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C.K. M. "The need for a poison information centre in Kenya." East Afr Med J. . 1983;60(9):597-8.
Onyari JM. "The need for aquatic pollution studies in Kenyan inland waters.". 1986. AbstractThe need for aquatic pollution studies in Kenyan inland waters

The need for baseline data on pollution studies to the aquatic biota of Kenyan Inland waters is of profound importance. Aware of the possible contamination of the rivers and Lakes with heavy metals, pesticides and other pollutants used around them for the control of tropical diseases and treatment of agricultural crops, a monitoring programme is necessary.

MO O, FN K. "The need for Databases and User-Interface Systems for Urban Planning." International Refereed Journal Africa Habitat Review. 2014;8.
Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM, Ooko JO. "The need for galvanizing and the corrosion environments in Kenya.". In: International Zinc Association and Afriken International Ltd Workshop. Norfok Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
Plisnier P-D, Kayanda R, MacIntyre S, Obiero K, Okello W, Vodacek A, Cocquyt C, Abegaz H, Achieng A, Akonkwa B, Albrecht C, Balagizi C, Barasa J, Abel Bashonga R, Bashonga Bishobibiri A, Bootsma H, Borges AV, Chavula G, Dadi T, De Keyzer ELR, Doran PJ, Gabagambi N, Gatare R, Gemmell A, Getahun A, Haambiya LH, Higgins SN, Hyangya BL, Irvine K, Isumbisho M, Jonasse C, Katongo C, Katsev S, Keyombe J, Kimirei I, Kisekelwa T, Kishe M, Otoung A. Koding S, Kolding J, Kraemer BM, Limbu P, Lomodei E, Mahongo SB, Malala J, Mbabazi S, Masilya PM, McCandless M, Medard M, Migeni Ajode Z, Mrosso HD, Mudakikwa ER, Mulimbwa N'sibula, Mushagalusa Déo, Muvundja FA, Nankabirwa A, Nahimana D, Ngatunga BP, Ngochera M, Nicholson S, Nshombo M, Ntakimazi G, Nyamweya C, Ikwaput Nyeko J, Olago D, Olbamo T, O'Reilly CM, Pasche N, Phiri H, Raasakka N, Salyani A, Sibomana C, Silsbe GM, Smith S, Sterner RW, Thiery W, Tuyisenge J, Van der Knaap M, Van Steenberge M, van Zwieten PAM, Verheyen E, Wakjira M, Walakira J, Ndeo Wembo O, Lawrence T. "Need for harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring of African Great Lakes.". 2022. AbstractWebsite

To ensure the long-term sustainable use of African Great Lakes (AGL), and to better understand the functioning of these ecosystems, authorities, managers and scientists need regularly collected scientific data and information of key environmental indicators over multi-years to make informed decisions. Monitoring is regularly conducted at some sites across AGL; while at others sites, it is rare or conducted irregularly in response to sporadic funding or short-term projects/studies. Managers and scientists working on the AGL thus often lack critical long-term data to evaluate and gauge ongoing changes. Hence, we propose a multi-lake approach to harmonize data collection modalities for better understanding of regional and global environmental impacts on AGL. Climate variability has had strong impacts on all AGL in the recent past. Although these lakes have specific characteristics, their limnological cycles show many similarities. Because different anthropogenic pressures take place at the different AGL, harmonized multi-lake monitoring will provide comparable data to address the main drivers of concern (climate versus regional anthropogenic impact). To realize harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring, the approach will need: (1) support of a wide community of researchers and managers; (2) political goodwill towards a common goal for such monitoring; and (3) sufficient capacity (e.g., institutional, financial, human and logistic resources) for its implementation. This paper presents an assessment of the state of monitoring the AGL and possible approaches to realize a long-term, multi-lake harmonized monitoring strategy. Key parameters are proposed. The support of national and regional authorities is necessary as each AGL crosses international boundaries.

Ondieki EO. "A need for new housing policies in an entrenched neoliberal economic environment in Sub- Sahara Africa." Africa Habitat Review Journal - . Nairobi, SBE Publication- UoN. 2017;Volume 11(. Nairobi, SBE Publication- UoN):Page 1147-1155.
Ondieki EO. "A need for new housing policies in an entrenched neoliberal economic environment in Sub- Sahara Africa." Africa Habitat Review Journal - . Nairobi, SBE Publication- UoN. 2017;Vol 11-2017(SBE Publication- UoN):Page 1147-1155).abstract_-_a_need_for_a_new_housing_policy_-aug2017.docx
MARTINON MUMMA-CA. The Need For Preventive Diplomacy In Eastern African Region. . October ed. International Peace Support Training Centre; 2010.14.need_for_preventive_diplomacy.pdf
Liniger H;, Mbuvi JP;, Kironchi G. "The need to protect Mt. Kenya area soils with permanent cover.".; 1993.
Liniger H;, Mbuvi JP;, Kironchi G. "The need to protect Mt. Kenya area soils with permanent cover.".; 1993.
Kimeu M. "The need to re-examine Environmental Design in Architecture Curricula in East Africa.". In: Workshop on integrating Sustainable Building Design into Curriculum. Maanzoni Lodge, Machakos; 2016.
Nwankwo UM;, Bett RC;, Peters KJ;, Bokemann W. "Need-based innovation motivates attitude change in farmers: evaluation of PROSAB approach.".; 2009. Abstract

The assumption that indigenous farmers resist change is shallow, explained only by a lack of thorough investigation of what the change agents intend to communicate, how they intend to communicate it and the intended beneficiaries. Adoption-decision is complex; it is affected by innovation’s attributes, information-communication perception, socioeconomic, institutional, policy environments and other factors. Besides the riskiness of being the first to try new innovation, problem of resource allocation for maximum utility also affects individual decisions. Innovation availability, affordability and workability are sine qua non to agricultural development therefore they ought to work both technically and commercially. Both a semi-structured questionnaire and personal interviews were administered on a total of 560 farmers from 4 Local Government Areas in Borno State, Nigeria. Farmers faced numerous constraints, fertiliser availability and affordability being the highest, (18% total share) followed by weed problems (17%). Only 18% had information access for problem solution, information received is relevant to farming needs (36%). Within 3 years of PROSAB’s (Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno State) activities in the state, the majority of the respondents have adopted their new crop varieties. Soybean (Glycine max) was not cultivated in the region before. The effect of participation on adoption decision was statistically significant at p<0.0001. 77% of respondents are core farmers while 73% make their living through it with a mean of 23.8 years experience. Soybean planting-harvesting ratio was 1:53 kg and maize (Zea mays) 0.14:23 kg. Innovation attributes were ranked in order of priority; economic needs rank higher than religious or cultural priorities. The claims that indigenous farmers resist change are not always the case due to approach like soliciting for their opinion. This paper has underscored this observation and diffused the misconception. It is clear that farmers can change when presented with sustainable alternatives through consultation.

Odada E, Barange M, Goddard L. "Needs Assessment for Climate Information on Decadal Timescales and Longer." Procedia Environmental Sciences. 2010;VOLUME 1: Pages 275-286. AbstractSCIENCE DIRECT

Abstract

Societal needs for climate information on decadal timescales is confirmed in terms of its potential value and relevance as a driver in sector decision-making, but such information is currently lacking. Predictions and observationally based analyses for decadal climate variability and change are needed. In addition, the following issues have been identified as those that must be addressed in order to facilitate effective use of climate information on decadal timescales in the decision-making processes of different socio-economic sectors: building effective partnership systems linking stakeholders, users and decision-making sectors and climate information providers; more research and investment is to translate information of large-scale decadal variations into the regional and local scales required for decisions; maintaining and sustaining the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), in particular, enhancement of the global ocean observing system; and, ways to assemble, check quality, reprocess and reanalyse datasets relevant to decadal prediction. Ways of securing climate observing systems particularly in least developed regions are urgently needed.

Keywords
Agriculture and food production; water management;energy;marine fisheries and ecosystems; land degradation and fire management: health

B DRODUOLCHARLES. "Needs Assessment for Establishing a Gender Resource Centre. CIDA (GESP) 1999.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
Kabira WM, Masinjila M. Needs Assessment Rusinga Island.; 1993.Website
Mustapha, A O; Kalambuka MOKMKHA; DM;. "Needs For Education And Training In Radiation Protection: Kenya Experience.". 2007.
Mustapha, A. O., Kalambuka, H. A., Maina D, Onyatta JO, Kioko J, Masinza S, Kamande J. "Needs For Education And Training In Radiation Protection: Kenya Experience.". In: The Second All African IRPA Regional Radiation Protection Congress 22-26 April 2007 . Ismailia, Egypt; 2007.
Ogot M, Okudan Gül E. "The Needs Problem Matrix: Providing Some Order to the Chaotic Ideation Fuzzy Front End." age. 2007;12:1. Abstract

The fuzzy front end of the ideation process can often be chaotic, disorganized and seemingly haphazard, especially to student novice designers. Presented with a large array of pre-ideation tools and methods that are supposed to assist them in generating concepts that solve the correct problem, and take into account all aspects of the problem, students are often overwhelmed with information, or simply unable to see the connections or relevance of the data generated from the tools, students begin to view these pre-ideation design process steps as ‘busy work’. The Needs-Problem Matrix (NPM) aims to tie seemingly disparate data from several pre-ideation tools together, presenting student designers with clear connections and a path forward in the ideation process. Use of the NPM ensures that relevant information is not omitted or ignored during concept generation. The NPM incorporates information garnered from patent analyses, black-box models, detailed customer needs analyses, and a design structure matrix used to establish design functional hierarchy. The NPM provides a flow of information from one tool to the next, clearly showing how they are all related, and illustrating what role each plays in the ideation process. Finally, the NPM also serves as a means to clearly document collected pre-ideation information and to aid in the decision making process.

Ebrahim YH. "Neelkanath Chhaya." Architectural World. 2019;August 2019 (3)(1(3)):15-20.
KAAYA G.P. "Neem (Azadirachta indica): Its potential for control of African ticks of economic importance.". In: 22nd World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP, 2009) Conference. Calgary, Canada; 2009.
Kipchirchir IC. "The Negative Binomial Parameter k as a Measure of Dispersion." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2010;4(2):197-207.
Akuon P, Afullo TJO. "Negative power law attenuation estimation for rainy earth-space radio links,Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.". In: PIERS . Kuala Lampur, Malaysis: PIERS; 2012. Abstract

Attenuation prediction for satelite links s derived and validated from measurements all over tropical zones in the world. The power law model is based on the modelling of the stochastic nature of rain drops over an average rain field area. Best performig for the tests.

Gisore JO, Khainga SO. "NEGATIVE PRESSURE WOUND THERAPY (NPWT) FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF LAPAROSTOMY WOUNDS: CASE SERIES." East Afr Med J. 2013;90(12):409-12. Abstract

Laparostomy or the open abdomen can be a lifesaving intervention in surgical emergencies for abdominal compartment syndrome, wound dehiscence, trauma and intra-abdominal sepsis. However, the open abdomen imposes a significant burden on nursing staff caring for these critically ill patients due to the large volume of exudate and fluid loss.To achieve mechanical containment of abdominal viscera and active removal of exudate, we used NPWT to manage five patients with complex intra-abdominal sepsis laparostomy wounds. It took between 12 to 28 days to achieve full granulation for secondary closure of the wounds. The series shows that in the management of laparostomy wounds, NPWT provides an easier way to manage the large volumes of exudates and reduces the frequency of dressings changes required with traditional wound dressings.

C. IBALAI, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F, J. WANJARE. "NEGLECTED FIRM EFFECT AND STOCK RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce Vol. 2. 2017;2(4):42-70.
29. Irungu LW. "Neglected Tropical Diseases." POST. 2007;13(1):1-3.
Bentivoglio M, Cavalherio EA, Kristensson K, Patel NB. Neglected Tropical Diseases and Conditions of the Nervous System. Springer; 2014.productflyer_978-1-4614-8099-0-1.pdf
Horty JF. "Negligence serves two masters." Mod Healthc (Short Term Care). 1976;5(1):58-60.
Dadu CK. A Negotiated Framework for Rehabilitation of Riparian Zones in Nairobi City: The Case of Mathare River Valley (Kenya) . Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Short Outline

Traditionally, riparian zones have been conceived as natural areas adjacent to water bodies. Today these are infiltrated by other non-traditional functions, particularly human settlement related; their management is a complicated negotiation.

Traditionally, riparian zones have been defined, planned, and managed as natural areas adjacent to rivers or water bodies; seen in this context, the riparian zone as a land use would largely have a recreational and/or environmental function attached to it. Consequently, when it comes to river restoration and rehabilitation, the above characteristics have formed the bulk of the desired end-state. However, the situation becomes much more complex where, for various reasons such as lack of access to urban land especially for the poor, such areas are infiltrated by other non-traditional uses, particularly those related to human settlement. In Nairobi, and Mathare River Valley in particular, the bulk of human activities occupying and using the riparian zone fall under the pro-poor informal sector; these include shanty dwelling units, informal micro-industry, urban agriculture (including livestock farming), informal breweries, and clay works. For decades, the Mathare riparian corridor has been colonized and utilized by the urban poor now estimated at over 6000 households organized into villages; whereas majority use it for dormitory purposes only, a significant number have relied on it for extractive and processing micro-economic functions with tangible benefits. Both dimensions have triggered serious problems related to environmental quality and carrying capacity. A significant proportion of these households have settled much into the flood zone that is considered as hazardous.
Recently the Government of Kenya, through a ministerial statement, put the riparian communities on notice pending total recovery of the riparian reserve. The immediate impact is the imminent displacement of large amount of dwellings, but also such a move is predicted to have adverse effects on key livelihoods and socio-economic activities of the community in the long-term. The pronouncement has been met by anxiety and resistance on the community side, who argue that complete recovery of the riparian zone for exclusive natural and recreational functions will have far-reaching effects and thus is not sustainable. Other than exchanges through the media, there has not been any effort towards dialogue, neither has there been initiated any meaningful research to establish the true extent of potential impacts of enforcing the pronouncement in total. The research employs GIS mapping techniques as well as field surveys to develop community profiles; overlays will be conducted to assess level of displacement and its impacts, which will be interpreted in scenario development. The output is a negotiated framework for rehabilitation of Nairobi riparian zone anchored on four components: community mapping, impact assessment, scenario development, and consensus building.

Keywords
Riparian; Rehabilitation; Framework; Livelihoods

Owakah F, Warambo KA. "Negotiating a place and space for Ethics in the Conservation of Kenya’s Heritage: Thinking philosophically and strategizing sociologically.". In: 2nd Annual Nairobi International Multidisciplinary . Nairobi; Forthcoming.
Rummel-Bulska I. The negotiating process leading to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Finland: International Environmental Law-making and Diplomacy Review, Joensuu; 2007.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Negussie Adefus and Musuva, J.K. "Thermal Shock Resistance of some Ceramic Materials for Domestic Stove Linings" - Proceedings of 5th Disciplinary Area Seminar, Mechanical/Production Engineers Sub-Network for ANSTI, Harare, Zimbabwe February, 1987.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Kamau G. "Neighbors’ soil conservation and crop production in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(19):95-109.
Chitere PP. "Neighbourhood Associations and Governance In Nairobi: Their Performance and prospects." Hekima: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2009;4(1). Abstract

This article shows the contribution of neighbourhood associations in delivery of services. It examines the policy and legal framework guiding formation and operation of the associations, their governance including participation of their members and factors influencing them. Data were collected through interviews of officials of 35 associations and 42 members/leaders in Nairobi and surrounding towns, key informants and desk reviews. The article shows that the governance and operations of the associations were not based on a uniform policy and legal framework. Participation was also much better among half of the members that were older, leaders and homeowners. The associations provided services to their neighbourhoods and took affirmative actions such as withholding payment of tax to city authorities and filing cases to challenge unjust laws and practices.

AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Neighbourhood Associations and Governance in the City of Nairobi, Kenya: A Case Study of their Performance and prospects for the Future, IPAR Discussion Paper No.49.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
Shihembetsa L, Agevi E, Tuts R. "Neighbourhood Units in Nairobi: A Survey of Bahati and Ofafa." HRDU. 1989.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Neilson JR, John GC, Carr JK, Lewis P, Kreiss JK, Jackson S, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha D, Panteleeff DD, Bodrug S, Giachetti C, Bott MA, Richardson BA, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J.Subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and disease stage a.". In: J Virol. 1999 May;73(5):4393-403. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.
Hansen CP, Lund JF, Treue T. "Neither Fast, Nor Easy: He Prospect of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in Ghana.". 2009. Abstract

On the basis of a detailed case study of the High Forest Zone of Ghana, the paper challenges the common narrative of REDD as being fast and easy. The paper analyses proximate and underlying causes of deforestation and degradation and finds that these processes are driven by multiple underlying causes. The paper goes on to argue that the causes of deforestation and degradation that are found within the realm of the forestry sector, to which REDD measures will be largely confined, have emerged as a result of a political economy that gives priority to economic development over forest conservation, while at the same time allowing powerful interest groups, in particular the political and administrative elite, to financially benefit from resource depletion. The analysis suggests that forest conserving policy reforms are unlikely to come fast and easy, and that the prospect of future REDD payments may not accelerate them. It is argued that the case of Ghana is not unique and that REDD implementation may face similar constraints in many developing countries.

Kimenju, J.W, Karanja, N.K, Mutua, G.K, Mugambi, R, Wachira, P.M. "Nematode community Structure as influenced by land use and intensity of cultivation." Tropical and Subtropical Agro ecosystems. 2009;11(2):353-360.
Kimenju J.W, Karanja N.K, Mutua G.K, B.M R, Wachira P.M. "Nematode community structure as influenced by land use and intensity of cultivation.". 2009. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effect of land use and intensity of land cultivation on the nematode community structure. The land use types represented in the study sites were natural forest, plantation forest, tea, coffee, napier grass, agroforestry, fallow and annual crop cultivation dominated by maize intercropped with beans. Nematode diversity and abundance decreased with intensity of land cultivation, with the natural forest being regarded as the benchmark. The decrease in nematode diversity was assessed using Shannon, Simpson and species richness indices and was used to reflect the underlying changes in physical, chemical and biological properties of soil environment. The highest maturity indices for free-living and plant parasitic index were recorded in the natural forest and intensively cultivated land under annual crops (maize/beans), respectively. Plant parasitic nematodes were predominant in soils that were under agricultural production while saprofagic nematodes dominated the forested land as exemplified by the ratios of free-living to plant parasitic which were, 5.18 and 0.54 in the natural forest and annual crop production systems respectively. Changes in the nematode community structure, as exhibited by diversity indices, may be a reflection of real differences in the soil characteristics and changes in ecosystem functions. Key words: Abundance; diversity; richness and maturity index.

Karuri HW, Amata RL, Amugune NO, Waturu CN. "Nematode diversity in soil from a field trial with decomposing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 protein." Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;11(4):968-979.
W M, M A, W V, K C, O J. "Nematodes as Bio-Indicators of Physical Disturbance of Marine Sediments Following Polychaete Bait Harvesting." Western Indian Ocean Journal of marine science. 2020;19(2):117-130.
Wafula M, Muthumbi AW, Wangondu V, Kihia C, Okondo J. "Nematodes as bio-indicators of physical disturbance of marine sediments following polychaete bait harvesting." WIO Journal of Marine Science . 2020;19(2):117-130.
Yenesew A., Omosa, L. K. DMHPSJOM. "Neo-clerodane diterpenes from Dodonaea angustifolia." Phytochemistry Letters . 2010;3: 217-220. Abstractpaper_50_omosa_et_al_phytol-2010.pdf

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are morphologically similar.

Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Derese S, Yenesew A, Peter MG, Heydenreich M. "neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2010;3:217-220.omosa_et_al._phytochemistry_letters.pdf
Dr. Derese S, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Yenesew A, Peter MG, Heydenreich. M. "neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia.". 2010. Abstractneo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are morphologically similar

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2010;3(4):217-220. AbstractWebsite

Leonidah K. Omosa, Jacob O. Midiwo, Solomon Derese, Abiy Yenesew, Martin G. Peter, Matthias Heydenreich.

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are morphologically similar.

joshua Kivuva. "Neo-Liberal democracy and the challenges of multiparty politics in kenya, Uganda and Zambia.". In: The African Studies Association. Philadelphia USA; 2012.
Wairire GG. "Neo-liberal Globalization and its impact on Social Work Education in Kenya; Prospects and Retrospect.". In: International Symposium at the 7 York University. Toronto - Canada; 2007.
joshua Kivuva. "Neo-Liberalism on the Cross: Multipartyism and the challenges of democratic transition in kenya.". In: The Studies Program, Good Afternoon Africa Lecture Series. University Center for International studies, WW, Posvar Hall 4130; 2011.
Meert JG, der Voo RV. "A Neoarchean paleomagnetic pole from the Kisii Series of western Kenya: Implications for crustal mobility." Precambrian Research. 2016;279:91-102. Abstract

The Kisii Series lavas of western Kenya were the target of a paleomagnetic study. The Kisii Series is a volcano-sedimentary sequence dated to 2531 ± 3 Ma (U–Pb) that rests unconformably over the Mesoarchean–Neoarchean Nyanzian and Kavirondian Series. The paleomagnetic study reported in this paper expands on an earlier study by Brock et al. (1972) using modern demagnetization and analysis techniques. In spite of the advanced methods, the results of both our new study and the previous study are statistically indistinguishable. We therefore combine the results of both investigations to arrive at a grand mean pole at 7° S, 166° E (A95 = 8°). Due to the relatively minor tilt-corrections, a fold test is inconclusive; however, the dual-polarity magnetization passes a reversal test. We argue for a primary remanence on the basis of a comparison to other paleomagnetic data in Kenya and Tanzania and geological information. We examine the relationships between age-equivalent paleomagnetic poles from the Tanzanian, Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons. Based on this limited dataset, we cannot conclude whether or not the observed apparent polar wander was due to true polar wander or modern-style plate tectonics, such as would be implied by the (variable) apparent polar wander path segments. We favor the latter explanation based on the disparate lengths of the Zimbabwe versus Tanzanian apparent polar wander paths during the 2700–2500 Ma interval. The Protopangea model is not consistent with paleomagnetic data from these three cratons.

Meert JG, der Voo RV, Patel J. "A Neoarchean paleomagnetic pole from the Kisii Series of western Kenya: Implications for crustal mobility." Precambrian Research. 2016;279:91-102. Abstract
n/a
Meert JG, der Voo RV, Patel J. "A Neoarchean paleomagnetic pole from the Kisii Series of western Kenya: Implications for crustal mobility." Precambrian Research. 2016;279:91-102. Abstract
n/a
Laving AMR, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO, Revathi G. "Neonatal bacterial meningitis at the newborn unit of Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 2003;80(9):456-62. Abstract

Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital.

MUSSA DRLAVINGAHMEDMOHAMEDRAFIK, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Neonatal bacterial meningitis at the newborn unit of Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):456-62. Laving AM, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO, Revathi G.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):456-62. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
MUSSA DRLAVINGAHMEDMOHAMEDRAFIK, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Neonatal bacterial meningitis at the newborn unit of Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):456-62. Laving AM, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO, Revathi G.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):456-62. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
MUSSA DRLAVINGAHMEDMOHAMEDRAFIK, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Neonatal bacterial meningitis at the newborn unit of Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):456-62. Laving AM, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO, Revathi G.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):456-62. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
Awori M, Mutwiri R, Mutunga W, Jowi S, Peninan K, Mang’usu O. "Neonatal Ebstein’s Anomaly: Surgical Decision Making." Annals of African Surgery. 2018;15(1):40-43.ebsteins_anomaly-case_report-surgical_decision_making-awori-_2018.pdf
Varma S. "Neonatal Foal Diseases.". In: Presented at the Scientific Meeting of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Kisumu, Kenya; 1987.
Varma S. "Neonatal Foal Diseases.". In: Presented at the Scientific Meeting of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Kisumu, Kenya; 1987. Abstract
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O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Neonatal nutrition and later outcomes of very low birth weight infants at Kenyatta national hospital Afr Health Sci. 2007 June; 7 (2) : 108.". In: Afr Health Sci. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2007. Abstract

Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants.

Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and post-discharge morbidity/ mortality and neurological abnormalities at the age of two years for a cohort of VLBW infants.

One hundred and seventy five VLBW infants were recruited over a consecutive period of one year and followed up to the age of two years corrected for gestation. With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome variables.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Neonatal nutrition and later outcomes of very low birth weight infants at Kenyatta national hospital Afr Health Sci. 2007 June; 7 (2) : 108.". In: Afr Health Sci. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2007. Abstractneonatal_nutrition.pdf

Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants.

Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and post-discharge morbidity/ mortality and neurological abnormalities at the age of two years for a cohort of VLBW infants.

One hundred and seventy five VLBW infants were recruited over a consecutive period of one year and followed up to the age of two years corrected for gestation. With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome variables.

Were FN, Mukhwana BO, Musoke RN. "Neonatal survival of infants less than 2000 grams born at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(2):77-9. Abstract

Survival of patients is regularly used as a measure of the level and appropriateness of medical care provided by institutions. Newborn services have been evaluated in this manner since the 1960s. Though Kenyatta National Hospital has provided neonatal services for over 25 years, no survival data for the low birth weight infants has been published since 1978.

N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Neonatal survival of infants less than 2000 grams born at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr. Med. J. 79:77; 2002. F.N. Were, B.O., Mukhwana, R.N. Musoke.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 79:77; 2002. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
{ Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Infants less than 1500 grams at birth have been demonstrated to be particularly prone to development of low levels of serum sodium often leading to increased early neonatal morbidity and mortality. No local study has been done to quantify this problem among sick newborns. Studies elsewhere demonstrate a high incidence of hyponatraemia among such preterms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. DESIGN: Comparative cohort study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during their first week of life. Half of them were designated as cases in view of having various early neonatal illnesses. The remaining 28 being clinically stable were taken as controls. These two groups had comparable birthweights, sex distribution and gestational ages. Their sodium intakes were also similar during the first week of life. RESULTS: The sick infants (cases) had persistently low serum sodium (mean of 120 mmols/L) throughout the first week while among the healthy infants (controls) a sequential increase from 127 to 133 mmol/l, (mean values) was observed during the same period. The difference registered on day seven (133 versus 120) was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Using a cut off point of 130 mmol/L to define hyponatraemia the proportion of infants with hyponatraemia, which was similar at the beginning became higher among the cases for the rest of the week with the largest disparity observed on the seventh day (75% versus 23%
Abinya ONA, LLEONCINII, Spinai D, A.Nyong'o, Minaccii C, Disantoi A, de lucai F, de viv A. "Neoplastic cells of hodgkin's disease show differences in ebv expression between kenya and italy.". 1996.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Neotectonics and stress pattern in Africa.". In: In: Bormann, P. (Editor). Regional International Training Course Volume (1997) on Seismology and Seismic Hazard Assessment. Scientific Technical Report STR 98/05. Potsdam. 177-181. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
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K. KJ, O. OP, SO. ML, O. AE, O. OE. "Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients." East African Medical Journal, 86 (9): 435 . 2009;86(9):435-441. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To describe the incidence of renal dysfunction, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia in AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis and on amphotericin B treatment. Secondary objective was to determine all-cause mortality in the same group.

Design: Prospective, observational study.

Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: Seventy consecutive patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis on amphotericin B.

Results: About 58.6% of the patients had at least 100% rise in the creatinine level. Thirty eight point six per cent of patients experienced a rise in serum creatinine of at least 50%. Ninty three per cent of the patients developed hypokalaemia and 80% had hypomagnesaemia at trough magnesium level. Only 54.3% of patients completed the intended 14-day treatment. Thirty point five per cent of patients died within the two week follow-up period.

Conclusion: The incidences of amphotericin B associated nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia and hypomagnesaemia were high in this studied population.

Ochieng PO, MCLIGEYO SO, Amayo EO, KAYIMA JK, Omonge EO. "Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients." east african medical journal. 2009;86(9):435-41.
Ochieng PO, MCLIGEYO SO, Amayo EO, KAYIMA JK, Omonge EO. "Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(9):435-41. Abstract

To describe the incidence of renal dysfunction, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia in AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis and on amphotericin B treatment. Secondary objective was to determine all-cause mortality in the same group.

K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "The Nephrotoxity of Netilmicin and Gentamicin .". In: M.Sc. thesis in Clinical Pharmacology 1980, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nesbitt A, Jitta JS, Bubi J, Ndinya-Achola J.Pyogenic meningitis in Nairobi children.East Afr Med J. 1988 Mar;65(3):189-96.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Mar;65(3):189-96. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
Clement G Tweh, Célestin Y Kouakou, Chira R, John M Githaiga, Shadrach Kerwillain MM-O, Matthew Varney JJ. "Nest Counts Reveal a Stable Chimpanzee Population in Sapo National Park, Liberia." Primate Conservation. 2018;32:12.
Mwangi M, Njoroge P, Chira R, Gichuki N. "Nest food provisioning in the Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea does not vary with parental sex differences and time of day." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2018;38(2):7-15.
Muchai M, du Plessis MA. "Nest predation of grassland bird species increases with parental activity at the nest." Journal of Avian Biology. 2005;36:110-116. Abstract
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Odongo DO, Sunter JD, Kiara HK, Skilton RA, Bishop RP. "A nested PCR assay exhibits enhanced sensitivity for detection of Theileria parva infections in bovine blood samples from carrier animals." Parasitol. Res.. 2010;106(2):357-65. Abstract

Theileria parva causes East Coast fever, an economically important disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay for the detection of T. parva DNA in cattle blood spotted onto filter paper using primers derived from the T. parva-specific 104-kDa antigen (p104) gene. The sensitivity of this assay was compared to a previously described p104-based PCR and also the reverse line blot (RLB) technique, using serial dilutions of blood from a calf with known T. parva piroplasm parasitaemia. The relative sensitivities of the three assays were 0.4, 1.4 and 4 parasites/microl corresponding to blood parasitaemias of 9.2 x 10(-6)%, 2.8 x 10(-5)% and 8.3 x 10(-5)%, respectively. The three assays were applied to samples from two calves infected with the T. parva Muguga stock. Parasite DNA was consistently detectable by the two p104 PCR assays until 48 and 82 days post-infection, respectively, and thereafter sporadically. RLB detected parasite DNA in the two infected calves until days 43 and 45. Field samples from 151 Kenyan cattle exhibited 37.7% positivity for T. parva by regular p104 PCR and 42.3% positivity using p104 nPCR. Among 169 cattle blood samples from Southern Sudan, 36% were positive for T. parva using nPCR. The nPCR assay represents a highly sensitive tool for detection and monitoring of asymptomatic carrier state infections of T. parva in the blood of cattle.

Waweru N, Borghesio L, Muchai M, Waweru C, Beru MK, Cheserek G, Kiptui M. "The Nesting Success of Taita Thrush Turdus helleri in Afrotropical Fragments, Kenya." Africa Environmental Review Journal. 2018;3:1-10. Abstract
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K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Netilimicin toxicity in Man. A volunteer study. Ndele, J.K. and Keaney N.P. Clinical Trials Journal (London) 1980, 17,6,346-351.". In: Clinical Trials Journal (London) 1980, 17,6,346-351. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
AJ W, A M, A T, R R, CD M, R G. "Netilmycin and vancomycin in the treatment of peritonitis in CAPD patients." Clin Nephrol.. 1992;37(4):209-13. Abstract

This study was undertaken to evaluate: 1. The efficacy of netilmycin and vancomycin as combined first line antimicrobial regime, compared to cefuroxime, in the treatment of peritonitis. 2. To measure the levels of netilmycin and vancomycin in the serum and dialysate. 3. To report on the use of this combination over a one year period and compare it with that of cefuroxime used during the previous one year.

ndeti ndati, Mulwa M. "Network Logic and the Stabilization of Mobile Banking Products: A Case Study of Selected Mobile Banking Products in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development . 2013;Vol. 2 Issue 8.ISSN: 278-0211(Online).
Mulwa M. "The network Logic and The stabilization of Mobile Banking Products in Kenya.". In: The 4th African International Business and Management (AIBUMA 2013) Conference. The University of Nairobi, School of Business, Lower Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.aibuma2013conferenceprogram-final_july1.pdf
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Networking of Universities and Tertiary Middle Level Colleges".". In: Workshop on Linkages between University of Nairobi and Tertiary Colleges. In Nairobi. 15 June 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
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A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Networking of Universities and Tertiary Middle Level Colleges".". In: Workshop on Linkages between University of Nairobi and Tertiary Colleges. In Nairobi. 15 June 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract

.

Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N, Ongile G. "Networks, Markets, and Growth in Nairobi's Garment Industry.". In: International Center for Economic Growth. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

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Kinyanjui MN;, McCormick D;, Ongile G. "Networks, Markets, and Growth in Nairobi's Garment Industry.". 1994.Website
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Neumann CG, Bwibo NO, Murphy SP, Sigman M, Whaley S, Allen LH, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Demment MW.Animal source foods improve dietary quality, micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan school children: background, study design and baselin.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3941S-3949S. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Neumann CG, Gewa C, Bwibo NO.Child nutrition in developing countries. Pediatr Ann. 2004 Oct;33(10):658-74.". In: Pediatr Ann. 2004 Oct;33(10):658-74. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2004. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Jumba G, Gachara G, Bulimo W. Neuraminidase Inhibitor activities on Influenza B isolates obtained in Kenya, 2011-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Introduction: Oseltamivir and zanamivir are neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) with important roles as drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza. Whereas there have been reports of in vivo resistance of influenza B viruses to NAIs, currently there is lack of information regarding sensitivity or resistance to these drugs in influenza B viruses circulating in Kenya. Here, we report the isolation of influenza B viruses, phenotypic assessment to NAI activities and molecular characterization of NAI-relevant mutations in viruses that circulated in Kenya in the period 2011-2012. Materials and Methods: Influenza B viruses were isolated from patient nasopharyngeal specimens by inoculation onto MDCK monolayers. For phenotypic determination, enzyme inhibition assay using fluorescent MUNANA substrate was used. Known NA inhibitor-resistant and inhibitor-sensitive viruses were included in the assays as controls. IC50 values were determined using curve fitting implemented in Grafit version 7.0 software which is based on 50% of fitted upper asymptote. For molecular characterization of the mutations relevant in NAI resistance, RNA was extracted from the isolates followed by PCR amplification of NA gene segments using gene-specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons were performed using the Sanger dideoxy termination chemistry implemented using the BigDye technology prior to analyses using a suite of bioinformatics tools. Results and Discussion: Twenty four influenza B viruses were isolated and assed in this study. The mean IC50s of the isolates ranged from 17.1nM - 70.1nM for Oseltamivir and 0.0nM - 12.6nM for Zanamivir which were all within the 2011 WHO sensitive limits of 8-128nM for oseltamivir carboxylate and 0.5-12nM for Zanamivir. None of the isolates analyzed depicted oseltamivir or Zanamivir resistance at the eight amino acid positions E119, R152, D198, I222, S250, H274, R371, and G402 in the neuraminidase protein previously found to be associated with resistance or reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir and/or zanamivir. In conclusion, NAIs drugs were effective in treating influenza cause type B viruses during the 2011-2012 Kenyan seasons.

Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Osanjo G, Wamunyokoli F, Coldren R. Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility of Influenza A isolates obtained in Kenya, 2008-2011.. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Introduction: Neuraminidase inhibitors mainly oseltamivir and zanamivir function both as prophylactic and treatment agents for influenza infections. We characterized the antiviral susceptibility of the 2008-2011 influenza A viruses circulating in Kenya by combining both the genotypic data involving known molecular markers in neuraminidase (NA) protein responsible for drug resistance and IC50 data generated from NA inhibition assays.Materials and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab specimen from consenting outpatients of age ≥ 2 months were obtained and transported to the National Influenza Center. RT-PCR amplification of NA gene segments was performed on the virus isolates prior to nucleotide sequencing using the BigDye chemistry. Sequences were analyzed using a suite of bioinformatics tools. Drug susceptibility was determined by fluorescent enzyme inhibition assay with known NA inhibitor-resistant and inhibitor-sensitive viruses. IC50 values were determined using curve fitting software, Grafit 7.0.Results and Discussion: Out of 836 influenza A virus isolates obtained (2008-2011), 108 (13%) were analyzed for markers of resistance to NA inhibitors. 64% (7/11) of the 2008 seasonal influenza A/H1N1 isolates depicted oseltamivir resistant marker H275Y. Influenza A/H3N2 and A/ (H1N1) pdm09 isolates lacked the H275Y mutation. A total of 28 isolates were further subjected to phenotypic susceptibility assay. The mean zanamivir IC50s were 1.75nM, 2.53nM and 1.84nM for the subtypes sH1N1, pH1N1 and H3N2 respectively. Eight of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 isolates analyzed showed highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir with IC50s ranges from 73nM-984nM. Pandemic A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains obtained between 2009-2011and 2008-2011 respectively depicted normal sensitivity. The 2011, WHO range and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 257nM-3455nM and 458.2nM; 132nm-2179nM and 191.3nM; 23-378 and 42.3nM for the mutant subtypes sH1N1, pH1N1and sH3N2 respectively.Conclusion: Overall genotypic and phenotypic data demonstrate oseltamivir resistance in the 2008-2009, sH1N1 viruses. The H275Y mutation increased the IC50 by 50-100 fold.

Chopra S, Baby C, Jacob JJ. "Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure." Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011;15:S281-S288. AbstractWebsite

As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP) is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP control, the neural mechanisms, renal-endocrine mechanisms, and a variety of other hormones that have a bearing in normal BP control are discussed and the possible role in the pathophysiology is alluded to.

Mburu J, editor Ndetei, D.M., Ongecha-Owuor FA, Gakinya B. "Neuroanatomy and Psychiatry."; 2006.
Patel NB. "Neurobiology of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk).". In: Neglected Tropical Diseases and Conditions of the Nervous System. New York: Springer; 2014.
Nyundo AA, Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mathai AM. "Neurocognitive correlates of the use of combined Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-infected adults attending care and treatment center at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: An analytical crosssectional study." Tanzania Medical Journal. 2016. AbstractWebsite

The discovery of the highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life span of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to almost that of the general population. This, however, has been coupled with increased incidences of HIVassociated dementia, especially mild cognitive impairment. Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been observed to improve neurocognitive functions but the ART regimen that is best suited for improvement of neurocognitive functions is still largely unknown. This study was aimed at determining how neurocognitive deficits in patients on cART were related to ART regimen.

N S, SO ML. "Neurofibromatosis type 1: report of two contrasting cases." East African Medical Journal.2002:79 (11);563 . 2002;79(11)::614-7. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

N S, O MS. "Neurofibromatosis type I: Report of two contrasting cases." East African Medical Journal. 2002;79(11):614. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

JK K, IO O, JA O’o. "Neurogenic control of cerebral blood vessels in the giraffe." African Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 1 No. 126 (abstract).. 1993;1(1):126. AbstractWebsite

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Ashton N. "Neurological and humoral control of blood pressure." Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 2007;8:221-226. AbstractWebsite

Blood must be maintained under pressure to overcome the resistance offered by blood vessels, and thus ensure an adequate rate of flow to metabolizing tissues. If pressure is too low, the flow of blood cannot deliver sufficient oxygen; if it is too high, damage occurs to the blood vessels and organs. Hence, blood pressure is regulated around a ‘set point’. Pressure in the arterial system is regulated on a minute-to-minute basis by the autonomic nervous system and in the long term by a number of hormones that act on the kidney. High-pressure sensors (baroreceptors) are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch, which monitor pressure generated by the beating heart. Afferent fibres of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves (glossopharyngeal and vagus, respectively) project into the cardiovascular control centre in the medulla oblongata. Parasympathetic vagal tone acts to slow heart rate and thus cardiac output, whereas sympathetic tone increases both force and rate of contraction, as well as stimulating vasoconstriction of blood vessels to increase resistance. Long-term regulation of blood pressure depends on the maintenance of blood volume. This is achieved by the combined actions of the renin–angiotensin system, aldosterone and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which act on the kidney to promote retention of sodium and water. Blood volume is reduced by atrial natriuretic peptide, which causes diuresis and natriuresis. Together, the nervous and endocrine systems act to correct fluctuations in blood pressure and ensure that it is maintained at an appropriate level.

Amayo EO. "Neurological letter from Kenya." Practical neurology . 2006;6:261-262.
Kuria MW. "Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Chapter 17.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kimani, S. MT-KVD. "Neurotoxicity behavior of cassava cyanogens analogs in sulfur amino acid (SAA) deficiency diet.". In: The 10th International Society Of Neuroscientists Of Africa (SONA) Conference, Basic to Clinic. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2011.
Kimani S, Kipruto S, Bukachi F, Monterroso V, Maitai C, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Neurotoxicity of Cassava Cyanogens: Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Konzo, a Motor Neuron Disease Prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa." Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2016;36(1 S975):975.
Cohen-Cory S, Lom B. "Neurotrophic regulation of retinal ganglion cell synaptic connectivity: from axons and dendrites to synapses." The International journal of developmental biology. 2004;48:947-956. Abstract

This review highlights important events during the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), focusing on mechanisms that control axon and dendritic arborization as a means to understand synaptic connectivity with special emphasis on the role of neurotrophins during structural and functional development of RGCs. Neurotrophins and their receptors participate in the development of visual connectivity at multiple levels. In the visual system, neurotrophins have been shown to exert various developmental influences, from guiding the morphological differentiation of neurons to controlling the functional plasticity of visual circuits. This review article examines the role of neurotrophins, and in particular of BDNF, during the morphological development of RGCs, and discusses potential interactions between activity and neurotrophins during development of neuronal connectivity.

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Neutraceutal Wild Plants of SemiArid East Shewa, Ethiopia: Contributions to Food and Healthcare Security of the Semiarid People." Research Journal of Forestry. 2011;5 (1):1-16. Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was conducted in six study sites of semi arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. The study has aimed to identify key nutraceutical wild plants and documents associated indigenous knowledge. It also analyzed local use and management practices and implications to food and health security of people living in semi arid areas. Data was obtained ethnobotanically by field observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Qualitatively data were described by narrating and quantitatively summarized in tables, percentages and ranking matrixs. Twenty nutraceutical plants were identified; 35% shrubs, 6% trees and 5% liana for human food, livestock feed and medicine. Transhumant pastoralists used (95%) nutraceuticals and settled farmers (65%). Twenty nutraceutical wild plants were used to treat 11(55%) human and 9(45%) livestock ailments/ health problems. There are a good number of nutraceutical plants which can be used for nutrition and healthcare system of semiarid people. Transhumant pastoralists were more intimate with nature and more knowledgeable. Hence, they adapt to climate change by using locally available nutraceuticals for themselves and their livestock. Climate change adaptation strategies can be built on this indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of nutracuticals for nutrition and health security.

Feyssa DH, JNT, Nyangito MM, Asfaw Z. "Neutraceutal Wild Plants of SemiArid East Shewa, Ethiopia: Contributions to Food and Healthcare Security of the Semiarid People." Research Journal of Forestry. 2011;5(1):1-16. Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was conducted in six study sites of semi arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. The study has aimed to identify key nutraceutical wild plants and documents associated indigenous knowledge. It also analyzed local use and management practices and implications to food and health security of people living in semi arid areas. Data was obtained ethnobotanically by field observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Qualitatively data were described by narrating and quantitatively summarized in tables, percentages and ranking matrixs. Twenty nutraceutical plants were identified; 35% shrubs, 6% trees and 5% liana for human food, livestock feed and medicine. Transhumant pastoralists used (95%) nutraceuticals and settled farmers (65%). Twenty nutraceutical wild plants were used to treat 11(55%) human and 9(45%) livestock ailments/ health problems. There are a good number of nutraceutical plants which can be used for nutrition and healthcare system of semiarid people. Transhumant pastoralists were more intimate with nature and more knowledgeable. Hence, they adapt to climate change by using locally available nutraceuticals for themselves and their livestock. Climate change adaptation strategies can be built on this indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of nutracuticals for nutrition and health security

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Nyangito MM, Asfaw Z. "Neutraceutal Wild Plants of SemiArid East Shewa, Ethiopia: Contributions to Food and Healthcare Security of the Semiarid People." Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 2010;3(1). Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was conducted in six study sites of semi arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. The study has aimed to identify key nutraceutical wild plants and documents associated indigenous knowledge. It also analyzed local use and management practices and implications to food and health security of people living in semi arid areas. Data was obtained ethnobotanically by field observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Qualitatively data were described by narrating and quantitatively summarized in tables, percentages and ranking matrixs. Twenty nutraceutical plants were identified; 35% shrubs, 6% trees and 5% liana for human food, livestock feed and medicine. Transhumant pastoralists used (95%) nutraceuticals and settled farmers (65%). Twenty nutraceutical wild plants were used to treat 11(55%) human and 9(45%) livestock ailments/ health problems. There are a good number of nutraceutical plants which can be used for nutrition and healthcare system of semiarid people. Transhumant pastoralists were more intimate with nature and more knowledgeable. Hence, they adapt to climate change by using locally available nutraceuticals for themselves and their livestock. Climate change adaptation strategies can be built on this indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of nutracuticals for nutrition and health security.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Neutralization Escape Variants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Are Transmitted from Mother to Infant Xueling Wu, Adam B. Parast, Barbra A. Richardson, Ruth Nduati, Grace John-Stewart, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Stephanie M. J. Rainwater, and Julie Overb.". In: J Virol. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2006. Abstract
Maternal passive immunity typically plays a critical role in protecting infants from new infections; however, the specific contribution of neutralizing antibodies in limiting mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is unclear. By examining cloned envelope variants from 12 transmission pairs, we found that vertically transmitted variants were more resistant to neutralization by maternal plasma than were maternal viral variants near the time of transmission. The vertically transmitted envelope variants were poorly neutralized by monoclonal antibodies biz, 2G12 , 2F5, and 4E10 individually or in combination. Despite the fact that the infant viruses were among the most neutralization resistant in the mother, they had relatively few glycosylation sites. Moreover, the transmitted variants elicited de novo neutralizing antibodies in the infants, indicating that they were not inherently difficult to neutralize. The neutralization resistance of vertically transmitted viruses is in contrast to the relative neutralization sensitivity of viruses sexually transmitted within discordant couples, suggesting that the antigenic properties of viruses that are favored for transmission may differ depending upon mode of transmission.
Goo L, Milligan C, Simonich CA, Nduati R, Obimbo E, J. O. "Neutralizing antibody escape during HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission involves conformational masking of distal epitopes in envelope. ." J Virol. 2012 Sep;86(18):9566-82. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00953-12. Epub 2012 Jun 27.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
HIV-1 variants transmitted to infants are often resistant to maternal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), suggesting that they have escaped maternal NAb pressure. To define the molecular basis of NAb escape that contributes to selection of transmitted variants, we analyzed 5 viruses from 2 mother-to-child transmission pairs, in which the infant virus, but not the maternal virus, was resistant to neutralization by maternal plasma near transmission. We generated chimeric viruses between maternal and infant envelope clones obtained near transmission and examined neutralization by maternal plasma. The molecular determinants of NAb escape were distinct, even when comparing two maternal variants to the transmitted infant virus within one pair, in which insertions in V4 of gp120 and substitutions in HR2 of gp41 conferred neutralization resistance. In another pair, deletions and substitutions in V1 to V3 conferred resistance, but neither V1/V2 nor V3 alone was sufficient. Although the sequence determinants of escape were distinct, all of them involved modifications of potential N-linked glycosylation sites. None of the regions that mediated escape were major linear targets of maternal NAbs because corresponding peptides failed to compete for neutralization. Instead, these regions disrupted multiple distal epitopes targeted by HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that escape from maternal NAbs occurred through conformational masking of distal epitopes. This strategy likely allows HIV-1 to utilize relatively limited changes in the envelope to preserve the ability to infect a new host while simultaneously evading multiple NAb specificities present in maternal plasma.

Monyonko NM, Reid JH. Neutrino charge in the non-linear Rzeta gauge.; 1982.
Othieno-Abinya NA, Kiarie GW, Mlombe Y, Wanzala P. "Neutrophil dynamics and death in postchemotherapy septic neutropenia ." Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2011;27(15):175-179. Abstract

Background: Mortality rates from septic neutropenia vary between studies, ranging from 7% to 30%. We observed the mortality rate for patients hospitalized for postchemotherapy septic neutropenia was 28.6% in one of our studies. Many deaths appeared to have occurred at the time of neutrophil recovery. We attributed this to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome akin to what is seen in HIV/AIDS. Methods: Records of patients who died during hospitalization with septic neutropenia. Results: Twenty one patients, 14 males (67%) and 7 females (33%) were included, age range 14–67 years. Six (28.6%) had World Health Organization (WHO) grade 0 neutropenia at the time of death, none had grade 1, one (4.8%) had grade 2, one (4.8%) grade 3, and 14 (67%) had grade 4. The last absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at death ranged between 0.005 and 6.3 x 109/litre. Ten patients (47.6%) died during neutrophil upswing and 11 (52.4%) during neutrophil decline. Thirteen patients (61.9%) also had grade 4 thrombocytopenia but no death was attributed to bleeding. Five of 18 (27.8%) had WHO grade 3 renal function impairment, and six (33.3%) had grade 2 impairment. The main cause for renal function disturbance was hypotension that was usually sudden and unexplained. There was no correlation between ANC and renal function impairment (p > 0.5). Conclusions: Death from septic neutropenia could not be attributed to neutrophil dynamics and by extension immune reconstitution from this study. Neutropenia grade 4 still stood out as a major predictor of death. Larger prospective studies are required to address this issue.

Othieno-Abinya NA, Kiarie OW, Mlombe Y, Wanzala P. "Neutrophil dynamics and death in postchernotherapy septic neutropenia. .". 2009.
Chohan BH, Tapia K, Benki-Nugent S, Khasimwa B, Ngayo M, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G. "Nevirapine Resistance in Previously Nevirapine-Unexposed HIV-1-Infected Kenyan Infants Initiating Early Antiretroviral Therapy." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2015;31(8):783-91. Abstract

Nevirapine (NVP) resistance occurs frequently in infants following NVP use in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) regimens. However, among previously NVP-unexposed infants treated with NVP-antiretroviral therapy (ART), the development and impact of NVP resistance have not been well characterized. In a prospective clinical trial providing early ART to HIV-infected infants <5 months of age in Kenya (OPH03 study), we followed NVP-unexposed infants who initiated NVP-ART for 12 months. Viral loads were assessed and resistance determined using a population-based genotypic resistance assay. Of 99 infants screened, 33 had no prior NVP exposure, 22 of whom were initiated on NVP-ART. Among 19 infants with follow-up, seven (37%) infants developed resistance: one at 3 months and six at 6 months after ART initiation. The cumulative probability of NVP resistance was 5.9% at 3 months and 43.5% at 6 months. Baseline HIV RNA levels (p=0.7) and other characteristics were not associated with developing resistance. Post-ART, higher virus levels at visits preceding the detection of resistance were significantly associated with increased detection of resistance (p=0.004). Virus levels after 6 and 12 months of ART were significantly higher in infants with resistance than those without (p=0.007, p=0.030, respectively). Among infants without previous NVP exposure, development of NVP resistance was frequent and was associated with virologic failure during the first year of ART. Earlier development of NVP resistance in infants than in adults initiating NVP-ART may be due to longer viremia following ART or inadequate NVP levels resulting from NVP lead-in dosing. The development of NVP resistance may, in part, explain the superiority of protease inhibitor-based ART in infants.

Peters PJ, Stringer J, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Ratanasuwan W, Intalapaporn P, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Zulu I, Borkowf CB, Bolu O, Brooks JT, Weidle PJ. "Nevirapine-associated hepatotoxicity was not predicted by CD4 count ≥250 cells/μL among women in Zambia, Thailand and Kenya." HIV Med.. 2010;11(10):650-60. Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for developing severe hepatotoxicity (grade 3 or 4 hepatotoxicity) and rash-associated hepatotoxicity (rash with ≥ grade 2 hepatotoxicity) among women initiating nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART).

ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: Report of a case and review of literature. East African Medical Journal Vol. 7 No.11 1994.". In: East African Medical Journal Vol. 7 No.11 1994. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "New Amblyseius mite from Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Biol., 35: 549 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1975. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Lemson MS, Daemen MJ, Kitslaar PJ, Tordoir JH. "A new animal model to study intimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulas." The Journal of surgical research. 1999;85:51-58. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Intimal hyperplasia (IH) plays a key role in the failure of arteriovenous (AV) fistulas. The animal models available to study IH in AV fistulas are expensive and do not mimic the development of truly stenotic IH. In this study we examined whether goats are a more suitable model to study IH in AV fistulas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen direct and four bridge graft AV fistulas between the carotid artery and the jugular vein of goats were explanted 10 to 195 days after creation. Immunohistochemical staining and morphometric measurements of intima and media were performed in the artery, the vein, the toe, and the heel of the venous anastomosis. Ratios of intimal to medial thickness (Ith/Mth) and area (Ia/Ma) were calculated. RESULTS: IH developed in all goats, mainly at the anastomosis (Ia/Ma = 0.17) and the efferent vein (Ia/Ma = 0.31). The artery was almost free of lesions (Ia/Ma = 0.03). In the efferent vein, Ith/Mth varied between 0.59 and 0.68. In the anastomosis the largest value of Ith/Mth was measured at the suture lines (0.88 and 0.91). Absolute intimal area increased with time. IH contained many vascular smooth muscle cells with a patchy display of desmin positivity, an abundance of smooth muscle cell alpha-actin positivity, and almost complete endothelial cell coverage. Occlusion was due to thrombus formation on the IH. CONCLUSION: A clear intimal hyperplasia developed in AV fistulas in goats at locations comparable to those in humans. Therefore, the AV fistula model in the goat may be seen as an effective model to study IH in hemodialysis AV fistulas.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "A new antiplasmodial coumarin from Toddalia asiatica roots.Oketch-Rabah HA, Mwangi JW, Lisgarten J, Mberu EK.Fitoterapia. 2000 Dec;71(6):636-40.". In: Fitoterapia. 2000 Dec;71(6):636-40. The Kenya Medical Association; 2000. Abstract

A new antiplasmodial coumarin, 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3'-hydroxy-3'methyl-1'-butene)-coumarin (1), has been isolated from the roots of Toddalia asiatica. This finding supports the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "a new approach to .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Musuva PMW, Getao KW, Chepken CK. "A new approach to modelling the effects of cognitive processing and threat detection on phishing susceptibility." Computers in Human Behavior. 2019;94:154-175. Abstract
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MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "A new Approach to Search for the Bioactive Conformation of Glucagon Position Cyclization Scanning.". In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2001, 44, 3109 - 3116. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Nyamai, C.M. in Feneyrol J. GOFMLGPISGDAE. "New aspects and perspectives on Tsavorite Deposits. Ore Geology Reviews 53 (2013) pp 1–25." Ore Geology Reviews . 2013;53 (2013):pp 1-25. Abstractsciencedirect

ABSTRACT

Tsavorite, the vanadian variety of green grossular, is a high value economic gemstone. It is hosted exclusively in the metasedimentary formations from the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt. The deposits are mined in Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar and other occurrences are located in Pakistan and East Antarctica.

They are located within metasomatized graphitic rocks such as graphitic gneiss and calc-silicates, intercalated with meta-evaporites. Tsavorite is found as primary deposits either in nodule (type I) or in quartz vein (type II), and in placers (type III). The primary mineralizations (types I and II) are controlled by lithostratigraphy and/or structure. For the African occurrences, the protoliths of the host-rocks were deposited at the beginning of the Neoproterozoic within a marine coastal sabkha environment, located at the margin of the Congo–Kalahari cratons in the Mozambique Ocean. During the East African–Antarctican Orogeny, the rocks underwent high amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism and the formation of tsavorite deposits occurred between 650 and 550 Ma. The nodules of tsavorite were formed during prograde metamorphism, calcium coming from sulphates and carbonates, whereas alumina, silicates, vanadium and chromium probably came from clays and chlorite. The veins were formed during the deformation of the metasedimentary platform units which experienced shearing, leading to the formation of fault-filled veins.

Metasomatism developed during retrograde metamorphism. The metasedimentary sequences are characterized by the presence of evaporitic minerals such as gypsum and anhydrite, and scapolite. Evaporites are essential as they provide calcium and permit the mobilization of all the chemical elements for tsavorite formation. The H2S–S8 metamorphic fluids characterized in primary fluid inclusions of tsavorites and the δ11B values of coeval dravite confirm the evaporitic origin of the fluids. The V2O3 and Cr2O3 contents of tsavorite range respectively from 0.05 to 7.5 wt.%, while their δ18O values are in the range of 9.5–21.1‰.

The genetic model proposed for tsavorite is metamorphic, based on chemical reactions developed between an initial assemblage composed of gypsum and anhydrite, carbonates and organic matter deposited in a sabkha-like sedimentary basin.

Singh CB, Munshi JD, Sinha SP. "A new basic chromosome number in Saccharum spontaneum L.". 1990. AbstractA new basic chromosome number in Saccharum spontaneum L.

Study of meiosis in a clone of S. spontaneum (2n = 54), revealed that 11.39 ± 2.52% of PMCs undergo cytomixis during premetaphase I. Only 18 bivalents migrated with the nucleolus into the recipient cell and 9 remained in the donor cell, which was taken to indicate the existence of a basic number of 9, in addition to previously reported basic numbers of 6, 8 and 10.

Ochora DO, Kakudidi E, Namukobe J, Heydenreich M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Mwakio EW, Andagalu B, Roth A, Akala HM, Wong VKW, Yenesew A. "A new benzophenone, and the antiplasmodial activities of the constituents of Securidaca longipedunculata fresen (Polygalaceae)." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-9. AbstractView Website

Description
Extracts from Securidaca longipedunculata showed antiplasmodial activities against reference clones and clinical isolates using SYBR Green I method. A new benzophenone, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzophenone (1) was isolated and characterized along with seven known compounds: 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxybenzophenone (2); 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (3), methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (4), benzyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (5), 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid (6), 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzophenone (7) and 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzophenone (8). Compounds 1 and 2 showed ex vivo antiplasmodial activities (IC50 28.8 μM and 18.6 μM, respectively); while 5 and 8 showed in vivo activities (IC50 19.7 μM and 14.5 μM, respectively) against D6 strain. In a cytotoxicity assay, all the extracts (with an exception of the MeOH extract of the leaves) and pure compounds were not toxic to the …

Njenga LW, Mbugua, M., Onani, M.O., Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO. "New Bis(Pyrrolylimine) Platinum (II) and Palladium (II) Complexes: Synthesis, X-Ray Structure Determination, Spectroscopic Characterization, and in vitro Anticancer Activity on Various Human Carcinoma Cell Lines.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "New Concepts on the Calibration of Comparators and Projection Instruments. Technical Paper, No. 3; .". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1978.
Kibugi R. "New Constitutional Environmental Law in Kenya: Changes in 2010." IUCN Academy of Environmental Law e-Journal. 2011;2011 (1):136-142.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "New dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Kenyan rare plants.". In: Mycotaxon Vol. 73: 283-302. Taylor & Francis; 1999. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "New Desmodoridae (Nematoda: Desmodoroidea): three new species from the Ceriops mangrove sediments (Kenya) and one related species from the North Sea.". In: Cah. Biol. Mar. 36: 181-195. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1995.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "New Dialkyl benzoquinone from fruits of Myrsine africana and Maesa lanceolata, Forsk.". In: Natural Products Letter 8, pp 11-14.; 1996. Abstract
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J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""New Dimensions of Regional Security in Africa: The Case of IGAD", Mwagiru M. (ed), African Regional Security in the Age of Globalization, Nairoi: HB Foundation).". In: Regional Development Dialogue Vol 25, No, Spring pp. 18-32. ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "New directions in water Legislation in Kenya,A paper presentaed at the National Workshop on Environmental Governance in Kenya,held at the UNEP Headquaters,Gigiri,Nairobi,March 29-30.".; 2000. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "New Directions in water legislation in Kenya/. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi.".; 2000. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

B N, M.K L, D.A M, H E, M.R J, S.I K, I M, L.K O, J.O M. "New ent-clerodane and abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M.G. Gilbert." Planta Medica. 2016;doi, http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-108857.ndunda_et_al._planta_medica_2.pdf
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, A.Walker L, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M.G. Gilbert." Planta Med. 2016;82(2016):1079-1086.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Planta medica. 2016;82(11/12):1079-1086. AbstractFull text link

The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1–12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed.
Key words:
Croton megalocarpoides - Euphorbiaceae - abietane - ent-clerodane - ent-trachylobane - diterpenoids - electronic circular dichroism

WASWA AARONK, MATHU ELIUDM, Nyamai CM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016.
WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016. Abstract

The research area occurs within the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt (NMB) in the south-eastern part of Kenya. An enigmatic problem within the polyphase and highly deformed NMB, is the lack of better understanding of the geology and tectonic structures. In order to decipher the aforementioned problem, this study undertook a geological study with the aim of having a better understanding of the petrology and tectono-metamorphic setting, in the study area. The research was carried out using geological field mapping and remote sense investigation. Samples collected in the field were analysed using XRF (X- ray fluorescence) and AAS (Atomic absorption spectrophotometry). The petrological investigation was carried out using petrographic microscopy. An investigation using remotely sensed data established prevalent geological structures, lithology and mineral alteration zones. This study has provided a comprehensive understanding of the tectono-thermal scenario. One of the key findings of this study is the realization that Kitui – Taita gneisses and migmatites represent a thick sequence of meta-sedimentary rocks. The entire protolith sequence was marked by the alternation of thin pelitic, psammitic and limey layers, together with minor thin basic meta-volcanic rocks that were deposited under deep marine conditions. The entire paragneissic sequence was subsequently subjected to multiple phases of successive deformation and metamorphism, which was accompanied by shearing, faulting and folding. Petrochemistry has revealed that Kitui – Taita hills area has remnants of Island alkali tholeiite and calc – alkaline Metabasalts. It has also revealed that Ikutha (south of Kitui) has huge deposit of apatite – iron of Kiruna type. Petrological studies have shown that Mutomo–Ikutha area occurs in an ophiolitic suite and mimics similar lithological and geochemical signatures as those reported in other ophiolite suites occurring in Kenya like in Moyale, Sekerr in West Pokot and Voi, SE Kenya. The field occurrence of this suite has been documented by the lithological and stratigraphic sequence of serpentinite, sheeted dykes, gabbro, limestone, tectonic mélange and remnants of pillow lava found in the type area. The field occurrence of this suite is an indication of the remnants of the obducted oceanic crust during the closure of the paleo- Mozambique Ocean and collision of the East and West Gondwanaland

O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "A new flavonol tetraglycoside from Myrsina africana leaves.". In: Natural Products letters, 9, 121-126.; 1997. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "A new flavonol tetraglycoside from Myrsina africana leaves.". In: Natural Products letters, 9, 121-126.; 1997. Abstract
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Midiwo JO. "A New Flavonol Tetraglycoside from Myrsine Africana Leaves.". 1996. AbstractA New Flavonol Tetraglycoside from Myrsine Africana Leaves

A new flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3 - glucosyl (1′″ - 4″) rhamnoside - 7 -rhamnosyl (1′″ - 6″″) glucoside (1) together with known flavonol glycosides, quercetin 3 -rhamnoside (2), quercetin 3 - glucoside (3) and myricetin 3 - galactoside (4) have been isolated from methanolic extract of Myrsine africana leaves and identified on the basis of their spectral data.

MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER, MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "New fossilferous sites in Gatarakwa, central Kenya : Their geological setting, stratigraphy, and contribution to palaeontological research in East Africa. Journal of The Geoscience Society of Camerron, Vo. 1, No.1A, pp. 80-81.". In: Ist intern. Geol. Field conf. on Oban-Odudu Massif, S.E Nigeria Calabar Univer., Scientific Programme and Abstracts pp17-18. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2001.
MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER, MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "New fossilferous sites in Gatarakwa, central Kenya : Their geological setting, stratigraphy, and contribution to palaeontological research in East Africa. Journal of The Geoscience Society of Camerron, Vo. 1, No.1A, pp. 80-81.". In: The Journ. of Geol. Soc. Japan, vol. 110 No. 2 pp. I-IV. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Mwaniki, S.W, Muthama, J.M. "A New Frontier in Collaborative Approaches in Sustainable Open Spaces Delivery."; 2019.
El-Banhawy EM, Abou-Awad BA. "New gall-mites of the superfamily Eriophyoidea from East Africa (Arachinida : Acari). Acarologia, 33: 69.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1992. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Abou-Awad BA, El-Banhawy EM. "A new genus in the subfamily Nothopodinae with description of four new species from East Africa (Acari : Eriophyoidea : Eriophyidae). Acarologia, 33: 157.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1992. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

"A New Historicism Approach to Paradox in Religious Faith in Selected Kiswahili Novels." International Journal of Science ,Arts and Commerce. 2017;1(12):65-78.
Mwangi, J.W., NEWSON RM, KAAYA GP. "A new hymenopteran species of parasitoid isolated from the Bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum." Discovery and Innovation. 1993;5:331-335.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "New insight into structure, dynamics and composition of the lithosphere of the East African rift in Kenya from an integrated seismic experiment(Abst.).". In: KRISP 89-90.IUGG General Assembly, Vienna, Austria. Wiley Interscience; 1991. Abstract
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WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "New insights into HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Fowke K, Dong T, Kiama P, Rutherford J, Njagi E, Mwangi F, Rostron T, Onyango J, Oyugi J, MacDo.". In: Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1;79(1-2):3-13. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract

A clearer understanding of HIV-1 specific immune responses in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects is important in developing models of HIV-1 protective immunity. HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) have been described in a cohort of HEPS Kenyan sex workers, and recent work has further elucidated these responses. CTL specific for HIV-1 Env were found in the blood of over half the sex workers meeting criteria for HIV resistance, and in some women recognized unmapped epitopes. The proportion of women with Env-specific CTL increased with the duration of uninfected HIV exposure, suggesting that these responses were acquired over time. CD8+ lymphocyte responses directed against predefined HIV-1 CTL epitopes from various HIV-1 genes were found in the blood and genital tract of >50% resistant sex workers, at a ten-fold lower frequency than in infected subjects. The epitope specificity of CD8+ responses differs between HEPS and HIV infected women, and in HEPS the maintenance of responses appears to be dependent on persistent HIV exposure. Several HIV-1 'resistant' sex workers have become HIV infected over the past 6 years, possibly related to waning of pre-existing HIV-specific CTL, and infection has often been associated with a switch in the epitope specificity of CD8+ responses. These findings suggest that vaccine-induced protective HIV immunity is a realistic goal, but that vaccine strategies of boosting or persistent antigen may be necessary for long-lived protection.

wangi 1. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL KFDKRNROOJKTP. "New insights into HIV-1specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers." Immunol Lett. . 2001. Abstractnew_insights_into_hiv-1specific_cytotoxic_t-lymphocyte_responses_in_exposed_persistently_seronegative_kenyan_sex_workers.pdf

Abstract
A clearer understanding of HIV-1 specific immune responses in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects is important in developing models of HIV-1 protective immunity. HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) have been described in a cohort of HEPS Kenyan sex workers, and recent work has further elucidated these responses. CTL specific for HIV-1 Env were found in the blood of over half the sex workers meeting criteria for HIV resistance, and in some women recognized unmapped epitopes. The proportion of women with Env-specific CTL increased with the duration of uninfected HIV exposure, suggesting that these responses were acquired over time. CD8+ lymphocyte responses directed against predefined HIV-1 CTL epitopes from various HIV-1 genes were found in the blood and genital tract of >50% resistant sex workers, at a ten-fold lower frequency than in infected subjects. The epitope specificity of CD8+ responses differs between HEPS and HIV infected women, and in HEPS the maintenance of responses appears to be dependent on persistent HIV exposure. Several HIV-1 'resistant' sex workers have become HIV infected over the past 6 years, possibly related to waning of pre-existing HIV-specific CTL, and infection has often been associated with a switch in the epitope specificity of CD8+ responses. These findings suggest that vaccine-induced protective HIV immunity is a realistic goal, but that vaccine strategies of boosting or persistent antigen may be necessary for long-lived protection

Djonov V, Makanya AN. "New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis." EXS. 2005;(94):17-33.
Djonov V, Makanya AN. "New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis. In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis.". In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis . Vol. XIV.; 2005:.

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