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Abonyo E. "SETTLEMENT INTEGRATION AN INNOVATIVE ROLE FOR PROFESSIONALS.". In: A world social forum. Nairobi; 2007.
Subbo WK. "Settlement Schemes as Centres of Socio-Economic Change: The Case of Nyansiongo Scheme Nyamira District, Nyanza Province, Kenya .". 1990. AbstractWebsite

Field work for this study was conducted between the months of November 1989 and February 1990. Its purpose was to establish the direction and magnitude of change that had occurred among the resettled farmers, socially and economically.To achieve that goal, it became necessary to document and analyze the socio-economic changes among the settlers in the scheme. The demonstration model was the theoretical orientation that was used to guide and inform this study. It presupposes that for any meaningful changes to be effected, government change agents such as veterinary and agricultural extension workers should have dialogue with the farmers. It is indicated that the demonstration model is viable for planned social change. The methodology that was used to collect data in this study was documentary library search, focus group discussion, interviews and participant observation methods. The respondents were randomly selected using systematic random sampling, in which every 5th household head was interviewed. The household was the unit of analysis.The findings indicate that, on the overall, Abagusii farmers in Nyansiongo settlement have undergone significant socioeconomic transformations. They enjoy a higher standard of living than they did in the pre-settlement area. They now have bigger pieces of land that they utilize in the production of more food and cash crops. Most of them derive adequate income from their farming activities which they invest in both farming and non-farming ventures. It was also established that, socially, there settlers have to a large extent adapted to the new environment by leading lifestyles that tend to be urban oriented, characterized by investing in the environment, being more individualistic and self-reliant. In brief, they have taken farming as a commercial activity.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Seventy years of the East African Medical Journal towards safe motherhood. East Afr Med J.1993.". In: East Afr Med J.1993. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
Obstetrical and gynaecological articles related to safe motherhood published in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 were reviewed. A total of 133 topics were published. Out of these, 84 (63.2%) were obstetrical and 49 (36.8%) gynaecological. Out of the obstetrical topics, 66 were pregnancy related, 12 were public health and the rest medical topics. A rapid increase in the number of the relevant topics is seen especially after 1970. This is probably due to the increase in the number of of obstetricians training locally in the African region and the international nature of the Journal during the last two decades. PIP: A review of all published articles in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 was presented. All articles pertaining to obstetrical and gynecological topics related to maternal care were reviewed. The aim was to identify the role the journal has played in distributing information about safe motherhood research. This journal is one of the oldest to present information originating in Africa and recently has gained international recognition. Articles that were studies conducted in other parts of the world are now published. The number of topics devoted to obstetrics and safe motherhood has increased during the past 20 years. Publication by researchers in this journal has contributed to specialists advancement within universities and medical areas. The first maternal-related article was published in 1024 and was devoted to performance of a cesarean section on a woman in Mombasa, an article of particular importance for African countries with high maternal mortality and morbidity from child birth. There have been a total of 133 articles on motherhood since 1924, of which 84 were on obstetrics and 49 on gynecology. World War II probably affected the decline in articles during the period 1940-49. There was a rapid increase in motherhood articles between 1950 and 1989, which also corresponded to an increase in trained obstetricians and gynecologists. Prior to 1970, most specialists were trained outside of Africa and did not publish in this journal. By subject area, there were 12 topics on public health related issues, 43 on prenatal care, 19 on delivery, 4 on postpartum care, and 6 on medically related issues such as infections, diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, hypertension, and heart disease.
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, F.G MACIGO. "Severe Cranio-Maxillofacial injuries caused by wild animals in Kenya (case series)." African Journal of OralHealth Sciences (2016). 2016;vol. 2 (3):11-14.
Waldhäusl W, Kleinberger G, Korn A, Dudczak R, Bratusch-Marrain P, Nowotny P. "Severe hyperglycemia: effects of rehydration on endocrine derangements and blood glucose concentration." Diabetes. 1979;28:577-584. Abstract
n/a
MCLIGEYO SO, KAYIMA JK, Were AJO. "Severe malaria in a renal transplant patient.". 1995.
McCauley M, Gunawardane M, Cowan MJ. "Severe metabolic alkalosis due to pyloric obstruction: case presentation, evaluation, and management." The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 2006;332:346-350. Abstract

A 46-year-old man presented to the emergency room with severe metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. The cause of his acid-base disorder was initially unclear. Although alkalosis is common in the intensive care unit, metabolic alkalosis of this severity is unusual, carries a very high mortality rate, and requires careful attention to the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis to effectively evaluate and treat the patient. A central concept in the diagnosis of metabolic alkalosis is distinguishing chloride responsive and chloride nonresponsive states. Further studies are then guided by the history and physical examination in most cases. By using a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis, we were able to determine that a high-grade gastric outlet obstruction was the cause of the patients' alkalosis and to offer effective therapy for his condition. A literature review and algorithm for the diagnosis and management of metabolic alkalosis are also presented.

Jung B, Rimmele T, Goff CL, Chanques G, Corne P, Jonquet O, Muller L, Lefrant J-Y, Guervilly C, Papazian L, Allaouchiche B, Jaber S, firstName \$author.lastName \$author. "Severe metabolic or mixed acidemia on intensive care unit admission: incidence, prognosis and administration of buffer therapy. a prospective, multiple-center study." Critical Care. 2011;15:R238. AbstractWebsite

In this study, we sought describe the incidence and outcomes of severe metabolic or mixed acidemia in critically ill patients as well as the use of sodium bicarbonate therapy to treat these illnesses. PMID: 21995879

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Severe necrotizing infection of the perineum: Beyond necrosectomy. Abdihakin M, Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg., 2010; 5: 39-43.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Severe necttrotising infection of the perineum: Beyond Necrosectomy.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:39-43. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31
Macharia WM, Njeru EK, Muli- Musiime F, Nantulya V. "Severe road traffic injuries in Kenya, quality of care and access.". 2009. Abstract

Road traffic Injury (RTI) is a rapidly growing, yet preventable, public health problem worldwide (1-1) that is projected to become the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality by the year 2020~. Road crashes have enormous impact on national economies and represent a major human tragedy. In 1985 alone, motor vehicle crashes cost United States more than 75 billion US dollarsQ. It has been estimated that there are over 1.18 million road traffic injury related deaths amrually world wide, with 74% occurring in developing countries 1,1. The young and socio-economically disadvantaged tend to experience disproportionately higher RTI fatality rates.8,.2. In East Africa, road traffic crashes are among the top causes of death from ~uries. Fatality from RTI in Kenya is estimated to have increased by 578% between 1962 and 1992, rising from 7.3 to 8.6 per 100,000 population Most of the road traffic crashes occurred on major rural roads and were associated with higher case fatality rate than those occurring in urban areas 10,11. Reports of fatal crashes on roads in Kenya have continued to feature prominently in the local dailies and electronic media in the form of news flashes and editorials. Despite the public health importance of RTI, there is little, if any, published infurmation on how RTI casualties are handled at the crash scenes, evacuated to health facilities or received and managed at the facilities. This survey was motivated by the need to map out the magnitude of road traffic ~uries in Kenya in order to provide baseline data to policy makers and other stakeholders who may wish to undertake interventions to improve road safety in the country. The aim of this study was therefore, to determine access and quality of health care fur road traffic ~ury (RTI) casualties in Kenya. We also undertook to :find out the extent to which health care facilities in Kenya were prepared to manage RTI emergencies. Since the time when this study was conducted, there have not been any targeted efforts to address this concern in the country. While availability of medical supplies may have some how improved as an indirect result of rising economic growth realized over the last few years, access to care and quality of services are unlikely to have changed much.

K'Obonyo PO. "Severity of consequences for the leader and subordinates work history as determinants of leader attribution .". 1986. AbstractWebsite

The effects of the level of seriousness of consequences of a subordinates performance and the nature of a subordinate's work history on leader attribution and response were investigated in a 2 x 3 factorial design with a sample of 46 male and 38 female junior and middle-level managers. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions. Two variables, "consequences" of subordinate's performance and subordinate's "work history" were manipulated in a laboratory setting. As expected, (1) the level of internal attribution and response directed at the subordinate increased with the increase in the seriousness of consequences; (2) Internal attribution and the level of response directed at the subordinate were greater in the "poor work history" situation than in the "good work history" situation. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no significant difference between the two levels of serious consequences, i.e., "serious" and "serious with consequences" for the manager.

S OB, A O’o J. "SEX DIFFERENCES IN DIAMETER OF THE CORONARY SINUS OSTIUM: CORRELATION WITH WEIGHT OF THE HEART." Anatomy Journal of Africa.. 2017;6(1):862-866. Abstractsex_differences_in_diameter_of_the_coronary_sinus.pdfWebsite

Diameter of the coronary sinus ostium is important in the designing of cannulation devices used in cardiac
resynchronization therapy and percutaneous mitral valve annuloplasty. Population variation of the
diameter may account for the failure rate of these procedures. Studies of the coronary sinus ostium from
African populations are scarce and altogether absent for Kenya. Therefore, this study aimed at
determining sex differences in the diameter of coronary sinus ostium and its correlation with the weight
of the heart. Seventy-four hearts of adult black Kenyans [43 male, 31 females; age range 20 – 70 years]
obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were
weighed. The coronary sinus ostium was identified and its transverse and supero-inferior diameters
measured in millimeters. The measurements were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Sex comparison was
established using student’s t test. Association between diameter and heart weight was established using
Pearson’s correlation test and considered significant at a p-value of ≤0.05. Data were presented using
scatter plots. Transverse and supero-inferior diameters of the ostium were 11.04±1.88mm and
9.50±1.80mm respectively. The mean diameter was 10.27 mm. These correlated positively with weight
of the heart. When corrected for weight of the hearts, the transverse and supero-inferior diameters were
larger in females (0.042 and 0.036 respectively) than in males (0.034 and 0.03 respectively). The
diameter of coronary sinus ostium is larger in females and shows positive correlation with weight of the
heart. These data should be considered during design and use of cardiac devices introduced through
the coronary sinus.

Ogeng’o JA, Muthoka JM, Hassanali J, Malek AA, Mandela P. "Sex differences in histomorphology of the human carotid body." MOJ Anat & Physiol.. 2018;5(2):74-78. Abstractsex_differences_in_histomorphology_of_the_human_carotid_body.pdfmedcrave

Knowledge of sex differences in the histomorphology of the carotid body is important in understanding observed differences in respiratory function and disorders. There are few studies on sex differences in the carotid body. This study therefore aimed at describing these differences in the histomorphology features of the human carotid body.
Thirty six random carotid bodies from cardiovascular disease free individuals (20 male, 16 female) obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi were studied. Specimens obtained within 48 hours of death were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and processed routinely for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick serial sections were stained with H&E, Mason’s trichrome and examined with light microscope. Stereology was done to determine area occupied by parenchyma, stroma and vasculature. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. The student’s t test was used to compare sex differences. The data are represented using tables and macrographs.
The human carotid body is highly cellular with two varieties of cells namely; chief and sustentacular. It is heavily vascularised and densely innervated. Females showed higher concentration of chief cells, more profuse vascularization and denser innervation when compared with their aged matched male counterparts. The aging changes characterized by fibrosis, cellular degeneration vascular and neural attenuation are less severe in females.
Sex histomorphological differences in the human carotid body characterized by higher population of chief cells, density of vascularity, innervation and blunted age related morphological attenuation underpin differences in its function and disease.
Keywords: gender differences, carotid body, cells, vascularization

Butt F, Mandela P, Munguti J. "Sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices for a black Kenyan population.". 2013. Abstract

Craniometric parameters including cranial and orbital indices have been employed to determine the sex of a person in forensic medicine. These parameters are usually population specific. However, they have not been documented for a black Kenyan population. This study aimed at calculating the sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices. The cranial vault height, glabellomaximal length and orbital height and length were measured from 150 crania (80 male and 70 female) using a sliding vernier caliper. Cranial and orbital indices were calculated and the results were analyzed. The cranial index was 71.04 for the male and 72.37 for the female (P=0.095). The orbital index was 82.57 and 83.48 for the male and female, respectively (P=0.472). From these results, although the cranial and orbital indices are within range of previously reported values for an African population, they cannot be used independently in sexing of black Kenyan crania

Jeremiah M, Pamela M, Fawzia B. "Sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices for a black Kenyan population." International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences . 2013;5(2):81-84 . AbstractIJMMS

Craniometric parameters including cranial and orbital indices have been employed to determine the sex of a person in forensic medicine. These parameters are usually population specific. However, they have not been documented for a black Kenyan population. This study aimed at calculating the sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices. The cranial vault height, glabellomaximal length and orbital height and length were measured from 150 crania (80 male and 70 female) using a sliding vernier caliper. Cranial and orbital indices were calculated and the results were analyzed. The cranial index was 71.04 for the male and 72.37 for the female (P=0.095). The orbital index was 82.57 and 83.48 for the male and female, respectively (P=0.472). From these results, although the cranial and orbital indices are within range of previously reported values for an African population, they cannot be used independently in sexing of black Kenyan crania.

E.N. PN. "Sex preparation and diaphragm acceptability in sex work in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Sex preparation and diaphragm acceptability in sex work in
Nairobi, Kenya

Anjali Sharma A , B r H , J I Elizabeth Bukusi A , B , C I Samuel Posner 0 I Doug/as Feldman E ,
Elizabeth Ngugi F and Craig R. Cohen G

A Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute,. Kenyatta National Hospital,
PO Box 19464-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. ,
B Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE
Pacific St, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
c Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, PO
Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya.
o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
E Department of Anthropology, State University of New York College, 350 New Campus Drive,
Brockport, NY 14420, USA.
F Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, PO
Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya.
G Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, Reproductive Sciences, University of California, 50 Beale
St, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA.
H Present address: Suite 311, 3rd Floor, Theodak Plaza, National Hospital Road, Off Constitution
Ave, Central Business District, P.M.B. 69, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.
I Corresponding author. Email: aSharma@csrtkenya.orgoranjali_sharma@hotmail.com

Abstract

Background: Women in sex work stand to benefit if the contraceptive diaphragm alone or
combined with a microbicide proves to be an effective barrier method against HIV and sexually
transmissible infection CSTI). Currently, contraceptive diaphragm users are advised to leave the
diaphragm in situ without concomitant use of other intravaginal substances for at least 6 h after
intercourse. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews on sexual behaviour including post-coital
intravaginal practices with 36 women in sex work and 26 of their clients and held two focus-group
discussions, each with 10 women. Results: The women described a.gapting several potentially
harmful substances, such as cloth and soapy water, for post-coital vaginal use to ensure personal
hygiene, disease prevention and client pleasure. Some wanted to clean themselves and remove
the diaphragm early, fearing exposure to HIV infection for themselves and their subsequent
clients. Clients indicated their desire for 'dry sex', vaginal cleanliness and reduced risk of infection
through vaginal cleaning. Conclusions: The diaphragm as a female-controlled barrier method for
HIVjSTI prevention may have limited acceptability among women in sex work if its effectiveness - ,
depends on a 6-h post-coital wait before removal, along with avoidance of concomitant use of
intravaginal substances. In keeping with the beliefs of the the female sex workers and their needs
and practices, alternative intravaginal substances and modes of insertion that will not disrupt
vaginal flora, injure vaginal epithelium, damage the diaphragm or counteract potentially beneficial
effects of microbicides are needed. The possibility of removing the diaphragm sooner than the
recommended 6 h for contraception should be further studied.

Sexual Health 3(4) 261-268

Submitted: 23 March 2006 Accepted: 6 August 2006 Published: 17 November 2006

Full text 001: lO.1071/SH06021

@ (SIRO 2006

hrtp:/!www.publish.csiro.aulindex.cfm?paper=SH06021 11127/2007

Mandela P, Gatonga P, Saidi H, Odula PO. "Sex variation in occurrence of myocardium in Human mitral valve Cusps." Int. J. Morphol. . 2009;27(4):1217-1222. AbstractWebsite

SUMMARY: Mitral valve cusps consist mainly of connective tissue and myocardium. Connective tissue fibres within the cusps have been demonstrated to exhibit sex variations in organisation. Mitral prolapse, a disease attributed to defects within the cusps occurs more commonly in females. Sex variations in valvular myocardium however remain to be studied. Possible variations in its organisation may enhance understanding of sex differences in prevalence of mitral prolapse. The aim of this study was to determine anatomical variations of mitral valvular myocardium by sex; by mean a comparative cross-sectional study. A total of 48 (27 male and 21 female) adult heart specimens obtained during autopsy at Nairobi City and Chiromo mortuaries after ethical approval were used. Valvular cusps were then harvested. Four – millimetre sections were made at the area of maximum width for both anterior and posterior cusps. These were processed for paraffin-embedding and sectioning and stained with Masson’s trichrome and Weigert’s resorcin fuchsin with Van Gieson counterstain to demonstrate cardiac muscle, collagen and elastic fibres. Both anterior and posterior cusps demonstrated three histological laminae, that is, atrialis, fibrosa and ventricularis. Only lamina atrialis contained cardiac muscle. This lamina in males was characterised by a transversely oriented subendothelial myocardial strip while that in females contained compact longitudinal elastic fibres but no muscle. The presence of cardiac muscle in the lamina atrialis may be relatively rotective against mitral valve prolapse in males compared to females.

KEY WORDS: Mitral valve; Cusp; Structure; Variation; Sex.

OCHIENG' DRODULAPAUL. "Sex variation in occurrence of myocardium in human mitral valve cusps.". In: Int. J. Morphol., 27(4): 1217-1222. Gatonga P, Odula P, Saidi H.S and P. Mandela.; 2009.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Sex variation in occurrence of myocardium in the human mitral valve cusps. Gatonga P., Odula P.O., Saidi H., Mandela P. Int. J. Morph. 2009; 27(4): 1217-1222.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Ndung'u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli.". 2012. Abstract

Atrioventricular annuli are important in haemodynamic flexibility, competence, and support for tricuspid and mitral valves. The anatomical features of the annuli, such as circumference, organisation of connective tissue fibres, myocardium, and cellularity, may predispose to annular insufficiency and valvular incompetence. These pathologies occur more commonly in females, although the anatomical basis for this disparity is unclear. Sex variation in the structure of the annuli is important in providing a morphological basis for the patterns of these diseases. This study therefore aimed to determine the sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli. One hundred and one hearts (48 males, 53 females) obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi were studied. Annular circumferences were measured using a flexible ruler and corrected for heart weight. Results were analysed using SPSS version 17.0 and sex differences determined using student's t-test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. For light microscopy, specimens were harvested within 48 hours post-mortem, processed, sectioned, and stained with Masson's trichrome and Weigert's elastic stain with van Gieson counterstaining. Females had significantly larger annular circumferences than males after correcting for heart weight (p ≤ 0.05). Histologically, myocardium was consistently present in all male annuli while this was absent in females except in one specimen. The annuli were more elastic and cellular in males especially in the annulo-myocardial and annulo-valvular zones, respectively. The corrected larger annular circumference in females may limit heart valve coaptation during cardiac cycle and may be a risk factor for valvular insufficiency. The predominance of myocardium, annular cellularity, and elasticity may be more protective against heart valve incompetence in males than in females

El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Ndung'u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli.". 2012. Abstract

Atrioventricular annuli are important in haemodynamic flexibility, competence, and support for tricuspid and mitral valves. The anatomical features of the annuli, such as circumference, organisation of connective tissue fibres, myocardium, and cellularity, may predispose to annular insufficiency and valvular incompetence. These pathologies occur more commonly in females, although the anatomical basis for this disparity is unclear. Sex variation in the structure of the annuli is important in providing a morphological basis for the patterns of these diseases. This study therefore aimed to determine the sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli. One hundred and one hearts (48 males, 53 females) obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi were studied. Annular circumferences were measured using a flexible ruler and corrected for heart weight. Results were analysed using SPSS version 17.0 and sex differences determined using student's t-test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. For light microscopy, specimens were harvested within 48 hours post-mortem, processed, sectioned, and stained with Masson's trichrome and Weigert's elastic stain with van Gieson counterstaining. Females had significantly larger annular circumferences than males after correcting for heart weight (p ≤ 0.05). Histologically, myocardium was consistently present in all male annuli while this was absent in females except in one specimen. The annuli were more elastic and cellular in males especially in the annulo-myocardial and annulo-valvular zones, respectively. The corrected larger annular circumference in females may limit heart valve coaptation during cardiac cycle and may be a risk factor for valvular insufficiency. The predominance of myocardium, annular cellularity, and elasticity may be more protective against heart valve incompetence in males than in females

El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, OGENGO J, Ndung’u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Folia Morphol (Warsz).. 2012;71(1):23-7.
El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Ndung'u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):23-7. Abstract

Atrioventricular annuli are important in haemodynamic flexibility, competence, and support for tricuspid and mitral valves. The anatomical features of the annuli, such as circumference, organisation of connective tissue fibres, myocardium, and cellularity, may predispose to annular insufficiency and valvular incompetence. These pathologies occur more commonly in females, although the anatomical basis for this disparity is unclear. Sex variation in the structure of the annuli is important in providing a morphological basis for the patterns of these diseases. This study therefore aimed to determine the sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli. One hundred and one hearts (48 males, 53 females) obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi were studied. Annular circumferences were measured using a flexible ruler and corrected for heart weight. Results were analysed using SPSS version 17.0 and sex differences determined using student's t-test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. For light microscopy, specimens were harvested within 48 hours post-mortem, processed, sectioned, and stained with Masson's trichrome and Weigert's elastic stain with van Gieson counterstaining. Females had significantly larger annular circumferences than males after correcting for heart weight (p ≤ 0.05). Histologically, myocardium was consistently present in all male annuli while this was absent in females except in one specimen. The annuli were more elastic and cellular in males especially in the annulo-myocardial and annulo-valvular zones, respectively. The corrected larger annular circumference in females may limit heart valve coaptation during cardiac cycle and may be a risk factor for valvular insufficiency. The predominance of myocardium, annular cellularity, and elasticity may be more protective against heart valve incompetence in males than in females.

Ndung.u BM, El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng.o J. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Folia Morphol., 2012. 2012;Vol. 71(No. 1 ).2012_journal.pdfsex_variation_in_human_av_annuli.pdf
Okoth S. "Sex-Related Differences in Hematological Parameters and Organosomatic Indices of Oreochromis niloticus Exposed to Aflatoxin B1 Diet." Scientifica. 2017:1-7. Abstract4268926.pdfWebsite

A 24-week feeding experiment was conducted to assess whether males and females of Oreochromis niloticus exhibit differences in
their hematological responses and organosomatic indices to dietary AFB1 contamination. Triplicate groups of O. niloticus (initial
body weight: 24.1 ± 0.6 g) were fed with four diets (Diets 1 to 4) containing 0, 20, 200, and 2,000

Prof. Wamutiso K. "Sexism in Forbidden Language: The case of Kiswahili and English." Journal of Oriental and African Studies . 2014;23:353-379.
OWANO MRSOCHIENOLYNN. "Sexist Language and Girls Choice of subjects.". In: conference of house maids and bar maids. oxford press; 1993. Abstract

matina ma nguku

W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Sexual abuse of children as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):350-4. Nduati RW, Muita JW.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):350-4. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

Kuria MW. "Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Chapter 11.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Mrumbi K, editor Ndetei, D.M., Szabo CP. "Sexual and other types of Child Abuse."; 2006.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Sexual and Partner violence at a Womens’ hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Saidi H., Awori K., Odula P. East Afr. Med. J. 2008; 85: 347-54.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

Odhiambo T. "Sexual Anxieties and Rampant Masculinities in Postcolonial Kenyan Literature." Social Identities. 2007;13(5):651-663.
Tyndall MW, Agoki E, Malisa W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR, Plummer FA. "Sexual behavior and perceived risk of AIDS among men in Kenya attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases.". 1994. Abstract

The sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues at an alarming rate in sub-Saharan Africa despite the fact that awareness of AIDS is high. One explanation for this alarming rate may be that individuals do not believe that they are personally at risk for AIDS and are not sufficiently motivated to make changes in their behavior. We conducted a cross-sectional study of men with genital ulcer disease to assess their sexual behavior and their perceived risk of AIDS. We studied 787 men between the ages of 17 and 54 years who presented to a referral clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Of these 787 men, 188 (24%) were infected with HIV-1. Awareness of AIDS was essentially universal in this population; however, only 64 men (8%) thought that they were personally at risk of developing AIDS. A logistic regression analysis found that men who believed they were personally at risk knew someone with AIDS (odds ratio [OR], 8.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0-19.7), received information about AIDS from television or video (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.5), or had previously had an STD (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1). Except for a modest increase in condom use, there was no significant difference in sexual behavior between the group who considered themselves to be at risk for AIDS and the group who did not consider themselves to be at risk. The results of this study challenge the current strategies on HIV/AIDS education and prevention for urban men in Kenya.

Nyamongo IK. "Sexual behavior: A comparative study of secondary school adolescents from rural and urban Kenya.". In: Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives, Ocholla-Ayayo, A. B. C., Nyamongo, I. K., Ikamari, L. and Ateng’ T. Nairobi: Impress Communications; 2001.
Nyamongo IK. "Sexual behavior: A comparative study of secondary school adolescents from rural and urban Kenya.". In: In Population, Health and Development in Africa: Athropological Perspectives, Ocholla-Ayayo, A.B.C., Nyamongo, I.K., Ikamari, L. and Ateng' T. (Eds.). Pp. 119-126. Nairobi: Impress Communications. Wiley Interscience; 2001. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

E.N. PN. "Sexual behaviour in Kenya implications for sexually transmitted disease transmission and control.". 1994. Abstract

Sexually transmitted diseases have long been recognized as a major public health problem in Kenya. They are among the most common presenting complaints W ,Z!iji of adults at outpatient health facilities, ,Xid: representing 5% to 10% of the caseload at many clinics.' Gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, chlamydial infection, genital herpes infection, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are the t, ;; most important sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. The overall prevalence of these infections in the general population is unknown, but in antenatal populations in Nairobi, the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases has recently been ..a shown to be in excess of 20%, with prevalence rates for gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV-1 infection among pregnant women on the order of 5%, 8%, and 15%, respectively.2Sexually transmitted infections and their sequelae contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Syphilis in pregnancy is a major cause of spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Gonorrhea and chlamydial infections in women are responsible for acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, adverse p!!; pregnancy outcomes, and ophthalmia neonatorum.Perhaps even more important, treatable bacterial diseases, particularly those such as chancroid that cause genital ulceration, have been found to facilitate HIV-1 transmission.

MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE. "Sexual behaviour in Kenya: implications for sexually transmitted disease transmission and control. Moses S, Muia E, Bradley JE, Nagelkerke NJ, Ngugi EN, Njeru EK, Eldridge G, Olenja J, Wotton K, Plummer FA, et al.Soc Sci Med. 1994 Dec;39(12):1649-56.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1994 Dec;39(12):1649-56. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
Sexual behaviour in Kenya in relation to STD transmission was investigated with a view to forming a basis for the more rational design of STD/HIV control interventions. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 762 men and women attending eight health facilities in two urban centres. Equal numbers of STD patients (cases) and non-STD related clinic attenders (clinic controls) were selected, matched by gender and clinic. Another sample of 427 men and women was obtained from a random sampling of households in a slum area in Nairobi (community controls). Male STD patients who were unmarried, or married but living apart from their wives, reported a higher mean number of sex partners in the previous three months than did male clinic or community controls. Unmarried female STD patients reported a higher mean number of sex partners in the previous three months than did unmarried female clinic or community controls. Both male and female STD patients were more likely to report having been involved in commercial sex transactions in the previous three months than clinic or community controls. Considerable heterogeneity in sexual behaviour was apparent. In multivariate analysis, the most important predictor of STD acquisition for both men and women was the number of reported sex partners in the previous three months. In addition, for men only, marital status (unmarried, or married but living apart from their wives) and purchasing sex were significant predictors of being an STD patient. These data confirm the importance of commercial sex in STD transmission, and suggest that men play a bridging role between female sex workers and the general population of women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Misiani M, Nderitu J, Mandela P, Obimbo M, Gikenye G. "Sexual dimorphism in the morphometric characteristics of the tibial plafond and medial malleolus ." Indian J of Basic and Applied Med Research . 2013;2(7):760-763.
Misiani Musa, Joseph N, Pamela M, Moses O, Gichambira G. "Sexual dimorphism in the morphometric characteristics of the tibial plafond and medial malleolus." Indian Journal of Basic & Applied Medical Research . 2013;2(7):760-763. AbstractIJBAMR

Introduction: The present study was planned to determine sexual dimorphism in the morphometry of the tibial plafond and medial malleolus in a sample Kenyan population.
Materials and methods: A hundred and fifty six tibiae from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi and the osteology collection of the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi were used. Measurements were taken directly from the bone using a digital pair of vernier calipers (Sealey Professional ToolsTM). Means and frequencies were determined and compared using Student’s t-test. Data are presented using tables.
Results: The mean width of the tibial plafond was 26.55 mm ± 2.18 mm (range 21.7-35.4 mm). The average the length of the tibial plafond was 28.61 mm ± 2.29 mm (range 21.7-36.2 mm). The average height of the medial malleolus was 14.19±1.89mm, whilst the average breadth of the medial malleolus was 21.88±2.22 mm. There were statistically significant differences between males and females in these dimensions with males having larger measurements of the same.
Conclusion: These are baseline data on the osteometric characteristics of the tibial component of the talocrural joint in adult Kenyans. The statistically significant differences in these dimensions in males and females are important in interpreting diagnostic images and guiding the continued design of ankle joint prostheses.

Mrumbi K, editor Ndetei, D.M., Ovuga E, Obondo A, Gakinya B, Ongecha-Owuor F. "Sexual Disorders, Paraphilias and Gender Issues."; 2006.
Owiti FR, Olando Y, Kuria MW, Likata GUM. "Sexual Dysfunction among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus." Greener Journal of Medical Sciences ISSN: 2276-7797. 2012;2(6):138-145. Abstract

Sexual dysfunction can impact a person’s ability to form or sustain intimate relationships and co morbidity between sexual dysfunction and anxiety as well as depression has been reported. Yet epidemiological, etiological, and health association to sexual dysfunction has only begun to be explored in Kenya. To determine the prevalence, types of sexual dysfunction and their socio demographic correlate in diabetic patients. Descriptive cross- sectional study The study was conducted at the outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. This is the main referral hospital in Kenya. A total of 350 participants were enrolled in the study. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used to evaluate sexual dysfunctions in female and male patients respectively. The participants were composed of 164 females aged between 18-74 years and 186 males aged between 19- 100 years. In males, prevalence of sexual dysfunctions were: erectile dysfunction (68.8%); orgasmic dysfunction (48.4%); sexual desire (81.7%); intercourse satisfaction (86.6%) and overall satisfaction (68.4%).The female sexual dysfunction was 36.6% and was categorized as mild (17.1%); moderate (18.3%) and severe (1.2%). Diabetic patients have a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction

"Sexual Dysfunction among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.". 2012. Abstract

Sexual dysfunction can impact a person’s ability to form or sustain intimate relationships and co morbidity between sexual dysfunction and anxiety as well as depression has been reported. Yet epidemiological, etiological, and health association to sexual dysfunction has only begun to be explored in Kenya. To determine the prevalence, types of sexual dysfunction and their socio demographic correlate in diabetic patients. Descriptive cross- sectional study The study was conducted at the outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. This is the main referral hospital in Kenya. A total of 350 participants were enrolled in the study. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used to evaluate sexual dysfunctions in female and male patients respectively. The participants were composed of 164 females aged between 18-74 years and 186 males aged between 19- 100 years. In males, prevalence of sexual dysfunctions were: erectile dysfunction (68.8%); orgasmic dysfunction (48.4%); sexual desire (81.7%); intercourse satisfaction (86.6%) and overall satisfaction (68.4%).The female sexual dysfunction was 36.6% and was categorized as mild (17.1%); moderate (18.3%) and severe (1.2%). Diabetic patients have a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction

KARORI DRMBUGUA. "Sexual Orientation and Brain Structures: A Critical Review of Recent Research.". In: Current Science, 84(2): 173-178. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003.
"Sexual patterning and condom use among a group of HIV vulnerable men in Thika, Kenya.". 2004. Abstract

Sex Transm Infect. 2004 Dec;80(6):435-9.
Sexual patterning and condom use among a group of HIV vulnerable men in Thika, Kenya.
Ferguson A, Pere M, Morris C, Ngugi E, Moses S.
Source

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba and Strengthening STD/HIV Control in Kenya Project, PO Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. alanf@stdhivkenya.org
Abstract

Background/aim: A composite sample of 37 peer educators and 215 members of self help groups of male informal sector workers in Thika, Kenya, targeting HIV/AIDS prevention, were interviewed about their sexual behaviour, using a customised template, as part of a broader survey on gender attitudes and peer pressure.
METHOD:

Details on each sexual partner reported by each man over a 12 month recall period included type of partner, months during which sexual relations took place, and condom use.
RESULTS:

The men reported 471 sexual partners over the recall period, with a range of 0-16 partners, and an average of just under two partners. 8% of men had had no sexual partner, half were monogamous, and 3% had multiple partners with whom they used condoms exclusively, leaving 39% at varying degrees of risk. Condom use increased significantly with reduced intimacy of partner. 16% of men reported having at least one liaison with a female sex worker and two thirds of such liaisons were exclusively protected by condom use. Younger, single men had significantly more partners, but were more likely to use condoms. Duration of membership in self help groups was strongly associated with exclusive use of condoms with casual or FSW partners. Recorded attitudes corresponded somewhat with practice, but the data showed large gaps between the two, and low levels of gender sensitivity.
CONCLUSION:

There is some evidence that group membership has resulted in increased condom use and partner reduction, but there are doubts as to the extent to which the "ABC" strategy can be successful in stemming the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It may be necessary for interventions to target contextual issues, particularly gender relations, if the approach is to be more successful.

PMID:
15572609
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1744931

Free PMC Article

MS. OGONY DOROTHYA. "Sexual reversal and how it affects productivity in fish reared in ponds.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2000, 44-50. Kenyan Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
Plummer FA, Tyndall MW, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Sexual transmission of HIV and the role of sexually transmitted diseases.". 1994.
Mwaura L. "Sexual Violence Against Girls' in Schools: Strategic and Challenges Towards Safer Schools.". In: Centre for Rights Education and Awareness (CREAW).; 2011.
Kitata M. "Sexualising the performance, objectifying the performer: The twerk dance in Kenya." Agenda. 2020;34(3):11-21. Abstract

Shifting arenas of dance performance and youths’ counterculture have brought the twerk to the internet, thus exposing it to the discourse of cultural imperialism, appropriation, and cultural resistance. This has changed the symbolism of the art form: from a performance meant for celebration, to a dance of sexual rage. The media associates the dance with bottom provocation, prostitution or celebrity achievement stories − rarely celebrating the intellect, aesthetics or the expression of freedom in it. From a western point of view, twerking is overly sexualised and the performers participants in a cultural notoriety – thus, objectifying it. However, in its original context it is primarily a dance for festive celebrations. As a form of artistic expression resisting cultural destruction in Kenya, twerk is a way of re-politicising the African female body, and decolonising it from the male, western influenced gaze. Sexual expression in it is …

Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Ojwang SB;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
Ojwang SB;, Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
l. ngesu, a. gichohi. "Sexuality Education: Promoting safe sexual behaviour among university students in Kenya." Msingi Journal. 2016;2(1):175-187.
"Sexually transmitted Diseases in Family Planning." Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1988.
E.N. PN. "Sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.". 1985. Abstract

Kenya Nurs J. 1985 Dec;13(2):5-9.
Sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.
Ronald AR, Ngugi EN, Da Costa.
PMID:
3854890
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Guthrie BL, Kiarie JN, Morrison S, John-Stewart GC, Kinuthia J, Whittington WL, Farquhar C. "Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.". 2011. Abstract

More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. METHODS: HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. RESULTS: Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11%) females and 30 (7%) males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9%) and syphilis (2.6%). Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01), and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01) and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01). Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.

Guthrie BL, Kiarie JN, Morrison S, John-Stewart GC, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Whittington WLH, Farquhar C. "Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(12):e8276. Abstract

More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.

Ngugi EN, Fonck K, Temmerman M, Kaul R, Keli F, Moses S, Bwayo JJ. "Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2001. Abstract
n/a
Fonck K, Kaul R, Keli F, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Temmerman M. "Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya." Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2001;77:271-275. Abstract
n/a
E.N. PN. "Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

Sex Transm Infect. 2001 Aug;77(4):271-5.
Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.
Fonck K, Kaul R, Keli F, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Temmerman M.
Source
International Centre for Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To assess the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among a group of female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya.
METHODS:
This study was part of a randomised, placebo controlled trial of monthly prophylaxis with 1 g of azithromycin to prevent STIs and HIV infection in a cohort of Nairobi FSWs. Consenting women were administered a questionnaire and screened for STIs.
RESULTS:
The seroprevalence of HIV-1 among 543 FSWs screened was 30%. HIV infection was significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea, and the presence of a genital ulcer. Regular douching was reported by 72% of the women, of whom the majority inserted fluids in the vagina, generally after each sexual intercourse. Water with soap was the fluid most often used (81%), followed by salty water (18%), water alone (9%), and a commercial antiseptic (5%). Douching in general and douching with soap and water were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04 respectively). There was a significant trend for increased frequency of douching and higher prevalence of BV. There was no direct relation observed between douching and risk for HIV infection or other STIs.
CONCLUSION:
The widespread habit of douching among African female sex workers was confirmed. The association between vaginal douching and BV is of concern, given the increased risk of HIV infection with BV, which has now been shown in several studies. It is unclear why we could not demonstrate a direct association between douching and HIV infection. Further research is required to better understand the complex relation between douching, risk for bacterial vaginosis, and risk for HIV and other STIs.
PMID:
11463927
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1744330
Free PMC Article

WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Sexually, Health and Reproductive Rights of Women. ".". In: Guest Lecturer at Gender Institute, 1995, Dakar, Senegal.- 13 th July to 31 st July,1995. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1995. Abstract
  
Nyamai CM, Ngechu WM, Kianji G. SGL 308: Introduction to Geological Field Mapping. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Nyamai, C.M., Ngecu WM, Kianji G. SGL 308: Introduction to Geological Mapping (Lecture series).; 2010.
MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER. SGL 308: Introduction to Geological Mapping, Lecture series. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press.; 2008. Abstract

One of the critical issues for Community Development, Civil Society action and Governance anywhere and specifically in Africa is to create leaders at the fastest possible rate, at all levels of the society/ community. Such levels of leadership revolve round - skilled, ethical, effective and unifying leadership. Young people are most eager to play a leadership role in these efforts. The values/ benefits of the African young people involvement in Civil Society in the African states will bring energy, catalyze other group members to rethink their priorities, commitment and remove invisible barriers that have kept them from moving forward. Typically and traditionally in many cultures, young people have been excluded from efforts to rebuild their communities. This marginalization of our youth not only harms them and endangers our future, but it also cheats the world of a valuable resource. If we are to function effectively as local and even global communities then we must incorporate all significant voices. This paper argues that an enduring and positive community renewal is possible only if all members are involved and feel a sense of ownership. On the other hand, the spirit of volunteerism by young people helps to create a stable and cohesive society and as a result add value to the services that governments provide. Voluntary action creates bonds of trust and encourages cooperation; in other words it creates social capital. Volunteerism draws people of different ethnic origins, religion and economic status. This compositional aspect enhances social harmony. Voluntary participation in public affairs can also help to create a politically literate public, which is important for the preservation of democratic principles. Volunteer effort is essential to Civil Society action as a way that would enhance community policing and conflict resolution. Service For Peace (SFP) Kenya Chapter as an organization, through its young people empowerment program has the aim to integrate service learning and volunteerism in the processes of capacity development/ building, creating appropriate awareness, dissemination and networking of the youth in the sub-regional and region areas. The Kenyan Chapter serves as a knowledge resource base for periodic value-based training programs on volunteerism.

Kianji G. SGL 407: Engineering Geology.; 2012.
Kianji G. SGL 412: Seismology.; 2012.
Thenya T, Rego AB. "SGP 303. Biogeography I." Department of Geography & Environmental Studies; 2006. Abstract
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M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "SGP 306: Regional Development I, published by faculty of Science, University of Nairobi (Review process completed).". In: in HEKIMA, Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol.3, No.1:14-26,. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to takes its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya is one of the airports in the Eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic. Key Words: African aviation, hub-and-spoke, traffic forecasts
M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "SGP 307: Economic Geography I, published by Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi. (Review process on going).". In: Published in the USA. Kisipan, M.L.; 2006. Abstract
The average annual growth in African passenger traffic throughout the 1990s was 7% and in a region where only one in every twenty people have access to air travel the prospects for further growth are substantial. However, the region faces significant challenges in meeting this growth including infrastructure development, financing, safety, security, public policy, and regional liberalization. This paper explores efforts at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Kenya to meet these challenges and position itself as an East African hub. Key Words: Airport, Kenya, infrastructure, safety
Thenya T, Rego AB. "SGP 403. Biogeography II." Department of Geography & Environmental Studies; 2006. Abstract
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WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "SHADOW.". In: A poem published in the Writers Workshop Journal, University of IOWA, November.; 1996. Abstract

This book is an epic account of life, touching on diverse facets of existence with the Buddhist answers to the riddles of life and those provided by modern science towards the same or similar riddles. In this book, Ikeda catches and conveys to us the impression that living a fulfilling life is attainable, and that the splendour of living such a life has an immutable value that transcends the bounds of the physical death. Fleeting between the past, present and a possible future, the book wrestles with the giant headaches of humankind through a systematic explication of the nature of the cosmos and life, the Buddhist view of life, and the question of life and death. All this is done with the exactitude of a physician carrying out a heart surgery, and with the eloquence of a young man wooing a fair maid. On the whole, the book reduces the recurrent headaches of man to quite curable ailments, no more serious than the common cold or constipation. With respect to the nature of the cosmos and life, the author sinks his teeth into such concepts as the body and the spirit, man and nature, eyes that can see life, the riddle of time and the essence of the cosmos. On the body and the spirit, the author addresses first and foremost, the strange phenomenon of life as it manifests itself in empirical situations

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Shadow on the continent: public health and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the 21st century. Lancet. 2002 Jul 6;360(9326):67-72. Review. De Cock KM,Mbori-Ngacha D, Marum E.". In: 2002 Jul 6;360(9326):67-72. Review. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2002. Abstract
No abstract available.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Shah, DM, Slack RCB and WAMOLA I.A. Single dose treatment of Acute Gonorrhoea in Males .". In: (Paper presented to KMA meeting, Mombasa March 1976). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
MARY MWIANDI. Shaping Research Universities in the Nile Basin Countries . Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2010.
Otieno DJ;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Marenya PP. "Shaping the Future of African Agriculture for Development: The Role of Social Scientists."; 2004. Abstract

Food security remains a key challenge to the development efforts of most poor nations. This study investigated the significance of gender (denoted by number of male, female and children in a household) and social amenities in the food security equation. Frequency of food-related illnesses in a household was used as proxy for food security situation, while the entitlement/food utilization side of the equation was represented by the number of male and female children in the household, main source of domestic water, distance to nearest health center, means of transport accessible, household sanitation and level of awareness on basic food preparation and handling methods. Both descriptive and econometric models were used for analysis of primary data from a random sample of 100 farm-households in Yala division, Siaya district of Kenya. This study was conducted in February 2004. Results of this study indicated that majority (74%) of the rural households were experiencing poor food utilization, and were thus generally food insecure. The study also revealed that gender and social amenities were significant in the food security equation. Specifically, there was high correlation between food-related illnesses and use of untapped water, more male children than females in a household, long distance to health centers, lack of quick means of transport, unsafe food disposal and poor food storage habits. In order to improve the food utilization and thereby security for the rural farm-households, the study recommends improvement in the provision of social amenities for both male and female household members equitably

Otieno DJ;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Marenya PP. "Shaping the Future of African Agriculture for Development: The Role of Social Scientists."; 2004. Abstract

Food security remains a key challenge to the development efforts of most poor nations. This study investigated the significance of gender (denoted by number of male, female and children in a household) and social amenities in the food security equation. Frequency of food-related illnesses in a household was used as proxy for food security situation, while the entitlement/food utilization side of the equation was represented by the number of male and female children in the household, main source of domestic water, distance to nearest health center, means of transport accessible, household sanitation and level of awareness on basic food preparation and handling methods. Both descriptive and econometric models were used for analysis of primary data from a random sample of 100 farm-households in Yala division, Siaya district of Kenya. This study was conducted in February 2004. Results of this study indicated that majority (74%) of the rural households were experiencing poor food utilization, and were thus generally food insecure. The study also revealed that gender and social amenities were significant in the food security equation. Specifically, there was high correlation between food-related illnesses and use of untapped water, more male children than females in a household, long distance to health centers, lack of quick means of transport, unsafe food disposal and poor food storage habits. In order to improve the food utilization and thereby security for the rural farm-households, the study recommends improvement in the provision of social amenities for both male and female household members equitably.

Otieno DJ;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Marenya PP. "Shaping the Future of African Agriculture for Development: The Role of Social Scientists."; 2004. Abstract

Food security remains a key challenge to the development efforts of most poor nations. This study investigated the significance of gender (denoted by number of male, female and children in a household) and social amenities in the food security equation. Frequency of food-related illnesses in a household was used as proxy for food security situation, while the entitlement/food utilization side of the equation was represented by the number of male and female children in the household, main source of domestic water, distance to nearest health center, means of transport accessible, household sanitation and level of awareness on basic food preparation and handling methods. Both descriptive and econometric models were used for analysis of primary data from a random sample of 100 farm-households in Yala division, Siaya district of Kenya. This study was conducted in February 2004. Results of this study indicated that majority (74%) of the rural households were experiencing poor food utilization, and were thus generally food insecure. The study also revealed that gender and social amenities were significant in the food security equation. Specifically, there was high correlation between food-related illnesses and use of untapped water, more male children than females in a household, long distance to health centers, lack of quick means of transport, unsafe food disposal and poor food storage habits. In order to improve the food utilization and thereby security for the rural farm-households, the study recommends improvement in the provision of social amenities for both male and female household members equitably.

Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu C. "Shared Frailty Model with Application in Joint–Life Annuity Assurance." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2021;68( 1):23-42.
C.A. Mumma- Martinon B. "Shared Waters Shared Opportunities. .". In: Hydro Politics In East Africa. Dar Es Salam Tanzania: French Institute For Research In Africa, Jesuit Hakimani Centre And Mkuki Na Nyota Publishers Ltd; 2010.6.shared_waters_shared_opportunities.pdf
Mumma-Martinon CA, Calas B. Shared Waters Shared Opportunities: Hydropolitics in East Africa.. Dar es Salam Tanzania: : French Institute for Research in Africa, Jesuit Hakimani Centre and Mkuki Na Nyota Publishers Ltd. ; 2010.
Ndetei DM. "Sharing mental health research resources in Africa - the place of all inclusive consortia.". 2008. Abstractsharing_mental_health_research_resources_in_africa-the_place_all_inclusive_consortia.pdf

It is now generally evident that the prevalence rates of various mental disorders in Africa are similar if not identical to those found in the West. Poverty and the relative deficiency of human resources are compounding factors that make it unlikely for replication of psychiatric and mental health services in the same quality and quantity as currently provided in resource-rich countries.This not withstanding, it is not necessary for such services to be imported wholesale into the peculiar socio-cultural Africa context, orfor quality and quantity to be measured in the same way as is done in the resource-rich countries.This means that Africa must find its own home-grown evidence-based policies and practices that allow for service to be available, accessible, affordable and appropriate within the socio-cultural and economic contexts prevailing in Africa.This can only be achieved through contextually designed operationalresearch to determine contextually appropriate solutions to the myriad of mental health issues and challenges facing Africa.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Karmarkar MG.Hyperprolactinemia in portosystemic encephalopathy.Indian J Med Res. 1987 Sep;86:372-4.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1987 Sep;86:372-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
Twenty three patients with chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics in Northern India were prospectively studied. All had pancreatic calcification and ERCP changes typical of chronic pancreatitis, the most predominant being ductal dilatation which was detected in all patients by both ERCP and by ultrasonography. Pain was present in 19 (83%) patients and diabetes in 11 (48%) patients. Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction was uncommon, steatorrhoea being present in only 9% of patients. Ten of the 11 patients with diabetes required insulin for control and one case was able to be controlled by an oral antidiabetic agent. Two patients developed ketoacidosis during acute episodes of pancreatitis, 3 patients had peripheral neuropathy and one patient had visual changes. Recurrent severe pain was the reason for operation in 7 patients. All had a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. In order to obtain an objective assessment of pain, a scoring system was developed to grade its severity according to its intensity, frequency and consequences. Six patients who preoperatively had a pain score of 15 or more (out of a maximum score of 24) attained significant relief after the surgery. We feel this scoring system may provide an easy objective assessment of pain in the subsequent follow-up of these patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Karmarkar MG.Significance of prolactin levels in protosystemic encephalopathy.J Assoc Physicians India. 1988 Mar;36(3):207-9.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1988 Mar;36(3):207-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988. Abstract
Twenty three patients with chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics in Northern India were prospectively studied. All had pancreatic calcification and ERCP changes typical of chronic pancreatitis, the most predominant being ductal dilatation which was detected in all patients by both ERCP and by ultrasonography. Pain was present in 19 (83%) patients and diabetes in 11 (48%) patients. Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction was uncommon, steatorrhoea being present in only 9% of patients. Ten of the 11 patients with diabetes required insulin for control and one case was able to be controlled by an oral antidiabetic agent. Two patients developed ketoacidosis during acute episodes of pancreatitis, 3 patients had peripheral neuropathy and one patient had visual changes. Recurrent severe pain was the reason for operation in 7 patients. All had a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. In order to obtain an objective assessment of pain, a scoring system was developed to grade its severity according to its intensity, frequency and consequences. Six patients who preoperatively had a pain score of 15 or more (out of a maximum score of 24) attained significant relief after the surgery. We feel this scoring system may provide an easy objective assessment of pain in the subsequent follow-up of these patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Verma N, Dasarathy S.Clinical profile of multiple amoebic liver abscesses.J Assoc Physicians India. 1990 Nov;38(11):837-9.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1990 Nov;38(11):837-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
Of 70 consecutive patients with amoebic liver abscess admitted over a 3 year period, 15 (21.4%) had multiple abscesses. This condition, like solitary abscess, was a disease of the 2nd to 5th decade with a male preponderance. Multiple abscesses were more frequently associated with fever, jaundice, upper abdominal pain, pneumonitis and tender hepatomegaly. The left lobe of the liver was always enlarged in patients with multiple abscesses and 86% of patients required drainage of an abscess cavity. The presence of more severe clinical course, jaundice and left lobe hepatomegaly should raise the suspicion of multiple abscesses. After confirmation of the diagnosis by imaging technique, the abscess cavity should be aspirated for quick relief and cure.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK.Immunology of giardiasis.Indian J Pediatr. 1983 May-Jun;50(404):319-24.". In: Indian J Pediatr. 1983 May-Jun;50(404):319-24. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1983. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK.Immunoprophylaxis of viral hepatitis.J Assoc Physicians India. 1983 Jun;31(6):355-8.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1983 Jun;31(6):355-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1983. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Acharya SK.Ultrasonography in gastroenterology: stethoscope of a gastroenterologist.Trop Gastroenterol. 1990 Jul-Sep;11(3):117-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1990 Jul-Sep;11(3):117-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
Anti-pre-S antibody was tested in 38 sera from patients with fulminant hepatitis (positive for HBsAg and/or IgM anti-HBc) using a specific solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-pre-S activity was detected in 50 percent sera samples positive for HBsAg but negative for IgM anti-HBc. There were 12.5% sera positive for both HBsAg as well as IgM anti-HBc and 75% sera negative for HBsAg but positive for IgM anti-HBc. The prevalence of HBV-specific DNA-polymerase activity was high in all the three groups whereas anti-HBs positivity was low. Anti-pre-S activity was observed both in the presence as well as in the absence of DNA-polymerase activity. High-anti-pre-S level in fulminant hepatitis B patients was assumed to be implicated in the fast clearance of HBsAg from circulation.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Gandhi BM, Acharya SK, Chawla YK, Nautiyal BL, Tandon BN.Serological studies of Entamoeba histolytica infection in north Indian population.Indian J Med Res. 1984 Dec;80:632-7.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1984 Dec;80:632-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Rai RR, Acharya SK, Ray JC, Tandon BN.Needle aspiration of amoebic liver abscess.BMJ. 1989 Nov 25;299(6711):1308-9.". In: BMJ. 1989 Nov 25;299(6711):1308-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the value of needle aspiration in uncomplicated amoebic liver abscess. DESIGN–Randomised case-control study with a minimum follow up of one year, comparing patients treated with drugs alone with those treated with additional needle aspiration. SETTING–Referral based gastroenterology clinic. PATIENTS–39 Consecutive patients with amoebic liver abscess in the right lobe, of whom 37 completed the study. INTERVENTION–Metronidazole 2.4 g/day was given to all patients for 10 days. Needle aspiration of the abscess was performed in 19 patients on the day of admission to hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES–Abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, and hepatomegaly were measured. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum aspartate, and alanine aminotransferase activities, and alkaline phosphatase activity were also measured. RESULTS–Clinical improvement was similar in both groups of patients. Improvement in haematological and biochemical variables and rates of healing of cavities were also similar. CONCLUSIONS–Chemotherapy with potent tissue amoebicidal drugs such as metronidazole is optimally effective in treating amoebic liver abscess, and in uncomplicated cases routine aspiration is not required.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Sarin SK, Acharya SK.Left lobe amoebic abscess of liver–a distinct clinical entity.J Assoc Physicians India. 1984 Jun;32(6):477-80.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1984 Jun;32(6):477-80. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Oduori, M. F.; Mbuya SITO; J;. "Shattered Grain Loss Attributable to the Combine Harvester Reel.". 2006.
R T. "Shaykh Mahmoud Abdulkadir ‘Mau’ (b. 1950): A Reformist Preacher in Lamu." The Annual Review of Islam in Africa . 2015;12(2):85-90.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in oral and genital secretions from HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative Kenyan women. Taylor MM, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Hassan W, Huang ML, Corey L, Ashley Morrow R, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kre.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 1;190(3):484-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2004. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Shedding the Ivory Tower Image.". In: Wajibu (Journal of Social and Religious Concern) Vol. 2 No. 4. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1987. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Gichaga FJ. "Shelter, Transport, Water and Solid Waste Management.". In: Regional Workshop on the Role of Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST) in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Nairobi.; 2007.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Shem O. Wandiga, Maggie Opondo, Daniel Olago, Andrew Githeko, Faith Githui, Michael Marshall, Tim Downs, Alfred Opere, Pius Z. Yanda, Richard Kangalawe, Robert Kabumbuli, Edward Kirumira, James Kathuri, Eugene Apindi, Lydia Olaka, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugam.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Abdulaziz, M; Osinde K, Osinde K. "Sheng and English in Nairobi .". 1997.Website
Rinkanya AN. "Sheng Literature in Kenya: a Revival? ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2005;3:41-45.
A. M, M E. "Sheria." Iren; 2012. Abstract
n/a
M E, Mukhwana A. Sheria.; 2012.Website
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Sherry B, Embree JE, Mei Z, Ndinya-Achola JO, Njenga S, Muchunga ER, Bett J, Plummer FA.Sociodemographic characteristics, care, feeding practices, and growth of cohorts of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers in Nairobi, Kenya.Trop.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Oct;5(10):678-86. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Shi B, Philpott SM, Weiser B, Kuiken , Brunner c, Fang G, Fowke KR, Plummer FA, Rowland-Jones S, Bwayo J, ANZALA AO, Kimani J, Kaul R, Burger H. Construction of an infectious HIV type 1 molecular clone from an African patient with a subtype D/C Recombinan.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 Sep;20(9):1015-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Shield making in Western Kenya.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 1971. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Onyango WH. "Shield Making In Western Kenya.". 1989.
Ekaya WN. "The shift from mobile pastoralism to sedentary crop-livestock farming in the drylands of eastern Africa: Some issues and challenges for researc."; 2005. Abstract

The Drylands of Eastern Africa have been home to many mobile/nomadic pastoral communities for centuries. These communities traversed large areas in search of pasture and water for their livestock. The objective of their livelihood system was subsistence based on milk. However, within the past one third of a century or so, there has been a sharp shift towards sedenta ry type of production and livelihood system. This shift has been caused by, inter alia , economic, political, demographic and environmental changes. Prolonged droughts, population growth, expanding crop agriculture, political insecurities including civil wars and et hnic conflicts, and conservation policies have all affected the ability of mobile pastoralists to keep their large herds, move freel y across the drylands and rely on mobile pastoralism as a livelihood system. As a consequence, crop agriculture is becoming increasingly common, and sometimes necessary subsistence strategy, albeit one that is considered a poor choice to animal husbandry particula rly since the drylands they occupy are uniquely suited to rearing of livestock. Still the majority of pastoral households in Easte rn Africa remain committed to raising livestock even as they adapt to a sedentary life and crop cultivation. Research on sedenterization of mobile pastoralists in this region has mainly been anthropological in nature. Published studies have addressed consequences an d impacts of sedenterization in terms of direct impact on immediate environment, human health and general welfare changes, social order within the household and community, and participation in the mainstream national economy. Hardly any research has been conducted to investigate the key parameters, characteristics and impacts of the crop-livestock production/livelihood system tha t emerges from mobile pastoralists who settle and take up crop agriculture in combination with livestock keeping, albeit at a red uced scale. This paper argues that crop-livestock systems by formerly mobile pastoralists in the drylands present issues and challe nges directly related to environmental quality, food security, natural resource management, human welfare and ultimately the Millenn ium Development Goals. This forms a priority research axis for Eastern Africa’s drylands

CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Shift in Mission: An Ecological Theology in Africa, IN:A. NASIMIYU-Wasike; D.W. Waruta (Eds): Mission in African Christianity, Uzima Press.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
Barrientos S, Knorringa P, Evers B, Visser M, Opondo M. "Shifting regional dynamics of global value chains: Implications for economic and social upgrading in African horticulture." Sage Journal. 2016;48(7):1266-1283. Abstractjournals.sagepub.com

Global value chain and global production network analyses have largely focused on dominance of Northern retailers over suppliers in the global South. The expansion of retailers within the global South sourcing from and supplying consumer end-markets within their own geographic regions is reconfiguring value chain dynamics. This paper draws on GVC and GPN approaches and the concepts of multi-polar governance to analyse changing dynamics of global and regional retail supply networks. Drawing on a case study of supermarket expansion within South and East Africa, it analyses how ‘waves of diffusion’ by global and regional supermarkets provide new opportunities for ‘strategic diversification’ by some horticultural producers and workers. It examines the implications for economic and social upgrading and downgrading, finding mixed outcomes. Strategic diversification provides opportunities for economic and social upgrading by more capable suppliers and skilled workers, but economic downgrading pressures persist and some are excluded from both global and regional value chains.

Keywords Global value chains, global production networks, supermarkets, economic and social upgrading, horticulture, producers, workers

"Shimo la Maisha.". In: Alidhani Kapata na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2007.
Manyora H. Shingo La Mbunge Na Hadithi Nyingine. Vide~Muwa Publishers; 2007.
MAHINDRA DRMARUSHITAL. "Shital M.Maru, Marcel DeMatas, Adrian Kelly, Anant Paradkar. Characterisation of rhelogical and Thermal properties of zidovudine, lamivudine and ethylcellulose blends to assess their suitability for hot melt extrusion. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.". In: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. Taylor & Francis; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Shitanda, D., Mutuli, D.A. and Odongo, F. (1994) Indigenous Vegetable Oils in Kenya as a Diesel Fuel . In Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""Shocking National Tragedy" a review of Bhabani Bhattacharva's So Many Hungers! In Daily Nation Jan.1982.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1982. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Shocking National Tragedy: Review of So Many Hungers, Daily Nation, January.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K. KM, Oleche OM. "Short and Long-Run Impact of Trade Liberalization on Agricultural Growth in Kenya." International Journal of Finance, Insurance and Risk Management. 2020;X(3).
Kheseli PO, Ochanda JO, Okoth SA. "A Short Communication-Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis from coastal intertidal brackish sediments and from farmlands in Machakos District Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxins represent the most successful use of biological control agents targeting crop pests to date. Studies have shown that Bt produces a wider range of toxins targeting a variety of unrelated pests than was initially documented. This further increases the prospects for its wider use as a microbial biopesticide. In this view the study sought to isolate and characterize native Bt from two different ecological regions; Kenya coastal intertidal brackish sediments and farmlands in Machakos district. Twenty eight Bt isolates were isolated and identified. Distinctions between the isolates were based on their morphological appearances, presence of parasporal inclusions and biochemical characteristics. Results for staining tests revealed that the isolates were Gram positive, rod shaped cells, with the spores terminally located. The cells from the two ecological regions did not have significant variation in average size. The rods had length ranging between 2.0 μm and 3.0 μm on average while the width was approximately 1 μm on average. Parasporal inclusions had varied shapes (i.e. bipyramidal, circular, squared, oval and rhomboid). Both biochemical tests (Proskauer (VP) test and catalase test) were positive. Average optimum temperature range for growth was between 28°C and 35°C while the optimal pH growth range was between 5.5 and 7.5. Both the morphological and biochemical results provided evidence that the isolates were different forms of Bacillus thuringiensis. Out of the fifty six soil and sediment samples, 28 samples (50%) yielded Bacillus thuringiensis. 53.6% of the isolates were recovered from samples from farms in Machakos district and 46.4% from the intertidal brackish sediments from the Gazi coastal mangroves of Kenya. This shows that Bt is also present in soils which are under constant cultivation and those lying fallow within the intertidal brackish sediments

Weis JF, McClelland SR, Jaoko W, Mandaliya KN, Overbaugh J, Graham SM. "Short communication: Fc gamma receptors IIa and IIIa genetic polymorphisms do not predict HIV-1 disease progression in Kenyan women." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2015;31(3):288-92. Abstract

Genetic polymorphisms of the Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) IIa and IIIa have been implicated in the rate of HIV-1 disease progression, but results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine the association between these polymorphisms and disease progression in a cohort of HIV-1 seroconverters from Mombasa, Kenya. Neither FcγRIIa nor FcγRIIIa genotypes were predictive of set point viral load, viral load increase, CD4 decline, or HIV-1 disease progression (time to CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3), death, or treatment initiation). Our results suggest that FcγR polymorphisms might not be an important indicator of viral control and disease progression in this population.

Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE, Opinya GN. "Short communication: Influence of different isolation methods on the survival of proximal ART restorations in primary molars after two years.". 2010. Abstract

This was to evaluate the influence of two methods of tooth-isolation on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in the primary molars. METHODS: The study was conducted in two rural divisions in Kenya, with 7 operators randomly paired to a group of 8 assistants. A total of 804 children each had one proximal cavity in a primary molar restored using the ART approach. During restorations 2 isolation methods, rubber dam or cotton wool rolls, and 3 brands of glass ionomer cements were used by the operators. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years. STATISTICS: SPSS 14.0 was used to analyse and relate the data obtained to the method of isolation used. RESULTS: After 2 years 30.8% of the ART restorations had survived. Higher survival rates of the restorations were obtained when using rubber dam irrespective of the GIC material or the operator. CONCLUSION: Generally the survival rate of the proximal restorations in the present study was very low, but the use of rubber dam resulted in a higher survival rate of the restorations.

Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE, Opinya GN. "Short communication: Influence of different isolation methods on the survival of proximal ART restorations in primary molars after two years.". 2010. Abstract

This was to evaluate the influence of two methods of tooth-isolation on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in the primary molars. METHODS: The study was conducted in two rural divisions in Kenya, with 7 operators randomly paired to a group of 8 assistants. A total of 804 children each had one proximal cavity in a primary molar restored using the ART approach. During restorations 2 isolation methods, rubber dam or cotton wool rolls, and 3 brands of glass ionomer cements were used by the operators. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years. STATISTICS: SPSS 14.0 was used to analyse and relate the data obtained to the method of isolation used. RESULTS: After 2 years 30.8% of the ART restorations had survived. Higher survival rates of the restorations were obtained when using rubber dam irrespective of the GIC material or the operator. CONCLUSION: Generally the survival rate of the proximal restorations in the present study was very low, but the use of rubber dam resulted in a higher survival rate of the restorations.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Sleper DA. "Short Communication: Use of a Prepaid Cellulase Solution for Screening Forage Grass Germplasm for Digestibility.". 1993. Abstract

A reliable rapid and inexpensive laboratory procedure is needed to screen native African forage grass species for forage quality. This study determined the potential of using a prepared cellulase solution to assess in vitro dry matter solubility of 22 native Kenyan forage grasses and 18 native warm season grasses from Missouri, USA. A prepared cellulase solution was used for screening the grass species for digestibility using two procedures. One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulose solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pretreatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulose solution (APCS). The CSD procedures in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter solubility by a rand of up to 23%. The variations were highly species dependent. Although the APCS procedure more time consuming, it made it possible to identify a group of species resolvable into high (42.6-61.4%), medium (36-40%) and low (29-34%) digestibility. With intensified efforts it is possible for one person to obtain in vitro dry matter solubility estimates on up to 200 samples in 30 days with minimal expense. Results of this investigation points to the end need for further research on the potential of the two digestibility procedures for rationalizing numbers in germplasm collection for initial screening.

Zaja JO. "Short Distance Runners .". 1986.Website
OMBOGA DRZAJAJAMES. ""Short Distance Runners", a case study of the works of Peninah Muhando and Jay Kitsao, published in Mwamko no. 3, 1986.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
Walsh DS, Eyase F, Onyango D, Odindo A, Otieno W, Waitumbi JN, Bulimo WD, Schnabel DC, Meyers WM, Portaels F. "Short report: Clinical and molecular evidence for a case of Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) in Kenya." Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:1110-3. AbstractWebsite

Mycobacterium ulcerans infection is an emerging disease that causes indolent, necrotizing skin lesions known as Buruli ulcer (BU) and occasional contiguous or metastatic bone lesions. Buruli ulcer is named after Buruli County in Uganda (east Africa), where an epidemic occurred in the 1960s. Today, BU is most common in central and west Africa. We describe clinical and molecular evidence for a case of BU in Kenya.

"Short Stories.". In: Pendo La Huba. Writers Association Of Kenya; 2007.
Manyora HB. Short Stories.; 2007.Website
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A short story .". In: edited by M Mbatiah and published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2000.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A short story called .". In: edited by Kyallo Wamitila, published by Focus Publishers. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2004.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A short story entitled .". In: edited by R Wafula and G. King. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 1995.
Rinkanya AN. "Short Story in Kenya ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2010;6:29-39.
SWALEH AMIRI, Wamitila KW. A short story “Jinga Likierevuka” in Wali wa Ndevu wa Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Vide - M uwa Publishers. ISBN 99766 – 773 - 55 - X, pp. 105 - 124; 2010.
Osano BO, Kamenwa RW, Wamalwa D, Wang'ombe JK. "SHORT TERM CLINICAL OUTCOME OF CHILDREN WITH ROTAVIRUS INFECTION AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, NAIROBI." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87:242-247.
Osano BO, Kamenwa RW, Wamalwa D, Wangombe JK. "Short term clinical outcome of children with rotavirus infection at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a high morbidity and mortality in children in Kenya. To determine the short term clinical outcome for children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and the correlates of poor outcome. Short longitudinal survey. Kenyatta National Hospital from February to May 2008. Five hundred children were screened using a rapid antigen detection kit and ELISA. Of the 191 children who tested positive for rotavirus in stool; 172 children were recruited into the study. Eighty eight per cent of the patients were discharged within one week, 8.1% stayed for more than seven days while 4.1% died. Children who had co-morbidities such as malnutrition, rickets and pneumonia had worse outcomes. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a long hospital stay and a high mortality. Children in shock on admission and those with co-morbid conditions should get priority for they have a poor outcome

"Short term clinical outcome of children with rotavirus infection at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a high morbidity and mortality in children in Kenya. To determine the short term clinical outcome for children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and the correlates of poor outcome. Short longitudinal survey. Kenyatta National Hospital from February to May 2008. Five hundred children were screened using a rapid antigen detection kit and ELISA. Of the 191 children who tested positive for rotavirus in stool; 172 children were recruited into the study. Eighty eight per cent of the patients were discharged within one week, 8.1% stayed for more than seven days while 4.1% died. Children who had co-morbidities such as malnutrition, rickets and pneumonia had worse outcomes. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a long hospital stay and a high mortality. Children in shock on admission and those with co-morbid conditions should get priority for they have a poor outcome

Ireri TG, Murage DK, Abungu NO. "Short Term Load Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Networks.". In: Mechanical Engineering Annual Conference. Juja; 2013. Abstractjkuat_conf_paper.pdf

Load forecasting refers to the prediction of future load conditions based on present or historical data. This is important especially for transmission planning and economic dispatch. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained using historical data for a sub-station at Ruiru, Kenya and the corresponding loading conditions for the sub-station are used to test its accuracy in forecasting the electrical load when given other parameters.

Osano OB. Short term outcome and cost analysis of children admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis.; 2009. Abstract

Background
Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children
under five years of age. Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVG) has a high morbidity and mortality in
children in Kenya. The costs of care and treatment for rotavirus gastroenteritis are high.
Comprehensive data on the outcomes and cost of care of RVG in Kenya are lacking.
Objective
To determine the short term clinical outcomes and compute average cost of care for children
admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) with rotavirus gastroenteritis.
Methodology
A short longitudinal survey at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya from February to
May 2008. A minimum sample size of 165 was sufficient for both primary and secondary
objectives of this study. This samples size was calculated using mortality as the worst
outcome with a mortality rate of 11.6%. Children less than 3 years of age admitted to the
paediatric wards with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus in stool
samples using a rapid antigen detection kit and ELISA. Those found positive for rotavirus
and gave consent were recruited into the study. A full clinical evaluation was done and a predesigned
questionnaire administered. The recruited patients were followed up till discharge
or death. Their outcomes, costs incurred and the bills they paid were entered into the
questionnaire. The average costs were then calculated.
Results
Five hundred of the children admitted to KNH with acute gastroenteritis were screened for
rotavirus. One hundred and ninety one (38.2%) of them tested positive for rotavirus in stool
and 172 children were recruited into the study. Of the 172 children, 87.8% were discharged
within one week, 8.1% stayed for more than 7 days while 4.1% died. The average cost of
care per child admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis was Kshs 6,505.79 to the patient, Kshs.
14,178.21 and Kshs. 16,556.08 to the hospital and economy/society respectively using the
National Hospital Insurance Fund bed charge rates. Children who had co-morbidities had
worse outcomes in comparison to those who did not have any co-morbidity.
Conclusion
Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a significant impact on young children and their families in
terms of long hospital stay, high morbidity and mortality. It incurs considerable resource
utilization in health care settings, substantial costs for national health care and lost work
days to the economy.
Recommendation
A cost benefit analysis for the whole country should be done to guide in policy making for
routine rotavirus vaccination

Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry . 2020;143.
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2020;143:107736.
Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Short-term dynamics of soil organic matter fractions and microbial activity in smallholder potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2019.
Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Panteleeff DD, R W Nduati, Steele M, John-Stewart G. "Short-term effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and viral turnover in these compartments.". 2007. Abstractshort-term_effect_of_zidovudine_on_plasma_and_genital_human.pdf

The effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was determined in 42 antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi. After 7 days of zidovudine treatment, HIV-1 RNA levels decreased by 0.5 to 1.1 log(10) in plasma and genital secretions. HIV-1 RNA half-life following zidovudine treatment was 4.7, 1.3, and 0.9 days in plasma, cervix, and vagina, respectively, and significantly shorter in genital secretions than in plasma (P < 0.001). Defining the short-term effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital HIV-1 is important for improving perinatal HIV-1 interventions

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Short-term effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and viral turnover in these compartments. Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Panteleeff DD, Nduati R, Steele M, John-Stewart G.". In: J Virol. 2003 Jul;77(13):7702-5. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2003. Abstractshort-term_effect_of_zidovudine_on_plasma_and_genital_human.pdf

The effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was determined in 42 antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi. After 7 days of zidovudine treatment, HIV-1 RNA levels decreased by 0.5 to 1.1 log(10) in plasma and genital secretions. HIV-1 RNA half-life following zidovudine treatment was 4.7, 1.3, and 0.9 days in plasma, cervix, and vagina, respectively, and significantly shorter in genital secretions than in plasma (P < 0.001). Defining the short-term effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital HIV-1 is important for improving perinatal HIV-1 interventions.

Nyachieo A, Kiraithe MM, Spiessens C, Chai DC, Kiulia NM, D'Hooghe TM, Mwenda JM. Short-term effects of high-dose khat on sperm parameters and reproductive hormonal levels in olive baboons (Papio anubis).. Vol. 75.; 2013. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 75(2). Abstract

The biological effects of khat (Catha edulis) on reproduction and fertility are inadequately investigated and controversial, hence we determined the effects of oral administration of high-dose khat on sperm parameters and male hormonal levels in olive baboons. In this study, 6 male baboons received a high dose of khat (500 g/week) during 1 month. Electroejaculation for sperm studies (concentration, motility and chromatin integrity) and plasma collection for hormonal analysis (testosterone, prolactin and cortisol) were done weekly during 1 month before and 1 month during khat administration as well as 2 weeks after the last dose of khat administration. Administration of khat extract induced a significant reduction in sperm motility (p = 0.008), sperm count (p = 0.041), sperm chromatin integrity (p = 0.0003), testosterone levels (p = 0.035) and prolactin levels (p = 0.0115), but not in cortisol levels and sperm volume (p > 0.05). The results suggest that high-dose khat decreases sperm quality and testosterone and hence may contribute to male infertility.

Mbau SK, Mbau SK, Ayuke F. "Short-term influence of compost application on maize yield, soil macrofauna diversity and abundance in nutrient deficient soils of Kakamega County, Kenya." Plant and Soil. 2015;387:379-394. Abstract

Background and aims Degradation of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils in sub-Saharan Africa mainly results from little or no organic resource application coupled with sub-optimal fertilizer application. A study was conducted over three seasons, from March 2010 toAugust 2011,toevaluatepotentialofsix organic materials (bagasse, cow manure, filtermud, maize stover, sugarcane straw and Tithonia diversifolia) for compost production and their influence on maize yield and soil fauna diversity. Methods Treatments comprised of the six composts, commercial fertilizer and no-input control, laid out in randomized complete block design in four replicates. Soil macrofauna were collected using soil monolith method. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GENSTAT whereas differences were evaluated using Fisher’s least significant
difference (LSD). Correlation between macrofauna and soil chemical properties was done using CANOCO 3.1. Results The ANOVA showed significantly higher N and P on filtermud (10.0 g N kg−1 and 979 mg P kg−1) and T. diversifolia (9.6 g N kg−1 and 614 mg P kg−1) composts. Generally, amending soils with composts increased C, N and P of the soil by 90 %, 29 % and 20%,respectively,while fertilizer treated plots recorded 42 %, 4 % and 110 % increase in C, N and P, respectively. Control plots recorded 25 % increase in C, but 15 % and 50 % decline in N and P, respectively. Maize yields were highest in fertilizer (4.4 Mg ha−1), followed by composts (2.8 Mg ha−1) and lowest in control plots (1.4 Mg ha−1). Soil macrofauna responded positively to addition of composts. Isopterans, Oligochaeta and Hymenopterans dominated the sites constituting 44 %, 26 % and 17 %, respectively of all the macrofauna. Relationships between macrofauna and soil chemical properties were positively significant.
Conclusions Results of this study demonstrate the potential of composts in improving soil biodiversity and crop productivity.

M MRSKITHINJIANGELA. "Should Micro-Finance Institutions Worry About the Rate of Interest on Loans they Charge to Small and Micro-Enterprises? The Accountant,.". In: Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya,. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2004. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
Siriba DN, Dalyot S. "Should Volunteered Geographic Information on Land Parcels be Formalized or Coexist with the Formal Land Administration Systems?". In: Joint Workshop Fig Commission 7 and 3 - Crowdsourcing of Land Information & Annual Meeting . Malta, Italy; 2015.
Iraki XN. "Should Wanjiku lose sleep over a weak shilling?" The Standard on Sunday, September 13, 2020:24.
Mailu, S K; Wanyoike SMBGGKLMM; JK;. Should we design extended or straightforward questions for small stock when records are unavailable?.; 2012. Abstract

Data from two closely related questions in a survey on rabbits is analyzed in order to determine whether results from these two groups of questions would yield similar results about numbers of rabbits kept by a household. One question seeks a straightforward answer about numbers of rabbits kept while the other group of questions breaks the question into several questions seeking numbers of rabbits disaggregated by sex and age. This is prompted by the fact that record keeping is not a very common undertaking in a small holder agricultural setting in Kenya and that in their absence, farmers may not recall precisely how many rabbits they own unless a headcount is performed. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant under-reporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm. The results show that such under-reporting is not serious enough. The conclusion is that between the two question modes implemented in the survey, the straightforward question is suitable as it is time saving when the survey data required does not include numbers disaggregated by sex or age of rabbits.

GATHUMBI. PROFPETERKARURI. "Should we design extended or straightforward questions for small stock when records are unavailable?" The Kenya Veterinarian . 2012. Abstract

Data from two closely related questions in a survey on rabbits is analyzed in order to determine
whether results from these two groups of questions would yield similar results about numbers of
rabbits kept by a household. One question seeks a straightforward answer about numbers of
rabbits kept while the other group of questions breaks the question into several questions seeking
numbers of rabbits disaggregated by sex and age. This is prompted by the fact that record
keeping is not a very common undertaking in a small holder agricultural setting in Kenya and
that in their absence, farmers may not recall precisely how many rabbits they own unless a
headcount is performed. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant
underreporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we
hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm. The results show that such
underreporting is not serious enough. The conclusion is that between the two question modes
implemented in the survey, the straightforward question is suitable as it is time saving when the
survey data required does not include numbers disaggregated by sex or age of rabbits.

Iraki XN. "Should We worry about public Debt?" The Sunday Standard, May 31, 2015.
John-Stewart G, R W Nduati. "Should women with HIV-1 infection breastfeed their infants? It depends on the setting.". 2012. Abstract

Breastfeeding is the ideal infant food—it provides both optimal nutrition and numerous factors that contribute to infant immunity, growth, cognition, and health. It also enhances maternal–infant bonding and child-spacing and may provide long-term benefits to mothers. An estimated 7.7 million children under 5 years of age die annually, with >30% dying of infectious diseases [1, 2]. Breastfeeding has been identified as the most effective intervention to prevent under-5 mortality [3]. It was therefore a huge public health and policy challenge to discern the best infant feeding strategy when it was discovered that HIV-1 could be transmitted through breastfeeding. While nonbreastfeeding could entirely prevent transmission of a rapidly fatal infection, implementation of artificial feeding could be associated with increased infant mortality and morbidity. Over the past two decades, mothers, clinicians, and policy makers have wrestled with balancing infant risk of HIV-1 acquisition against risk of infant mortality in the context of concurrently changing interventions that decrease transmission of HIV-1.

Kigera JWM. "Shoulder Injuries.". In: AFEM Handbook of Acute and Emergency Care. Cape Town, South Africa: African Federation for Emergency Medicine; 2014.
Wanambisi MM. "Shreds Of Tenderness .". 2005.Website
Kaoga J, Ouma G, Olago D, Ouma G. "The shrinking grazing fields of the Maasai land under the changing climate system in Kajiado County, Kenya. International Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development.". 2018. Abstract137075-327682-1-pb.pdfWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists have in the last decade experienced disruptions in their economies and livelihoods following climate shifts. For instance, they have been losing up to 30 % of their herd annually to drought related disasters, yet information on the various land uses is still fragmented. This has been worsened by the shortening famine cycles which has impacted pastoral livelihood system as they highly depend on natural resource. Yet, these key resources have been dwindling over the past 30 years compromising their ability to meet basic need such as food. To address this gap, the study focused on long term evaluation of land use. The study’s objective was to determine land use transformations and their impacts particularly on the pastoral livelihood system.

Habwe J. Shujaa Wa Taifa. Pheonix; Forthcoming.
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Shull R.M., S.E. Bunch J.M. Maribei, G.L Spaulding,. (1978). Spur cell anaemia in a Dog. JAVMA 173 (8) 978-982.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1978. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama and S. Palmieri: Monitoring of total ozone using Brewer spectrophotometers in Italy, Bollettino Geofisico, Anno XV, N.5.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Time Series analysis in Astronomy and Meteorology, University of Padova Italy, September 6-10, 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1992. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama, E. Piervitali and S. Palmieri: Solar ultra violet radiation measurements at Rome using Brewer MKIV spectrophotometer no. 67. .". In: Internal publication "Nota interna", Physics department, University of Rome "La Sapienza", January 1994. Eastern and South African Journal; 1994. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama, S. Bruni, S. Giannoccolo, E. Veccia and S. Palmieri: Total ozone time series at Rome: Temporal fluctuations and trend analysis.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Time Series analysis in Astronomy and Meteorology, University of Padova, Italy, September 6-10, 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1993. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Sibanda, B. and Mochache, J. Climate Change and Development: The Way Forward. In Tevera, D. and Ngara T. (Eds). Vulnerability and Adoption to Climate Change in SADEC Regions. SAPES Trust Publicatin Harare (Forthcoming).". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Siboe, G.M. and Lukhoba, C.W., 1998. Plant disease data in planning for sustainable use of African mountain forest resources: Problems and opportunities. In: Francis G. Ojany (ed.), African Mountains and Highlands: Planning for Sustainable Use of Mountain.". In: In: Francis G. Ojany (Ed.),African Mountains and Highlands: Planning for Sustainable Use of Mountain Resources, The United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan.; 1998.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Sichangi M.W., Wango E.O., Oduor Okelo D. and Mwenda J.M.(2000). Endogenous retroviral-like particles expression in male baboon reproductive tissues. Kenya Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society.". In: 25th Annual Conference, 23rd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

Stoute JA, Aluoch JR, Gondi SMO, Odera MM, Estambale BBA, Otieno W. "Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS) is Associated with Increased Expression of Erythrocyte Complement Regulatory Proteins CR1 and CD55 Levels in Children.". 2013. Abstractbenson_b._a._estambale.pdfAbstractAbstract

Erythrocyte complement regulatory proteins, complement receptor 1 (CR1) and decay accelerating factor (CD55) protect red blood cells (RBCs) from complement mediated damage by controlling complement activation cascade and potentially protect RBCs from complement mediated damage that may occur when immune complexes are formed following malaria infection. Given the important role of RBCs in regulation of complement activation, we considered the competence of sickle cell trait RBCs in these functions. Methods: Children (age 0-192 months; n=116) were enrolled in a nested case controlled study conducted in Kombewa Division, Kisumu west District between October and December 2004. Based on hemoglobin (Hb) type, children were stratified into those with HbAS (n=47) and HbAA (n=69). The 47 HbAS individuals were matched to the 69 HbAA individuals of similar age (± 2 months or ± 24 months for those below or more than 192 months, respectively) at a ratio of 1:1 or 1:2. Circulating CR1 levels and CD levels were quantified using a FACScan cytometer under normal and reduced oxygen saturation. Results: The mean CR1 copy numbers per RBC was comparable in the two groups. However, between the ages of 49-192 months, the mean CR1 copy numbers per erythrocyte was significantly higher in children who had HbAS compared to those with HbAA (P=0.0332). The mean CD55 levels were comparable between the two groups but after deoxygenation, the mean CD levels in RBCs of individuals with HbAS was significantly higher than in the HbAA (P=0.011). Conclusion: The mean CR1 and CD55 copy numbers per RBC were comparable between the two groups under normal and reduced oxygen saturation. Beyond the age of 49 months, the CR1 copy numbers was higher in the HbAS compared to HbAA and this was also true for CD55 levels under deoxygenated conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in the younger age groups, the protection afforded by HbAS against severe manifestations of malaria may be due to other factors other than complement regulatory proteins but beyond the age of 49 months, this protection may be partly due to the high CR1 copy numbers in the HbAS individuals.

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