectives. London: Cambridge University Press; In Press.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Six Ts for effective and efficient early grade literacy instruction. (Book Chapter) In Ross Graham (Eds.). Developing languages in Africa: Social and educational perspectives.". In: Developing languages in Africa: social and educational perspectives. London: Cambridge University Press; In Press.
Alila PO;, Suda C;, Yambo MO;, Adhiambo-Oduol J;, Ligunya A;, Hopkins M. "Sixth Country Programme Evaluation Report. Nairobi: Government of Kenya and UNDP .". 2005.Website
Alila PO;, Suda C;, Yambo MO;, Adhiambo-Oduol J;, Ligunya A;, Hopkins M. "Sixth Country Programme Evaluation Report. Nairobi: Government of Kenya and UNDP .". 2005.Website
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Size and Composition Studies of Core-Shell Latexes Using Flow and Thermal Field-Flow Fractionation.". In: Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects., 105, 243-250,. AWC and FES; 1995. Abstract
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DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI, DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Size and shape of ocean margin nematodes: morphological diversity and depth-related patterns.". In: Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 242: 179-193. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 2002.
Kim S, Williams R, Cinque L, Shiundu PM. Size Determination of Nanoparticles Used in Coatings.; 2009. AbstractSize Determination of Nanoparticles Used in Coatings

This chapter begins with a description of some commonly used particle sizing techniques, their applicability to nanoparticles, and their advantages and disadvantages. A special emphasis is given to fractionation techniques and their ability to simultaneously characterize nanoparticles and isolate monodispersed fractions from polydispersed samples. The latter part of this chapter provides an in-depth discussion of sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) size analysis of nanoparticles used in coatings

Magadi M, Agwanda ALO, Obare F. "Size of newborn and Caesarean section deliveries among teenagers in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from DHS"." Journal of Biosocial Science . 2007;39(2):175-187.
Ndumu D;, Wurzinger M;, Baumung R;, Drucker A;, Mwai O;A, Solkner J. "Size versus beauty: Farmers' choices in ranking experiment with African Ankole long-horned cattle."; 2005.
Pape E, Muthumbi A, Kamanu CP, Vanreusel A. "Size-dependent distribution and feeding habits of Terebralia palustris in mangrove habitats of Gazi Bay, Kenya. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science,. 2008;76(4):797-808.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "SKADHAUGE, E. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1978) The intestine and osmoregulation. In: Osmotic and Volume Regulation. Alfred Benzon Symposium XI. (Eds.) C. Baker Jorgensen and E. Skadhauge, Munksgaard, pp. 325-343.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "SKADHAUGE, E., CLEMENS, E.T. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1980) The ffects of dehydration on electrolyte concentrations and water content along the large intestine of a small ruminant: the dik-dik antelope.Journal of Comparative Physiology 135, 165-175.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "SKADHAUGE, E., LECHENE, C.P. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1980) Tilapia grahami: role of intestines in osmoregulation under conditions of extreme alkalinity. In: Epithelial Transport in Lower Vertebrates, ed. LAHLOU, B., Cambridge University Press, pp. 133-142.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.

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