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GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "P M Ongadi, R G Wahome, J W Wakhungu, L O Okitoi and K Otieno, 2006. Bio-economic analysis of expenditure on inputs and output value from crops and grade dairy cattle sub systems in Vihiga, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development Journal 18(12):.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "P. A. Oduol and E. M. W. Akunda. Tropical rainforest tree species with Agroforesty potential.". In: In: trees for development in sub-Saharan Africa. (1989) p. 49 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
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MARY DROMOSA. "P. Alila, D. McCormick & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Introduction. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki , SPH 101: Mechanics I, A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners.". In: published by University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki , SPH 201: Mechanics II, A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners.". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Astronomy in The Cultural Heritage of African Societies, Proceedings of IAU GA XXVI SpS5, Cambridge University Press eds. John Hearnshaw and Peter Martinez.". In: In proceedings: International grasslands congress. Kentucky, USA. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2007.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Contribution of Space Science in the Improvement of Quality of Life.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; Submitted.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Looking for Secrets in the Stars, Society Magazine, East African Standard, Saturday, August 28th (2004).". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, SPH 305: Classical Mechanics , A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners .". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Spreading Astronomy Education through Africa.". In: Proceedings of IAU GA SpS2, Cambridge University Press(2007) eds. Jay M. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2007.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "P. Chitere and P. Kinyori, Action Aid-Kenya Young Farmers Scheme Evaluation, Parts I and II, Nairobi, June 1986.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1986. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "P. Gichangi, Forick K., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kiragu D., Claeyo P., Temmerman M. Partner notification of pregnant women infected with syphilis in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. of STDs and AIDS 11 257, 2000.". In: Int. J. of STDs and AIDS 11 257, 2000. uon press; 2000. Abstract
Reproductive Biology Unit, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dochiel@kisian.mimcom.net The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "P. Gichangi, H. De Vyust, P. Claeys, B. Estambale, J. Bwayo, K. Rogo, M. Temmerman (2002). HIV and cervical cancer in Kenya: A 10 year retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital. Int. J Gynaecol Obst. 76 (1), 55-63.". In: Int. J Gynaecol Obst. 76 (1), 55-63. Taylor & Francis; 2002. Abstract
As part of a larger study on the effects of permethrin-impregnated bednets on the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti, subjects from 12 villages in the Coastal province of Kenya, south of Mombasa, were investigated. The aims were to update the epidemiological data and elucidate the spatial distribution of W. bancrofti infection. Samples of night blood from all the villagers aged i 1 year were checked for the parasite, and all the adult villagers (aged >/= 15 years) were clinically examined for elephantiasis and, if male, for hydrocele. Overall, 16.0% of the 6531 villagers checked for microfilariae (mff) were found microfilaraemic, although the prevalence of microfilaraemia in each village varied from 8.1%-27.4%. The geometric mean intensity of infection among the microfilaraemic was 322 mff/ml blood. At village level, intensity of the microfilaraemia was positively correlated with prevalence, indicating that transmission has a major influence on the prevalence of microfilaraemia. Clinical examination of 2481 adults revealed that 2.9% had elephantiasis of the leg and that 19.9% of the adult men (10.8%-30.1% of the men investigated in each village) had hydrocele. Although the overall prevalence of microfilaraemia in the study villages had not changed much since earlier studies in the 1970s, both prevalence and intensity varied distinctly between the study villages. Such geographical variation over relatively short distances appears to be a common but seldom demonstrated feature in the epidemiology of bancroftian filariasis, and the focal nature of the geographical distribution should be carefully considered by those mapping the disease.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P. Kanyari; P.K, Gathumbi and S. Mbugua (1991). Tyzzer's disease-like in a Kenyan rabbit. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 39: 115-116.". In: Abstracts of the sixth International Congress of Toxicology, Rome, 28 June-3 July 1992, Toxicology Letters Supplement (1992). p. 245. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1991. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1985) The use of skin grafts in the treatment of wounds of the distal limbs in cattle; M.Sc.Thesis in Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1987). Alternatives in the management of limb wounds in cattle; M.V.Sc. Thesis in Veterinary Anesthesiology Radiology and Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1987. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1995). Studies on pseudoarthrosis of the bovine metacarpophalangeal joints; Ph.D. Thesis in Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1995. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "P. M. Guthiga, J. T. Karugia, and R. A. Nyikal .". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2007. Abstract
No abstract available.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "P. O. Alila, W. Odhiambo, M. Khayesi and P. Ove Pedersen, Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.15-16 April, 2002.". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. International Union of Crystallography; 2002. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "P. O. Alila,Mitullah W and Kamau A, 'Policies, Regulations and Organisational Capacity of Women Street Vendors in Kenya, IDS Discussion Paper No.299.". In: 'Policies, Regulations and Organisational Capacity of Women Street Vendors in Kenya, IDS Discussion Paper No.299. International Union of Crystallography; 2000. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "P. P. Wambua, F. D. Juma and W. Gitau. Sorbitol levels in normal Africans and in insulin depended diabetics. East Africa Med. J. Vol. No. 2, 99, 1988.". In: Immunobiology. 1989 Jun;179(2-3):172-89. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1988. Abstract

Specificities of tolerance induced in allogeneic bone marrow (BM) chimeras which had been established by injecting allogeneic BM cells pretreated with anti-Thy-1 mAb alone (without complement (C)) were analyzed using Simonsen's splenomegaly assay. Lymphocytes from fully allogeneic, semi-allogeneic and H-2 subregion compatible BM chimeras were specifically unresponsive to donor and recipient antigens (Ag). However, cells from H-2 subregion compatible chimeras initiated as vigorously a GVHR in F1 recipient mice, which were disparate at H-2K and I-A regions, as did spleen cells of donor mice, which were incompatible at the entire H-2 and minor histocompatibility regions of the recipients. The donor cells from such chimeras that initiated these considerable GVHR were either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, synergistic effects by the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were also observed. We found no evidence for a suppressive mechanism(s) in maintenance of the specific tolerance in allogeneic chimeras. Further, when lymphoid cells from these chimeras were adoptively transferred to irradiated mice of the donor strain and maintained for 5 days in the absence of recipient Ag (tolerogen), the adoptively transferred cells were shown to retain their unresponsiveness to the recipient Ag. These results reveal that T lymphocytes from allogeneic BM chimeras prepared by our method had been specifically induced to a tolerant state to both donor and recipient Ag and that the major mechanism of induction and maintenance of long-lasting tolerance is attributable to clonal deletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets rather than to the development of a population of suppressor cells of any sort.

P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "P. P. Wambua, K. Iwabuchi, K. Ogasawara, Y. Itoh, H. Arase, M. Kajiwara, T. Gotohda, R. A.Good and K. Onoe. Comparative analysis of Thymnocyte and low density adherent cell functions. Microbiology and Immunology Vol. 38 ND 11 page 879 - 890, 1994.". In: Microbiology and Immunology Vol. 38 ND 11 page 879 - 890. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1994. Abstract
Thymocytes which have developed in the C3H thymus showed depressed proliferative responses to stimulation with anti-CD3 antibody as compared with those which have developed in the thymus of other strains of mice (i.e. AKR). The present study was conducted to analyze immunological functions of the thymic stromal cell population (low-density adherent cells, LDAC) in the C3H mice using allogeneic bone marrow (BM) chimeras established by BM transplantation in the reciprocal combination of AKR and C3H mice as donor or recipient. The thymic LDAC from C3H mice or the [AKR(donor)–>C3H(recipient)] chimeras contained a high proportion of Mac-1+ cells as compared to AKR mice or the [C3H–>AKR] chimeras. The proportion of Mac-1+ cells paralleled the IL-1- and PGE2-secreting ability of the LDAC cultured either in the presence or absence of LPS and also paralleled the antigen-presenting cell functions of the LDAC. Furthermore, after anti-CD3 stimulation the PGE2 inhibited more profoundly proliferative responses of [AKR–>C3H] or normal C3H thymocytes than those of the [C3H–>AKR] chimera or normal AKR thymocytes. A PGE2 inhibitor, indomethacin, reversed the depressed responses of the thymocytes which had developed in the C3H thymus. These findings suggest that the lower responsiveness of thymocytes from [AKR–>C3H] chimeras to anti-CD3 stimulation may be attributable to large amounts of PGE2 secreted by LDAC and/or to increased sensitivity of thymocytes themselves to PGE2.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2001). "Efficacy of alphamethrin (Dominex.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1982). " Goat Trypanosomiasis: Effect of chemotherapy using isometamedium chloride on production in three goat breeds". Kenya Veterinarian 6 (2): 9.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1988). " Caprine coccidiosis". The Australian Goat World 39:3.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1988). " Coccidiosis in goats and aspects of epidemiology."Australian Veterinary Journal. 65 (8):257- 258.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1988). " Experimental nfections with coccidiosis and serum antibody quantitation in two breeds of goats". Veterinary Parasitology. 28: 11 - 18.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1989). " Experimental coccidiosis in the goat Capra hircus: Observations on the ultrastructural aspects of Eimeria apsheronica macrogametogenesis". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. Special Issue.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. September 19th - 21st, 1990. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1989). " Experimental coccidiosis in the goat Capra hircus: Observations on the ultrastructural aspects of Eimeria apsheronica macrogametogenesis". Kenya Veterinary Association.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1990). " Development of Eimeria apsheronica in Goats Capra hircus: Endogenous development and host cellular response."International Journal for Parasitology. 20: 625 - 630.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1990). " Immunohistological demonstration of antigenecity of the various endogenous stages of in goats".". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. September 19th - 21st, 1990. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1990). " Prevalence of coccidia oocysts in sheep and goat faecal samples. A preliminary report based on laboratory records." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 38 (4): 473 - 474.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1991). " Effects of Corticosteroids on natural and experimental caprine coccidial infections". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 39 (3):351 - 353.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1992). " Toxocara vitulorum infection in the bovine".". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1993). The relationship between coccidial and helminth infections in sheep and goats in Kenya". Veterinary Parasitology, 51: 137 - 141.". In: Third Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Ruminant Helminth Research Project, Samora Mitchel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. January 24th - 27th, 1994. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1994). " Immunohistological demonstration of antigenecity of various endogenous stages of Eimeria in goats." Veterinary Research Communications, 18: 295 - 299.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI and J.G. KAGIRA ( 2000). "The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in cattle in a high potential area of Kenya: A quantitative analysis". Ondersterpoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 67:157 - 161.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, E. W. ALLONBY, A. J. WILSON, W. K.MUNYUA (1983). "Some economic effects of trypanosomiasis in goats." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 15: 153- 159.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1983. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, J. N. CHEGE, W.K. MUNYUA, & J.NGOTHO ( 1996). Experimental infection of rabbits (Orytolagus cuniculus) with Toxocara vitulorum from calves. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 44: 257 - 258.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, P. K. GATHUMBI and S. M. MBUGUA (1991). " Tyzzer's disease in Kenya rabbit . A case report". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39: 115 - 116.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, A. J. WILSON (1986). "Goat Trypanosomiasis:Trypanotolerance and Epidemiology among goat breeds in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 34: 93 - 97.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, A. J. WILSON, E. W. ALLONBY (1982) "Trypanotolerance and economics among East African goats compared to their crosses with two exotic Breeds". In Karbe, E. and Freitas, E. K. (Eds); pp. 93 - 99.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, and J. W. NGOTHO (1993). Toxocara vitulorum infections in cattle in Kajiado District, Kenya".". In: Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastrointestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. January 18th - 22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, J. N. CHEGE, J. W. NGOTHO, and J.GICHANGA (1994). " Toxocara vitulorum - Kajiado District, Kenya: Prevalence of infection in calves, larval isolation from colostral milk and experimental infections in rabbits.". In: Third Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Ruminant Helminth Research Project, Samora Mitchel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. January 24th - 27th, 1994. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA & J. NGOTHO. (1995). "Toxocara vitulorum infections in cattle in Kajiado District, Kenya". Bulletin of Animal Health & Production in Africa, 3:11-5.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, J. C. NG'ANG'A and J. NGOTHO ( 1996). Epidemiology of bovine Toxocara vitulorum in faecal and milk samples in Kenya. 17 Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 44:255 - 256.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, J. C. NGANGA ( 2000). "The African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer): gastro-intestinal parasites with special reference to Toxocara spp in Kenya. Tanzanian Veterinary Journal 20: 57-63.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID, MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC. "P.A. Odhiambo., A.Opiyo., I. Macharia., P. Akuku Okoth. Some rare lesions of the oesophagus: Case reports.". In: Medicom 1999; 14(2): 43-46. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "P.B. Gichangi, J. Bwayo, B. Estambale, H. De Vyust, S. Ojwang, K. Rogo, H. Abwao, M. Temmerman (2003). The Impact of HIV infection on invasive cervical cancer in Kenyan women. AIDS 17: 1963 .". In: AIDS 17: 1963 . Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
As part of a larger study on the effects of permethrin-impregnated bednets on the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti, subjects from 12 villages in the Coastal province of Kenya, south of Mombasa, were investigated. The aims were to update the epidemiological data and elucidate the spatial distribution of W. bancrofti infection. Samples of night blood from all the villagers aged i 1 year were checked for the parasite, and all the adult villagers (aged >/= 15 years) were clinically examined for elephantiasis and, if male, for hydrocele. Overall, 16.0% of the 6531 villagers checked for microfilariae (mff) were found microfilaraemic, although the prevalence of microfilaraemia in each village varied from 8.1%-27.4%. The geometric mean intensity of infection among the microfilaraemic was 322 mff/ml blood. At village level, intensity of the microfilaraemia was positively correlated with prevalence, indicating that transmission has a major influence on the prevalence of microfilaraemia. Clinical examination of 2481 adults revealed that 2.9% had elephantiasis of the leg and that 19.9% of the adult men (10.8%-30.1% of the men investigated in each village) had hydrocele. Although the overall prevalence of microfilaraemia in the study villages had not changed much since earlier studies in the 1970s, both prevalence and intensity varied distinctly between the study villages. Such geographical variation over relatively short distances appears to be a common but seldom demonstrated feature in the epidemiology of bancroftian filariasis, and the focal nature of the geographical distribution should be carefully considered by those mapping the disease.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P.Baki .". In: University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999.
S. PROFNTEEREJACOB. "P.E versus Militarism in the British Education system 1870-1925.". In: Seminar, University of Manchester, 1981. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1981. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "P.Gichangi, B. Estambale, J. Bwayo, K. Rogo, A. Opiyo, M. Temmerman (2003). Knowledge and practice about cervical cancer and Pap smear testing among patients at Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 13: 1 .". In: Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 13: 1 . Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
As part of a larger study on the effects of permethrin-impregnated bednets on the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti, subjects from 12 villages in the Coastal province of Kenya, south of Mombasa, were investigated. The aims were to update the epidemiological data and elucidate the spatial distribution of W. bancrofti infection. Samples of night blood from all the villagers aged i 1 year were checked for the parasite, and all the adult villagers (aged >/= 15 years) were clinically examined for elephantiasis and, if male, for hydrocele. Overall, 16.0% of the 6531 villagers checked for microfilariae (mff) were found microfilaraemic, although the prevalence of microfilaraemia in each village varied from 8.1%-27.4%. The geometric mean intensity of infection among the microfilaraemic was 322 mff/ml blood. At village level, intensity of the microfilaraemia was positively correlated with prevalence, indicating that transmission has a major influence on the prevalence of microfilaraemia. Clinical examination of 2481 adults revealed that 2.9% had elephantiasis of the leg and that 19.9% of the adult men (10.8%-30.1% of the men investigated in each village) had hydrocele. Although the overall prevalence of microfilaraemia in the study villages had not changed much since earlier studies in the 1970s, both prevalence and intensity varied distinctly between the study villages. Such geographical variation over relatively short distances appears to be a common but seldom demonstrated feature in the epidemiology of bancroftian filariasis, and the focal nature of the geographical distribution should be carefully considered by those mapping the disease.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "P.H. Rees, P.A. Kager, M.R. Murithi, P.P. Wambua, S.D. Shah and A.E. Butterworth. Tuberculin sensitivity in Kala-azar. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medical and Hygiene: Vol. 75 No. 5,630, 1981.". In: Immunobiology. 1989 Jun;179(2-3):172-89. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1981. Abstract

Specificities of tolerance induced in allogeneic bone marrow (BM) chimeras which had been established by injecting allogeneic BM cells pretreated with anti-Thy-1 mAb alone (without complement (C)) were analyzed using Simonsen's splenomegaly assay. Lymphocytes from fully allogeneic, semi-allogeneic and H-2 subregion compatible BM chimeras were specifically unresponsive to donor and recipient antigens (Ag). However, cells from H-2 subregion compatible chimeras initiated as vigorously a GVHR in F1 recipient mice, which were disparate at H-2K and I-A regions, as did spleen cells of donor mice, which were incompatible at the entire H-2 and minor histocompatibility regions of the recipients. The donor cells from such chimeras that initiated these considerable GVHR were either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, synergistic effects by the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were also observed. We found no evidence for a suppressive mechanism(s) in maintenance of the specific tolerance in allogeneic chimeras. Further, when lymphoid cells from these chimeras were adoptively transferred to irradiated mice of the donor strain and maintained for 5 days in the absence of recipient Ag (tolerogen), the adoptively transferred cells were shown to retain their unresponsiveness to the recipient Ag. These results reveal that T lymphocytes from allogeneic BM chimeras prepared by our method had been specifically induced to a tolerant state to both donor and recipient Ag and that the major mechanism of induction and maintenance of long-lasting tolerance is attributable to clonal deletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets rather than to the development of a population of suppressor cells of any sort.

KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi (1989). A review on immunoperoxidase technique as diagnostic tool. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 1: 189-191.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, Kabete, April, 18-2.0, 1990. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1989. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi, G.M. Mugera, S.M. Njiro and J.W. Mwangi. Toxicity of a chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Pygeum africanum) in rats: Biochemical changes.". In: IFS Scientific workshop for East African Grantees, (Animal production), Sheraton Kampala, Uganda, April 19-22, 1993. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1993. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi, G.M. Mugera; S.M. Njiro and J.W. Mwangi. Toxicity of a chloroform extract of Prunus africana Hook. (Pygeum africanum) stem-bark in rats -Haematological, biochemical and pathological changes (poster).". In: Abstracts of the sixth International Congress of Toxicology, Rome, 28 June-3 July 1992, Toxicology Letters Supplement (1992). p. 245. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1992. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi, G.N. Thoithi, J.W. Mwangi, I.O. Kibwage, N. Maingi, R. Pelle and J.Wando. Evaluation of effects of plant extracts on trypanosomes,.". In: Agricultural Research Fund (ARF) end of project conference, KARI, Nairobi, Kenya, 2nd-4th Dec. 2003. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2003. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi, J.W. Mwangi, G.M. Mugera and S.M. Njiro (2002). Toxicity of Chloroform extract of Prunus africana stem bark in rats. Gross and histological lesions. Phytotherapy Research 16: 244-247.". In: Proceedings of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association (IVRA) Congress 18th . Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2002. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "P.K. Gathumbi, J.W. Mwangi, S.M. Njiro and G.M Mugera (2000). Biochemical and hematological changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dosage levels. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Research 67: 123-128.". In: Onderstepoort J. Vet. Research 67: 123-128. The Kenya Medical Association; 2000. Abstract
An aqueous extract of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm. (syn. Pygeum africanum) (Hook. f.) (Rosaceae) was administered daily at dosage rates of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg body mass to randomized groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The extract caused a moderate rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase mainly at rates of 1,000 mg/kg body mass, but it did not cause any significant variations in haematological parameters or in plasma levels of total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen at the dosage levels used.There were no overt clinical signs in any of the rats. It was concluded that the extract may contain components that are mildly toxic to the liver and heart of rats after repeated daily oral administrations of 1,000 mg/kg body mass.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi, J.W. Mwangi, S.M. Njiro and G.M. Mugera (2000). Biochemical and haematologicla changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dose levels. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 67:123-128.". In: Proceedings of the first national workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Naivasha, Kenya, 29 Oct. to 3rd Nov. 2001. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2000. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi, R.Pelle, J. Wando, G. Thoithi, J.W. Mwangi, I.O. Kibwage and N. Maingi.. A baseline study on plants used to treat animal trypanosomosis in Kenya: a community based approach.". In: Proceedings of the first national workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Naivasha, Kenya, 29 Oct. to 3rd Nov. 2001. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2001. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi, V.J. Varma, and C. Wells (2001) Pathological and ultra structural features of equine Klossiellosis. Kenya Veterinarian 21: 45-48.". In: Proceedings of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association (IVRA) Congress 18th . Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2001. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi. Immunohistological demonstration of canine distemper viral antigen in paraffin embedded tissues using the peroxidase technique - a retrospective study.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, Kabete, April 22-24, 1992. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1992. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi. Immunohistological diagnosis of rinderpest.". In: Proceedings of IFS/SIPATH Seminar on Animal Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, September 20-25, 1993. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1993. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi. Pathological and ultra structural features of equine Klossiellosis.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Embu April 22-24, 1998. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1998. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi. Verminous pneumonia due to Aelustrongylus abstrusus in a cat.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, Kabete, April, 18-2.0, 1990. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1990. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K. Gathumbi; J.S. Wafula; H.M. Wamwayi and P.G. Mbuthia (1990). Immunohistological confirmation of a diagnosis of Rinderpest from a recent natural outbreak. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 38: 375-377.". In: Proceedings of 9th SR-CRISP Scientific Workshop, KETRI Muguga, Kenya, 27-28th February 1991. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1990. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "P.K.Gathumbi, J.W.Mwangi, G.M. Mugera and S.M.Njiro (2000). Toxicity of chloroform extract of Prunus africana stem-bark in rats: Biochemistry and haematological changes. Pharmaceutical Biology 38: 374-378.". In: Proceedings of the first national workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Naivasha, Kenya, 29 Oct. to 3rd Nov. 2001. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2000. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "P.L. Legge, J.O. Barongo, N. Opiyo-Akech, E.M. Mathu & I.O. Nyambok (1996) .". In: Ph.D. thesis, University of Nairobi, 338p. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "P.L. Woomer, N.K. Karanja and J.R. Okalebo, 1999. Opportunities for improving integrated nutrient management by smallhol farmers in the Central Highlands of Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 441-454.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
n/a
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "P.L. Woomer, N.K. Karanja and J.R. Okalebo, 1999. Opportunities for improving integrated nutrient management by smallhol farmers in the Central Highlands of Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 441-454.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "P.M Mwanyumba, A. Mwang.". In: Proceedings of the 1st conference of the Crop Science Society of Kenya. Vol. 1:62- 77. Livestock Research for Rural Development 22(2): 1-13 (2010).; 2010. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "P.M Mwanyumba, R.G. Wahome, A. Mwang.". In: Proceedings of the 1st conference of the Crop Science Society of Kenya. Vol. 1:62- 77. Livestock Research for Rural Development 22(3):1-13(2010).; 2010. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "P.M Syagga, B Waswa-Sabuni, G.N Kamau and S.O Dulo (2003). Rice Husk Ash Cement - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement for Kenyan Building Industry.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT Vol. 8, March 2003, pg 13-26. UNDPCap-Net, March 2009.; 2003.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "P.M Syagga, B Waswa-Sabuni, G.N Kamau and S.O Dulo (2003). Utilisation of Agro Based Pozzolanas in the Building Industry in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the International Civil Engineering Conference on Sustainable Development in the 21st Century, 12th . HABRI,UoN; 2003.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "P.M Syagga, B. Waswa-Sabuni, G.N Kamau and S.O Dulo (2001). Potential for the Use of Rice Husk Ash as a Pozzolana in the Building Industry in Kenya.". In: 4. Discovery and Innovations Vol. 13 No 3/4.Dec 2001, ISSN: 1015-079X. HABRI,UoN; 2001.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "P.M. Mbithi and J. Mbula Bahemuka. Socio-economic Factors Influencing Technical Farm Development in the Arid/semi-Arid Lands of Kenya. For the Ministry of Agriculture, 1981.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1981.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "P.M. Mbithi and J. Mbula. "Drought Faminine, Migration, Agricultural Development and Local Capacity". Ford Foundation, 1978.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1978.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "P.M. Mbithi, J.G. Donders, S.E. Migot-Adholla and J. Mbula. "Towards Strategies for Intensified Social Development". For the Kenya National Development Plan, 1979 to 1983.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1983.
"P.M. NJOGUI, G.N. THOITHI, J.W. MWANGI, F.N KAMAU, I.0. KIBWAGE, S.T. KARlUKI, A. YENESEW, H.N. MUGOI AND J.M. MWALUKUMBI. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)." East and Central Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011;14(3):89-94. Abstract

Root and stem extracts of Girardinia diversifolia exhibited varying degrees of activity
against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger,
Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three compounds namely ~-sitosterol, 7bydroxysitosterol
and 3-bydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one, were isolated from the petroleum
ether root extract. The present study gives scientific credence to the traditional use of
Girardinia diversifolia in the management of microbial infections.

M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "P.M. Shiundu* and A.P. Wade: .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XVII, Cleveland, October 1990. AWC and FES; 1990. Abstract
n/a
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "P.M. Shiundu, A.P. Wade, P.D. Wentzell, and J.A. Horner: .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1988. Abstract
n/a
FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA. "P.M.F Mbithi, E.M. Njoroge, J.M.Gathuma, T.M. Wachira, J.K. Magambo, S. Njiru and E. Zeyhle (2005). Evaluation of Ethyl Alcohol in Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis using Puncture Aspiration Introduction Reaspiration (PAIR) Technique. Journal of Animal a.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P.M.F. Mbithi (1998). An overview of postgraduate training in veterinary clinics worldwide. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 217-221.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

M DRMOGOAEDDYG. "P.M.F. Mbithi, C.M. Mulei, and E.G.M. Mogoa .". In: The Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Anaesthesilogists. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2003. Abstract
test
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "P.M.F. Mbithi, E.M. Njoroge, J.M. Gathuma, T. M. Wachira, J. K. Magambo, S. Njiru, and E. Zeyhle (2005) Evaluation of Ethyl Alcohol in Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis Using Puncture, Aspiration, Introduction, Reaspiration (PAIR) Technique.". In: Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4 (3): 414-416. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Nduhiu and J.K. Mahia (1998). Incidence of animal skin surface infections and its correlation to environmental contamination: a clinical and experimental study. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 221-224.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

MUTUIRI DRBURURIAJOHN, NDIRANGU DKARIMIPETER, MAHINDRA DRMARUSHITAL, MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "P.N. Karimi, S.M. Maru, J.M. Bururia, K.A.M. Kuria and P.A. Odhiambo (2006). Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.9:71-73.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. Taylor & Francis; 2006. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTUIRI DRBURURIAJOHN, NDIRANGU DKARIMIPETER, MAHINDRA DRMARUSHITAL, MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "P.N. Karimi, S.M. Maru, J.M. Bururia, K.A.M. Kuria and P.A. Odhiambo (2006). Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.9:71-73.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. au-ibar; 2006. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTUIRI DRBURURIAJOHN, NDIRANGU DKARIMIPETER, MAHINDRA DRMARUSHITAL, MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "P.N. Karimi, S.M. Maru, J.M. Bururia, K.A.M. Kuria and P.A. Odhiambo (2006). Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.9:71-73.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 2006. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTUIRI DRBURURIAJOHN, NDIRANGU DKARIMIPETER, MAHINDRA DRMARUSHITAL, MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "P.N. Karimi, S.M. Maru, J.M. Bururia, K.A.M. Kuria and P.A. Odhiambo (2006). Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.9:71-73.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga (1989): Diseases of Crocodiles in respect to meat inspection.". In: KVA meeting Mombasa, 4th September, 1989. au-ibar; 1989. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga (1989): Poxvirus in skin lesions of five nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Kenya.". In: KVA Scientific meeting on epidemic diseases, 27-28 July 1989, Nyeri, Kenya. au-ibar; 1989. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga and J.M. Gathuma. Some observations on Taenia sarginata cysticercosis in Kenya slaughter cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth, Prod. Afric. Vol.27 (1), 1979: 51-59.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga and L.C. Bebora (1988). Zoonotic human chlamydiosis of avian origin:.". In: Presented at the XVA Scientific meeting on Zoonoses, 3rd November, 1988, ILRAD, Kenya. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, E. Shimanter, J.L. Kassiti, Y. Weisman, M.J.Macharia and M.Lipkind.(1996): Identification of Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) isolated from flamingo in Kenya and Israel.". In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Jerusalem, Israel, 4-9th August, 1996. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, Epidemiology of Equine influenza, risk by age sex and breed. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of M.P.V.M. Degree, University of California, Davis, July, 1975.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1975. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "P.N. Nyaga, J. Kasiti, E.S. Kilelu (1997). Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in indigenous chicken in Western and Machakos districts Kenya Veterinary Journal.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1997. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "P.N. Nyaga, J. Kasiti, E.S. Kilelu (1999) Serological prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in Kiambu district. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Vol. 107 N.o. 97. p39-41.". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 1999. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "P.N. Nyaga, J. Kasiti, E.S. Kilelu, J.B. Nyamwange, S. Nyamwange (1999) Prevalence of foot and mouth disease in Kitale District. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Published in Nairobi.". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 1999. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, J.M. Gathuma and J.S. Kaminjolo. Parasites found on and in five marabou stock(Leptoptilos crumeniferus) in a sub-urban area of Nairobi. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol.31 (1). 1983: 79-82.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, J.S. Kaminjolo, E.R. Mutiga, and L.C. Bebora. Occurrence of atypical fowlpox in poultry farms in Kenya. Avian Dis. Vol. 23 (31, 1979: 745- 752.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, J.S. Kaminjolo, J.M. Gathuma, J.K. Omuse, F.M.K. Nderu and J.N. Gicho. Prevalence of antibodies to parainfluenza virus-3 (Pl-3) in various wildlife pecies and cattle sharing the same habitats in Kenya.Journ.Wild. Dis.17(4), 981: 605-608.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora and J.S. Kaminjolo. Occurence of Shigella dysenteriae - 3 in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. (1985) 33: 173-174.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, M.M. Kagiko, and J.M. Gathuma. Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermenting milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Prod. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 30(1), 1982: 19.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga. In vitro cell-virus interations associated with bovine herpesvirus - and peripheral bovine blood cellular components. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of California, Davis, .". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1975. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga. The role of animal management in the control of Coccidiosis. Proceedings, Animal Production Society of Kenya. Vol. 12, 1979/80: 47-50.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N.Nyaga and D.G. McKercher. Pathogenesis of Bovine herpesvirus - (BHV-l) infections: interactions of the virus with peripheral bovine blood component. Com. Immuno. Microbio, Inf. Dis. Vol. 2. 1980: 587-702.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N.Nyaga, A.D. Wiggins and W.A. Priester. Epidemiology of equine influenza, risk by age breed and sex Comp. Immuno. Microbiol. Infec. Dis.Vol. 3. 1981:67-83.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N.Nyaga, C.G. Ndiritu, S.M. Njiro and S.W. Mbugua. Canine pulmonary geotrichosis in Kenya. Kenya Vet. Vol. 4, 1980: 6-9.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "P.O. Alila and Poul ove Pedersen eds, Negotiating Social Space: East African Micro Enterprises, Trenton N J: Africa World Press Inc. 2001 ISBN 0-86543-964 -8 (pbk).". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. International Union of Crystallography; 2001. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "P.O. Alila, and Mitullah W, Enhancing Lobbying Capacity of Women Street Vendors: The Challenges in the Kenyan Policy Environment. IDS Occasional Paper.". In: Enhancing Lobbying Capacity of Women Street Vendors: The Challenges in the Kenyan Policy Environment. IDS Occasional Paper. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "P.P Wambua. Functional and Phenotypic analysis of thymic low density adherent cells from murine bone marrow chimeras - Influence on thymocyte differentiation. The Hokkaido Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 67, No. 3 1992.". In: The Hokkaido Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 67, No. 3. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1992. Abstract
Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated a malfunction of the thymus of C3H mice to induce normal level of thymocyte differentiation. Thymocytes developed in the C3H thymus showed depressed proliferative responses to stimulation with anti-CD3 antibody compared with those developed in the other strains. This study was conducted to analyze immunological functions of the thymic stromal cell population in the C3H mice. Using allogeneic bone marrow (BM) chimeras established by reciprocal combination of AKR and C3H mice as donor or recipient, antigen presenting cell (APC) function of low density adherent cells (LDAC) in the thymus was analyzed. The thymic LDAC from C3H mice or [AKR––C3H] BM chimeras where AKR were BM donors and C3H were recipients contained high proportion of Mac-1+ cells as compared to AKR mice or [C3H––AKR] chimeras. The proportion of Mac-1+ cells paralleled the IL-1 secreting ability of the LDAC. Thus, the higher proportion of Mac-1+ cell in the thymus may be responsible for low accessory function observed in C3H thymuses. However, when APC function was analyzed using various T cell hybridomas or a T cell line, the APC functions did not necessarily correlate to the proportions of Mac-1+ cells and amounts of IL-1 produced by the LDAC. When proliferative responses of thymocytes to anti-CD3 stimulation were analyzed in the presence of prostaglandins, PGE-2 inhibited more profoundly the responses of [AKR––C3H] and normal C3H mice than those of [C3H––AKR] and normal AKR mice. Furthermore, a prostaglandin inhibitor, indomethacin, reversed the depressed responses of the former thymocytes which had developed in the C3H thymus. These findings suggest that the hyporesponsiveness of thymocytes from [AKR––C3H] chimeras to anti-CD3 stimulation may be attributable to their increased sensitivity to prostaglandin produced by LDAC.
JOHN DRYABS. "P.T.A - A Promising Market for Kenyan Manufactured Goods.". In: Business Journal, V.III No.12. SITE; Submitted. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.W. Maina, G.M. Mugera, J.M. Maribei and P.N. Nyaga. The control and prevention of sub-clinical mastitis in Kenya (1985). Kenya Vet. Vol. 9(2): 6-8.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W. N. KANYARI. (1996). A comparison of the ultrastructural aspects of macrogametogenic stages of two Eimeria species of goats. Discovery and Innovation, 8:181-188.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI (1986). " Ultrastructural studies of Eimeria apsheronica in goats". Sixth International.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI and WAWERU, J.G. ( 1999). Differences in Breed Responses to experimental Fasciola gigantica infection in sheep.". In: 9th International Conference of Institutes of Tropical Veterinary Medicine. 14th to 18th September. Harare, Zimbabwe. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI et. al. ( 1998). Cryptosporidium parvum: Histopathological Evidence of Transplacental Transmission in mice.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. August 5th - 7th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI et. al. ( 1998). Occurrence of the Nematode Parasite Toxocara sp. In the African Buffalo ( Syncerus caffer):.". In: 7th Annual Seminar ENRECA Livestock Helminth 25 Research Project. 27th April to 1st May, Arusha Tanzania. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI et. al. ( 1999). The African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Gastro-intestinal Parasites with special reference to Toxocara sp. in Kenya.". In: WAAVP Conference, August 15th - 19th. Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, A. OYEJIDE, J. ALAK, D. ANDERSON, S.T. WILSON and K.K. SRIVASTAVA ( 2002). "Cryptosporidium parvum: experimental transmission in murine hosts". Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 57(2): 70 - 75.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, et. al. ( 2001). Cryptosporidiosis: Transplacental Transmission in Immunosuppressed mice and Possible Relation to AIDS in Humans.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, OYEJIDE,A.O., ALAK, J.I.B., OYEWOLE, A., ANDERSON, D.L., WILSON, S.T. (1998). "Cryposporidium parvum: Histopathological evidence of transplacental transmission in mice". The Kenya Veterinarian 23:103-105.". In: WAAVP Conference, August 15th - 19th. Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, Weda E. and Otieno, R. ( 2001). Use of medicated urea molasses blocks [ MUMB] to control gastro-intestinal nematodosis in calves in a semi-arid environment.". In: The 10th International Conference of the Association for Tropical Veterinary Medicine [ AITVM]. 20th - 23rd August, Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N.KANYARI (1985). "Studies in goat coccidiosis: Effects of corticosteroids on natural and experimental infections". Australian Society for Parasitologists.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1985. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
S Masoud AK, JOSHI MD, Otieno CF, Acharya K. "P24 Quality of glycemic control among insulin treated ambulatory patients with diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta national hospital." Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2014;103:s39. AbstractWebsite

Methods: Retrospective study was done and analysed by SPSS programm version 15, whereby a total of 652 patients aged above 18 years, tested for lipids profile and using HAART for not less than 9 months were recruited from 5 care and treatment centres out of 15 centres from Ilala district in Dar es salaam. This study was done for one year from January, 2011 to December 2011. Results: Out of 652 people living with HIV/AIDS 332 (50.9%) were females and 320 (49.1%) were males. About 60% of participants were obese, and about ...

NGANGA DRWAWERUFRANK. "Pacific Medical Center Thyroid Cancer Review, 1994 (I.A.E.A Technical Report.". In: proceedings. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1994. Abstract
Previous study by our group (Genigiorges V. Symposium W.A. WF.H P 473 1969; Genigeorgis et al App Microbiology 21: 934: 1971) have indicated that the probability of one staphylococcus cell initiating growth in foods is dependent on the magnitude of the various chemicals parameters of the food and the environment.  The study has indicated that, as the environment becomes more inhibitory, a heavier level of staphylococcal contamination is required to initiate growth.
NDUNG’U GM, Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Onyango JF. "Paediatric Craniomaxillofacial Trauma at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A 6-months study of Occurrence Pattern." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2019;2 (6):14-20.
Kitonyi G.W, Githang’a J.N RMJAWO. "Paediatric Thrombosis in Kenya ." Journal of Haemostasis and Thrombosis. 2009;7(Supplement 2):452.
8. Kitonyi G.W, Githang'a JW RJAMOW. "Paeditric thrombosis in Kenya." J Haem Thromb. 2009;7(2):452.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Pain and stress in the human fetus.Smith RP, Gitau R, Glover V, Fisk NM.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Sep;92(1):161-5.". In: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Sep;92(1):161-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
Invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques are increasingly applied to the fetus. It is not known if the fetus feels pain during such procedures, but the fetus does mount significant stress hormonal and circulatory changes in response to these from 18-20 weeks. Perinatal stress may have long-term neurodevelopmental implications. During open fetal surgery, maternal general anaesthesia provides fetal anaesthesia. However, in closed procedures, fetal analgesia presents difficulties. The optimal drug, dose, and route of administration remain to be determined.
Nshimirimana DA, Uwurukundo JMC, Kokonya D, Biraboneye P, Were F, Baribwira C. "Pain Assessment among African Neonates." American Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;2(2). AbstractWebsite

Neonates who require treatment and venous drawing of blood samples in the newborn units are subjected to acute and painfully invasive procedures. Several tools to assess pain among newborns have been developed and are widely used in developed countries, but in Africa, there is limited experience in the assessment pain among newborns. This study assessed physiological and behavioral responses to pain among neonates during invasive procedures performed in a newborn unit in Rwanda. A total of 60 neonates born at gestational age of 28-42 weeks at the National University of Rwanda Teaching and Referral Hospital in the year 2005 were enrolled into this study. Blood pressures, heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation levels, the Neonatal Facing Coding System (NFCS) and Neonatal Acute Pain (APN) pain tools were and scores recorded before, immediately and 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after procedures were recorded. Physiological parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test while the NFCS and APN were compared using the McNemar Test. All (100%) neonates experienced acutely peak pain in the first 5 minutes of the invasive procedures with peak responses recorded at 2.5 minutes and no pain (resolution) after 15 minutes among 81% of the neonates and only 6% experienced pain after 20 minutes. The increases in systolic blood pressures immediately after inflicting pain, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.005 and p<0.046) respectively compared to the diastolic blood pressures whose significant increases were at 5 and 10 minutes, (p<0.001 and p<0.001) respectively. Respiratory rates were significantly high at the onset (p<0.001), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes later (p<0.002). Heart rates significantly increased at the onset of the procedures (p<0.000), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and after 10 minutes (p<0.033). Decrease in oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures was significant (p<0.001). Oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures significantly increased up to 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes (p<0.001). Invasive procedures caused acute pain among neonates in the African settings but to date, neonatal practice had not been given its due consideration with the aim of reducing pain among African neonates.

Keywords: Pain, Assessment, Neonates, Physiological, APN, NFCS, Africa

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Pain. A Brief Appraisal.". In: Calcutta Medical College Magazine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1967. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Pain.Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Aug;2(3):324-326. No abstract available. PMID: 12160456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher].". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1995. Abstract
Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Pakenham-Walsh N, Bukachi F. Information needs of health care workers in developing countries: a literature review with a focus on Africa. Hum Resour Health. 2009 Apr 8;7:30.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2009. Abstract

Health care workers in developing countries continue to lack access to basic, practical information to enable them to deliver safe, effective care. This paper provides the first phase of a broader literature review of the information and learning needs of health care providers in developing countries.A Medline search revealed 1762 papers, of which 149 were identified as potentially relevant to the review. Thirty-five of these were found to be highly relevant. Eight of the 35 studies looked at information needs as perceived by health workers, patients and family/community members; 14 studies assessed the knowledge of health workers; and 8 looked at health care practice.The studies suggest a gross lack of knowledge about the basics on how to diagnose and manage common diseases, going right across the health workforce and often associated with suboptimal, ineffective and dangerous health care practices. If this level of knowledge and practice is representative, as it appears to be, it indicates that modern medicine, even at a basic level, has largely failed the majority of the world's population. The information and learning needs of family caregivers and primary and district health workers have been ignored for too long. Improving the availability and use of relevant, reliable health care information has enormous potential to radically improve health care worldwide.

PMID: 19356239 [PubMed - in process]

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Pal S, Sahni P, Pande GK, Acharya SK, Chattopadhyay TK.Outcome following emergency surgery for refractory severe ulcerative colitis in a tertiary care centre in India.BMC Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov 30;5:39.". In: BMC Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov 30;5:39. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Steroid-based intensive medical therapy for severe ulcerative colitis is successful in 60-70% of such patients. Patients with complications or those refractory to medical therapy require emergency colectomy for salvage. Little is known about the impact of timing of surgical intervention and surgical outcomes of such patients undergoing emergency surgery in India where the diagnosis is often delayed or missed in patients who are poor, malnourished and non-compliant to medical treatment. METHODS: The clinical records of all patients undergoing emergency surgery for severe ulcerative colitis or its complication in the Department of GI surgery AIIMS, New Delhi, India, between January 1985 and December 2003 were retrieved and data pertaining to demographic features, duration of intensive medical therapy, presence of complications, time from admission to emergency surgery, surgical procedure, in-hospital morbidity and mortality and follow up status extracted. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients underwent emergency surgery (Subtotal colectomy: 60; ileostomy alone under local anaesthesia: 12). Poor nutritional status was seen in 61% of the patients. Twenty-one patients (29%) underwent emergency surgery for complications of severe ulcerative colitis such as colonic perforation (spontaneous 6, iatrogenic 4), massive lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage (5), toxic megacolon (4) and large bowel obstruction (2). The remaining patients (n = 51) underwent emergency surgery following failed intensive therapy; 17 underwent surgery < or = 5 days (Group I) and 34 were operated > 5 days (Group II) after initiation of intensive therapy. In this group all the post-operative deaths (n = 8) occurred in those who were operated after 5 days. The difference in mortality in these two groups (i.e. surgical intervention < or = or > 5 days) was statistically significant {0/17 (Group I) vs 8/34 (Group II); p = 0.03}. Overall, 12 patients died (in-hospital mortality: 16.7%). The mortality was higher (10/43; 23.3%) in our early experience (i.e. 1985-1995) when compared to our subsequent experience (2/29; 6.9%) (1996-2003). A total of 48 patients (including 3 awaiting a restorative procedure) are alive on follow up (66.7%; 3 patients lost to follow up). A restorative procedure could be successfully completed in 81% of the survivors of the emergency procedure. CONCLUSION: To optimize the outcome, a combined team of physicians and surgeons should be involved in the management of patients with severe ulcerative colitis with focus on nutritional support, correction of metabolic derangements, close clinical monitoring and timely assessment for the need for emergency surgery. This retrospective analysis shows that improved results can be achieved with experience and by following a policy of early surgical intervention within 5 days, especially in patients who have failed intensive medical therapy.
Junginger A, Olago DO, Trauth MH. "The palaeo-lake Suguta and its importance for understanding lake level fluctuations in the East African Rift System.". 2010. AbstractThe palaeo-lake Suguta and its importance for understanding lake level fluctuations in the East African Rift System

We studied the most recent dry-wet-dry cycle in the presently arid Suguta Valley in the Northern Kenya Rift where a 300-m-deep lake has formed during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP, 14.8-5.5 ka BP). Hydromodeling suggests that a relatively moderate 25% increase in precipitation was responsible for this dramatic lake level rise, which demonstrates the character of the Suguta Valley as an amplifier lake system. To detect the response of this lake system to climate fluctuations and their possible driving mechanisms with a focus on abrupt vs. gradual changes, we reconstructed a palaeo-lake level record for the time between 14 and 5 ka BP from up to 40 m thick lake-sediment sequences at three locations in the ~2,500 km2 palaeo-lake Suguta area. The sediments have been investigated for sediment characteristics such as grain size distributions, detrital and authigenic mineral phases, geochemical properties and microfossil assemblages. The stratigraphy for the sequences is based on 38 AMS 14C ages of biogenic carbonate and charcoal samples. Parallel dating of charcoal and snail-shell samples show age differences between 1,570-2,240 years suggesting a remarkably high, but well-defined reservoir age for palaeo-Lake Suguta most likely due to aged groundwater or 14C depleted CO2 degassing from active volcanoes. The observed reservoir effect highlights the potential problems while correlating East African lake level records with chronologies based on 14C datings of aquatic materials. The new chronology of water level fluctuations in the amplifier-lake Suguta indicates a general dry-wet-dry cycle synchronous with other lake chronologies during the AHP and multiple short-term fluctuations with abrupt lake level drops between 100 to 300 m within 100 to 200 years at 12.8-11.6 (during Younger Dryas time), 11.1-10.9; 10.4-10.2; 9.5-9.1; 9.0-8.8; 8.5-8.1 (during the 8.2 ka event) cal ka BP that seem to be linked with changes in the coupling between atmosphere and ocean systems. In contrast, the termination of the overall lake episode during the AHP shows a relatively gradual (linear) response to the reduction of solar heating due to insolation changes. The results of the analysis provides new insights into the sensitivity of Rift Valley lakes to climate change on different time scales. Abrupt climate shifts most likely caused dramatic environmental pressure on the biosphere, including humans that were already able to adopt relatively quickly to environmnetal change by new technologies during this time.

Olago DO, Umer, M; Ringrose S, Huntsman-Mapila P, Sow, E. H; Damnati B. Palaeoclimate in Africa: An overview since the Last Glacial Maximum.; 2007.
Odada, E.O., Olago, D O. Palaeoecology of Eastern Africa Mountains. India: PAGES; 2001.
ONYANGO PROFODADAERIC, OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL, ONYANGO PROFODADAERIC. "Palaeoecology of Eastern Africa Mountains,.". In: PAGES News, Vol. 9 No. 3 pp 19-21. December, 2001. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2001. Abstract
n/a
Patel JP. "Palaeomagnetic results from late Archaean and early proterozoic granites from South Western Kenya.". 1989. AbstractPalaeomagnetic results from late Archaean and early proterozoic granites from South Western Kenya

Results of a palaeomagnetic study carried out on the Migori granites exposed in the South Western part of Kenya are presented. The granites of Post-Nyanzian and Post-Kavirondian ages are dated at View the MathML source, respectively, using the whole rock RbSr isochron method. Alternating frequency and thermal demagnetization techniques have been used to isolate characteristic components of natural remanence. Opaque petrological and thermomagnetic studies indicate titanomagnetite grains as the main carrier of the primary component. The mean palaeomagnetic poles for the Post-Nyanzian and the Post-Kavirondian granites are located at 336°E, 72°N (View the MathML source) and 263°E, 41°N (View the MathML source), respectively.

Patel JP, Gacii P. "Palaeomagnetic Studies Of The Kapiti Phonolite Of Kenya.". 1972. AbstractPalaeomagnetic Studies Of The Kapiti Phonolite Of Kenya

Specimens of Kapiti phonolite from sixteen sites were treated in an alternating field up to 900 Oe peak. Four sites were discarded on the basis of Watson's Criterion for randomness. Variations in various magnetic parameters along a vertical section of the rock indicate that a hard secondary component of magnetization of high coercive force is present in the surface samples of the rock — a possible cause for the poor grouping of directions of the remaining sites. Weathering may have introduced this component in the surface samples. The Kapiti phonolite possesses both normal and reverse polarities. The Pole position for the Upper Miocene is calculated at 81°N, 118°E with a circle of confidence of 17°.

Patel JP, Raja PKS. "A palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya.". 1979. AbstractA palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya

This paper reports a palaeomagnetic study of the lower Proterozoic granites, exposed in the western part of Kenya and dated at 2530 ± 50 Ma (λRb= 1.39 × 10−11 yr−1). Ten sites out of 13 have yielded stable palaeomagnetic directions which are believed to be primary. Polished section and thermomagnetic analyses indicate titanomagnetite grains as the main carrier of the primary component of the natural remanence. The mean palaeomagnetic north pole is calculated at 210.7° E, 60.9° N with A95= 13.5°.

Waga DD, Andreeva-Grigorovich AS. "Paleocene nannofossils from the Odessa Shelf (south-western Black Sea region).". In: 12th International Nannoplankton Association Meeting. Lyon, France; 2008. Abstract

In 2006 -2007, two boreholes (Odeska-6 and Odeska-20) were drilled on the south-western part
of the Ukrainian sec- tor of the Black Sea. According to the geophysical well- log data, borehole
Odeska-20 recovered sediments of the Paleocene (1151-1621 m) and Eocene (692-1151
m). We studied nannofossils from the Paleocene interval of both boreholes. The identified nannofossils
had a moderate to bad preservation. Four nannofossil zones of Martini (1971) and Okada & Bukry
(1980) were identified: com- bined Cruciplacolithus tenuis-Chiasmolithus danicus zone
(NP2-NP3/CP1b-CP2), Fasciculithus tympaniformis (NP5/CP4), Heliolithus kleinpellii
(NP6/CP5) and Heli- olithus riedelii (NP8/CP7). The combined C. tenuis-C. danicus zone
(NP2- NP3/CP1b-CP2) was distinguished only in borehole Odeska-6 (int. 1544-1635 m). The
most common species are: Coccolithus pelagicus, Neochiastozygus sp

Waga DD. Paleocene – Eocene nannofossils of the southern rim of the East European Platform. Kiev: National Academy of Science of Ukraine; 2007.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DD. Paleocene-Eocene calcareous nannofossil biozonation of the Northern Precaucasus region. Tbilisi, Georgia; 2010.
S.H. Ambrose, C.J Bell BBDDDGH-SRLJ-R, and M. D. Kyule, F. K. Manthi MNSSWLHEMCM. "The Paleoecology and Paleogeographic context of Lemudong." Kirtlandia, Journal of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Ohio, USA. 2007;56:38-52. AbstractWebsite

The Lemudong’o Formation in the Narok District of Kenya comprises a 135-m-thick series of predominantly lacustrine and lake basin margin sedimentary rocks with interstratified primary and reworked tuffs. The formation, deposited ,6 Ma, records deposition within the second of three sequential lake basins created by tectonic and volcanic activity on the western margin of the southern Rift Valley of Kenya. These sedimentary paleobasins are exposed in the vicinity of the confluence of three rivers cutting steep cliffs into rugged, vegetated terrain. Over 1200 fossils of terrestrial vertebrates have been recovered from the site of Lemudong’o Locality 1 (LEM 1), which was formed at the edge of a shallow lake fed by slow-moving streams. Much like smaller Rift Valley lake basins in Kenya today, the Lemudong’o lake margin probably supported a mosaic of habitats ranging from closed riparian woodland to grassland and swamps. There are two fossiliferous horizons at LEM 1, clayey sands and gravels and overlying mudstones. Although the mudstones yielded the majority of the fossil material, there are significant faunal differences between the two horizons. The mudstone assemblage consists of taxa whose modern representatives primarily prefer relatively closed environments such as riparian forests, as well as many species that prefer open woodland to wooded grasslands. The sandstone assemblage samples fauna from a wider range of habitats. This contrast in taxonomic composition suggests that the mudstone and sandstone horizons sample a lakeshore environment that was varying through time. The apparent shift in habitat preferences of the fauna is consistent with the geological and geomorphological evidence for a mosaic of closed to open habitats that characterize rapidly variable rift-valley lake basins in mesic climatic regimes. One of the salient characteristics of these assemblages is the complete absence of fish, and the paucity of large mammals and reptiles, such as hippos, crocodiles, and larger bovid species that would be expected at the edge of lake basins fed by large rivers. Modern central rift-valley lake basins that are fed by small streams vary widely in size and salinity in response to climate change, and occasionally dry out completely. They do not contain fish and crocodiles, and only one has a substantial hippo population. These modern rift-valley lakes may therefore provide an analog to the depositional environment of Lemudong’o.

The LEM 1 fossil assemblage is also unusual because it is dominated by small mammalian taxa, including numerous rodents, small colobine monkeys, hyracoids, and a diversity of viverrid and other carnivores. Given the lack of evidence for fluvial transport in the main fossil horizon, the biased size composition, and the significant carnivore damage on the bones, we interpret this site to represent an accumulation of carcasses by several avian and small mammalian carnivores. This paleoecological and paleogeographic reconstruction is discussed relative to penecontemporaneous fossil sites in Africa.

Patel JP, Raja PKS. "Paleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya.". 1979. AbstractPaleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya

Results of a paleomagnetic study carried out on the exposed volcanic rocks on the western side of the South Kenya Rift Valley are presented. Nine stratigraphic groups ranging in age from Miocene to Pleistocene were sampled. The rocks consist of basalts, trachytes, nephelinites, melanephelinites, olivine melanephelinites and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic poles obtained for different age ranges are as follows: Period I (0.64–0.72 Ma), 116°E, 85°N (A95 = 6°); Period II (1.6–6.9 Ma), 297°E, 84°N (A95 = 4°); Period III (12.0–15.0 Ma), 34°E, 80°N (A95 = 9°). The results for Period II show large secular variations which are in disagreement with the model predictions for near-equatorial sites.

Ogana W. "Palindromes of identical digits." Bulletin of the Kenya Mathematical Society. 1969;Vol. 6(No. 1):pp. 25-29.
KARIUKI HELLENN, L GWYTHER, RA POWELL BA MAMS1 HARDINGBSMSPD2 NAMISANGOMS3 KATABIRAREE, 5, L RADBRUCH MD6 MURRAYS. "Palliative care research in Africa: Consensus building for a prioritized agenda ." JOURNAL OF PAIN AND SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT. 2013.
RA Powell, R Harding NKMBGRMEL-ALIOAJBEELL. Palliative care research in Africa: Consensus building for a prioritized agenda..; 2013. Abstract

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Palliative care research in Africa is in its relative infancy, with dedicated financial support extremely limited. Therefore, setting research priorities to optimize use of limited resources is imperative.

OBJECTIVES:

To develop a prioritized research agenda for palliative care in Africa.

METHODS:

We used a two-stage process involving palliative care professionals and researchers: 1) generation of an initial topic list at a consultative workshop of experts and 2) prioritization of that list using a consensus development process, the nominal group technique.

RESULTS:

Phase 1: 41 topics were generated across five groups, with several topics nominated in more than one group. Phase 2: 16 topics and three broad thematic areas were identified. The two most prioritized topics within each of the three themes were the following: Theme 1: patient, family, and volunteers-1) care outcomes and the impact of palliative care as perceived by patients and caregivers and 2) palliative care needs of children; Theme 2: health providers-1) impact of palliative care training on care and practice and 2) integration of palliative care and antiretroviral therapy services; and Theme 3: health systems-1) palliative care needs assessments at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels and 2) integration of palliative care into health systems and educational curricula.

CONCLUSION:

Consensus-based palliative care topics determined by the study can assist researchers in optimizing limited research capacities by focusing on these prioritized areas. Subsequent to the identification and publication of the research agenda, concrete steps will be undertaken by the African Palliative Care Research Network and other partners to help implement it.

Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Africa, palliative care, participatory, priorities, research agenda

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Palmieri, S., A.M. Siani, A. Pilozzi, N. J. Muthama: Investigation on meteorological time series in the Mediterranean basin.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Time Series analysis in Astronomy and Meteorology, University of Padova Italy, September 6-10, 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1993. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Palpable lingual cysts, a possible indicator of porcine cysticercosis in Teso District Western Kenya Mutua, F.K., Randoph, T.E., Arimi, S.M., Kitala, P.M., Githigia, S.M. Willingham, A.L. and Njeru, F.M." Journal of swine health and production July and August 2007, pp 206 . 2007;15(4):206-212. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of palpable lingual cysts in pigs in Western Kenya, a possible indicator of porcine cysticercosis, and to study the potential risk factors associated with this clinical finding.
Methods: During a cross-sectional survey, 316 randomly selected small-scale farms were visited, from which a case-control study of 31 case farms and 93 randomly selected control farms was constructed. Information on potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniosis was obtained using questionnaires administered via personal interviews.
Results: Farm prevalence of palpable lingual cysts was estimated at 9.8% (31 of 316) (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5%-13.1%). Total number of pigs testing positive was 33, resulting in a pig prevalence of 6.5% (95% CI, 4%-9%). Pigs were kept as a source of income (98%) and for home consumption (2%). Sources of pigs included local purchases (94%; 117 of 124), and purchases from Uganda (6%; seven of 124). Most farmers (95%; 118 of 124) kept their pigs on free range. Pork was sourced from local butcheries (85%) and home slaughtering (15%). Most households slaughtering pigs at home had their pork “inspected” by household friends (five of nine). Absence of latrines was more common in case households (42%; 13 of 31) than in controls (18%; 17 of 93) (P = .01; OR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2%-8.55).
Implications: Palpable lingual cysts are prevalent in the locally raised pigs of Western Kenya. Further studies using more sensitive diagnostic tests are required to confirm the risk of porcine cysticercosis.

Hamu HJ. Pamba.; 2011.Website
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O. and Bwibo N.O.: Open Study in the Treatment of Trichuris Trichiura and Taenia Saginata with 800 mg Albendazole as a single dose. E. Afr. Med. J. 64: 590, 1987.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 64: 590, 1987. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1987. Abstractopen_study_in_the_treatment_of_trichuris_trichiura_and_taenia_saginata_with_800_mg_albendazole_as_a_single_dose.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O. and Kioni P.:Comparison of Ameobic Latex Slide Agglutination and Indirect Haemagglutination Tests in the Diagnosis of Invasive Amoebiasis.Medcom 7: 7, 1985.". In: Medcom 7: 7, 1985. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1985. Abstracteffectiveness_of_latex_agglutination_slide_test_in_the_diagnosis_of_imported.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O. and Mulega P.C.:Comparison of Kato Thick Smear Technique and Formal Ether Sedimentation Method for Qualitative Diagnosis of Intestinal Helminths.E. Afr. Med. J. 95: 100, 1981.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 95: 100, 1981. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1981. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O. and Musangi E.A.:Urogenital Ascariasis: Case Report.E.Afr. Med. Res. J. 55: 595, 1978.". In: Afr. Med. Res. J. 55: 595, 1978. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1978. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O. and Roberts J.M.D.:Schistosomiasis in and around Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Seven Years Surveillance.E. Afr. Med. J. 56: 225, 1979.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 56: 225, 1979. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1979. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O. Mirza N.B. and Stavry E.M.:Human Intestinal Oesophagostomiasis:Medicom. 3: 5, 1981.". In: Medicom. 3: 5, 1981. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1981. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O., Alsarrag S., Moktabar M., Shakir I. and Siddiqui E.H.:A Report on Preliminary Survey of S. Mansoni at Jinja, Uganda. Tech. Paper No. 7, 1967.". In: Tech. Paper No. 7, 1967. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1967. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O., Bwibo N.O., Chunge C.N. and Estambale B.B.A.: The Use of Albendazole (Zentel) in the Treatment of Helminthiasis in Children below 2 years of age. E. Afr. Med. J. 64: 449, 1987.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 64: 449, 1987. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1987. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O., Chunge C.N. and Estambale B.B.A.: A Study of the Efficient and Safety of Albendazole (Zentel) in the Treatment of Intestinal Helminthiasis in Kenya Children less than 2 years of age. E. Afr. Med. J. 66: 197, 1989.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 66: 197, 1989. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1989. Abstractalbendazole__zentel__in_the_treatment_of_helminthiasis_in_children_below_two.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O., Estambale B.B.A., Chunge C.N. and Dono L.: Comparison of Aminosidine, Nimorazole and Estofamine alone or in Combination in the Treatment of Amoebiasis in Kenya. Eur. Clin. Pharm. 39: 353, 1990.". In: Eur. Clin. Pharm. 39: 353, 1990. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1990. Abstractcomparison_of_four_nitroimidazole_compounds_for_treatment_of_symptomatic_amoebiasis_in_kenya.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.: Distribution and Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Kwashiakor and Marasmus Patients. Medcom 10: 41, 1988.". In: Medcom 10: 41, 1988. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1988. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.:Distribution, Prevalence and Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Nyakach Location of Nyanza Province, Kenya.E.". In: E.Afr. Med. Res. J. 4: 99, 1977. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1977. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.:Forward: Nairobi J. Med. 15: 2, 1987.". In: Nairobi J. Med. 15: 2, 1987. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1987. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.:Hookworm and Ascaris Infection in Nyanza Province, KenyaE.Afr. Med. J. 57: 891, 1980.". In: Afr. Med. J. 57: 891, 1980. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1980. Abstracthookworm_and_ascariasis_infections_in_nyanza_province_kenya.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.:Report of Family Outbreak of Trichinosis in Kajiado District, Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 49: 663, 1972.". In: Afr. Med. J. 49: 663, 1972. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1972. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.:Schistosomiasis in Nyanza Province, Kenya.Rusinga Island.E. Afr. Med. J. 51: 1984, 1974.". In: Afr. Med. J. 51: 1984, 1974. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1984. Abstractschistosomiasis_in_nyanza_province_kenya_1_rusinga_island.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.:Serodiagnosis of Filariasis in Kenya: Fluorescent Antibody Technic.Thesis, University of Nairobi, 1978.". In: Thesis, University of Nairobi, 1978. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1978. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.:Transmission of Bacterial Infections by Nematode Larvae.Thesis, University of London, 1969.". In: Thesis, University of London, 1969. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1969. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Pamba HO, Bwibo NO, Chunge CN, Estambale BB.Albendazole (Zentel) in the treatment of helminthiasis in children below two years of age: a preliminary report.East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1987. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD, MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Pan African high pressure granulites, Taita Hills - Tsavo East National Park, Kenya. Journ. Afri. Ear. Sci. 30:37.". In: Kenya and the Pare-Usambara Mts. N.E. Tanzania. Journ. Afr. Eath Sci. 30:10. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD, MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Pan African high pressure granulites, Taita Hills - Tsavo East National Park, Kenya. Journ. Afri. Ear. Sci. 30:37.". In: Kenya and the Pare-Usambara Mts. N.E. Tanzania. Journ. Afr. Eath Sci. 30:10. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2000. Abstract
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