Publications

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Book
Rop PBK, Nyamai PCM, Namwiba WH. Narrative Glossary of Fundamentals for Applied Geology. Scholars' Press; 2020.Website
N M, S S, Onyango, M G, Murila F, Gichangi. National Guidelines For The Screening and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2018.
Njozi ya Machozi . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2018.
Mwenda M. Njozi Yapata Mtenzi.; 2018.
Bentivoglio M, Cavalherio EA, Kristensson K, Patel NB. Neglected Tropical Diseases and Conditions of the Nervous System. Springer; 2014.productflyer_978-1-4614-8099-0-1.pdf
Muleka J. Naomi and the Canibals. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2009.
Muleka J. Naomi in her New School. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2009.
Wahome RG;, Choge S;, Wamwere N;, Mnene J;, Wang'ombe; Matere J, Matere J. Nutritional evaluation of the suitability of prosopis pods for livestock feed.; 2009. AbstractWebsite

To study the suitability of prosopis pods flour as a feed ingredient in manufacture of animal feeds, prosopis pods were collected from four districts heavily affected by the invasive species. Pods were collected from trees at three levels; green but mature pods still attached to the twigs, yellow (dry) pods still attached to the tree and yellow (dry) pods that had dropped onto the ground from the tree. Pods picked from the ground were inspected against decay or insect damage. These samples were analyzed at the department of animal production laboratory University of Nairobi for proximate chemical composition, fibre composition, and calcium and phosphorus profiles. In addition cost comparisons between prosopis pod flour and animal feedstuffs with approximate chemical composition were done. Pods collected in Tana River and Garissa Districts were drier than those collected in Baringo indicating potentially better keeping quality. The pods protein content averaged 11.7% but the fibre content was on the higher side at 29.8%. The calcium and phosphorus level, at 0.3% and 0.36% respectively, were considerably higher than those found in cereals although its availability on digestion was likely to be affected by the high fibre level. Pending studies on digestibility, degradability and metabolizable energy and performance evaluation will inform appropriate level of use in animal diets. However, the researchers, from the preliminary analysis, concluded that the flour will form a valuable addition to the feed ingredient base in Kenya.

Rummel-Bulska I. The negotiating process leading to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Finland: International Environmental Law-making and Diplomacy Review, Joensuu; 2007.
Non communicable Diseases in Adults. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
MUMMA_MARTINON CA. nflict And Litigation Between Oil Companies And Village Communities.. Rutgers University: Transaction Publishers; 2005.book_review.pdf
Wasamba P. Notes on Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Coming to Birth. Nairobi: Marimba ; 2005.
New Partnership for Africa’s Development: NEPAD a New Path?. Journal Discovery and Innovation ; 2003.
Nursing Trends in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle.

Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle

Wamitila KW. Nguvu ya Sala. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 1999.
Wasamba P, Mwangi E. Notes on Margaret Ogolla’s The River and the Source.. Nairobi: Stantex; 1998.
Kinyua AM, Maina DM, MAINA C, MANGALA MJ,... Non-destructive analysis of Mercury (Hg) by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique in Beauty Creams sold in Kenya. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 1996. AbstractWebsite

Analysis of mercury (Hg) in 100 different beauty creams by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique is described. Each sample was brought to a melt by warming on a water bath at 40-50° C, and then poured onto a 2.5 cm diameter mylar-backed aluminium …

Kabira WM, Masinjila M. Needs Assessment Rusinga Island.; 1993.Website
Nyasani PJ. NB Examinations Techniques and Guides. Nairobi: Nairobi Bookmen; 1987.
Book Chapter
Mugambi MM, Miriti GM. "Nurturing the Industrial Economy through Enterprise Education:The Case of Kenyan Universities.". In: Handbook of Research on Nurturing Industrial Economy for Africa’s Development. Hershey: IGI-global; 2021.
AM K, Waudo J, Were G. "Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya.". In: Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya. Nairobi: Williams Publishers ltd; 2021.
Gichuyia LN. "NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE.". In: NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press ; 2019.
Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Mwaniki, S.W, Muthama, J.M. "A New Frontier in Collaborative Approaches in Sustainable Open Spaces Delivery."; 2019.
Mungania BG. "Nadharia za kisasa na uamili wa mofimu za Kiswahili Kimofosintaksia.". In: Lugha ya Kiswahili: utafiti na maendeleo yake. Dar es Salaam: CHAKAMA/TUKI; 2018.
Michira JN. "Narrative Techniques in the Swahili Novel. An Illustrative Analysis.". In: African Languages and Literatures in a Globalized World. Seoul, South Korea: Dahae Publishers; 2018.
Patel NB. "Natural Amphetamine” Khat: A Cultural Tradition or a Drug of Abuse?.". In: International Review of Neurobiology, Vol. 120. Burlington: Academic Press; 2015.
Patel NB. "Neurobiology of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk).". In: Neglected Tropical Diseases and Conditions of the Nervous System. New York: Springer; 2014.
Kuria MW. "Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Chapter 17.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Mulwa, M R. "Non-parametric Estimation of Environmental Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Free Disposable Hull.". In: Strategic Measurement and Management Performance using Data Envelopment Analysis: Theory and Applications. IGI Global, Hershey PA, USA; 2014.
Owour, S & Mbatia T. "Nairobi.". In: Power and Powerlessness: Capital Cities in Africa. Nairobi: HSRC Press; 2012.
M. DRGUANTAIERIC, Chibale K. "Natural product-based drug discovery in Africa: the need for integration into modern drug-discovery paradigms.". In: Drug Discovery in Africa. Springer: Germany. (Pp. 101-126). Springer: Germany; 2012.
Nyangena W. "Natural Resource Management and Climate Change in Africa.". In: 3 volumes on conference plenary papers, Natural Resources and Climate Change. AERC publication; 2012.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Non - Tariff Measures in Kenya: A Case Study.". In: Trade Discourse in Kenya: Topical Issues , Vol. 1. Edited by Kiriti and Okelo, WTO and School of Economics WTO Chairs Program, pp. 84 - 97.; 2012.
Amiri S. "Natija ya Mapuza.". In: Kopo la Mwisho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP Ltd; 2011.
"National Transfer Account for Kenya: The economic lifecycle in 1994.". In: Population aging and generational economy. Elgar Edwards; 2011.
Muriithi MK. "National transfer Accounts for Kenya: the economic lifecycle in 1994.". In: Population Aging and the Generational economy: A global perspective.; 2011.
Muchemi LW. "Noti ya Bahati.". In: Gitaa. Nairobi, Kenya: Longhorn; 2011.
Padh H, Aduda BO, Alwis ADP. "NANOTECHNOLOGY: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES/NAM S&T CENTRE.". In: Nanotechnology.; 2010. Abstract

Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of
matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and
100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable
novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science,
engineering, and technology, nanotechnology involves
imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating
matter at this length scale. Increased energy
efficiency, a cleaner environment, more effective
medical treatment and improved manufacturing
production are just some of the potential benefits of
nanotechnology. Biologists, chemists, physicists and
engineers are all involved in the study of substances at
the nanoscale.

Gathigi G, Brown D. "The new public-sphere: Radio and democratization process in Kenya. .". In: Media and technologies in emerging African Democracies . Lanham, MD: University Press of America; 2010.
MARY MWIANDI. "The Nile waters: a factor in socio-economic development of Western Kenya, 1959-2000.". In: The River Nile in the Post-Colonial Age: Conflict and Cooperation among the Nile Basin Countries . London: I.B. Tauris; 2010.
MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER. "Nyamai, C.M., Mingala, O.J., and Phillips, C. 2009. Sub-regional/Regional Organizations and Popular Social Engineering in Africa: Empowering young people and the spirit of volunteerism (civic service). In: A. Amuwo, H. Pul and I.O. Adadevoh (Eds.) Civil S.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 2009. Abstract

One of the critical issues for Community Development, Civil Society action and Governance anywhere and specifically in Africa is to create leaders at the fastest possible rate, at all levels of the society/ community. Such levels of leadership revolve round - skilled, ethical, effective and unifying leadership. Young people are most eager to play a leadership role in these efforts. The values/ benefits of the African young people involvement in Civil Society in the African states will bring energy, catalyze other group members to rethink their priorities, commitment and remove invisible barriers that have kept them from moving forward. Typically and traditionally in many cultures, young people have been excluded from efforts to rebuild their communities. This marginalization of our youth not only harms them and endangers our future, but it also cheats the world of a valuable resource. If we are to function effectively as local and even global communities then we must incorporate all significant voices. This paper argues that an enduring and positive community renewal is possible only if all members are involved and feel a sense of ownership. On the other hand, the spirit of volunteerism by young people helps to create a stable and cohesive society and as a result add value to the services that governments provide. Voluntary action creates bonds of trust and encourages cooperation; in other words it creates social capital. Volunteerism draws people of different ethnic origins, religion and economic status. This compositional aspect enhances social harmony. Voluntary participation in public affairs can also help to create a politically literate public, which is important for the preservation of democratic principles. Volunteer effort is essential to Civil Society action as a way that would enhance community policing and conflict resolution. Service For Peace (SFP) Kenya Chapter as an organization, through its young people empowerment program has the aim to integrate service learning and volunteerism in the processes of capacity development/ building, creating appropriate awareness, dissemination and networking of the youth in the sub-regional and region areas. The Kenyan Chapter serves as a knowledge resource base for periodic value-based training programs on volunteerism.

Jerono P. "Nadharia ya Eksibaa katika Kiswahili.". In: Nadharia katika Taaluma ya Kiswahili na Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2008.
Amiri S. "Naye Huyo M ’ me Mwenzangu.". In: Alidhani Kapata na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP; 2007.
Jerono P. "Njia ya Mwongo.". In: Kurudi Nyumbani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus; 2007.
Kanyinga K, Winnie Mitullah. "The Non-profit Sector in Kenya: What We Know and what We Don't Know." Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies (IDS); 2007.
Khalagai JM, Pokhariyal GP, Nzimbi. "A note on similarity, almost -similarity and equivalence of operators."; 2007. Abstract

The almost- similar and similar relations between operators on finitedimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.

Mburu J, editor Ndetei, D.M., Ongecha-Owuor FA, Gakinya B. "Neuroanatomy and Psychiatry."; 2006.
Djonov V, Makanya AN. "New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis. In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis.". In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis . Vol. XIV.; 2005:.
Odada EO, Baker, O., Talbot, M.R., Street-Perrot, F.A., Marret, F. "Novel proxies of the late Quaternary Climatic Variability in Intertropical Africa.". In: in R. Batterbee, F. Gasse and C. Stictley (Eds.) Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa. The Netherlands: Springer; 2003.
Khasakhala AA. "A note on the estimates of Childhood Mortality from Birth History Data for Kenya, 1993 and 1998.". In: Population and Sustainable Development Challenges in Ken. Nairobi: Population Association of Kenya; 2002.
Classical
MARTINON MUMMA-CA. The Need For Preventive Diplomacy In Eastern African Region. . October ed. International Peace Support Training Centre; 2010.14.need_for_preventive_diplomacy.pdf
Conference Paper
Owakah F, Warambo KA. "Negotiating a place and space for Ethics in the Conservation of Kenya’s Heritage: Thinking philosophically and strategizing sociologically.". In: 2nd Annual Nairobi International Multidisciplinary . Nairobi; Forthcoming.
Mueni J, Ndavula J. "New media and political marketing in Kenya: a case of 2013.". In: Kenya Elections Workshop 2013. Nairobi, Kenya; Submitted.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "National Standards and Environmental Pollution.". In: paper presented at a Seminar organized by Kenya Bureau of Standards on National Standards and Technology for Development. Hotel Oceanic, Mombasa , 1982. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Nduati R, and Mbori-Ngacha D. Prevention Of Breastmilk Transmission of HIV: Balancing the Benefits and the Risks In: Essex M, Mboup S, Kanki PJ, Kalengayi MR, (eds). AIDS in Africa. 2nd Ed.". In: Book. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); Submitted. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NJOROGE W, NDAVI PM, KARANJA JG, MATI JKG. The incidence of cervical extropion among women on contraceptive methods in two periurban areas in Nairobi. J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00.". In: J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "A note on the Temperature Distribution of a Viscous Incompressible Fluid in a Channel Bounded by Two Parallel Plates.". In: J. of Scientific Research, B.H.U. (INDIA), Vol. XXIV (1-2). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference on 5th-7th Oct. 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College - Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

 Prof. Anna Karani on - Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Nyangena, E., Mutema, A. & Karani, A. Evaluation of clinical training in nursing in Kenya.". In: Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal - Dec. 2011 1(2) 22-30. Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal; Submitted. Abstract

 The  research evaluated clinical training provided by the academic institutions that offer Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) program. The purpose of the study was to describe the adequacy of clinical training and the graduates preparedness for nursing practice. The study was conducted from Sept. 2008 to March 2010. Design was cross sectional using questionnaires and focus group interviews (FGI) methods to collect data. The sample comprised of 232 subjects including pre-service BScN graduates and nursing supervisors at four teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya. Results revealed that clinical training provided by academic institutions was adequate but quality of training varied widely among the training institutions. The conclusion was that clinical training provided by BScN programs in Kenya was of high quality. The study recommends that urgent attention was required by nurse educators to address identified gaps in clinical training especially clinical instruction and supervision.   

Akinyi J, Mwaniki A, Gichamba A, Kariuki D, Chand P, Munene S, Nyakinyua C, Nzangi B, Akinyi V, Betsy M, Cosmas K, Mwangi M. "NanoSatellite Platform for the University of Nairobi (NaSPUoN) Student Project.". In: 72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Dubai, United Arab Emirates (presented online); 2021.
"Nystagmus demystified.". In: Optometrist Webinar series, Kenya. Virtual Meeting; 2020.nystagmus_demystified-_dr._njambi_30072020.pdf
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Elimu na Maendeleo.". In: CHAKAMA. Maasai Mara University; 2019.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Maswala ya Afya: mtazamo wa kiekolojia.". In: CHAKAMA. Maasai Mara University; 2018.
Njenga LW, Mbugua, M., Onani, M.O., Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO. "New Bis(Pyrrolylimine) Platinum (II) and Palladium (II) Complexes: Synthesis, X-Ray Structure Determination, Spectroscopic Characterization, and in vitro Anticancer Activity on Various Human Carcinoma Cell Lines.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika utoaji wa huduma kwa umma nchini Kenya.". In: CHAUKIDU. State University of Zanzibar; 2018.
Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM, Ooko JO. "The need for galvanizing and the corrosion environments in Kenya.". In: International Zinc Association and Afriken International Ltd Workshop. Norfok Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
Muchira J, Hayman L, Stuart-Shor E. "Non-Invasive Tools for Screening Undiagnosed Diabetes and Pre-diabetes: A Systematic Review.". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 66. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS TWO COMMERCE SQ, 2001 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA …; 2017:. Abstract
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WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016. Abstract

The research area occurs within the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt (NMB) in the south-eastern part of Kenya. An enigmatic problem within the polyphase and highly deformed NMB, is the lack of better understanding of the geology and tectonic structures. In order to decipher the aforementioned problem, this study undertook a geological study with the aim of having a better understanding of the petrology and tectono-metamorphic setting, in the study area. The research was carried out using geological field mapping and remote sense investigation. Samples collected in the field were analysed using XRF (X- ray fluorescence) and AAS (Atomic absorption spectrophotometry). The petrological investigation was carried out using petrographic microscopy. An investigation using remotely sensed data established prevalent geological structures, lithology and mineral alteration zones. This study has provided a comprehensive understanding of the tectono-thermal scenario. One of the key findings of this study is the realization that Kitui – Taita gneisses and migmatites represent a thick sequence of meta-sedimentary rocks. The entire protolith sequence was marked by the alternation of thin pelitic, psammitic and limey layers, together with minor thin basic meta-volcanic rocks that were deposited under deep marine conditions. The entire paragneissic sequence was subsequently subjected to multiple phases of successive deformation and metamorphism, which was accompanied by shearing, faulting and folding. Petrochemistry has revealed that Kitui – Taita hills area has remnants of Island alkali tholeiite and calc – alkaline Metabasalts. It has also revealed that Ikutha (south of Kitui) has huge deposit of apatite – iron of Kiruna type. Petrological studies have shown that Mutomo–Ikutha area occurs in an ophiolitic suite and mimics similar lithological and geochemical signatures as those reported in other ophiolite suites occurring in Kenya like in Moyale, Sekerr in West Pokot and Voi, SE Kenya. The field occurrence of this suite has been documented by the lithological and stratigraphic sequence of serpentinite, sheeted dykes, gabbro, limestone, tectonic mélange and remnants of pillow lava found in the type area. The field occurrence of this suite is an indication of the remnants of the obducted oceanic crust during the closure of the paleo- Mozambique Ocean and collision of the East and West Gondwanaland

Kimeu M. "The need to re-examine Environmental Design in Architecture Curricula in East Africa.". In: Workshop on integrating Sustainable Building Design into Curriculum. Maanzoni Lodge, Machakos; 2016.
WASWA AARONK, MATHU ELIUDM, Nyamai CM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016.
"Nafasi ya Hadithi za Watoto katika kubuni Mtazamo Ulimwengu wao.". In: CHAKAMA. Dar-es-Salaam University; 2016.
Mulwa, M R, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "NATURAL RESOURCE CURSE IN AFRICA: DUTCH DISEASE AND INSTITUTIONAL EXPLANATIONS.". In: AGRODEP.; 2016.
Iraki XN. "Nairobi vs. Toronto: A tale of two cities and reality of urban economics.". In: Sixth annual Africa International Business and Management (AIBUMA 2015) conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2015.
obanda BA, Cook A, Fevre E, Wang S, Bebora L, Mwituria JM, Ng'etich R, Okoth W, Nafula C, Ogara W, Thaiyah AG, Kariuki S, Gabreyes WA. "Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in abattoir workers and livestock from western Kenya.". In: ICOPHAI. Thailand; 2015.
Muigua K. "Natural Resource Conflicts in Kenya: Effective Management for Attainment of Environmental Justice.". In: Third Scientific Conference of the Association of Environmental Law Lecturers in African Universities. School of Law, Karen Campus; 2015.
Odhiambo E, Chern M-J. "Numerical Assessment Of Three Flexibly Mounted Rota ry Wave Energy Converters With A Two Degree Of Freedom Constraint.". In: 2nd Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Tokyo, Japan; 2014.
.orago N. "Notable issues in litigating socio-economic rights.". In: Public Interest Litigation in relation to the 2010 Kenyan Constitution. Kisumu Kenya; 2013.
MWANGI DRISAACKARANJA. "NATURE AND SCOPE OF INTEGRATED, SECTORAL AND SPATIAL PLANNING UNDER COUNTY GOVERNMENT ACT NO 17 2012.". In: 2nd National Conference on Planning Under a Devolved System of Government in Kenya. Imperial Hotel; 2013. Abstract

The paper is about the nature and scope of planning under the County Government Act No 17 2012.It focuses on preparing the plans covered in Sections 108, Section 109 and Section 110 this law. The bias is obviously, on methodology of preparing county integrated development plan (CIDP) given the importance placed on the plan in sustainable socio-economic development and environmental management under devolved system of government. The author’s own practical experience and viewpoints on integrated (development) planning as a researcher and practicing planner has informed this focus. The paper has demonstrated that there are advantages in preparing CIDP, county sectoral plans (CSP) and county spatial plans (CSPP) under one county planning project or programme. The objective of this approach in the paper is to draw attention of conference participants to reflect and share their own practical experiences in integrated (development) planning during plenary discussions. A comment on city and municipal plans which are prepared under Section 111 is highlighted before possible structure of organization for county planning presented. One of the conclusions of the paper is that nature and scope of integrated, sectoral and spatial planning in the counties predispose CIDP, CSP and CSPP better prepared as one county planning project or programme and not as three separate projects/ programmes, one for each. The three plans share common phases and steps in the planning methodology which encompass CP-ISED and CP-TPKS models discussed in the paper.The paper makes a key recommendation, among others that, it is cost effective to prepare the three county-wide plans under one county planning project or programme and not as three separate undertakings as this has possibilities of saving counties significant percentage (%) proportion of the budget allocated for county planning.

Mulwa M. "The network Logic and The stabilization of Mobile Banking Products in Kenya.". In: The 4th African International Business and Management (AIBUMA 2013) Conference. The University of Nairobi, School of Business, Lower Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.aibuma2013conferenceprogram-final_july1.pdf
Onjala J. "Natural Resource Discoveries: Whither East African Infrastructure?". In: The Indian Ocean Rim as a New Frontier: How prepared is Africa? Mombasa, Kenya; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "Neo-Liberal democracy and the challenges of multiparty politics in kenya, Uganda and Zambia.". In: The African Studies Association. Philadelphia USA; 2012.
Akuon P, Afullo TJO. "Negative power law attenuation estimation for rainy earth-space radio links,Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.". In: PIERS . Kuala Lampur, Malaysis: PIERS; 2012. Abstract

Attenuation prediction for satelite links s derived and validated from measurements all over tropical zones in the world. The power law model is based on the modelling of the stochastic nature of rain drops over an average rain field area. Best performig for the tests.

Mulwa M. "The Niche in Mobile Money Adoptions.". In: AIBUMA 2012 Conference, School of Business University of Nairobi. Kenyatta International Conference Centre (KICC), Nairobi Kenya; 2012.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Nasimolo J, Kiama S, Makanya A , Gathumbi P, Kagira J Trypanosome Migration to the Brain.". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference, 2012, Pride Inn Hotel, Westlands Nairobi, Kenya. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012. Abstract
The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x104 T. brucei brucei and parasitaemia monitored from the third day up to 28 days post infection. Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain.   We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "NGUGI M. PIERO1, NJAGI M. JOAN, KIBITI M. CROMWELL, NGERANWA J.N. JOSEPH, NJAGI N.M. ELIUD, NJUE M. WILSON, GATHUMBI K. PETER. HERBAL MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS: A RAPIDLY EXPANDING RESEARCH AVENUE.". In: International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research Vol 4, Issue 2, 2012. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012. Abstract
Conventional drug therapy though effective in the management of diabetes mellitus is expensive and has toxic side effects. Herbal medicine would thus provide alternative therapy if effective and less toxic. This paper reviews the use of various antidiabetic plants in management of diabetes mellitus. Their documented modes of actions along with in vivo are also discussed. Keyword: Herbal medicine, Diabetes mellitus, Antidiabetic plants, Toxic side effects.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi J., Mbithi P.M.F., Wabacha J.K., and Mbuthia P.G. 2012. The Challenges of balancing between productivity and claw health of dairy cows in modernized husbandry in smallholder farming units. In the Proceedings of the Faculty of Veterinary medi.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Nguta, J.M., J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, J. D. Kabasa, S.G. Kiama: Cytotoxicicity of antimalarial plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity to Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "NJAGI JOAN MURUGI, NGUGI MATHEW PIERO, KIBITI CROMWELL MWITI, NGERANWA N. J. JOSEPH, NJAGIELIUD N. MWANIKI, NJUE M. WILSON, MAINA DAVID AND GATHUMBI PETER KARURI HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF CAESALPINIA VOLKENSII ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MICE.". In: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 2, 2012, 69-74. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012. Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the target cells. Most conventional therapies for the management of type II diabetes include oral hypoglycemic drugs, exercise, diet and physical intervention therapies such as Acupuncture. Insulin is used in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs are expensive and have numerous side effects. Through ages different communities have used medicinal herbs for diabetes mellitus management. Today herbal remedies are gaining popularity because the efficacy of conventional medicine ison the wane. This study was designed to bioscreen aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii for its hypoglycemic potential. Its in vivo toxicity was also evaluated. Ethnobotanical and pharmacological information on the plant was gathered from the local traditional herbal practitioner. The three tested dose levels (50, 100, and 150mg/kg body weight) lowered blood glucose levels appreciably. Phytochemical screening results show that the aqueous extract has phytochemicals associated with antidiabetic activity. The analysis of trace metal composition of the aqueous extracts showed that it contained Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Chromium and Vanadium, all of which aid in lowering blood glucose levels. Preliminary in vivo histopathological analysis established that the extracts had no toxic effects on the organs and tissues. The study has established that the aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii are effective and safe for management of diabetes mellitus.Keywords: Caesalpinia volkensii, in vivo toxicity, antidiabetic activit
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi L.W., Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C., Mbuthia P.G. and Minga U.M. 2012. Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status. International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science (ISRN), Volume .". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks fromall groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P<0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.
Kimani, S. MT-KVD. "Neurotoxicity behavior of cassava cyanogens analogs in sulfur amino acid (SAA) deficiency diet.". In: The 10th International Society Of Neuroscientists Of Africa (SONA) Conference, Basic to Clinic. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Neo-Liberalism on the Cross: Multipartyism and the challenges of democratic transition in kenya.". In: The Studies Program, Good Afternoon Africa Lecture Series. University Center for International studies, WW, Posvar Hall 4130; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Non-state actors (NSA) and awareness creation on the East African Community (EAC) regional integration.". In: FES workshop on East African Community Non state actors Forum. The Panafric Hotel, Nairobi.; 2011.
Samanta P. "No Smith.No Marx,it is the economic world of J.S.Mill etc. etc.". In: School of Economics,UON.; 2011.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Nutritional status of 5-15 year old children with hearing disability in comparision with those without disability.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Njama JM, Ngatia EM, Opinya GN, Gathece LW.; 2011.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Ngugi M Piero, Murugi N Joan, Kibiti M Cromwell, Ngeranwa J Joseph, Njue M Wilson, Maina Daniel, Gathumbi K Peter and Njagi N Eliud Hypoglycemic Activity of Some Kenyan Plants Traditionally used to Manage Diabetes Mellitus in Eastern Province.". In: Piero et al. J Diabetes Metab 2011, 2:8. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract
In this study five aqueous extracts; Bidens pilosa, Strychnos henningsii, Aspilia pluriseta, Catha edulis and Erythrina abyssinica were screened for anti-diabetic activity and their in vivo safety evaluated. The anti-diabetic activity was assessed by intraperitoneally injecting varying doses of aqueous extracts of the five plants into alloxanised mice. Toxicity was determined by injecting normal mice with 450mg of the plant extract / kg body weight and observing the effects of the extracts on histology of various organs. All the extracts showed hypoglycaemic activity. At high doses, some plants proved to be highly toxic, mildly toxic and others were safe. This study has established that the five bioactive plants can be safely used in the management of diabetes.
Majanja. J, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Mwala. D, Mwangi. J, Wangui. J, Osuna. F, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. EK. "Non-Influenza Respiratory Virus Infections in Kenya: 2007-2010. .". In: The XIII International Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections. the Rome Marriott Park Hotel, Rome, Italy; 2011. Abstract
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Chege F, Day R, T R, A S, Muthomi J, W O, E K, R N, J.G M’E, J J, F O, Mohamed R. "A new partnership in phytosanitary capacity development for protecting agriculture and supporting trade in Africa: The Centre of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPE).". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Ntihabose L, Patel JP, Maina DM, Angeyo HK. "NORM and Associated Gamma Radiation Field in the Coltan Mining Areas of Rwanda.". In: 3rd African IRPA Congress . Laico Hotel, Rwanda; 2010.
Maragia, S. CKGK, Ndurumo MM. "Nature, Outcomes, and Perceived Effectiveness of Mentoring Programs in Higher Institutions of Learning: A Case of Moi University.". Kenya Journal of Education, Planning, Economics and Management. Vol. I, No. I. ISSN 20745400; 2010. Abstract
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PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "NDATHE, J.K., F.B. MWAURA, J. NSUBA, L. BERGA, P.NDOLO, S.L. DOTY AND G.N. KAMAU 2010.Uptake and distribution of selected heavy metals by sweet potato plant varieties under greenhouse conditions Int. J of BiochemiPhysics. 18 :21 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L. W., P.N.Nyaga, P.G.Mbuthia, L. C. bebora, J.N. michieka, J.K.kibe and U.M.Minga. 2010. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in village indigenous chickens in varied agro-ecological zones in Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural development 22 (05.". In: Livestock Research for Rural development. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N, Mbuthia, P.G., Bebora, L.C., Michieka, J.N., Minga, U.M. 2010. A retrospective study of factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks in village indigenous chickens. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa58: 22-3.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Njoroge N, Kemoli A.M. The prevalence of ECC among 3 to 5 year-olds in Kiambaa division, Kenya. E Afr Med J, 2010; 87(3): 134 -137.". In: The Kenya Accountant, Vol. 1:14; Vol.2. E Afr Med J; 2010.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Nocturnal activities of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psydhodidae) in Baringo District, Kenya. Submitted to TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Ngumbi PM, Robert LL, Irungu LW, Kaburi JC, Githure JI; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "NORM and Associated Gamma Radiation Field in the Coltan Mining Areas of Rwanda L. Ntihabose, J. P. Patel, H. K. Angeyo, D. M. Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
WANAMBISI MRWAFULAATHURW. "Norm Properties of Operators Who's norms are Eigenvalues.". In: African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research. Academic Journals; 2010. Abstract
In this paper we present preperties of a norm attaining operator on a Hilbertspace .We show that if T is norm attaining then it satisfies the generalized Daugavet condion
G.Mutegi R, K.Muriithi M, Mwabu G. "The NTA Estimates for Kenya: Policy implications of the life cycle and tax profiles.". In: IUSSP. Marrakech, Morocco; 2009.
KAAYA G.P. "Neem (Azadirachta indica): Its potential for control of African ticks of economic importance.". In: 22nd World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP, 2009) Conference. Calgary, Canada; 2009.
Kawaguchi N, Nishiura S, Abade OE, Kurosawa T, Jinmei T, Muramoto E. "NAT free open source 3D video conferencing using SAMTK and application layer router.". In: 6th IEEE Conference on Consumer Communications and Networking Conference. Las Vegas, USA; 2009.
Nwankwo UM;, Bett RC;, Peters KJ;, Bokemann W. "Need-based innovation motivates attitude change in farmers: evaluation of PROSAB approach.".; 2009. Abstract

The assumption that indigenous farmers resist change is shallow, explained only by a lack of thorough investigation of what the change agents intend to communicate, how they intend to communicate it and the intended beneficiaries. Adoption-decision is complex; it is affected by innovation’s attributes, information-communication perception, socioeconomic, institutional, policy environments and other factors. Besides the riskiness of being the first to try new innovation, problem of resource allocation for maximum utility also affects individual decisions. Innovation availability, affordability and workability are sine qua non to agricultural development therefore they ought to work both technically and commercially. Both a semi-structured questionnaire and personal interviews were administered on a total of 560 farmers from 4 Local Government Areas in Borno State, Nigeria. Farmers faced numerous constraints, fertiliser availability and affordability being the highest, (18% total share) followed by weed problems (17%). Only 18% had information access for problem solution, information received is relevant to farming needs (36%). Within 3 years of PROSAB’s (Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno State) activities in the state, the majority of the respondents have adopted their new crop varieties. Soybean (Glycine max) was not cultivated in the region before. The effect of participation on adoption decision was statistically significant at p<0.0001. 77% of respondents are core farmers while 73% make their living through it with a mean of 23.8 years experience. Soybean planting-harvesting ratio was 1:53 kg and maize (Zea mays) 0.14:23 kg. Innovation attributes were ranked in order of priority; economic needs rank higher than religious or cultural priorities. The claims that indigenous farmers resist change are not always the case due to approach like soliciting for their opinion. This paper has underscored this observation and diffused the misconception. It is clear that farmers can change when presented with sustainable alternatives through consultation.

A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Nyakwada, W., Ogallo, L.A. and Okoola, R. E, 2009: The Atlantic-Indian Ocean Dipole and its influence on East African seasonal rainfall , J. Meteorol. & Rel. Sci., 3, 21.". In: J. Meteorol. & Rel. Sci., 3, 21 . Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstractjkms_vol3_n01_for_editing_kinguyu.pdf

Sudden death in the young after low energy anterior chest wall impact is an under-recognised phenomenon in this country. Review of the literature yields several American references to commotio cordis, mainly in the context of sporting events. Two cases are reported of sudden death in young men as a result of blunt impact anterior chest wall trauma. It is suggested that these cases draw attention to a lethal condition of which many practitioners are unaware.
J Accid Emerg Med 2000 Nov 17 (6): 421-422. PMID: 11104247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1725482
 

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Nasio N.A., Saidi H. Perforated peptic ulcer disease at Kenyatta National hospital East & Centr. Afr. J. Surg.;14:13-17.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Natural Hazards and the Art of Forecasting.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2009.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "NDATHE, J.K., F.B.MWAURA, J. NSUMBA, L. BERGA, P. NDOLO & G.N. KAMAU 2O09. Electrochemical monitoring of heavy metal ion solutions containing sweet potato plant varieties under in vitro conditions. pp 1 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Nderi GJ, Gichuhi S, Kollman M, Matende I. Outcome of glaucoma surgery at Mombasa Lighthouse for Christ Eye Center .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to evaluate the outcome of glaucoma surgeries in a centre for eye care in Kenya.   DESIGN: Retrospective case series.   SETTING: The study was conducted at Mombasa Light House for Christ Eye Centre- Kenya.   SUBJECTS: All patients diagnosed to have glaucoma and managed by surgery between 2004-2007.   MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 2004 to 2007 were retrieved and data collected on the surgeries done using a structured questionnaire. 2008 was left for follow up to avail a one year minimum follow up time. Analysis was done using SPSS version 13.   RESULTS: 265 operations were recorded in this period. 213 were retrieved and the outcomes analysed. There was good IOP control over the follow up period with a gradual rise post operation, though the pressures remained within normal. Most of the patients were controlled with no need for medications, or much less medication use.   The average intra-ocular pressure at two year follow up was 15.0mmHg against a baseline of 28.7mmHg (p< 0.001). 29 eyes (13.6%) required medication for intra-ocular pressure control. One type of medication was able to control the pressures post operatively. Surgery reduced topical antiglaucoma medication use by 72%.     CONCLUSION: Intra-ocular pressure was well controlled surgically for the two year follow up.   RECOMENDATIONS: Surgical intervention can be taken as a first option for glaucoma control in our set up, especially as most of our patients present late.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Ngugi Mathew, Murugi Joan, Kibiti Cromwell, Ngeranwa, Joseph, Njagi Eliud, Njue Wilson, Maina Daniel and Gathumbi Peter Hypoglycaemic activity of some Kenyan plants traditionally used to manage diabete mellitus in eastern Province .". In: International Journal of diabetes and nutrition after minor revision. International Journal of diabetes and nutrition after minor revision; 2009. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2009. Prevalence of laminitis and the patterns of claw lesions in dairy cows in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 57: 199-208.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2009. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Njambi L, Kariuki M.M, Masinde S. Ocular findings in children attending occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 21-26.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Njambi L, Kariuki M.M, Masinde S. Ocular findings in children attending occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 21-26.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology.; 2009. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Njeru SN, Otieno SA, Karimurio J. Prevalence of significant refractive errors in high school students, Meru municipality, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Dec; 15(2): 40-45.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of significant refractive errors in high school students in Meru Municipality, Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional, School based study. Setting:   High school students in Meru Municipality, Meru central District, Kenya. Subjects: 164 high school students of age range 13-18 years from Form one and Form three classes. Results:  The prevalence of significant refractive errors was 8.5% with girls contributing 5.5% and boys 3.0%. The pattern of significant refractive errors showed that myopia was the leading cause decreased visual acuity at 78.6% followed by astigmatism at 14.3% and last was hypermetropia with 7.1%. The proportion significant refractive errors was higher (71.4%) in the older age group of 15-18 years than lower age group of 13-16 years (28.6%). Conclusions:  Significant refractive errors are a common cause visual impairment in secondary schools in Meru Municipality. Myopia was found to be the leading cause of decreased visual acuity (VA <6/12).  
WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET. "Njuguna M, Msukwa G, Shilio B, Tumwesigye C, Courtright P, Lewallen S. Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in schools for the blind in eastern Africa: changes in the last 14 years. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009 May-Jun;16(3):151-5.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2009. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children attending schools for the blind in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, and Tanzania and to compare the findings with those of a 1994 study. METHODS: Children attending schools for the blind or annexes in 4 eastern African countries were examined. The major anatomical site of and underlying etiology of severe visual impairment and blindness was recorded using the standardized World Health Organization (WHO) reporting form. RESULTS: A total of 1062 children aged below 16 years were examined of whom 701 (65.2%) had severe visual impairment or blindness. The major anatomical sites of visual loss overall (% and 95% CI) were cornea scar/phthisis bulbi (19%,16.1-21.9), whole globe lesions (15.7%,13.0-18.4), retina (15.4 %, 12.7-18.1), lens related disorders (13.1%, 10.7-15.5), and optic nerve disorders (12.3%, 9.9-14.7). Corneal scar/phthisis was not distributed equally among the countries and was highest in Malawi, similar to findings in 1995. The major etiology of visual loss was childhood factors (29.9%) and an estimated 40% of severe visual impairment and blindness was due to potentially avoidable causes. CONCLUSION: The major causes of severe visual impairment and blindness overall have not changed appreciably since 1995. There are important differences among countries, however, and using overall estimates for planning may be misleading.

PMID: 19437309 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

WEKESA MRMALOBA. "THE NOTION OF FAITHFULNESS vs CONTEXT IN TRANSLATION. BY, MALOBA WEKESA,.". In: PUBLISHED PAPER FOR CONFERENCE IN LAPAMPA ARGENTINA. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2009. Abstract
Translations being representations of texts in other languages can be communicatively successful if these texts are faithful representations of the originals. This means that the posterior text must resemble the anterior text closely enough in respects relevant to the target audience.  The relevance theory, using the notions of interpretive resemblance and interpretive use, constraints the divergence of possible text interpretations between anterior and posterior texts. However, the notions of interpretive use and resemblance make assumption that each utterance will carry along a context that can faithfully be carried over to the posterior text. This paper will argue that "full meaning" of an utterance is a mirage even with interpretive resemblance and use since context is not replicable between languages.  The paper will explore how unfaithful a posterior text can be especially when translators "invent" new context to illustrate a previously unknown concept in the posterior text from the anterior text. The paper will use for illustration, excerpts from the Ten Commandments of the bible as translated in the Lubukusu version of the same - Endakano Empia.
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN. "Nyariki, D.M., Wasonga, V.O. & Mworia JK. 2009. Ecological, socio-economic and livelihood differentiation of Kenya.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2009. Abstract
This book addresses a wide array of issues in botany through a series of chapters. The chapters have been contributed by leading botanists from South America, Africa, Europe and
Waga DD, Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Kochetov RV. "Nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Paleogene sediments of the Odessa Gas Field.". In: International Conference “GEOPETROL 2008”. Krakow, Poland; 2008.
and Nyamasyo D, Nderitu JH. "Nyamasyo, D. and Nderitu, J. H. (2004 ). Lecture notes on invertebrate animals.". In: Triennial Symposium for International Society for Tropical Root and Tuber crops- Africa Branch. Nairobi; 2008.
Upadhyaya R, Tavasci D, Toporowski J. "Niebyl, Money and Development.". In: SOAS Department of Economics Working paper series 157.; 2008.
Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Nanyingi, M. O., Mbaria, J. M.,Wagate, C. G, Gakuya, D.W. Koros, Ogara, W.O. (2008). Pharmacoepidemiology and Bioprospecting of Herbal Medicines in Three Districts in Kenya.". In: The 5th International congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). E; 2008.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Naziriwo B.B., Wandiga S.O., Gatari M.J.G., Madadi O.V., Ssebuwufu P.J., Determination of trace metal concentrations in waters of Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.". In: Poster presentation, European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS2007), Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 16-20 June 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
In an effort to understand the pollution levels in waters of Nakivubo channel in Kampala, Uganda and Lake Victoria (Fig 1) concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using convectional EDXRF and TXRF analysis. Water samples were collected with a 1-litre Van Don sampler (code, 1077) and transferred into polyethylene containers that were stored in an ice cooled box. Five samples were obtained at each sampling site and were all stored at -21 0C until analysis. Filtration on cellulose filter gave a particulate deposit that was analyzed for trace metals on a convectional EDXRF spectrometer. Pre-concentration and evaporation at 50 0C were used for extraction of dissolved metal content that was analyzed on TXRF. Samples of the unfiltered water were treated with HNO3 and H202 in a process for extracting total trace metal content that was subsequently prepared and analyzed on TXRF. Spectra from the spectrometers were analyzed for the trace elements of interest and elemental quantification was achieved using Quantitative X-ray Analysis software from International Atomic Energy Agency. The results showed high concentrations of particulate Fe and Mn, and relatively low Zn upstream the Nakivubo Channel. These were lower in the Lake Victoria waters. At the shores of Lake Victoria the dissolved Fe and Zn were higher than in the channel. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn in Lake Victoria were below the USEPA maximum contamination limits of 0.3, 0.05 and 5 mg/L respectively. However, Fe at the mouth of Nakivubo Channel was high and in general the quantified total elemental concentrations increased upstream along the channel. This meant increased water pollution input upstream and along the channel.
D DRNJUGUNAKARANJA. "Nganga J C, Karanja D N and Mutune M N. The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in pigs in Kenya.". In: Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 40:331-334. Springer; 2008.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Factors associated with occurrence of claw disorders in dairy cows under smallholder production systems in urban and peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya. Veterinarski Arhiv, 78 (4): 3.". In: Veterinarski Arhiv. Veterinarski Arhiv; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Laminitis in cattle: An insidious but devastating claw disease syndrome affecting productivity of the dairy cow. 2008 JKUAT Scientific Conference on Agriculture and Value Addition. p.". In: JKUAT Scientific Conference on Agriculture and Value Addition. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Prognostic indicators and the importance of trimming in non-infective claw disorders in cattle. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 32 (1): 26 -40.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. The status and effects of laminitis on claw health of dairy cows in smallholder units in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Confer.". In: 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, FVM, UON. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
PeRRin MR. "Niche separation in African parrots.". In: Proceedings of the 12th Pan-African ornithological congress. Avian Demographic Unit RawsonvilleCape Town; 2008:. Abstract
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GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P.G., Nyaga, P.N, Bebora, L.C., Michieka, J.N., Minga, U.M. 2008. Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissue of carrier ducks. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008,.". In: the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi,L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Bebora, L.C., J.N. Michieka, J.K.kibe, A.K.Munene, and U. M.minga. 2008. Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera, ovules and mature eggs of indigenous village chickens. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 3.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Njeru, E.K., Mutiso, V.M., Saidi H, Mak.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg.2008; 3: 3-9. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008.

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