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Njeri KM, McCormick, Dorothy. "E-Commerce in the Garment in the Garment Industry in Kenya: A Preliminary Review of Usage, Obstacles and policies.". In: Clothing and Footwear in Africa industrialization. Johannesburg: Africa Institute of South Africa; 2004.
Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N. "E-commerce in the Garment Industry in Kenya.". In: Clothing and Footwear in African Industrialisation. Johannesburg: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Magutu PO, Mwangi M. "E-Commerce Products And Services In The Banking Industry: The Adoption And Usage In Commercial Banks In Kenya.". In: Journal of Electronic Banking Systems. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

Globalization, collaboration and wireless technologies have led to stiff competition. As a result,
commercial banks have generally adopted the use of e-commerce products and services in their delivery
of services to customers. This study’s main objective was to explore the challenges faced and benefits that
accrue from adoption and usage of e-commerce products and services banking by commercial banks in
Kenya. A survey was carried out to achieve the envisaged aims of the study. A total of 100 questionnaires
were distributed however only 70 banks responded. Overall, research showed that while the majority of
the banks in Kenya have adopted e-commerce products and services, usage levels have remained
relatively low, as not many customers are using this innovation in Kenya.
To establish benefits and challenges in the adoption and usage of e-commerce, 32 variables were used to
measure the level of application among these banks. These variables were analyzed using factor analysis
procedure and in order to achieve a simple and meaningful structure, that is, have a nonzero loading of
the explained variance for each individual factors, varimax rotation was done. As a result, 10 critical
factors were established as the best practices which include: improved customer service, reduced number
of customers in the banking hall, reduced operating costs and increased market share. The challenges
faced in the adoption of e-commerce products and services include compatibility with existing legacy
systems, cost of implementation and security concerns ranked high, ensuring desired levels of security
and privacy. Unreliable telecommunication as well as lack of legislation governing e-commerce
transactions rated highly.
Keywords: e-commerce, e-commerce products and services, benefits and challenges, commercial banks

LITONDO KATEOYIELA. "E-commerce: A Review of Indicators and Theories." A paper presented to 11th International Conference (ICAESB) on Business Environment and SMEs; 2010. Abstract
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Otieno I, Omwenga E, Waema T. "The e-Government Paradox: Is it Real and How can it be Resolved?". In: IST Africa 2016. Durban, South Africa; 2016.
Otieno I, Omwenga E, Waema T. "The e-government paradox: Is it real and how can it be resolved?". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016. IEEE; 2016:. Abstract

The development and implementation of e-government has been viewed as an opportunity to bring the much-desired reforms in public administration. There are several studies that have been conducted in the field of e-government and many projects implemented in both developed and developing countries signifying a tremendous growth in the field. However, studies show that there is a mismatch between the level of investment and the results realized so far. This has led to what some researchers refer to as the `e-government paradox' that follows from the `productivity paradox' earlier documented for IT projects. There are several factors that are attributable to the `e-government paradox': measurement error; time lag between implementation and results; the fact that public administration and by extension e-government is driven by the need to create value for citizens and not economic value; and the mismanagement of the implementation process by e-government implementers. The measurement error has been identified as the most important factor contributing to the `e-government paradox'. Theories on development, implementation, measurement and evaluation of e-government are still at nascent stages of development. This study proposes the development of a citizen centric e-government evaluation model that is suitable in the context of a developing country to solve the measurement error. The study was conducted from government common citizen service (Huduma) centres in Kenya where citizens access government services. This study proposed a conceptual model that hypothesised relationships between the identified constructs. The model was tested using Structured Equation Modelling (SEM) and findings reported.

W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "e-learning module II contents for 'Coordination Chemistry'.". In: A 3rd year BED Science course material. UoN; Submitted. Abstract
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Oketch HA. E-LEARNING READINESS ASSESSMENT MODEL IN KENYAS’ HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.; 2013. Abstract

In order to benefit from eLearning, institutions of higher learning should conduct considerable up-front analysis to assess their eLearning readiness. Studies show that there are numerous models that have been developed, however, they are used in developed counties whose eReadiness is high hence not applicable in developing countries. This paper includes a model that has been developed to assess eLearning readiness of lecturers from institutions of higher learning in Kenya. It investigates the eLearning readiness of lecturers from the University of Nairobi, and the objective was to carry out a diagnostic eLearning readiness assessment of lecturers and determine the factors that influence eLearning readiness. The questionnaires were administered to the lecturers, the results obtained indicate that an overwhelming majority are ready. In addition, the study results show that there is no significant relationship between age, gender, and level of education on eLearning readiness. The study results indicate that technological readiness is the most important factor followed by culture readiness. Most of the lecturers felt that more training on content development need to be conducted . In conclusion, the lecturers are ready for eLearning but the ICT infrastructure is not adequate enough to support the use of eLearning.
Keywords: eLearning, eReadiness, eMaturity, Institutions Of Higher Learning, Model.

JM N, HA O, AN W. "E-LEARNING READINESS ASSESSMENT MODEL IN KENYAS’ HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI." Nov. 201 4 . Vol. 5 , No. 6 ISSN 230 5 - 1493 International Journal of Scientific Knowledge. 2014;5(6):29-41. Abstractelearning_readiness__assessment_model_in_kenya.pdf

In order to benefit from eLearning, institutions should conduct considerable up -front analysis to assess their eLearning readiness. Studies show that there are numerous models that have been developed, however, they are used in developed counties whose eReadiness is high hence not applicable in developing
countries. This paper includes a model that has been developed to assess eLearning readiness of lecturers from institutions of higher learning in Kenya. It investigates the eLearning readiness of lecturers from the University of Nairobi, and the objective was to carry out a diagnostic eLearning readiness assessment of lecturers and determine the factors that influence eLearning readiness. The questionnaires were administered to the lecturers. The results obtained indicate that an overwhelming majority are ready. In addition, the study results show that there is no significant relationship between age, gender, and level of education on eLearning readiness.The study results indicate that technological readiness is the most
important factor followed by culture readiness. Most of the lecturers felt that more training on content development need to be conducted. In conclusion, the lecturers are ready for eLearning but the ICT infrastructure is not adequate enough to support the use of eLearning.

JM N, HA O. "E-LEARNING READINESS ASSESSMENT MODEL IN KENYAS’ HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI." International Journal of Scientific Knowledge. 2014;5(6):29-41. Abstractelearning_readiness__assessment_model_in_kenya.pdf

In order to benefit from eLearning, institutions should conduct considerable up -front analysis to assess their eLearning readiness. Studies show that there are numerous models that have been developed, however, they are used in developed counties whose eReadiness is high hence not applicable in developing
countries. This paper includes a model that has been developed to assess eLearning readiness of lecturers from institutions of higher learning in Kenya. It investigates the eLearning readiness of lecturers from the University of Nairobi, and the objective was to carry out a diagnostic eLearning readiness assessment of lecturers and determine the factors that influence eLearning readiness. The questionnaires were administered to the lecturers. The results obtained indicate that an overwhelming majority are ready. In addition, the study results show that there is no significant relationship between age, gender, and level of education on eLearning readiness.The study results indicate that technological readiness is the most
important factor followed by culture readiness. Most of the lecturers felt that more training on content development need to be conducted. In conclusion, the lecturers are ready for eLearning but the ICT infrastructure is not adequate enough to support the use of eLearning.

Kalui DM, Moturi CA. "E-Readiness assessment of microfinance institutions in Kenya." Information and Knowledge Management. 2015;5(10):61-80. Abstract

The financial industry has in recent years embraced the use of information and communication technologies
(ICTs) such as e-banking for transactions, m-banking for payment channels development and e-business for
logistics. Digital financial service delivery channels and methodologies face a number of challenges mainly the
e-readiness assessment of Microfinance institutions. This paper presents the results of a study on the level of e-
Readiness in Microfinance Institutions in Kenya and an Integrated Framework for Assessing (IFA) the e-
Readiness levels of Microfinance Institutions. We deployed the proposed framework on selected microfinance
institutions in Kenya to evaluate its performance and the case study shows our method can achieve a satisfactory
results.

Waema TM, Mureithi M, Wanjira A, Schluep M, Finlay A. E-waste in Kenya: Baseline Assessment..; 2008.
Otieno I, Omwenga E. "E-Waste Management in Kenya: Challenges and Opportunities." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2015;Vol. 6(No. 12 December 2015):661-666.otieno_-_e-waste_management.pdf
Otieno I, Omwenga EI. "E-Waste Management in Kenya: Challenges and Opportunities." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2015;6(12):661-666. Abstractjournal_vol6no12_3_ewastemanagement_io_eio.pdfJournal website

The production and use of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) continues to grow in both developing and developed countries therefore increasing the amount of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) at its End-of-Life (EoL). This is exacerbated by the rapid growth and development in the Information and Communications Technology industry. The growth in WEEE has brought a number of challenges including introducing effective management practices that are environmentally sound to reduce its negative impact on human health and the environment as a result of pollution. Management of WEEE in most developing countries including Kenya is done through the informal sector and this poses a great challenge. There are a number of International conventions that have been formulated to deal with the issue of WEEE due to its hazardous nature. The main aim of this research was to establish the current trends, opportunity and challenges in the management of e-waste in Kenya and make recommendations on measures to be taken to effectively manage or mitigate the effects of WEEE proliferation in Kenya. The ICT industry in Kenya is growing at a very fast rate leading to drastic increase in WEEE. The greatest challenges facing Kenya in the management of WEEE include: low citizen awareness, lack of proper policy and legislative framework including public procurement and disposal laws, inadequate infrastructure for WEEE management; high cost of brand new EEE, absence of frameworks for End-of-Life (EoL) product take-back and implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR).
Keywords: E-waste, WEEE, challenges, opportunities, Kenya

KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "E. Breval, K. wa Gachigi, C. Wang, and J. Douhgherty, ""PLZT Phases near Lead Titanate. I. Determination by X-ray Diffraction"", J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88 [2], 437-442, 2005 K. Gachigi, P.M. Pruna, C.A. Randall, T.R. Shrout, S.-J. Jang and J.P. Dougherty.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES, W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES, W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES, W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES, W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES, W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "E. K. Kiprop, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Crop Science Journal vol.13 (no.3): 163-172 (2005). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2005. Abstract
Thirty-eight isolates of Fusarium udum obtained from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) plants showing wilt symptoms were collected from various districts in F. udum isolates by selecting chlorate-resistant sectors on minimal medium amended with 15 g l!  potassium chlorate. All the isolates of F. udum were grouped into a single VCG (VCG 1) with two subgroups VCG 1 I and VCG.l II. The DNA of the fungal isolates was extracted using CT AB method. The AFLP analysis of 38 isolates using seven primer combinations generated a total of:318 fragments with 102 being polymorphic (32.% polymorphism).The isolates could be grouped into one AFLP group with more than ten subgroups based on the analysis of the banding patterns, although most of these subgroups were not significantly distant <50% confidence interval) genetically. Based on VCG and AFLP, the isolates could have originated from a single lineage. The VCG and, AFLP of F. udum were independent of geographical origin of the isolates.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "E. K. Kiprop, A. W. Mwang.". In: Journal of Phytopathology 152, 235-242, 2004. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2002. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "E. K. Kiprop, J. P. Baudoin, A. W. Mwang.". In: Journal of Phytopathology 152, 235-242, 2004. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2002. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "E. Kituyi and S. Eriksen (eds) Climate Change: Africa and COP 6bis.". In: Innovation Vol.8 No.1, May 2001. 36p. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi. BEP Electronic Press; 2001. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "E. M. Ateka, A. W. Mwang.". In: in . J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2001. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "E. M. Ateka, A. W. Mwang.". In: in . J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2001. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "E. M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Gathuma, T.M. Wachira, P.B. Gathura, J.K. Magambo, E. Zeyhle (2002) A study of cystic echinococcosis in slaughter animals in three selected areas of Northern Turkana, Kenya.". In: Veterinary Parasitology 104:85-91. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
A study was undertaken in the semiarid northern Turkana district of Kenya to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. The study involved 1106 sheep and goats of various ages. The study was conducted between January and August 2001 and covered both the dry and wet seasons. All the animals were shedding nematode eggs throughout the study period. Faecal shedding was higher in young animals compared to adults and the infection was heavier in sheep. The faecal egg counts were significantly higher during the wet season for both sheep and goats. Haemonchus contortus was the main nematode encountered in coprocultures (goats 73%, sheep 62.8%) and postmortem total worm counts. Other nematodes encountered included Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris ovis. This is the first report of B. trigonocephalum in small ruminants in the semiarid areas of Kenya. In conclusion, gastrointestinal helminths may be a potential constraint to the health and production of small ruminants in the Turkana district. H. contortus is the main nematode species affecting the small ruminants in this area.
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda, S. K. Imbamba and D. Kumar. High density plantings of coffee II. Adaptive changes in some plant characteristics.". In: E. Afri. Agri. For. J. (1979) 45(2) 133 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1973. Abstract
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DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda, S. K. Imbamba and D. Kumar. Responses of coffee Arabia to pruning in Kenya.". In: Journal of science and technology (B) (1982) 3: 83 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1982. Abstract
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DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda. Influence of plant population on growth .". In: Paper presented at the MICREN BOARD MEETING, LILONGWE . Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
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DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda. Notes on theory of distribution and inferences in statistics for statistics in Agriculture climatology.". In: (SAIC . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda and D. Kumar. Studies with antitranspiratis on coffee. (Coffee Arabic L.).". In: E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 45(3) 230 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1980. Abstract
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DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Crop yields of sorghum and soybean in an intercrop.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 1, 2 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Improving Food Production by Understanding the effects of intercropping and plant population on soybean nitrogen fixing attributes.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 4, 110 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Inter cropping and population density effects on yield component, seed quality and photosynthesis of sorgum and soybean.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 3, 96 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Some aspect of logical way of studying dinitrogen fixation in an agroforestry context for improving food production.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 2, 68 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "E. N. Njambere, A. W. Mwang.". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1997. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "E. Obimbo, R.N. Musoke F. Were: Knowledge attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. East Afr. Med. J. 76:425; 1999.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):425-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, maternity and newborn units of public health, facilities serving an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Of the 307 mothers interviewed, 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene whilst cutting and tying the cord, respectively. Regarding postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% good practice. Fifty-one percent of mothers knew and 54% practised postnatal cord care for the appropriate duration of time. Seventy-nine percent of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. After multivariate analysis, the following variables showed significant independent association with good maternal KAP; increased level of education (OR 2.3, p < 0.001), living in middle class areas rather than slums (OR 1.5, p < 0.03), increased maternal age (OR 1.8, p < 0.001), acquisition of knowledge from a HW rather than from other sources (OR 1.5, p < 0.001), and living in stone/brick houses rather than mud houses (p = 0.01). Fifty per cent of HW had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, and 79% had correct knowledge on duration required for the same. The knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards, but was in keeping with Nursing Council of Kenya teaching. CONCLUSION: Mothers had good knowledge on the need for hygiene when cutting the cord, had poor knowledge and practice in other aspects of cord care, and were afraid of handling the cord. Poor KAP was associated with young, poor mothers of low education, who had acquired their knowledge from sources other than HW. The knowledge of a large proportion of HW was incorrect and outdated. We recommend that health education on cord care be given at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HW on cord care be updated. PIP: Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the umbilical cord. The study interviewed a total of 307 mothers with infants less than 3 months old and 64 health workers (HWs) in an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. The results showed that 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene while cutting and tying the cord, respectively. As to postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% had good practice. However, 79% of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the following variables had significant independent association with good maternal KAP: increased level of education, living in middle class areas, increased maternal age, and acquisition of knowledge from HWs rather than from other sources. 50% of HWs had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, but the knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards. Based on the findings, it was recommended that good health and cord care practices be taught at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HWs on cord care be updated.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "E. W. Kimani, A. W. Mwang.". In: in . J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2001. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "E. Zeyhle, J.K. Magambo, J. Wachira, A. Gikandi and E.M. Njoroge (1999) Hepatic Hydatid Cyst in a Turkana Woman - Case Report.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 6(1): 31 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
M DRMOGOAEDDYG. "E.G.M. Mogoa (2001): Influence of atropine premedication on cardiac rate in donkeys injected with xylazine and xylazine-ketamine combination. The Kenya Veterinarian, 21: 26-28.". In: The Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Anaesthesilogists. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2001. Abstract
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K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "E.G.M. Mogoa, J.K. Wabacha (2005) P.M.F. Mbithi, S.G. Kiama. An overview of animal welfare issues in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 29:48-52.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "E.G.M. Mogoa, J.K. Wabacha, P.M.F. Mbithi, S.G. Kiama. An overview of animal welfare issues in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
M DRMOGOAEDDYG. "E.G.M. Mogoa., (1997): Effects of xylazine, ketamine and their combination on body temperature in donkeys. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 45, 107-110.". In: The Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Anaesthesilogists. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1997. Abstract
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MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER. "E.M Mathu and C.M Nyamai - Recent Findings of the geology, tectonics and economic resources of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Belt in East African and the way forward. - 2005.". In: Ist intern. Geol. Field conf. on Oban-Odudu Massif, S.E Nigeria Calabar Univer., Scientific Programme and Abstracts pp17-18. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2005.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu (1980) .". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1980. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu (2000) .". In: Ph.D. thesis, University of Nairobi, 338p. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu and C.M. Nyamai .". In: 1st Intern. Geol. Field Conf. on Oban-Odudu Massif, S.E. Nigeria. Calabar Univ., Scientific Programme and Abstracts. pp17-18. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective case study of testicular cancer patients over a fifteen year period. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a referral and teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department of Kenyatta National Hospital between 1983 and 1997. RESULTS: The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. History of cryptochirdism was obtained in 10.26% of the patients. Thirty one patients (79.49%) presented with painless testicular swellings, eleven (28.08%) with pain, nine (23.08%) with scrotal heaviness, six (15.38%) with abdominal swellings and one (2.56%) each with gynaecomastia and eye swelling. On examination 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, ten (25.64%) had abdominal masses, seven (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, and one each (2.56%) had gynaecomastia and eye mass respectively. More than eighty nine per cent had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma 12.24%, embroyonal carcinoma 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma 6.12% and malignant germ cell tumour, orchioblastoma and dysgerminoma each accounted for 2.04%. Three patients (7.7%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sixteen (41.03%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy, six (15.38%) had orchidectomy and chemotherapy, ten (25.64%) had radiotherapy and chemotherapy, three (7.7%) and two (5.13%) had only chemotherapy and radiotherapy respectively. No cisplastin based chemotherapy regime was used. Follow up was effected for eighteen patients (46.15%) and seven patients (38.89%) were alive after five years. CONCLUSION: Prognosis with current regimes was poor with survival of only 38.89% after five years. Cisplastin based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included as a component of testicular cancer management at Kenyatta National Hospital. PIP: This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed. The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. About 10.26% of patients had history of cryptochirdism. The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%). On examination, 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, 10 (25.64%) had abdominal masses, 7 (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, 1 had gynecomastia, and 1 had an orbital mass. More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%. The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%). No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used. 18 patients were followed up, of whom 7 were alive after 5 years. Prognosis with current regimens was poor, with a 38.89% survival ratio in 5 years. Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu and Josphat K. Mulwa (2004) .". In: Proceedings of the 3rd KenGen Geothermal Conference 20th . Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective case study of testicular cancer patients over a fifteen year period. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a referral and teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department of Kenyatta National Hospital between 1983 and 1997. RESULTS: The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. History of cryptochirdism was obtained in 10.26% of the patients. Thirty one patients (79.49%) presented with painless testicular swellings, eleven (28.08%) with pain, nine (23.08%) with scrotal heaviness, six (15.38%) with abdominal swellings and one (2.56%) each with gynaecomastia and eye swelling. On examination 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, ten (25.64%) had abdominal masses, seven (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, and one each (2.56%) had gynaecomastia and eye mass respectively. More than eighty nine per cent had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma 12.24%, embroyonal carcinoma 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma 6.12% and malignant germ cell tumour, orchioblastoma and dysgerminoma each accounted for 2.04%. Three patients (7.7%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sixteen (41.03%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy, six (15.38%) had orchidectomy and chemotherapy, ten (25.64%) had radiotherapy and chemotherapy, three (7.7%) and two (5.13%) had only chemotherapy and radiotherapy respectively. No cisplastin based chemotherapy regime was used. Follow up was effected for eighteen patients (46.15%) and seven patients (38.89%) were alive after five years. CONCLUSION: Prognosis with current regimes was poor with survival of only 38.89% after five years. Cisplastin based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included as a component of testicular cancer management at Kenyatta National Hospital. PIP: This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed. The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. About 10.26% of patients had history of cryptochirdism. The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%). On examination, 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, 10 (25.64%) had abdominal masses, 7 (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, 1 had gynecomastia, and 1 had an orbital mass. More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%. The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%). No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used. 18 patients were followed up, of whom 7 were alive after 5 years. Prognosis with current regimens was poor, with a 38.89% survival ratio in 5 years. Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu and M.P. Tole, (1984) .". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu and T.C. Davies (1996) .". In: Ph.D. thesis, University of Nairobi, 338p. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu and Y. Sawada (2001) .". In: A case study of the Kakamega area. Geological Society of Uganda Newsletter p. 35. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu, C.M. Nyamai, E. Wallbrecher and N. Opiyo-Akech (2000) .". In: Journ. Afri. Ear. Sci. 30:60. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu, D.W. Ichang.". In: Proceedings of the international Geological Field Conference held in the Mozambique Orogenic belt in East Africa, Arusha, Tanzania (1994). IGCP Project 348 (Extended Abstract). Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu, I.O. Nyambok (1993) .". In: 5th Conference on the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 63-68. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
N PROFNYAGAP. "E.M. Nderitu and P.N.Nyaga (1988). The therapeutic value of topical application of unboiled honey on acute moist dermatitis lesions in dogs. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod Afri. (1989): 13)-35.". In: KVA meeting Mombasa, 4th September, 1989. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, E. Zeyhle, J.K. Magambo, P.M.F. Mbithi and J.M. Gathuma. (2004). Evaluation of cost of ultrasound surveys for cystic echinococcosis in goats in a nomadic pastoral community. International Archives of the Hydatidosis Vol. 35 pp. 100-102.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

A study was carried to evaluate the cots of performing ultrasound surveys I goats in a nomadic set-up. The cost of ultrasound examination was determined by calculating how much money was required to perform a scan per goat. This was based on purchase price of portable ultrasound equipment, clippers/shavers, electric cables, and electric generator. It was also based on recurrent expenditure on items that are used during ultrasound examination. A total of 472 animal were examined I ultrasound, out of which 15 were identified to have cystic echinococcosis. In 12 (80.0%) animals, the cysts were thin-walled unilocular (TCE1) while in 3 (20.0%0 animals, they appeared as thick-walled unilocular structures (TCE4). Calcification appeared as hyper echoic ring in the cyst wall in 1 (6.7%) animal. Multiple unilocular cysts (TCE3) separated by the liver parenchyma were imaged in 13 (86.7%) animals. Single miltiloculated cysts (TCE2) appeared in 1 (6.7%) animal while multiple multiloculated cysts were observed in 1 (6.7%) animal. Cost of ultrasound examination per goat was found to be US$ 0.714. The technique could determine the presence, size, nature and exact location of the Echonococcus cysts. Although the initial cost of ultrasound equipment was high, the running costs were inexpensive compared to other diagnostic tests. The cost of ultrasound examination per animal was however inversely proportional to the number of animals scanned.

M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "E.M. Njoroge, J.M. Maribei, P.N. Mbugua and S.M. Njiru (1999) Water Intoxication in Cattle.". In: Journal of South African Veterinary Association 70(4): 177 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Gathuma, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2000). Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in Northwestern Turkana, Kenya and Toposoland, Southern Sudan. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

A study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonogrphy. A total of 1390 goats were examined, 43.6% (606/1390) of them from northwestern Turkana, Kenya, and 56.4% (784/1390) from Toposland, Southern Sudan. Hydatid custs were visualized in 1.82% (11/606) of the goats from north-western Turkana and 4.34% (34/784) of those from Toposaland. Unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examined. The lower prevalence rate of the disease in goats from Turkana was attributed to the hydatid disease control programme in that area, which is absent in Toposaland.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Gathuma, T.M. Wachira, P.B. Gachura, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2002). A study of systic echinococcosis in slaughter animals in three selected areas of Northern Turkana. VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY. 104: 85-91.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2002. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, T.M. Wachira, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2004). Ethyl Alcohol: Is it necessary in the P.A.I.R Technique? International Archives of the Hydatidosis Vol. 35 pp. 149-150.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in the pair technique using sheep and goat modes. A total of 6 animals (4 sheep and 2 goats) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of 3 animals each (2 sheep and 1 goat). In the first group (test group), 7 cysts were punctured in vivo, cyst fluid drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol while the second group (controls) 9 cysts were only punctured and cysts fluid drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. The animals were then monitored for one month. Ultrasound showed that in both groups there was collapse of the endocysts after cyst puncture. One month later, the cysts showed decrease in size, increased echogenicity, and completed or partial detachment of the endcoyst. Post mortem examination showed that in 95% ethyl alcohol group (test group), the cysts were grossly degenerated with marked fibrosis of the surroundings liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic fluid and degenerated endocysts. On microscopic examination of the cyst fluid, the protocols were dead, with detached hooks, in the puncture only group (control group), the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of these cysts showed clear fluid with intact endcoysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protocoleces were dead with detachments of hooks. A histopathological examination of the test group showed marked host cell reaction consisting of infiltration of the adventiatl layer with neutrophils, eosinophils, and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was severely destroyed and replaced with you and disorganised fibroblasts and mesenchmal cess. In most necrotic areas, the laminate layer could not be collected together with adherent liver tissue and the adventiatil layer appeared completely degenerate and was replaced by acute inflammatory cells. In the control group, there was detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia. Additionally inflammatory cells were observed in the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less than in the test group. Inflammatory cells were identified only in small parts of the liver tissues while most of the tissues were intact with hepatocytes being predominant in an organised appearance. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscholeces, possibly due to detachment of the endocyst used; more studies need to be carried out to verify the necessity for using ethyl alcohol in PAIR techniques.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "E.R. Mutiga, G.K. Gitao and S.J. Munyua. A study of blocked teats in small scale dairy farms. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. (1992) 40: 73-76.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. (1992) 40: 73-76.; 1992. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

N PROFNYAGAP. "E.S Bizimenyera, P.N. Nyaga and J.O. Oloya: In-vitro disinfectant sensitivity tests on bacteria isolated from commercial poultry hatcheries in Kenya. Bull. Hlth. Prod. Afri. (2004): 52: 271-274.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "E.S. Atieno- Odhiambo and Wanyande, Peter. 1988. History and Government of Kenya.". In: Longman. Kenya Limited. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1988.
N PROFNYAGAP. "E.S. Bizimenyera and P.N. Nyaga (1988). Acquisition of disinfectant resistance in E. coli and other bacteria found in poultry operations:.". In: Hong Kong 1-5th August, 1988. 8th International Conference on Global Impacts of Applied Microbiology. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al ( 1989) Testing for African horse sickness virus using serom virus neutralisation test. Canadian Journal of comparative pathology.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1983) Diagnosis of Nairobi sheep Disease virus in sheep using complement fixation test. Kenya veterinarian vol 77 No. 93 p 77.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1987) Incidence of Newcastle disease in sera of poultry from Kenya and Malawi using haemaggltination inhibition test. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Vol. 91 No. 77 p73 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1988). Diagnosis of Nairobi. Sheep Disease virus using Passive Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination inhibition test. Veterinary Record. Vol. 39. No 77 p 73.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1988). Serum Neutralisation test for the assay of Blue tongue virus serotypes. Journal of Epidemiology.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1989) Diagnosis of fowl pox and camel pox using cell cultures.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1989) serological testing for Blue tongue virus and Rift Valley Fever virus using Rhinocerus sera from Kenya.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1989). Diagnosis of Rift Valley fever virus using plaque assay. British Veterinary Journal.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1991 Incidence of sheep and Goat pox in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol. 41 No. 77 p79.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1991) incidence of lumpy skin disease virus in cattle. Bulletin of Animal Health and production in Africa Vol.39 No. 78 p93 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1991). Incidence of Leptospirosis in Nakuru district of Kenya . Kenya Veterinaryian Journal. Vol. 79. No.77 P.79-87.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1991). Incidence of Newcastle disease in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Vol. 77 No. 67 p77-87.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1997). Prevalence of NewCastle Disease virus in indigenous chiken in Western and Machakos district of Kenya. Kenya veterinarian Journal vol 103 No. 99 p 33 .". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 1997. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1998) Prevalence of NewCastle disease virus in indigenous chiken in Nairobi and Machakos Districts of Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Jaurnal Vol. 101 No. 73 p37 .". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu ET AL 1978. Plaque assay of IBR virus isolate. Kenya Veterinarian Journal vol.97. No. 39 p95.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al 1979. Isolation of E. coli from piglets with porcine oedema. Journal of bacteriology. Vol.97 No.39, p93.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. (1980). Veterinary clinical cases from Taita Taveta District Kenya. Veterinarian Journal Vol.83 No. 79 p23 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. (1984). Incidence of Leptospirosis in Cattle in Kenya. Kenya veterinarian Journal vol.77 No. 91 p 73-79.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. 1978. Isolation of infectious bovine rhinotrachitis virus from bovine samples. Part 1. Kenya Veterinarian Journal .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. 1979 Electron microscopic appearance of IBR Isolate from bovine lung samples. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Vol.98 No. 99 p36 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. 1979. Electron microscopy of a porcine oedema virus which looks like porcine parvo virus. Kenya Veterinarian Journal. Vol.93. No.99 p7 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. 1988. Diagnosis of NSDV in sheep using complement fixation test. Kenya Veterinarian vol. 17. No.9 P.37.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu Lucy L. Muruatetu G Davies. 1983. Serological diagnosis of Rift Valley fever virus infection in cattle and sheep. (in Kenya). Higher National Diploma project. Polytechnic of Nairobi. P 1-73.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.kilelu et al (1979) Antibody responses to new .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.Kilelu et al (1979) Newcastle disease virus vaccine trial using Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination inhibition test. Journal of British Veterinary medicine Vol.93 No.7 p199.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.kilelu et al (1989) testing for Rhinocerus sera examined or tested for various viruses. Blue tongue virus, Rift valley fever virus, Rinderpest and foot and mouth Disease virus. Journal of wildlife diseases.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.kilelu et al (1989). Rhinocerus sera tested for Rinderpest virus, antibodies. Journal of wildlife diseases.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.Kilelu et al (1991) incidence of Brucellosis in Kajido district of Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Journal vol. 77 No. 93 p 79-89.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.Kilelu et al. 1989 diagnosis of RVFV using plaque assay. Veterinary Record. Vol. 79 No. 8 P11.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
D. OO. "EAC Integration, a Boon for the Youths of Region." New Path. 2012;12:6-8.
Njoroge 2 K. "Earliness and yield in maize: An evaluation of some Katumani maize varieties." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 1982;48(2):pp 40-50.
R.O N, Kiplagat KW, Kiplagat KW, R.D N, S.J S, J.N K, J.A L. "Early and late harvest agronomic performance and stability of R-free late blight potato genotypes." Crop Improvement. 2011.
MacLeod DT, Choi NM, Briney B, Garces F, Ver LS, Landais E, Murrell B, Wrin T, Kilembe W, Liang C-H, Ramos A, Bian CB, Wickramasinghe L, Kong L, Eren K, Wu C-Y, Wong C-H, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Wilson IA, Burton DR, Poignard P. "Early Antibody Lineage Diversification and Independent Limb Maturation Lead to Broad HIV-1 Neutralization Targeting the Env High-Mannose Patch." Immunity. 2016;44(5):1215-26. Abstract

The high-mannose patch on HIV Env is a preferred target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), but to date, no vaccination regimen has elicited bnAbs against this region. Here, we present the development of a bnAb lineage targeting the high-mannose patch in an HIV-1 subtype-C-infected donor from sub-Saharan Africa. The Abs first acquired autologous neutralization, then gradually matured to achieve breadth. One Ab neutralized >47% of HIV-1 strains with only ∼11% somatic hypermutation and no insertions or deletions. By sequencing autologous env, we determined key residues that triggered the lineage and participated in Ab-Env coevolution. Next-generation sequencing of the Ab repertoire showed an early expansive diversification of the lineage followed by independent maturation of individual limbs, several of them developing notable breadth and potency. Overall, the findings are encouraging from a vaccine standpoint and suggest immunization strategies mimicking the evolution of the entire high-mannose patch and promoting maturation of multiple diverse Ab pathways.

Kibebe HW;, Gathumbi PK;, Kigondu CS;, Mbuthia PG;, Karioki JW. "Early detection of hyperglycemia using glycated hemoglobin in mice model.".; 2010.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Early Detection of of Lung Cancer.". In: The African Journal of Hospital Medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Goo L, Chohan V, Ruth Nduati, Overbaugh J. "Early development of broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected infants." Nat. Med.. 2014;20(6):655-8. Abstract

Eliciting protective neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against HIV-1 is daunting because of the extensive genetic and antigenic diversity of HIV-1. Moreover, broad and potent responses are uncommon even during persistent infection, with only a subset of adults developing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that recognize viral variants from different HIV-1 clades. It is not known whether bNAbs can also arise in HIV-1-infected infants, who typically progress to disease faster than adults, presumably in part due to an immature immune system. Here, we show that bNAbs develop at least as commonly in infants as in adults. Cross-clade NAb responses were detected in 20/28 infected infants, in some cases within 1 year of infection. Among infants with breadth of responses within the top quartile, neutralization of tier 2 or 3 variants from multiple clades was detected at 20 months after infection. These findings suggest that, even in early life, there is sufficient B cell functionality to mount bNAbs against HIV-1. Additionally, the relatively early appearance of bNAbs in infants may provide a unique setting for understanding the pathways of B cell maturation leading to bNAbs.

Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the ‘STOP SEPSIS!’ WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." British Medical Journal . 2020;10(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Design Independent sample precampaign/postcampaign through online and paper-based surveys available for over 30 days before campaign roll-out (pre) and after study data collection (post). Descriptive statistics were used for campaign recognition and exposure, and odds ratio (OR) and percentage change were calculated for differences in awareness, adjusting for confounders using multivariate logistic regression.

Setting and participants Healthcare providers from 398 participating facilities in 46 low, middle and high-income countries.

Intervention An awareness campaign to accompany GLOSS launched 3 weeks prior to data collection and lasting the entire study period (28 November 2017 to 15 January 2018) and beyond.

Main outcome measures Campaign recognition and exposure, and changes in awareness.

Results A total of 2188 surveys were analysed: 1155 at baseline and 1033 at postcampaign. Most survey respondents found the campaign materials helpful (94%), that they helped increase awareness (90%) and that they helped motivate to act differently (88%). There were significant changes with regard to: not having heard of maternal sepsis (−63.4% change, pre-OR/post-OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.68) and perception of confidence in making the right decisions with regard to maternal sepsis identification and management (7.3% change, pre-OR/post-OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.06).

Conclusions Awareness raising campaigns can contribute to an increase in having heard of maternal sepsis and an increase in provider perception of confidence in making correct decisions. Offering the information to make accurate and timely decisions while promoting environments that enable self-confidence and support could improve maternal sepsis identification and management.

Mawia D, Chege MN, Oyieke J. "Early growth in preterm infants after hospital discharge in rural Kenya: longitudinal study." Pan African Medical Journal. 2016;24:158 doi:(10.11604/pamj.2016.24.158.7795). Abstractearly_growth_in_preterm_infants_after_hospital_discharge_in_rural_kenya_longitudinal.pdf

Abstract
Introduction: Prematurity is the single most important cause of mortality during the neonatal period. The early growth of these infants has been shown to be a predictor of their later growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The objective of this study was to establish the determinants of early growth in preterm infants after hospital discharge at the Kitui District Hospital, Kenya. Methods: A short longitudinal study design was adopted to execute the study. During the period of April and June 2014, all the preterm infants who were discharged from the Kitui District
Hospital Newborn Unit were enrolled in the study by obtaining written informed consent from their guardians. The anthropometric measurements of these infants were taken at discharge and repeated two weeks later at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic and the Maternal Child health Clinic. A questionnaire guided interview was held with the guardians to establish infant and maternal characteristics which influenced the infants' early growth. Results: A total of 112 participants were enrolled for the study with 106 (94.4%) of them being available for reassessment after two
weeks. Majority (72.6%) had deficit in growth by failing to attain the recommended WHO average weight gain of 15g/kg/day. Most of the mothers (63.4%) were between the ages of 20-29 years with half of them being first time mothers. Many of them (66.1%) had only attained primary education and were married (66.1%) to self-employed husbands (56%). Conclusion: Most of the preterm infants at discharge were females who were born between 33 and 36 weeks gestation. Growth deficit was present in the majority and gestational age at birth was a major determinant of the early growth in these preterm infants.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Early growth of very low birth weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):84-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):84-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Early growth of very low birth weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):84-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):84-9. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2006. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

McKinnon LR, Nyanga B, Kim CJ, Izulla P, Kwatampora J, Kimani M, Shahabi K, Mugo N, Smith JS, Anzala OA, Kimani J, Kaul R. "Early HIV-1 infection is associated with reduced frequencies of cervical Th17 cells." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2015;68(1):6-12. Abstract

The hallmark of HIV infection is progressive but variable rates of systemic and mucosal CD4 depletion, leading to immunodeficiency. The impact of early HIV infection on cervical CD4 T-cell populations in humans remains poorly described.

Bennett MR, Harris JWK, Richmond BG, Braun DR, Mbua E, Kiura P, Olago D, Kibunjia M, Omuombo C, Behrensmeyer AK, Huddart D, Gonzalez S. "Early Hominin Foot Morphology Based on 1.5-Million-Year-Old Footprints from Ileret, Kenya ." Science. 2009;323(5918):1197-1201.
Cournil A, Van de Perre P, Cames C, de Vincenzi I, Read JS, Luchters S, Meda N, Naidu K, Newell M-L, Bork K. "Early infant feeding patterns and HIV-free survival: findings from the Kesho-Bora trial (Burkina Faso, Kenya, South Africa)." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2015;34(2):168-74. Abstract

To investigate the association between feeding patterns and HIV-free survival in children born to HIV-infected mothers and to clarify whether antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis modifies the association.

Cournil A, Van de Perre P, Cames C, de Vincenzi I, Read JS, Luchters S, Meda N, Naidu K, Newell M-L, Bork K. "Early infant feeding patterns and HIV-free survival: findings from the Kesho-Bora trial (Burkina Faso, Kenya, South Africa)." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2015;34(2):168-74. Abstract

To investigate the association between feeding patterns and HIV-free survival in children born to HIV-infected mothers and to clarify whether antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis modifies the association.

Ogeng'o D, Obimbo M, Ogeng'o J. "Early menarche among urban Kenyan primary school girls." JOGECA. 2014;25(1):9-13.
Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Early Neonatal Outcomes among Mothers receiving variable doeses of Dexamethasone for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital: A restrospective Cohort Study ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):54-61.Website
Butt FMA, W. GS, Chindia ML, Rana F, M. OT. "Early outcome of three cases of Melanotic Neuroectodermal of infancy." journal of Cranio-maxillofacial Surg.. 2009.
and F. M. A. BUTT, Lecturer BDS(UN) FDSRCS(E) MDS-OMFS(UN)1 GUTHUAPDBDS(UN) MMEDS(H)SW. "Early outcome of three cases of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy." Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. 2009;37:434-437.dec_progonoma_2009.pdf
Awori KO, Ating’a JEO. "Early outcome of vascular lower limb amputations at a National Referral Hospital in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2007;1. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Majority of lower limb amputations performed in the African setting have been reported to be mainly due to trauma and neoplasms. These affect mainly young
and therefore, fit individuals with lower risks of complications. Recent local studies show an increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases including peripheral vascular diseases.
These are associated with higher rates of both systemic and amputation stump-related complications. There is however little published data in Africa on the outcomes of vascular lower
limb amputations.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the early outcome of vascular lower limb amputations.
DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study, conducted between July 2003 and June 2004.
SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.
SUBJECTS: All patients with gangrene of the lower limb due to occlusive peripheral vascular disease not caused by trauma or inappropriate limb splintage who were amputated at Kenyatta
National Hospital during the study period were included.
OUTCOME MEASURES: These included the wound healing time, number of stump revisions, number of conversions to a higher
amputation level, the thirty-day post-operative mortality and the hospitalization period.
CONCLUSION: While the findings of this study compare with other series, the prolonged hospital stay is of concern considering the younger average age of the patients.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Early perinatal outcome in cases delivered through Caesarian section following clinical diagnosis of severe foetal distress at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):250-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):250-8. uon press; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of clinical foetal distress in predicting early perinatal outcome. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty eight newborns delivered via Caesarian section with a diagnosis of clinical foetal distress were compared with another group of 58 newborns delivered similarly, but without clinical foetal distress. RESULTS: Newborn acidemia was found in 71% of newborns with clinical foetal distress in contrast to 17% in newborns without foetal distress. Low Apgar score at one minute was noted in about 59% of newborns with foetal distress compared with 31% in newborns without foetal distress. Similarly, 24.1% of neonates with clinical foetal distress had low Apgar score at five minutes compared with 3.4% in those without foetal distress. Thirty one percent of newborns with clinical foetal distress were admitted to newborn unit for more than 24 hours due to respiratory distress or birth asphyxia compared to 17% of those without foetal distress. The incidence of morbidity and or mortality in newborns exposed to foetal distress was twice the one of newborns without foetal distress. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study agreed with those who consider intrapartum passage of meconeum and abnormal foetal heart rate and rhythm to signify clinical foetal distress that carries bad prognostic outcome. These two parameters should still be used to indicate foetal distress which requires immediate institution of supportive therapy and immediate delivery.
Magoha GAO. "Early postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal . 2007;84(9). Abstract

Objective: To describe early postoperative complications of prostatectomy. Design: A descriptive prospective study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital between 6thOctober 2003 and 21s1June 2004. Subjects: Eighty five men undergoing prostatectomy for the relief of lower urinary tract obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Procedures included suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy, retropubic prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
Main outcome measures: Co-morbidity, intra-operative and early postoperative complications, need for re-operation, 30-day mortality, duration of postoperative catheterisation, and duration of postoperative hospital stay. Results: Eighty five patients were included in the study and their age range was 46-85 years (mean 66 years). Sixty nine (81%) of the patients underwent open prostatectomy, and sixteen (19 %) underwent TURP. Twenty six patients had co-existing medical conditions, the most common being hypertension (29%) and diabetes mellitus (13%). The most common intra-operative complication during prostatectomy was haemorrhage which occurred in ten patients (11.8 %). One patient had perforation of the bladder during transurethral resection and required a laparotomy to repair the bladder. Wound sepsis was the most common postoperative complication following open prostatectomy (35 %

PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO, Gruessner SEM, Tinneberg H-R. "Early pregnancy loss and neonatal deaths associated with Klebsellia pneumonia infection.". 2005.
Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Wariua G, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Bosire R, John-Stewart G. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;45(3):311-7. Abstract

To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine.

C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort. METHODS: HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. RESULTS: Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 children, the median height for age z score and weight for age z score rose from -2.54 to -2.17 (P<0.001) and from -2.30 to -1.67 (P=0.001), respectively, after 6 months of HAART. Hospitalization rates were significantly reduced after 6 months of HAART (17% vs. 58%; P<0.001). The median absolute CD4 count increased from 326 to 536 cells/microL (P<0.001), the median CD4 lymphocyte percentage rose from 5.8% before treatment to 15.4% (P<0.001), and the median viral load fell from 5.9 to 2.2 log10 copies/mL after 6 months of HAART (P<0.001). Among 43 infants, 47% and 67% achieved viral suppression to less than 100 copies/mL and 400 copies/mL, respectively, after 6 months of HAART. CONCLUSION: Good early clinical and virologic response to NNRTI-based HAART was observed in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with advanced HIV-1 disease. PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstractearly_response_to_highly_active_antiretroviral_therapy.pdf

OBJECTIVES: To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort. METHODS: HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. RESULTS: Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 children, the median height for age z score and weight for age z score rose from -2.54 to -2.17 (P<0.001) and from -2.30 to -1.67 (P=0.001), respectively, after 6 months of HAART. Hospitalization rates were significantly reduced after 6 months of HAART (17% vs. 58%; P<0.001). The median absolute CD4 count increased from 326 to 536 cells/microL (P<0.001), the median CD4 lymphocyte percentage rose from 5.8% before treatment to 15.4% (P<0.001), and the median viral load fell from 5.9 to 2.2 log10 copies/mL after 6 months of HAART (P<0.001). Among 43 infants, 47% and 67% achieved viral suppression to less than 100 copies/mL and 400 copies/mL, respectively, after 6 months of HAART. CONCLUSION: Good early clinical and virologic response to NNRTI-based HAART was observed in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with advanced HIV-1 disease.
PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort. METHODS: HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. RESULTS: Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 children, the median height for age z score and weight for age z score rose from -2.54 to -2.17 (P<0.001) and from -2.30 to -1.67 (P=0.001), respectively, after 6 months of HAART. Hospitalization rates were significantly reduced after 6 months of HAART (17% vs. 58%; P<0.001). The median absolute CD4 count increased from 326 to 536 cells/microL (P<0.001), the median CD4 lymphocyte percentage rose from 5.8% before treatment to 15.4% (P<0.001), and the median viral load fell from 5.9 to 2.2 log10 copies/mL after 6 months of HAART (P<0.001). Among 43 infants, 47% and 67% achieved viral suppression to less than 100 copies/mL and 400 copies/mL, respectively, after 6 months of HAART. CONCLUSION: Good early clinical and virologic response to NNRTI-based HAART was observed in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with advanced HIV-1 disease. PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ayah R, Oluoch-Aridi J. Early results of improved management of CHWs: Lessons from MVP sites in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Montreux, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2010.
Agwanda A, and MM, Omollo D. "Early Teenage Pregnancy in South Nyanza.". In: Population of Association of America Annual Meeting . Minneopolis USA: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Mulwa JK. Earth Processes Lecture series for Bachelor of Science (Geology) and Bachelor of Science (ODL). Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2003. Abstract

The Earth Processes course unit is one of the three core courses in Geology. The other two core courses are SGL 101 – Materials of the Earth and SGL 103 - Introduction to Paleontology. Geology is a science of the study of the earth with reference to its evolution, composition and processes that have prevailed from the time of its evolution to the present time.

The earth is a dynamic body that has undergone various changes. These changes are both of internal and external origin. The internal processes are referred to as diastrophism and they tend to elevate the earth’s surface. They are counterbalanced by the external processes that wear down the land surface. The constant interaction between these two processes determines the configuration of the earth’s surface. The external processes are as a result of solar energy and gravitational forces whereas the internal processes are as a result of the earth’s internal heat.

Weather pattern, for example, is to a large extent due to the solar energy on the one hand. Along the equator there is a substantial amount of heating because the sun is always overhead and therefore this results in the rising up of hot air. The rising hot air is replaced by cold air from the colder regions. This cyclic process is closely related to ocean waves and currents generated by solar heating. Waves are effective forces for determining the shape of the landscape along shorelines of oceans and seas.

The force of gravity on the other hand is due to mutual attraction between bodies. The greater the attracting bodies the greater the gravitational force. Because the mass of the earth is greater than any other body on its surface, materials are attracted towards the earth’s center. Rain and snow precipitate due to gravitational attraction of the earth. Water moves towards the oceans because of gravitational force. Glaciers on higher mountains are normally pulled down by the force of gravity.

Internal earth processes are due to heat energy which keeps rocks in the mantle below the earth’s crust in a molten state. This break forth as a volcanic flow during volcanic eruptions. Heat energy is also responsible for large-scale processes such as earthquakes and mountain building, and small scale processes such as geysers, hot springs, steaming ground and hydrothermal processes.

We can therefore conclude that all earth processes are manifestations of energy and these processes are responsible for sculpturing the land surface.

The Earth Processes course unit begins with an overview of the types of energy which contribute to earth processes. These are discussed in Lecture 1. The unit is thereafter subdivided into two parts. Lectures in Part I of the course unit discusses the External Earth processes where else lectures in Part II of the unit discusses the Internal Earth Processes.

The general objective of the Earth processes course unit is to introduce you to the basic concepts of geosciences. More specifically, at the end of this course unit you should be able to:

 describe the internal and external processes which shape the earth;
 explain the present configuration of the earth and attempt to reconstruct its original form;
 explain the natural processes of the earth;
 categorize hazardous and non-hazardous processes of the earth;
 outline the contribution of the earths natural fields in exploration of natural resources;
• propose measures of minimizing hazards due to earth processes.

You are required to have writing materials e.g. books or foolscaps, pens, lead pencils, coloured pencils or crayons, a scientific calculator, a ruler and a mathematical set. Although every effort has been made to provide you with an up-to-date lecture notes, you are expected to do further reading for a better understanding of Geology, Geological concepts and Processes.

Practicals are compulsory in this course unit and a separate practical manual will be availed to you.

Kianji GK. "Earthquake Observation in Kenya; Case study for the period November 1999 to may 2002." Bull. Int. Inst. Seismol. Earthq. Eng.. 2003;VOL.37:23-36.
Mbuthia P G, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC. "Ease of transmitting P.multocida between indigenous chickens and ducks through contact transmission.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2004.2004-ease_of_transmitting_p.multocida.pdf
Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Mugera GM;, Minga U;, Olsen JE. "Ease of transmitting P.multocida between indigenous chickens and ducks through contact transmission."; 2004.
Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Mugera GM;, Minga, U; Olsen. JE. "Ease of transmitting P.multocida between indigenous chickens and ducks through contact transmission."; 2004.
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eds EOO, eds DOO. THE EAST AFICAN GREAT LAKES: LIMNOLOGY, PALAEOLIMNOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY. Moscow: KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS; 2002. Abstractspringer

The Second International Symposium on the East African Lakes was held from 10-15 January 2000 at Club Makokola on the southern shore of Lake Malawi. The symposium was organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL), a research consortium of African, European and North American scientists interested in promoting the investigations of African Great Lakes as archives of environmental and climatic dynamics. Over one hundred African, European and North American scientists with special expertise in the tropical lakes participated in the symposium which featured compelling presentations on the limnology, climatology, palaeoclimatology and biodiversity of the East African Lakes. It is their papers that comprise this book.

The large lakes of East Africa are important natural resources that are heavily utilized by their bordering countries for transportation, water supply, fisheries, waste disposal, recreation and tourism. The lakes are unique in many ways: they are sensitive to climatic change and their circulation dynamics, water-column chemistry and biological complexity differ significantly from large lakes at higher latitudes; they have long, continuous, high resolution records of past climatic change; and they have rich and diverse populations of endemic organisms. These unique properties and the significance of the palaeolimnological records demand and attract research interest from around the world. IDEAL research is contributing to our understanding of basic limnological processes in the African Great Lakes and how physical dynamics drive their biogeochemistry and thus rendering them sensitive, compared to temperate great lakes, to climatic and anthropogenic change. Recent studies indicate that Lake Victoria has undergone dramatic shifts in the lake ecosystem caused by the introduction of the Nile Perch in 1950s and of the water hyacinth during the past five years.

The lake also dried up completely prior to 12,400 years BP. Thus, the hundreds of species of fish in modern Lake Victoria may have evolved within the last 12,400 years; this is the fastest rate of vertebrate species evolution ever recorded. Elsewhere in East Africa, high resolution studies of past climate change in Lake Naivasha, Kenya and in Lake Malawi have shown a distinct Little Ice Age in tropical Africa. Evidence for the Younger Dryas even in tropical Africa has also been documented in the sediment record of Lake Albert. More recent studies havedemonstrated that Lake Malawi was at a low stand during the LGM like all the African lakes in the Northern Hemisphere. This lake was previously known to havex been low in the early Holocene and around 35ka but was believed to have been at a high stand during the LGM. Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika are aquatic island systems of elevated endemic biodiversity providing extraordinary conditions to study evolutionary biology. In these lakes we have the unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of evolutionary and ecological change.

Patterns of speciation, the origin of major morphological evolution, and the origin of major reorganizations in community structures can all be investigated in a comparative setting in these two lakes. The sedimentary record of these lakes offers us an opportunity to resolve both evolutionary and ecological changes in their biota at time scales of decades, centuries, millennia, to millions of years. Despite their long histories and geological similarities, the patterns of diversity and genetic differentiation of the biota differ dramatically between Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. Both lakes were colonized by cichlid fishes, thiarid gastropods and ostracode crustaceans, but these exemplar taxal currently have contrasting aspects in the two lakes. Approximately 1000 fish species are estimated to have evolved within the cradle of Lake Malawi, which is approximately 10 per cent of all freshwater fish species in the world. Despite their astonishing multitude, these species encompass a rather modest degree of molecular genetic and morphological change. The fishes in Lake Tanganyika are genetically and morphologically much more diverse than those in Lake Malawi, yet total only 300 species. In Lake Tanganyika about 240 out of 250 species of prosobranch gastropods and ostracode crustaceans are unique to that lake, and like the cichlid fish, form numerous distinct, divergent lineages. The living prosobranch gastropod fauna of Lake Malawi has undergone only limited differentiation and few if any endemic ostracodes are reported from this lake.

The papers presented in this book provide a comprehensive coverage of the large lakes of East African Rift Valley, touching on climate, limnology, palaeoclimatology, sedimentation processes, biodiversity and management issues of these lakes. The papers show that high quality, globally relevant research can be, and is being done in Africa. The call from African researchers is for their international colleagues and the science funding agencies to move from a position where they see their interactions in Africa essentially as “capacity building” to one of partnership and “capacity recognition” with capacitating where necessary and effective. African and developed world science administrators must work together to sustain the scientific capacity which has been built in Africa, instead of tacitly allowing it to migrate to Europe and North America. The world needs it to stay home.

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MUTHONI DRKARARIEMMA. "East Afr Med J. 2000 Aug;77(8):406-9. Endoscopic findings and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in chronic renal failure patients with dyspepsia.Karari EM, Lule GN, McLigeyo SO, Amayo EO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Aug;77(8):406-9.; 2000. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occurs in up to one fourth of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Some of the factors implicated in its causation include hypergastrinaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, drugs and, recently, Helicobacter pylori infection. Studies on the latter have been few, with none having been carried out in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic findings and to determine the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients with dyspepsia. STUDY DESIGN AND POPULATION: A prospective study of seventy seven consecutive patients with CRF and dyspepsia compared with consecutive age, sex and socio-economically matched seventy seven controls (no CRF) with dyspepsia. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the major referral and teaching hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: In both the study population and the controls, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was carried out. H. pylori was tested for using the biopsy urease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori if they tested positive on both tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Findings at endoscopy and presence of H. pylori. RESULTS: Inflammatory lesions (gastritis, duodenitis) (42%) and duodenal ulcers (18.4%) were the commonest findings in the two groups combined. The prevalence of H. pylori in the 154 subjects studied was 54.5%. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients (53.2%) and the controls (55.8%) (p = 0.746). Patients with endoscopically proven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.3%) regardless of their renal function status. CONCLUSION: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF was due to multiple causes and over 50% were attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylon in dyspeptic CRF patients was similar to that in dyspeptic patients with normal renal function.

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "EAST AFRICA by W.T.W Morgan, Longman, A Review: in the Kenyan Geographer Vol.1, No. 1 pp.55-57, Nairobi.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1975. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
M DRININDAJOSEPH. "East Africa Coastal wet spells during the short rains and the anomalous extreme wet spell event of October 1997.". In: . Proceedings of the Eighth Kenya Meteorological Sosiety. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 11th September to 14th September 2007. Kenya Met Soc; 2007.
Mwimali BJ, et al. The East Africa Court of Justice Law Digest: 2005 -2011. East African Law Society; 2011.
Ndetei DM, Kokonya DA, Ongecha FA, Mutiso V. "East Africa Drug Information System (EADIS): Country Report for Kenya.". 2003.
Bahemuka J,(Eds) JB. East Africa in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change. Nairobi: Acton Publishers; 2001.
Bahemuka J,(Eds) JB. East Africa in Transition: Images, Institutions and Identities. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2004.University of Nairobi Press
Achieng AA, Gunga.O.Samson, Guantai.J.Mboroki. "East Africa Journal of Humanities and Science ." East Africa Journal of Humanities and Science . 2012.
MARY MWIANDI. "East Africa women: Active Actors in History.". In: delivered at the Workshop on the Peoples and Cultures of East Africa, Michigan State University.; 2000.
MARY MWIANDI. ""East Africa women: Active Actors in History", delivered at the workshop on peoples and cultures of East Africa, Michigan State University.". In: Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Mid-West Graduate Students Conference in African Studies. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2000. Abstract

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JAMES PROFODEK. "East Africa's Agricultural Interests: A Defensive and Offensive Strategy with regard to EU CAP Reform, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2003. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
ADAMS DOLOO. "East Africa: One Identity or Multiple Identities?". In: East African Scenarios Project Research Compendium. NAIROBI: Society for International Development; 2007.
Wanjala C. "East African Biographies and Autobiographies.". In: The Companion to African Literatures. Oxford: James Currey; 2000.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "The East African Community's Prospects on the Global Stage", in RoK Ajulu (ed.), The Making of a Region:.". In: The Revival of the East African Community Midrand, S.A., pp 31-44.; 2005. Abstract
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JAMES PROFODEK. "East African Community: Fast Tracking Initiative for the Creation of the Federation of East Africa.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2005. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "The East African Great Lakes: Limnology, Palaeolimnology and Biodiversity. Advances in Global Change Research, Volume 12 Kluwer Academic Publishers, 586 p.". In: Aquatic Sciences, 65: 245-271. September 2003. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2002. Abstract
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Oranga JO. "The East African Integration: Dynamics of Media Engagement.". In: the East African Communication Association Conference. St. Agustine University, Mwanza, Tanzania; 2012.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS in Rok Ajulu(ed.). "The East African Legislative Assembly and the National Assemblies of Partner States: Conflict or Harmony.". In: The Making of a Region: The Revival of the East African Community. SOUTH AFRICA: Institute for Global Dialogue; 2005.
Wanjala C. "East African Literary Supplement." Joliso. 1973;1(1):1-4.
Ombongi KS, Malowany M, Dobson MJ, Snow RW. "The East African Medical Journal." Its history and contribution to malaria research during the last 75 years’, The East African Medical Journal. 1998;Vol. 75 no.6, 1998, pp.s10-s19.
SAMSON DROMBONGIKENNETH. "The East African Medical Journal: Its history and contribution to malaria research during the last ;75 years.". In: The East African Medical Journal, Vol. 75 no.6, 1998, pp s10-s19. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1998. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
JAMES PROFODEK. "East African Perspectives for a New Lome Convention: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, November Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1998. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "East African Prose and Poetry, Authored, Nairobi University Press.". In: Edited by Jude J. Ongong'a and Kenneth Gray [Nairobi Masaki Publishers, 1989], 9-16.; 1987. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Booth D, Cooksey B, Golooba-Mutebi F, Kanyinga K. East African Prospects: An Update on the Political Economy of Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI); 2014.
Mukiama T;, Patrick Rubaihayo, Kifle Dagne, Alois Kullaya, Richard Edema, Okori P, Bananuka J. "East African Regional Programme and Research Network for Biotechnology, Biosafety and Biotechnology Policy Development, Kampala, Uganda.". In: Revised BIO-EARN Phase III Programme Proposal (2006-2009).; 2005.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The East African rift system in the light of KRISP 90.". In: Tectonophysics, 236, 465- 483. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract
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Odada E, Olago D, A K, A B, S W, M N, J K. East African Rift Valley Lakes,GIWA regional assessment 47. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme; 2006.
West K, Bugenyi F, Kulindwa K, Olago DO, Odada EO. "East African RiĞ alley Lakes.". 2004.Website
West K, Bugenyi F, Kulindwa K, Olago D, Odada EO. "East African RiĞ alley Lakes.". 2004.Website
Makunda CS. "East African urban context research: Perspectives, lessons & opportunities.". In: The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium 2016 – NAF Conference. Stockholm, Sweden; 2016.
Nilsson D, Nyanchaga EN. "East African Water Regimes: The Case of Kenya.". In: The Evolution of the Law and Politics of Water. Vol. ISBN: 978-1-4020-9866-6. Springer.; 2008.
Ciarunji C. East African Women Writers.; 1996.
Wanjala C. "The East African Writer and Society." Kenya Historical Review. 1974;2:23-37.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""East and Central Africa", Journal of Commonwealth Literature 8, 2:14-22.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1981. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""East and Central Africa", Journal of Commonwealth Literature 8, 2:14-22.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1980. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Wanjala C, Wanjala A. "East and Central Africa- A Personal Overview." Journal of Commonwealth Literature. 2005;40(5):253-265.
Dorothy McCormick, Atieno R. "Eastern Africa Productive Capacity Initiative.". In: Eastern Africa Productive Capacity Initiative. Vienna: UNIDO. Vienna: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Eastern and Central African Integration.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Eastern and Central African Integration: What it Entails." Paper for Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) Golden Jubilee and 8th African Stock Exchanges Association (ASEA) Conference (Nairobi November 2004).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Eastman SA, Makawiti DW, Collins WP, Hodges JK.Pattern of excretion of urinary steroid metabolites during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the marmoset monkey.". In: J Endocrinol. 1984 Jul;102(1):19-26. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1984. Abstract
Non-invasive methods for monitoring reproductive status based on the measurement of urinary steroid conjugates were examined. Levels of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide, oestrone-3-sulphate, oestradiol glucuronide, oestradiol sulphate and pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide were determined during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy. Sequential hydrolysis showed oestradiol conjugates to be more abundant than oestrone conjugates. The levels of sulphates and glucuronides were similar in the follicular phase whereas sulphates predominated during the luteal phase and pregnancy. Although levels of oestrone-3-sulphate were two- to fourfold lower than those of oestradiol sulphate, measured after hydrolysis, the profiles throughout the cycle and pregnancy were similar. Levels of oestrone-3-sulphate, measured by direct assay, were below 1 mumol/mmol creatinine during the follicular phase, rising 3-4 days after ovulation to reach maximum values (2-8 mumol/mmol creatinine) in the mid-luteal phase. There was no consistent increase before ovulation. Levels during pregnancy rose gradually until days 70-90, after which there was no further increase (gestation length = 144 days). The pattern of pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide was similar to that of oestrone-3-sulphate during the ovarian cycle but levels did not increase during pregnancy. The patterns of excretion of oestrogen and progesterone metabolites were similar to the pattern of the circulating hormones during the ovarian cycle. Circulating and urinary hormone patterns were similar for oestrogens throughout pregnancy but pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide did not reflect progesterone secretion beyond day 70 of gestation.

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