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R.S. O. "Climate Change 2001: Impacts and Adaptation-ReviewEditor,." Cambridge University Press; 2001. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Kenya; Response to Climate Change and Opportunities for Sustainable Development." COP 12/COP/MOP Book edited by J.Nganga and R.S. Odingo; 2003. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Importance of Adaptation studies for Climate Change and Vulnerability." Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment; 2004. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and Human health in the 21st Century.". Commencement address delivered at Stony Brook University; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Post-Kyoto Negotiations-African Priorities.". Invited Paper prepared for Meeting with African Ministers for Environment, UNEP Governing Council; 2005. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Quantifying Socio-economic benefits of Weather and Climate-." Presented at the IGAD-COF meeting; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate and the Energy Sector in East Africa.". Invited papers for the workshop of the Kenya Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change in the IGAD Sub-Region of the Horn of Africa Countries.". Paper Prepared for COF Meeting; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya.". Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN); 2004. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Contributions to understanding climate Change Adaptation.". IDRC Workshop on Climate Risk management; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Challenges to the Tourist Industry in Africa,." Workshop organized by the Kenya Tourist Board, Ministry of Tourism; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and the Energy Sector in East Africa.". Paper presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Climate Considerations and Power Production in Kenya. ICPAC, Nairobi. Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Post-Kyoto Negotiations and African priorities on climate Change.". Meeting with African Ministers of Environment,UNEP/AMCEN; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and Renewable Energy Issues in East Africa.". Paper Prepared for the North-South Conference; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Kenya's Climate Change Technology Needs assessment Report,." Prepared under the Auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); 2004. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Challenge of Global Warming and climate Change Adaptation in ACP Countries.". Paper Prepared for CTA Workshop, Ouagadougou; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "A Look at Climate Change and Human Mobility in Africa -,." paper presents at Cespi Workshop,Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 2009. Abstract
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R.S. O, Ogallo LA. "Drought Occurrences in Eastern Africa. Sub-Region as witnessed from Paleo-and Instrumental Climate workshop,." Paper presented at the ClivarWorkshop on Drought and Climate Change; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "The Kenya Carbon Assist Project. Consultancy." Report prepared for the World Bank and Kenya Government; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change 2001: Mitigation." Review Editor; 2001. Abstract
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R.S. O. "International Policies and Protocols in Disaster Management-." Paper presented to IGAD workshop in Disaster Management. IGAD/ICPAC; 2005. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change." Paper Prepared for the North-South Conference; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Kenya.". Papers presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change; 2004. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Risk management training. African Development Bank,." African Development Bank,; 2008. Abstract
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R.W M, T.K.Mukiama. "Irrigation Scheme or mosquito hazard ?A case study in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." Hydrobiologia. 1992;232:19-22.
R.W. W, P.G. K, Mbaria J.M., F.K N, G. N, S.O. R. "Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2013; 3(1): 8-15.
R.W. M, T.K.Mukiama. "Evaluation of Melia volkensii extract fractions as mosquito larvicides." J.Amer.Mosq.Control Assoc. 1988;4:442-447.
R.W. Kahama, D.N. Kariuki & L.W. Njenga. "Comparison of two microdiffusion methods used to measure ionizable fluoride in cow's milk." Analyst. 1995;(2245 ):120.
R.W. Kahama KNDN & LW. "Effect of interfering ions on hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion method." Talanta. 1997;44(10):1729-33. Abstract

Acid diffusion in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) enables complete recovery of ionic fluoride from standards containing varying concentrations of aluminium as one of the main interfering ions. Acid diffusion without HMDS shows a decrease in fluoride recovery as aluminium ion concentration increases. The fluoride concentration in the trapping solution is determined directly on the diffusion cover with a combination fluoride electrode after neutralising and buffering. The same procedure was used for the analysis of fluoride in soil and plant materials containing high concentrations of aluminium ions. For the same samples, the concentrations of aluminium, iron and silicon were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

RA Powell, R Harding NKMBGRMEL-ALIOAJBEELL. Palliative care research in Africa: Consensus building for a prioritized agenda..; 2013. Abstract

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Palliative care research in Africa is in its relative infancy, with dedicated financial support extremely limited. Therefore, setting research priorities to optimize use of limited resources is imperative.

OBJECTIVES:

To develop a prioritized research agenda for palliative care in Africa.

METHODS:

We used a two-stage process involving palliative care professionals and researchers: 1) generation of an initial topic list at a consultative workshop of experts and 2) prioritization of that list using a consensus development process, the nominal group technique.

RESULTS:

Phase 1: 41 topics were generated across five groups, with several topics nominated in more than one group. Phase 2: 16 topics and three broad thematic areas were identified. The two most prioritized topics within each of the three themes were the following: Theme 1: patient, family, and volunteers-1) care outcomes and the impact of palliative care as perceived by patients and caregivers and 2) palliative care needs of children; Theme 2: health providers-1) impact of palliative care training on care and practice and 2) integration of palliative care and antiretroviral therapy services; and Theme 3: health systems-1) palliative care needs assessments at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels and 2) integration of palliative care into health systems and educational curricula.

CONCLUSION:

Consensus-based palliative care topics determined by the study can assist researchers in optimizing limited research capacities by focusing on these prioritized areas. Subsequent to the identification and publication of the research agenda, concrete steps will be undertaken by the African Palliative Care Research Network and other partners to help implement it.

Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Africa, palliative care, participatory, priorities, research agenda

Rabah VOK, and Mito CO. "Pre-design guidelines for Passive solar architectural buildings in Kenya." International Journal of Sustainable Energy. 2003;23(3):83-119.
Rabe M, Price G, Krhoda G, Goodwin R. 2. Climate Change Vulnerability and Infrastructure Investment Assessment and Analysis for Small Scale Water Utilities in the Lake Victoria Basin. Guide Book for water and wastewater utilities. .; 2011. Abstract

The effect of global climate change on the built urban environment, especially installed infrastructure for the
delivery of essential services, will be particularly severe and even more so for developing countries where
resources to deal with anticipated impacts are lacking. Because the delivery of wet services is dependent on
water resources and tends to be an energy intensive operation, water and wastewater utilities will be most
vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It is therefore imperative that the providers of these services embark on a programme of proactively adapting to the impacts of climate change and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through improved pumping efficiencies. Because adaptation can take on many forms, utilities must apply logic and rational thinking to this process and prioritize interventions that are most likely to cost effectively address identified
impacts.

RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Mwai C, Rutenberg N, Kalibala S, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Nganda B, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Provider time for women seeking MCH care in the kenyan Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMCT) of HIV project: Baseline findings.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 403. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, Maina K, Kamenga C . High antenatal HIV testing does not translate into increased NVP uptake. In international Conference on AIDS and STDs in Africa (ICASA) Nairobi , Kenya 2003N. Rutenberg1, M. Siwale, C. Kankasa, R. N.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [WePeE6837]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Kalibala S, Rutenberg N, Mwai C, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Emotional needs of mothers seeking MCH and how these needs are being met by existing counseling services at two Kenyan Hospitals prior to interventions to prevent mother-to.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 234. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "R.W. Nduati , D. Mbori-Ngacha, J. Oyieke, M. Mwangi, I. Inwani, S. Yonga, G. Nyamongo, J. Kariuki. Challenges of up-scaling PMTCT into routine public health services in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [ThPeB7092]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Rutenberg N, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Kalibala S, Involving men in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 303. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "R.W. Nduati1, D. Mbori-Ngacha, S. Kalibala, S. Ogola, J. Oyieke, G. Nyamongo, G. Scott, L. Muthami, N. Rutenberg. Efficacy of PMTCT services in a routine care setting.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [B12044]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
Raburu P, Mavuti KM, Harper DM, Clark FL. "Population structure and secondary productivity of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Claparede) and Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard in the profundal zone of Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". 2002. AbstractPopulation structure and secondary productivity of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Claparede) and Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard in the p

Lake Naivasha has been well studied since the 1930s but attempts to understand its ecological functioning have had to wait until enough was known about its structure. The energetics of the lake has only been studied to date at primary producer level. Following the identification of the invertebrate components of the littoral and profundal benthos, this study was initiated. The absence of native fish species in Lake Naivasha, combined with a fishery based only on three, introduced species, added an applied dimension to the work. The introduction of additional fish species which will utilize unexploited ecological niches has been suggested. The benthic invertebrates form one such niche. Two oligochaetes dominated the community, Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparade. The former had a productivity of 7.4 g m−2 ann−1 (as dry weight), the latter 0.6. These figures are not particularly high and do not support the introduction of a new fish species on their own

Rachel Sarguta, Ottieno JAM. "Recursive Route to Mixed Poisson Distributions using Integration by parts." " Mathematics Theory and Modeling,. 2014;4(14):144-152. AbstractFull text link

Abstract

Mixed Poisson distributions are very significant in modeling non-homogeneous populations; for instance in Actuarial applications for modeling total claims in insurance. However, the setback is in their use since the probability mass functions are difficult to evaluate, except for a few mixing distributions. One way of dealing with this problem is to express Mixed Poisson distributions in terms of recursive relations.

In this paper, recursive relations of some mixed Poisson distributions are obtained by use of integration by parts technique.

Keywords: mixtures; recursive relation; generating functions; moments

Rading GO. D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Overstrain in Flush Optimum Chamfered Cross Bored Cylinders." Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. 2006;220:15-25.
Rading GO. "B O Odera, L A Cornish, M B Shongwe, G O Rading and M J Papo: As Cast and Heat Treated Alloys of the Pt-Al-V System at the Pt-Rich Corner." Journal of the Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
Rading GO. "A Parametric Investigation of Steel Fibres from Waste Tyres as Concrete Reinforcement." Icastor Journal of Engineering. 2010;3(3):283-299.
Rading, G O; Gumbe ML; DO. "Service Life Of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining.". 2012.
Rading GO. Concise Notes on Materials Science and Engineering. Victoria: Trafford Publishing; 2007.
Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Universal SCFs and Optimal Chamfering in Cross Bored Cylinders." International Journal of Pressure Vessels & Piping. 2007;84:396-404.
Rading GO. Concise Notes on Materials Science and Engineering. Victoria BC: Trafford Publishing; 2007.
Rading GO. "D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Analysis of the Weld Strength of High Density Polyethylene Dam Liner." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):12-23.
Raffle A, Gray J, MacDonald HR. "Letter: First-aid treatment of poisoning." Br Med J. 1976;1(6001):93.
Rahbar N, Aduda BO, Zimba J, Obwoya SK, Nyongesa FW, Yakub I, Soboyejo WO. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic." Experimental Mechanics. 2010. Abstract

Abstract This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of microstructure and thermal shock resistance of an aluminosilicate ceramic. Shock-induced crack growth is studied in sintered structures produced from powders with different particle size ranges. The underlying crack/microstructure interactions and toughening mechanisms are elucidated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting crack-tip shielding levels (due to viscoelastic crack bridging) are estimated using fracture mechanics concepts. The implications of the work are discussed for the design of high refractory ceramics against thermal shock.

Keywords Viscoelastic crack bridging . Crack-tip shielding . Thermal shock . Refractory ceramics

Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Landlords, Tenants and the Law: There is Recourse to the Law".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 19-20.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Law of Torts, a Booklet for paralegal trainees (Claripress Ltd, Nairobi,).". In: Lesotho Law Journal, 177-198 (2000).; 1997. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Of Association and Collusion".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22 (October 1990).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Executive Liability for Company Offenses",.". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26 (June 1990).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Criminal Liability of Corporations in Malaysia, Current L.J., Kuala Lumpur, 225-31.". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Anti-Monopoly Policy and the Structure - Conduct - Performance Paradigm: The Kenyan Approach, 10 (1) Eastern Africa Economic Review.". In: Journal of the Kenyan Economic Assocation, Nairobi, 11-38.; 1994. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Antitrust Law of the United States of America: An Overview, Nairobi Law Monthly, 23,28.". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Company as Criminal" (Executive, Nairobi, 6-8).". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Landlords, Tenants and the Law: There is Recourse to the Law".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 19-20 (February 1991).; 1991. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur (November 16.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.; 1982. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Law and Development in the Third World, pp.614 (Co-editor & Contributor, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi,.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1994. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Free Enterprise System and The Anti-Monopoly Law, Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 1989. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Relationship between Crime and Socio-Economic Factors, 4(1) Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1997. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime" (November).". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Criminal Liability of Company Directors under the Companies Act in Kenya, 2(5).". In: The Advocate, Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Competition Law of Kenya: Imperfections and Weaknesses" 13(1-2).". In: Lesotho Law Journal, 177-198.; 2000. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Limits of Contractual Restraint".". In: Executive Nairobi, 20-21, 26 (July 1990).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Residual Red Soils of Kenya as construction materials For earthen Dams and Embankments.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; Submitted. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Anti-Competitive Trade Practices and the Law Relating to Contracts in Restraint of Trade.". In: The Kenya Perspective, The University of Nairobi Law Journal, 118-130, Vol.1.; 2003. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Criminal Liability of Company Directors under the Companies Act I Kenya, 2(5).". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1993. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Antitrust Law of the United States of America: An Overview, Nairobi Law Monthly, 23, 28 (February).". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Freedom of the Press and the Anti-Monopoly Law: Problems of Striking a Proper Balance. 10(1).". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Honourable Company Esq".". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1991. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Limits of Contractual Restraint".". In: Executive Nairobi, 20-21, 26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Free Enterprise System and The Anti-Monopoly Law.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.; 1989. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Of Association and Collusion".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Law of Torts, a Booklet for paralegal trainees (Claripress Ltd, Nairobi.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1997. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Honourable Company Esq.".". In: Executive,Nairobi 29-30, 32.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Competition Law of Kenya: Imperfections and Weaknesses" 12 (1-2).". In: Lesotho Law Journal, 177-198 (2000).; 2000. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Regulation of Monopolies, Restrictive Trade Practices and Prices in Ancient India, 14 Delhi L. Rev., Journal of the Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, 104-115.". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1992. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Restraint of Trade - Types of Contract",.". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22 (August1990).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Anti-Competitive Trade Practices and the Law Relating to Contracts in Restraint of Trade.". In: The Kenya Perspective", The University of Nairobi Law Journal, 118-130, Vol. 1. 2003.; 2003. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Independence of the Judiciary: A Third World Perspective, The Third World Legal Studies, School of Law, Valparaiso University, U.S.A., 127-177.". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1992. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Company as Criminal".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 6-8 (May 1990).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Prosecution of Corporations: Procedure in Malaysia and Singapore, Malayan L.J., Singapore, xcii-ci.". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Law and Development in the Third World, pp. 614 (Co-editor & Contributor, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1994. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Suggested Reading, Commonwealth Law Bulletin, 387.". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Executive Liability for Company Offenses".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Regulation of Monopolies, Restrictive Trade Practices and Prices in Ancient India, 14 Delhi L. Rev., Journal of the Faculty of Law, University fo Delhi, 104-115 (1992).". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1992. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Restraint of Trade - Types of Contract".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Alternatives to Imprisonment in Kenya, 6(1) Criminal Law Forum, Rutgers University School of Law, U.S.A., 73-102.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1995. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Independence of the Judiciary: A Third World Perspective, The Third World Legal Studies, School of Law, Valparaiso University, U.S.A., 127-177 (1992).". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1992. Abstract
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Rainey RL, Estes PW, Neely CL, Amick LD. "Myoglobinuria following diabetic acidosis with electromyographic evaluation." Archives of Internal Medicine. 1963;111:564-571. Abstract
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Rainey JJ, Mwanda WO WMAMWMLRPR. "Spartial distribution of Burkitt’s." Trop Med Int Health. 2007;8(12):936-43.spatial_distribution_of_burkitts_lymphoma_in_kenya_and.pdf
Raja, R; Adamali GN; J. "Heel pad thickness in Kenyan Africans.". 1980.
Rajab JA. The role of trephine needle bone marrow biopsy in the evaluation of various haematological and non-haematological diseases At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

This is a descriptive retrospective and prospective
study of 101 patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH) between 1st October, 1985 and 30th January, 1990 and
had bone marrow examination done by aspiration and trephine
needle biopsy. At KNH trephine needle bone marrow (TNBM)
biopsy has been performed over the years when aspiration
results in 'dry tap'. It is only available for the use by a
few specialists (haematologists) and it is rarely performed
in staging malignant lymphomas or as a routine diagnostic
technique in various other diseases. The study was done to
evaluate the role of the technique in patient care at this
hospital. The relevant data and the diagnostic outcome of
50 patients admitted to the hospital between 1st October,
1985 and 30th June, 1989 were collected retrospectively.
Trephine needle biopsies were performed by the investigator
on 51 patients during the last 7 months of the study. Data
collected included: the age and sex, the indications for
bone biopsy, the quality of the specimen, the reporting
format and the final diagnosis on the trephine biopsies.
The 101 patients studied were between 2 and 75 years of
age. The mean age was 23.9 years. There were 62 males and
39 females. A 'dry tap' aspirate, the commonest indication
for TNBM biopsy was reported in 37 (36.6%) cases. In twelve
cases, the aspirate and needle biopsy were performed at the
same time using the same needle. Ten of these were in the
staging of malignant lymphomas. Good or satisfactory
specimens were obtained in at least 86% of the biopsies

performed. Aplastic anaemia, the commonest abnormality
detected was found in 28 (27.7%) of the patients studied. A
review of the reporting format showed that in only 20% cases
in the retrospective study was a full report of the biopsy
given by the haematologist.
This study shows that TNBM biopsy is a simple and safe
procedure yielding a good or satisfactory specimen in most

instances. The biopsy will most likely provide a diagnosis
when bone marrow aspirate fails due to 'dry tap' or scanty
yield. The procedure may be of value in routine
investigation of various diseases such as aplastic anaemia
and in staging of malignant lymphomas although larger
studies need to be done in this area (only ten cases in this
study). A standard format should be formulated and adhered
to by haematologists and pathologists reporting on the TNBM
biopsies in this hospital.

Rajab JA, Ngoma T, Adde M, Durosinmi M, Githang'a J, Aken'Ova Y, Kaijage J, Adeodou O, Brown BJ, Leoncini L, Naresh K, Raphael M, Hurwitz N, Scanlan P, Rohatiner A, Venzon D, Magrath I. "Treatment of Burkitt lymphoma in equatorial Africa using a simple three-drug combination followed by a salvage regimen for patients with persistent or recurrent disease.". 2012. Abstract

Prior to the introduction of the International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR) protocol INCTR 03-06, survival of patients with Burkitt lymphoma at four tertiary care centres in equatorial Africa was probably no more than 10-20%. The results reported here for 356 patients have demonstrated marked improvement in survival through the use of a uniform treatment protocol consisting of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, vincristine, and intrathecal therapy, and the introduction of non-cross resistant second-line (salvage) therapy, consisting of ifosfamide, mesna, etoposide and cytarabine, when patients failed to achieve a complete response to first-line therapy or relapsed early. Overall survival rates of 67% and 62% were observed at 1 and 2 years (relapse is rare after 1 year of remission). Of interest was the small impact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bone marrow involvement on outcome. However, the presence or absence of abdominal involvement clearly defined two prognostic groups. An additional finding was the association between CSF pleocytosis and orbital tumours, suggesting that spread of tumour cells to the central nervous system may sometimes occur via direct involvement of cranial nerves in the orbit. Survival rates may be increased in patients with abdominal involvement by combining first- and second-line therapy, but verification will require a further clinical study.

Rajar SAD. • A Case for Human Rights for women in Africa . 2006: University of London; 2006.
Rajar SAD. "• Commercial Litigation; A case for expeditious dispute disposal .". In: • Commercial Litigation.; 2008.
Rajcáni J, Krobová J, Málková D. "Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus in the chick embryo." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):467-72. Abstract

Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus antigen (LVA) was followed by immunofluorescene (IF) in chick embryos inoculated into the yolk sacs. Positive fluorescence of LVA was observed in neurons and neuroblasts of the developing brain, spinal cord and spinal ganglia as well as in skeletal muscles, heart muscle, vascular endothelium and lung mesenchyma. In the yolk sac, foci of specific fluorescence were occasionally seen in endothelium cells of vessels and in islands of extraembryonic haematopoesis. At sites corresponding to the occurrence of LVA, extensive oedema was accompanied by extravazation of erythrocytes and accumulation of white blood cells. The nature of tissues in which the virus replicates was discussed from the point of view of LVA distribution and the morphological lesions observed.

Rajula CM. The Survival After The Cardiac Arrest At The Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1980. Abstract

The records of 450 patients who required cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the period 1974-1980 are reviewed. All suffered cardio-pulmonary arrest, and the results of treatment are expressed in terms of length of survival. One hundred fifty nine patients (35.6%) responded to the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation initially. Out of this, 115 patients (72.33%) died in the hospital later; 44 (8.9%) who were hospitalised for another one month, after cardio-pulmonary arrest, and then discharged, were considered long survivors.
The chances of successful resuscitation were greater in patients with ischaemic heart disease (20% survived); undergoing anaesthesia (20% survived); and those with drug
overdose (15.5% survived). Patients with ventricular fibrilation as the primary electro-cardiographic finding had better prog~osis as compared to those with asystole.
Resuscitation in patients with progressive metabolic and respiratcry failure, and multiple episodes of cardiac arrests, was associated with poor prognosis. Low survival rates were
also found in children under ten years of age.
About eleven percent of all the survivors developed residual brain damage with marked intelectual impairment, including 2 patients with psychiatric problems.

Rakotoarisoa, M; Massawe MOFBKS; A; R;. Investment Opportunities for Livestock in the North Eastern Province of Kenya: A Synthesis of Existing Knowledge.; 2008. Abstract

Pastoralism is the dominant livelihood activity in the North Eastern Province (NEP) of Kenya. It is supplemented only by a limited amount of agriculture along the rivers. The province faces various developmental challenges including chronic poverty and food insecurity, low human capital and poor health standards, high vulnerability to climate change, poor infrastructure, insecurity and low crop and livestock productivity. This study synthesises existing knowledge and provides recommendations on livestock investments to increase incomes, create employment and reduce food insecurity in the province. It examines investment opportunities in livestock and presents scenarios that meet the objectives of Kenya’s 2030 vision. Four scenarios are analysed. The first scenario consists of the business-as-usual case: a vision of the state of the livestock sector, and its contribution to NEP and national economy, if the current trajectory is maintained. The second scenario outlines a strategy that focuses on catering to domestic demand for livestock products. The third scenario focuses on feeding foreign demand for live animals, while the fourth scenario investigates the possibilities of a livestock sector driven by exports of processed livestock products. Also in these investment scenarios, the broad-based growth contribution to the economy is discussed. The analysis indicates that all three alternative scenarios have far better impacts on pastoralists’ income and employment than the ‘business-as-usual’ scenario. The second scenario is found to have the largest favourable impact. Besides creating jobs and income opportunities, it provides alternatives to meet the growing livestock product consumption spurred by population increase, rising incomes and urbanization in Kenya. However, there are several requirements for this scenario to work and yield the desired impact. The need for creating a favourable investment climate is discussed and specific roles of the public and private sectors are explained.

Rakuomi V, Okalebo F, Ndwigah S, Mbugua L. "Cost effectiveness of pre-referral antimalarial treatment in severe malaria among children in sub-Saharan Africa." Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2017;15:14.
Ralwala AO. "Architectural reconstruction and re-interpretation of Thimlich Ohinga and Gundni Buche archaeological relics of the Luo cultural landscape." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2017;11(11):1061-1083.
Ralwala AO. "Interpretation of traditional specialisation in Kenyan Luo architecture." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2018;12(1):1215-1232.
Ralwala AO. "Incorporation of semiology into the curricula of Kenyan schools of architecture.". In: Knowledge solutions for the society, the economy and the environment. 12th International Conference at Egerton University, 27th to 29th March 2018.; 2018.
Ralwala AO. "Architectural metabletica : Transformation of the Kenyan Luo dwelling unit.". In: Tropical Architecture and the Urban Challenges facing the Global South. Sub-theme: Socio-cultural issues. 9TH Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop, University of Nairobi’s Department of Architecture 4th-5th September 2019.; 2019.
Ralwala AO. "Phenomenological epistemology as an indispensable component in the resolution of challenges encountered in the architectural production of urban space." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2017;11(11):1157-1175.
Ralwala AO. "Architectural mitigation of social exclusion as ‘the wretched of the earth’ take claim to Nairobi City. ." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2018;12(1):1273-1284.
Ralwala AO. Meaning in Kenyan Luo Vernacular Architecture.. Chisinau: LAMBERT Academic Publishers.; 2019.
Ralwala AO. "The praxis of Critical Regionalism as a prescription for achieving a hybrid identity in Kenyan architecture.". In: Knowledge solutions for the society, the economy and the environment. 12th International Conference at Egerton University, 27th to 29th March 2018.; 2018.
Ralwala AO, Barker AAJ. "The Kibaga ancestral Mausoleum—a key traditional architectural typology of Kenyan Luo vernacular architecture." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2016;10(10):975-986.
Ralwala AO. "Honouring National Heroes through Architecture: a case of the Presidential Mausoleum. .". In: Modern Heritage (in the Anthropocene) in collaboration with University of Cape Town; UNESCO; UNESCO World Heritage Centre; African World Heritage Fund; UCL Bartlett School of Architecture; PAMOA; ICCROM; ICOMOS & IUCN. the Cape Town Conference on ‘Modern Heritages of Africa’ 22-24 September ; 2021.
Ralwala AO. "Architectural metabletica : Luo existence in informal settlements.". In: Tropical Architecture and the Urban Challenges facing the Global South. Sub-theme: Socio-cultural issues. 9TH Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop, University of Nairobi’s Department of Architecture 4th-5th September 2019.; 2019.
Ralwala AO. "Kenyan cultural ecology as a central determinant in the architectural production of urban space—the example of Nairobi County. .". In: Knowledge solutions for the society, the economy and the environment. 12th International Conference at Egerton University, 27th to 29th March 2018.; 2018.
Ramadan HAI, El-Banhawy EM, Afia SI. "On the identification of a taxa collected from Egypt in the species sub- group andersoni: Morphological relationships with related species and molecular analysis of inter- and intra- specific variations ( Acari: Phytoseiidae).". 2009. AbstractOn the identification of a taxa collected from Egypt in the species sub- group andersoni: Morphological relationships with relat

Morphological studies of the diagnostic characters of Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (original description) and A. enab El Badry (several new collections including the type locality) indicated close affinity between the two species. Among the Egyptian collections, little morphological variations have been observed except for setae Z1, S2, S4 and S5. Sequencing of a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of different samples from Egypt showed almost complete identity with Neoseiulus swirskii (= A. swirskii Accession number EU 310505). Other related species i.e. A. cucumeris (Oud.), N. andersoni (Chant) and N. fallacis (Garman) showed distant identity. The intraspecific variationswere great between the six samples of Egypt and mainly because of mutations (which could be due to error during replication or as a result of mutagens).

Rambo CM. "Risk Factors Influencing the Survival of Strategic Alliances: Evidence From Kenya." International Journal of Management and Marketing Research. ISSN: 1933-3153 (print) and 2157-0205 (online) . 2012.
Rambo CM, Paul A. Odundo. "Socio - E co nomic Empowerment of Women through Micro - Finance: A comparative Assessment of Funded and U nfunded W omen in Kisumu District, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster M anagement and Risk Reduction. 2010;2(2):92-107.
Rambo CM, Otieno M. "Principles and Procedures in Project Planning and Management." Nairobi: UoN; 2010.
Rambo CM. "Strategic Alliances and the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 1:56-76.

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