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Journal Article
F. K. Kamau, Thoithi GN, J. K. Ngugi, Kingondu OK, Kibwage IO. "Quality of amoxycillin preparations in the Kenyan market." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2003;6:57-60.
Dimba E, Gjertsen BT, Francis GW, Johannessen AC, Vintermyr OK. "Catha edulis (Khat) induces cell death by apoptosis in leukemia cell lines." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2003;1010:384-388. Abstract
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Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Latif KA, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Qureshi N. "The use of alkali therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 2002;25:2113-2114. Abstract
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Engelbrecht NE, Freeman J, Sternberg P, Aaberg TM, Aaberg TM, Martin DF, Sippy BD. "Retinal pigment epithelial changes after macular hole surgery with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling." American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2002;133:89-94. AbstractWebsite
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F. Mwaura, Mavuti KM, and Wamicha WN. "Biodiversity characteristics of small high altitude tropical man-made reservoirs in the eastern Rift Valley, Kenya." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management. 2002;7:1-12.
Guthua SW, F.G. M, Gathece LW. "Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.". 2002.
F.G. M, S.W. G, Gathece LW. "Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.". 2002.
Mwangi AM, den Hartog AP, Mwadime RKM, van Staveren WA, Foeken DWJ. "Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthy diet? The case of Nairobi." Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2002;23(1):48-56.Website
Fischer AJ, Dierks BD, Reh TA. "Exogenous growth factors induce the production of ganglion cells at the retinal margin." Development. 2002;129:2283-2291. AbstractWebsite
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Kaul R, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Fonck K, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Ronald AR, Plummer FA, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, others. "Reduced HIV risk-taking and low HIV incidence after enrollment and risk-reduction counseling in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2002;30:69-72. Abstract
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Viegas KAS, Orsi AM, Matheus S, Francia-Farje LAD, Orsi DC, Mello JM. "{CARACTERÍSTICAS} {ESTRUCTURALES} {DE} {LA} {AORTA} {DE} {CONEJO} ({Oryctolagus} cuniculus)." Revista chilena de anatomía. 2001;19:131-137. AbstractWebsite
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Ameyaw MM, Regateiro F, Li T, Liu X, Tariq M, Mobarek A, Thornton N, Folayan GO, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, Price-Evans DA, McLeod HL. "MDR1 pharmacogenetics: frequency of the C3435T mutation in exon 26 is significantly influenced by ethnicity." Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11(3):217-21. Abstract

P-glycoprotein (PGP), the product of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that exports its substrates out of the cell. PGP expression is an important factor regulating absorption of a wide variety of medications. It has also been associated with intrinsic and acquired cross resistance to a number of structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 26 of the MDR1 gene, C3435T, was recently correlated with PGP protein levels and substrate uptake. Individuals homozygous for the T allele have more than four-fold lower PGP expression compared with CC individuals. As overexpression of PGP has been associated with altered drug absorption, therapy-resistant malignancies, and lower concentrations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors, this SNP may provide a useful approach to individualize therapy. To facilitate clinical application throughout the world, 1280 subjects from 10 different ethnic groups were evaluated for this SNP using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and the genotype and allele frequency for each group were ascertained. Marked differences in genotype and allele frequency were apparent between the African populations and the Caucasian/Asian populations (P < 0.0001). The Ghanaian, Kenyan, African American and Sudanese populations studied had frequencies of 83%, 83%, 84% and 73%, respectively, for the C allele. The British Caucasian, Portuguese, South-west Asian, Chinese, Filipino and Saudi populations had lower frequencies of the C allele compared to the African group (48%, 43%, 34%, 53%, 59%, and 55%, respectively). The high frequency of the C allele in the African group implies overexpression of PGP and may have important therapeutic and prognostic implications for use of PGP dependent drugs in individuals of African origin.

Mwangi AM, den Hartog AP, Foeken DWJ, van't Riet H, Mwadime RKM, w.A. van Staveren. "The ecology of street foods in Nairobi." Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 2001;40:497-523.Website
Pennise DM, Smith KR, Kithinji JP, Rezende ME, Raad TJ, Zhang J, Fan C. "Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil.". 2001.Website
Ndegwa P, S. M, F.A. O. "Habitat preferences and activity patters of Glossina swynnertoni. Austen in Maasai Mara." Insect Science and its Application . 2001;2(2):113-122.
W O-O, A OTM, F T, J.H O. "Health Workers for Change in Kenya." Health Policy and Planning Journal. 2001;16.
F.G. M, odhiambo A W, Akama MK, W. GS. "Maxillofacial injuries caused by terorrist bomb attack in Nairobi.". 2001.
Okallo G, mwaniki DL, S.W. G, F.G. M. "symptoms of health personnel exposed to disincfectants.". 2001.
F. K M, W. O O;, F. M N, E. S M. "Tetracycline residue levels in cattle meat from Nairobi salughter house in Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

Two hundred and fifty beef samples were collected from five slaughterhouses in and around the city of Nairobi. The beef animals were sourced from various parts of the country. Samples of 50-100 grams were collected randomly from the liver, kidney and muscle of different beef carcasses. The samples collected were processed using multiresidue analytical methods that included liquid-gas partitioning and set-pat C18 cartridges chromatographic clean up. Chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline detection was done using Knauer Model 128 HPLC with an electron capture detector. Out of the 250 samples that were analyses for tetracycline residues 114 (45.6 %) had detectable tetracycline residues. Of the 114 samples with detectable tetracycline residues, 60 (24%) were liver samples, 35 (14%), were kidney samples and 19 (7.6%) were muscle samples. The mean (p>0.05) residue levels of tetracycline for the five slaughterhouses studied were as follows: Athi River 1,046 ug/kg, Dandora 594 ug/kg, Ngong 701 ug/kg, Kiserian 524 ug/kg and Dagoretti 640 /lg/kg. Of the 250 samples analysed 110 (44 % ) had oxytetracyclines while 4 (1.6 % ) had chlortetracyclines. The mean residue levels of the detected tetracyclines were higher than the recommended maximum levels in edible tissues. This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues in the various edible tissues. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal periods before slaughter. This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues in the various edible tissues. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before slaughter of the animals. Key words: Tetracycline residue, Nairobi, Kenya

Spranger J, Osterhoff M, Reimann M, Möhlig M, Ristow M, Francis MK, Cristofalo V, Hammes H-P, Smith G, Boulton M. "Loss of the antiangiogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor in patients with angiogenic eye disease." Diabetes. 2001;50:2641-2645. AbstractWebsite
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Ngugi EN, Fonck K, Temmerman M, Kaul R, Keli F, Moses S, Bwayo JJ. "Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2001. Abstract
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Fonck K, Kaul R, Keli F, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Temmerman M. "Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya." Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2001;77:271-275. Abstract
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Avci E, Fossett D, Aslan M, Attar A, Egemen N. "Surgical anatomy of the superior cerebellar artery." Turkish Neurosurgery. 2001;11:95-100. AbstractWebsite
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Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. "The {Spinal} {Cord} {Circuitry} {Underlying} {Muscle} {Stretch} {Reflexes}.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The local circuitry within the spinal cord mediates a number of sensory motor reflex actions. The simplest of these reflex arcs entails the response to muscle stretch, which provides direct excitatory feedback to the motor neurons innervating the muscle that has been stretched (Figure 16.9). As already mentioned, the sensory signal for the stretch reflex originates in muscle spindles, sensory receptors embedded within most muscles (see previous section and Chapter 9). The spindles comprise 8–10 intrafusal fibers arranged in parallel with the extrafusal fibers that make up the bulk of the muscle (Figure 16.9A). Large-diameter sensory fibers, called Ia afferents, are coiled around the central part of the spindle. These afferents are the largest axons in peripheral nerves and, since action potential conduction velocity is a direct function of axon diameter (see Chapters 2 and 3), they allow for very rapid adjustments in this reflex arc when the muscle is stretched. The stretch imposed on the muscle deforms the intrafusal muscle fibers, which in turn initiate action potentials by activating mechanically gated ion channels in the afferent axons coiled around the spindle. The centrally projecting branch of the sensory neuron forms monosynaptic excitatory connections with the α motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord that innervate the same (homonymous) muscle and, via local circuit neurons, inhibitory connections with the α motor neurons of antagonistic (heteronymous) muscles. This arrangement is an example of what is called reciprocal innervation and results in rapid contraction of the stretched muscle and simultaneous relaxation of the antagonist muscle. All of this leads to especially rapid and efficient responses to changes in the length or tension in the muscle (Figure 16.9B). The excitatory pathway from a spindle to the α motor neurons innervating the same muscle is unusual in that it is a monosynaptic reflex; in most cases, sensory neurons from the periphery do not contact the lower motor neuron directly but exert their effects through local circuit neurons. Figure 16.9Stretch reflex circuitry. (A) Diagram of muscle spindle, the sensory receptor that initiates the stretch reflex. (B) Stretching a muscle spindle leads to increased activity in Ia afferents and an increase in the activity of α motor neurons that innervate the same muscle. Ia afferents also excite the motor neurons that innervate synergistic muscles, and inhibit the motor neurons that innervate antagonists (see also Figure 1.5). (C) The stretch reflex operates as a negative feedback loop to regulate muscle length.

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. "The {Spinal} {Cord} {Circuitry} {Underlying} {Muscle} {Stretch} {Reflexes}.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The local circuitry within the spinal cord mediates a number of sensory motor reflex actions. The simplest of these reflex arcs entails the response to muscle stretch, which provides direct excitatory feedback to the motor neurons innervating the muscle that has been stretched (Figure 16.9). As already mentioned, the sensory signal for the stretch reflex originates in muscle spindles, sensory receptors embedded within most muscles (see previous section and Chapter 9). The spindles comprise 8–10 intrafusal fibers arranged in parallel with the extrafusal fibers that make up the bulk of the muscle (Figure 16.9A). Large-diameter sensory fibers, called Ia afferents, are coiled around the central part of the spindle. These afferents are the largest axons in peripheral nerves and, since action potential conduction velocity is a direct function of axon diameter (see Chapters 2 and 3), they allow for very rapid adjustments in this reflex arc when the muscle is stretched. The stretch imposed on the muscle deforms the intrafusal muscle fibers, which in turn initiate action potentials by activating mechanically gated ion channels in the afferent axons coiled around the spindle. The centrally projecting branch of the sensory neuron forms monosynaptic excitatory connections with the α motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord that innervate the same (homonymous) muscle and, via local circuit neurons, inhibitory connections with the α motor neurons of antagonistic (heteronymous) muscles. This arrangement is an example of what is called reciprocal innervation and results in rapid contraction of the stretched muscle and simultaneous relaxation of the antagonist muscle. All of this leads to especially rapid and efficient responses to changes in the length or tension in the muscle (Figure 16.9B). The excitatory pathway from a spindle to the α motor neurons innervating the same muscle is unusual in that it is a monosynaptic reflex; in most cases, sensory neurons from the periphery do not contact the lower motor neuron directly but exert their effects through local circuit neurons. Figure 16.9Stretch reflex circuitry. (A) Diagram of muscle spindle, the sensory receptor that initiates the stretch reflex. (B) Stretching a muscle spindle leads to increased activity in Ia afferents and an increase in the activity of α motor neurons that innervate the same muscle. Ia afferents also excite the motor neurons that innervate synergistic muscles, and inhibit the motor neurons that innervate antagonists (see also Figure 1.5). (C) The stretch reflex operates as a negative feedback loop to regulate muscle length.

Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, Apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, Kiragu D, Karanja G, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J. "Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya." Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76(2):117-21. Abstract

To assess the impact of a syphilis control programme of pregnant women on pregnancy outcome in Kenya.

Gichangi P, Fonck K, Sekande-Kigondu C, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kiragu D, Claeys P, Temmerman M. "Partner notification of pregnant women infected with syphilis in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11(4):257-61. Abstract

We examined partner notification among syphilitic pregnant women in Nairobi. At delivery, 377 women were found to be rapid plasma reagin (RPR) reactive. Data were available for 94% of the partners of women who were tested during pregnancy; over 67% of the partners had received syphilis treatment while 23% had not sought treatment mainly because they felt healthy. Six per cent of the women had not informed their partners as they feared blame and/or violence. Adverse pregnancy outcome was related to lack of partner treatment during pregnancy (7% versus 19%, odds ratio (OR) 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-10.0). Our data suggest that messages focusing on the health of the unborn child have a positive effect on partner notification and innovative and locally adapted strategies for partner notification need more attention.

Patel, NB; Kioy PG; UGFRPF; S;, Kalaria RN;, Kioy PG;, Kariuki M;, Unverzagt F;, Hendrie H;, Gatere S;, Freidland RP. "High APOE e 4 allele frequency in elderly Kikuyus in Kenya.". 2000.
Wangoh J, Farah Z, Puhan Z. "Iso-electric Focusing of Camel Milk Proteins." Int. J. Dairy Sci.. 2000;42:135-138.
Fawzia A, Karuri EG, Hagenimana V. "Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production costs in Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

Ketchup sauce is increasingly a popular condiment used as a flavouring ingredient in fast-food businesses in East African urban areas. It is one of a myriad of products that can be made using sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots. We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ketchup sauce made by substituting tomatoes with sweet potatoes. The final product, in which up to 80% tomatoes were substituted with sweet potato, was found to be organoleptically acceptable in Nairobi, Kenya. The yellow flesh colour of the sweet potato had a good influence on the final consumer preference of the product. Adding sweet potato to the ketchup formulation had little influence on the final pH, which ranged from 3.8 to 4.1. Titratable acidity values ranged from 0.36 to 0.60 g (acetic acid) per 100 g sauce. Shelf life test indicated that ketchup sauce incorporating sweet potato could safely be stored for 2 to 3 months. The addition of sweet potato in the ketchup formulation significantly reduced the production cost of the sauce.

Fonck K, Kaul R, Kimani J, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Ronald AR, Plummer FA, Kirui P, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, others. "A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of monthly azithromycin prophylaxis to prevent sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 in Kenyan sex workers: study design and baseline findings." International journal of STD & AIDS. 2000;11:804-811. Abstract
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Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Kigondu CS, Fonck K, Temmerman M. "Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding emergency contraception among nurses and nursing students in two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." Contraception. 1999;59(4):253-6. Abstract

A cross-sectional descriptive study on knowledge, attitudes, and practice about emergency contraception (EC) was conducted among nurses and nursing students using a self-administered questionnaire. One-hundred-sixty-seven qualified nurses and 63 nursing students completed the questionnaire. Over 95% listed at least one regular contraceptive method but only 2.6% spontaneously listed EC as a contraceptive method, whereas 48% of the respondents had heard of EC. Significantly more nursing students than qualified nurses were familiar with EC. Knowledge about the types of EC, applications, and side effects was poor and 49% of the respondents considered EC as an abortifacient. Of those familiar with EC, 77% approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only 3.5% of all respondents had personally used EC in the past, 23% of those familiar with EC intend to use it in the future, whereas 53% intend to provide or promote it. The view that EC was abortifacient negatively influenced the decision to use or provide EC in the future. The present findings suggest that the level of knowledge of EC is poor and more information is needed. These findings indicate the potential to popularize emergency contraception in Kenya among nurses and nursing students.

FN. K. " “Communication and Modernization in Central Kenya: An Experiment,” ." Business Management Review, Faculty of Commerce and Management, University of Dares- Salaam, . 1999;2(2):71-84.
L K, WR M, WA H, T L, LW I, Orago AA, FH C. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatellite loci." Insect molecular biology. 1999;8(2):287-297. AbstractPubMed link

We analysed genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae populations using microsatellite loci to determine whether the Rift Valley restricts the flow of genes. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were significant, and were most likely to be due to the high frequency of null alleles observed. An. arabiensis populations occurring between 40 and 700 km apart across the Eastern arm of the Rift Valley were not differentiated (pair-wise F(ST) range: 0.0033-0.0265, P > 0.05). Neither were An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Ghana (F(ST): 0.0063, P > 0.05) despite a geographical separation of about 5000 km. In contrast, significant differentiation was observed between An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Kilifi (about 700 km apart; F(ST) = 0.1249, P < 0.01), suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow.

S.O. ML, L.S O, F.K M, S.G W, J.O S, M L. "Kaposis Sarcoma in a transplant patient. African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 81-80, 1999." African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 81-80, 1999. 1999. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

Munyua MSJ, Farrah K, Kahiu IG. "The Need and Possible Modalities Of Establishment of Community Based Delivery Of Veterinary Services And Inputs In The Arid And Semi Arid Areas In Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

Veterinary services and inputs in the ASAL, as most other services in the rest of the country, has for sometime now been offered fr ee, with the Governme nt meeting the costs of drugs, service, disease control and surv eillance and employment and deployment of personnel. This structure and mode of deliver y of services, which is based on extension packages tested in the sedentary and semi-s edentary production systems, has proved to be impractical and unsustainable. The situati on is compounded by the collapse of basic infrastructure, including service delivery sy stems and insecurity and the “almost total control” of livestock marketing by middlemen. The provision of veterinary inputs and servic es is unlikely to improve if the present delivery systems are left in place. Thus there is need to empower the animal health technicians (AHTs) and selected livestock producers in the pa storal areas to be service and input providers. This is especially critic al now that the donor nations, international financial institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which are deeply entrenched in the process of economic a nd social change, are insisting on reduced Government spending, right sizing Govern ment service delivery personnel and privatization of deliver y of goods and services. The alleviation or easing of the current liv estock production constraints alone, however, will not serve the livestock producers if the current livestock marketing system remains in place. This system is between an “informed and wealthy middlemen” and “unaware and often desperate livestock producers”. The od ds have to be made more even through regular provision of current livestock market informati on and training of livestock producers (and their school age children whenever possible) in the art of livestock pricing. It is our humble opinion that the current marketing and the veterinary services delivery system has to evolve to become truly pa rticipatory if livestock productivity, food security, increased rural income s and improved quality of life is to be come a reality in the ASAL areas. This will not only ease pr oduction and marketing constraints currently facing farmers but also stabil ize their economic base and change their socio-economic status to one that gives them hope of rising to the next notch in their hierarchy of needs.

Dollinger LM, Ndakala AJ, Hashemzadeh M, Wang G, Wang Y, Martinez I, Arcari J, Galluzo DJ, Howell AR, Rheingold AL, Figuero JS. "Preparation and Properties of 2-Methyleneoxetanes." Journal of Organic Chemistry. 1999;64:7074-7080. AbstractWebsite

 
 
 
 

Brassier G, Morandi X, Fournier D, Velut S, Mercier P. "Origin of the perforating arteries of the interpeduncular fossa in relation to the termination of the basilar artery." Interventional Neuroradiology: Journal of Peritherapeutic Neuroradiology, Surgical Procedures and Related Neurosciences. 1998;4:109-120. Abstract

SUMMARY: We studied the perforating arteries of the interpeduncular fossa in 100 human brains which had previously been embalmed and injected with coloured intravascular neoprene latex. Three groups of perforating arteries were observed: the short interpeduncular arteries, a group of very fine arteries which can originate on every artery in the interpeduncular fossa and are destined to the cerebral peduncles and the oculomotor nerves (III); the diencephalic arteries, larger in diameter, most of which supply the mamillary bodies; only a few of them (one or two) penetrate the diencephalic floor and reach the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the anterior and medial thalamus; the diencephalic arteries are either individual branches of the PI segment of the posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) or stem from the same segment of the PCA via a trunk common to the mesencephalic arteries; the latter supply the mesencephalic area medial to the pars reticularis of the black substance. Our study focusses on where the diencephalic and mesencephalic arteries originate, based on how both anterior longitudinal neural arteries merged into a basilar artery in the embryo. When merging was symmetrical, whether in the early stages or later, the origins are more or less equally distributed; however, when merging was asymmetrical, the great majority of the perforating diencephalic and mesencephalic arteries stem from the P1 segment on the side that merged earliest (cranially).

Futrell N. "Pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke: new concepts in cerebral embolism." Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 1998;8 Suppl 1:2-5. Abstract
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Wangoh J, Farah Z, Puhan Z. "Composition of Milk from Three Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Breeds in Kenya." Milchwissenschaft. 1998;53:136-139.
Fleming I, Mwaniki JM. "A synthesis of enantiomerically enriched propargylsilanes." J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. . 1998;1:1237-1247. Abstract

Reduction of ethyl 3-methyl-, 3-isopropyl- and 3-n-pentyl-3-[dimethyl(phenyl)silyl]propanoates with DIBAL to the aldehydes, enol trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) formation using trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) anhydride and 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine, and elimination using LDA, gives the propargyl silanes . The esters could also be prepared enantiomerically enriched, and the final products are the enantiomerically enriched propargyl (homochiral) silanes.

Kalaria RN, Ogeng'o JA, Patel NB, Sayi JG, Kitinya JN, Chande HM, Matuja WB, Mtui EP, Kimani JK, Premkumar DR, Koss E, Gatere S, Friedland RP. "Evaluation of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease in elderly east Africans." Brain Res. Bull.. 1997;44(5):573-7. Abstract

A number of biological risk factors have been implicated for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The investigation of prevalence rates of AD in crosscultural populations has much potential in validating these factors. We previously assessed brain amyloid beta (A beta) protein deposition and other lesions associated with AD as possible markers for preclinical AD in elderly nondemented East Africans. In further analysis, we demonstrate that 17-19% of elderly East African subjects without clinical neurological disease exhibited neocortical A beta deposits and minimal neurofibrillary changes at necropsy that was qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that in an age-matched elderly control sample from Cleveland, OH. A beta deposits varied from numerous diffuse to highly localized neuritic plaques and were predominantly reactive for the longer A beta 42 species. In parallel studies, we evaluated another recently implicated factor in AD, the apolipoprotein E genotype. We found relatively high frequencies of the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele in elderly nondemented East Africans. The frequencies were comparable to those in other African populations but higher than in subjects from developed countries. Our limited study suggests that elderly East Africans acquire cerebral lesions found in AD subjects but the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele may not be a highly specific factor for the disease among East Africans.

Cohen-Cory S, Escandón E, Fraser SE. "The cellular patterns of {BDNF} and {trkB} expression suggest multiple roles for {BDNF} during {Xenopus} visual system development." Developmental biology. 1996;179:102-115. Abstract

The temporal patterns of BDNF and trkB expression in the developing Xenopus laevis tadpole, and the responsiveness of retinal ganglion cells to BDNF, both in culture and in vivo, suggest significant roles for this neurotrophin during visual system development (Cohen-Cory and Fraser, Neuron 12, 747-761, 1994; Nature 378, 192-196, 1995). To examine the potential roles of this neurotrophin within the developing retina and in its target tissue, the optic tectum, we studied the cellular sites of BDNF expression by in situ hybridization. In the developing optic tectum, discrete groups of cells juxtaposed to the tectal neuropil where retinal axons arborize expressed BDNF, supporting the target-derived role commonly proposed for this neurotrophin. In the retina, retinal ganglion cells, ciliary margin cells, and a subset of cells in the inner nuclear layer expressed the BDNF gene. The expression of BDNF coincided with specific trkB expression by both retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells, as well as with the localization of functional BDNF binding sites within the developing retina, as shown by in situ hybridization and BDNF cross-linking studies. To test for a possible role of endogenous retinal BDNF during development, we studied the effects of neutralizing antibodies to BDNF on the survival of retinal ganglion cells in culture. Exogenously administered BDNF increased survival, whereas neutralizing antibodies to BDNF significantly reduced baseline retinal ganglion cell survival and differentiation. This suggests the presence of an endogenous retinal source of neurotrophic support and that this is most likely BDNF itself. The retinal cellular patterns of BDNF and trkB expression as well as the effects of neutralizing antibodies to this neurotrophin suggest that, in addition to a target-derived role, BDNF plays both autocrine and/or paracrine roles during visual system development.

Okuda Y, Adrogue HJ, Field JB, Nohara H, Yamashita K. "Counterproductive effects of sodium bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1996;81:314-320. Abstract

Although a growing body of evidence supports that alkali therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) might be counterproductive, our knowledge about the consequences of this treatment on ketone metabolism is limited. Consequently, we performed clinical and animal studies to further examine this topic. The clinical studies assessed seven patients with DKA treated with continuous insulin infusion at a low dosage. Three of them also received sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), whereas the remaining four acted as controls. The group receiving NaHCO3 showed a 6-h delay in the improvement of ketosis as compared with controls. In addition, there was an increase in acetoacetate (AcAc) levels during alkali administration, followed by an increase in 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) level after its completion. Significant differences were not found between groups in the response of plasma glucose to the overall therapy. The animal study examined the effects of a NaHCO3-rich perfusate on the hepatic production of ketones with the in situ rat-liver preparation. Alkali loading resulted in an immediate increase in the AcAc level followed by increases in both the 3-OHB level and the 3-OHB/AcAc ratio after its completion. Hepatic ketogenesis increased even further, to about twice the basal level, after termination of the NaHCO3 loading. This investigation confirms that alkali administration augments ketone production and unravels an effect of bicarbonate infusion that promotes a selective build up of AcAc in body fluids. The data support that alkali therapy in DKA has nonsaltuary effects in the metabolism and plasma levels of ketones.

Ogeng'o JA, Cohen DL, Sayi JG, Matuja WB, Chande HM, Kitinya JN, Kimani JK, Friedland RP, Mori H, Kalaria RN. "Cerebral amyloid beta protein deposits and other Alzheimer lesions in non-demented elderly east Africans." Brain Pathol.. 1996;6(2):101-7. Abstract

There is little knowledge of the existence of Alzheimer disease (AD) or Alzheimer type of dementia in indigenous populations of developing countries. In an effort to evaluate this, we assessed the deposition of amyloid beta (A beta) protein and other lesions associated with AD in brains of elderly East Africans. Brain tissues were examined from 32 subjects, aged 45 to 83 years with no apparent neurological disease, who came to autopsy at two medical Institutions in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. An age-matched sample from subjects who had died from similar causes in Cleveland was assessed in parallel. Of the 20 samples from Nairobi, 3 (15%) brains exhibited neocortical A beta deposits that varied from numerous diffuse to highly localized compact or neuritic plaques, many of which were also thioflavin S positive. Two of the cases had profound A beta deposition in the prefrontal and temporal cortices and one of these also exhibited moderate to severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Similarly, 2 of the 12 samples from Dar es Salaam exhibited diffuse and compact A beta deposits that were also predominantly reactive for the longer A beta 42 species compared to A beta 40. We also noted that A beta plaques were variably immunoreactive for amyloid associated proteins, apolipoprotein E, serum amyloid P and complement C3. Tau protein reactive neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) were also evident in the hippocampus of 4 subjects. By comparison, 4 (20%) of the 20 samples from randomly selected autopsies performed in Cleveland showed A beta deposits within diffuse and compact parenchymal plaques and the vasculature. These observations suggest A beta deposition and some NFT in brains of non-demented East Africans are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that in age-matched elderly controls from Cleveland. While our small scale study does not document similar prevalence rates of preclinical AD, it suggests that elderly East Africans are unlikely to escape AD as it is known in developed countries.

F.N. K. " The Impact of Print Communication of the Adoption of Innovations by Kenyan Farmers”." Nairobi Journal of Management, University of Nairobi. 1996;1(2):183-193.
Guthua SW, F.G. M, Mwaniki DL, Okallo G. "Occupational exposure of health personnel to disinfectants .". 1996.
S.O. ML, J.S O, F.S R, E.o A, S.M M. "Renal vein and intracaval invasion by an adrenal phaechrocytoma with extension into the right atrium." African Journal of Health Sciences . 1996;13(2):60-63. Abstract

A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.

Foeken DWJ. "Urban Agriculture, Food Security And Nutrition In Low Income Areas Of The City Of Nairobi, Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

This article considers the extent to which farming activities undertaken by low-income dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, play a role in the food security and nutritional status of the households involved. It compares three low-income groups - two in Korogocho, viz. those who practise urban agriculture and those who do not, and one in the Kitui-Kanuku-Kinyago area, viz. households involved in the Undugu Society Urban Agriculture Project (USUAP). The questionnaire results indicate that those who farmed produced mainly for home consumption. The major problem urban farmers faced was theft. The food situation of the USUAP farming group was generally better than that of the two Korogocho groups. In all three groups, purchased food formed by far the most important food source. On average, all three groups had inadequate energy intake. However, the energy and protein intakes in the USUAP group were higher than in the other two groups. The USUAP group purchased more food, a fact related to their higher level of welfare as a result of benefits derived from income-generating activities and a shelter improvement project that came along with the urban agriculture project. Measures of nutritional health for young children showed a similar pattern in favor of the farming groups, albeit to a lesser extent. The long-term beneficial effect on nutritional status, however, was negligible. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French

García JL, Fernandez N, Garcia-Villalon AL, Monge L, Gomez B, Dieguez G. "Cerebral reactive hyperaemia and arterial pressure in anaesthetized goats." Acta physiologica Scandinavica. 1995;153:355-363. Abstract

{The effects of arterial pressure on cerebral reactive hyperaemia were studied in anaesthetized goats measuring electromagnetically middle cerebral artery flow and performing arterial occlusions of 5-30 s. Under normotension (mean arterial pressure

Johns T, Fambert GM, Kokwaro JO, Mahunnah R, Kimanani E. "Anti-giardial activity of gastrointestinal remedies of the Luo of East Africa." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995;46(1):1-17.
Folds JD, Cohen M, Lule G, Hamilton H, Hoffman I, Behets F, Dallabetta G, Schmitz JL, Jethwa HS. "Comparison of molecular and microscopic techniques for detection of Treponema pallidum in genital ulcers.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

We compared the ability of direct immunofluorescent staining (DFA) and the PCR to detect Treponema pallidum in specimens from patients with genital ulcer disease. Touch preparations from 156 patients with genital lesions were fixed in acetone and stained with a fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody specific for the 37-kDa antigen of T. pallidum. After microscopic examination, the smear was removed from the slide with a swab. DNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform and precipitated with isopropanol. Ten microliters of the extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using primers for the gene encoding the 47-kDa protein of T. pallidum and hybridized to an internal probe. Twenty-two of 156 specimens were positive for T. pallidum by DFA and PCR, while 127 were negative by both methods, yielding a concordance of 95.5% (kappa = 0.84). Four specimens were positive by PCR and negative by DFA, while three specimens were negative by PCR and positive by DFA. The DFA-negative, PCR-positive specimens may have resulted from the presence of large numbers of leukocytes on the slides, obscuring visualization of treponemes. The DFA-positive, PCR-negative results were not due to inhibition of the PCR since purified T. pallidum DNA was amplified when added to aliquots of these specimens. Negative results in these specimens were most likely due to inefficient recovery of their DNA. These data suggest that DFA and PCR are equivalent methods for detection of T. pallidum on touch preparations of genital lesions. Further refinements of the PCR assay are necessary for it to significantly improve the detection of T. pallidum in genital lesions.

Watkins WM;, Winstanley PA;, Mberu EK;, Kokwaro GO;, Murphy SA;, Mwangi I;, Waruiru C;, Foster D;, Marsh K. "Halofantrine pharmacokinetics in Kenyan children with complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria.". 1995. Abstract

1. Kenyan children with uncomplicated malaria given oral halofantrine (HF; non-micronised suspension; 8 mg base kg-1 body weight 6 hourly for three doses) showed wide variation in the disposition of HF and desbutylhalofantrine (HFm). 2. Eight Kenyan children with severe (prostrate) falciparum malaria who were receiving intravenous quinine, were given the same HF regimen by nasogastric tube. One patient had undetectable HF and two had undetectable HFm at all times after drug administration. 3. The mean AUC(0,24 h) of HF in prostrate children was half (7.54 compared with 13.10 micrograms ml-1 h) (P = 0.06), and that for HFm one-third (0.84 compared with 2.51 micrograms ml-1 h) (P < 0.05) of the value in children with uncomplicated malaria. 4. Oral HF may be appropriate for some cases of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa, but in patients with severe malaria, the bioavailability of HF and HFm may be inadequate

Fagiolini M, Pizzorusso T, Berardi N, Domenici L, Maffei L. "Functional postnatal development of the rat primary visual cortex and the role of visual experience: dark rearing and monocular deprivation." Vision research. 1994;34:709-720. Abstract

Postnatal development of rat visual cortical functions was studied by recording extracellularly from the primary visual cortex of 22 animals ranging in age from postnatal day 17 (P17) to P45. We found that in the youngest animals (P17-P19) all visual cortical functions tested were immature. Selectivity for orientation and movement direction of visual stimuli was almost absent, most cells received binocular input and their mean receptive field size was 5-6 times the adult size. Visual acuity was half its adult value. These functional properties developed gradually during the following weeks and by P45 they were all adult-like. This functional development is affected by manipulations of the visual input such as dark rearing (DR) and monocular deprivation (MD). DR prevented the normal postnatal maturation of visual cortical functions: in P60 rats, dark reared from birth, their visual cortical functions resembled those of P19-P21 rats. MD from P15 to P45 resulted in a dramatic shift of the ocular dominance distribution (ODD) in favour of the open eye and in a loss of visual acuity for the deprived eye. To determine the sensitive period of rat visual cortex to MD (critical period) we evaluated the shift in ODD of visual cortical neurones in rats that were subjected to the progressive delay of the onset of fixed MD period (10 days). Our results show that the critical period begins around the end of the third postnatal week, peaks between the fourth and fifth week and starts to decline from the end of the fifth week.

Fagiolini M, Pizzorusso T, Berardi N, Domenici L, Maffei L. "Functional postnatal development of the rat primary visual cortex and the role of visual experience: {Dark} rearing and monocular deprivation." Vision Research. 1994;34:709-720. AbstractWebsite

Postnatal development of rat visual cortical functions was studied by recording extracellularly from the primary visual cortex of 22 animals ranging in age from postnatal day 17 (PIT) to P45. We found that in the youngest animals (P17-P19) all visual cortical functions tested were immature. Selectivity for orientation and movement direction of visual stimuli was almost absent, most cells received binocular input and their mean receptive field size was 5–6 times the adult size. Visual acuity was half its adult value. These functional properties developed gradually during the following weeks and by P45 they were all adult-like. This functional development is affected by manipulations of the visual input such as dark rearing (DR) and monocular deprivation (MD). DR prevented the normal postnatal maturation of visual cortical functions: in P60 rats, dark reared from birth, their visual cortical functions resembled those of P19–P21 rats. MD from P15 to P45 resulted in a dramatic shift of the ocular dominance distribution (ODD) in favour of the open eye and in a loss of visual acuity for the deprived eye. To determine the sensitive period of rat visual cortex to MD (critical period) we evaluated the shift in ODD of visual cortical neurones in rats that were subjected to the progressive delay of the onset of fixed MD period (10 days). Our results show that the critical period begins around the end of the third postnatal week, peaks between the fourth and fifth week and starts to decline from the end of the fifth week.

Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Reichelt E, Osborne NN, Fritzsche B, Puls A, Richter U, Friedrich A, Knothe A-K, Schober W, Timmermann U. "Development of the rabbit retina, {III}: {Differential} retinal growth, and density of projection neurons and interneurons." Visual Neuroscience. 1993;10:479-498. AbstractWebsite

To provide a quantitative description of postnatal retinal expansion in rabbits, a new procedure was developed to map the retinae, which cover the inner surface of hemispheres or parts of rotation ellipsoids, in situ, onto a single plane. This method, as well as the known distribution of Müller cells per unit retinal surface area, were used to estimate the redistribution of specific subpopulations of Müller cells within different topographic regions of the retinae. Müller cells are known to exist as a stable population of cells 1 week after birth and can therefore be used as “markers” for determining tissue expansion. Our results show that differential retinal expansion occurs during development. Peripheral retinal regions expand at least twice as much as the central ones. Furthermore, there is a greater vertical than horizontal expansion. This differential retinal expansion leads to a corresponding redistribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accumulating amacrine cells. Differential retinal expansion, however, does not account for all of the changes in the centro-peripheral density gradient of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) — mostly retinal ganglion cells — during postnatal development. The changes in the ganglion cell layer were evaluated in Nissl-stained wholemount retinal preparations. Additionally, the difference between expansion-related redistribution of cells in the GCL and Müller cells was confirmed in wholemount preparations where Müller cells (identified as vimentin positive) and cells in the GCL (identified by fluorescent supravital dyes) were simultaneously labeled. It is assumed that many of the ganglion cells within the retinal center are not translocated during retinal expansion, possibly because their axons are fixed. In contrast, 5-HT accumulating amacrine cells — which are interneurons without a retinofugal axon — display a passive redistribution together with the surrounding retinal tissue.

TI K, F K, KIPKEMOI TOWETPHILEMON. "The formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber): Analgesic effects of morphine, nefopam and paracetamol." Brain Research. 1993;600(1):123-126. AbstractScience Direct

The present experiments were initiated to study the effects of morphine, nefopam and paracetamol in the naked mole-rat, a hairless rodent that lives in subterranean colonies of up to 300, following the inability to demonstrate morphine analgesia in the hot-plate test in the rodent. The formalin test was used. Injection of 20 microliters 10% formalin produced two periods of high licking and pain behaviour, the early (0-5 min) and the late phase (15-60 min). Morphine (10 or 20 mg/kg), nefopam (10 or 20 mg/kg) and paracetamol (200 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the two phases. Paracetamol (400 mg/kg) produced significant analgesia only during the late phase. It is concluded that, unlike in the hot-plate test, it is possible to demonstrate the analgesic effects of morphine in the naked mole-rat, in the formalin test.

Temmerman M, Moses S, Kiragu D, Fusallah S, Wamola I, Piot P. "Postpartum counselling of HIV infected women and their subsequent reproductive behaviour.". 1993.
Faktorovich EG, Steinberg RH, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM. "Basic fibroblast growth factor and local injury protect photoreceptors from light damage in the rat." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1992;12:3554-3567. Abstract

Injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) into the eye, intravitreally or subretinally, delays photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, as does local injury to the retina (Faktorovich et al., 1990). To determine whether this heparin-binding peptide or local injury is effective in any other form of photoreceptor degeneration, we examined their protective roles in light damage. Albino rats of the F344 strain were exposed to 1 or 2 weeks of constant fluorescent light (115-200 footcandles), either with or without 1 microliter of bFGF solution (1150 ng/microliters in PBS) injected intravitreally or subretinally 2 d before the start of light exposure. Uninjected and intravitreally PBS-injected controls showed the loss of a majority of photoreceptor nuclei and the loss of most inner and outer segments after 1 week of light exposure, while intravitreal injection of bFGF resulted in significant photoreceptor rescue. The outer nuclear layer in bFGF-injected eyes was two to three times thicker than in controls, and the inner and outer segments showed a much greater degree of integrity. Following recovery in cyclic light for 10 d after 1 week of constant light exposure, bFGF-injected eyes showed much greater regeneration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments than did the controls. bFGF also increased the incidence of presumptive macrophages, located predominantly in the inner retina, but the evidence suggests they are not directly involved in photoreceptor rescue. Subretinal injection of bFGF resulted in photoreceptor rescue throughout most of the superior hemisphere in which the injection was made, with rescue extending into the inferior hemisphere in many of the eyes. Remarkably, the insertion of a dry needle or injection of PBS into the subretinal space also resulted in widespread photoreceptor rescue, extending through 70% or more of the superior hemisphere, and sometimes into the inferior hemispheres. This implicates the release and widespread diffusion of some endogenous survival-promoting factor from the site of injury in the retina. Our findings indicate that the photoreceptor rescue activity of bFGF is not restricted to inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, and that light damage is an excellent model for studying the cellular site(s), kinetics, and molecular mechanisms of both the normal function of bFGF and its survival-promoting activity. Moreover, the injury-related rescue suggests that survival-promoting factors are readily available to provide a protective role in case of injury to the retina, presumably comparable to those that mediate the "conditioning lesion" effect in other neuronal systems.

Desjardins M, Thompson CE, Filion LG, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Ronald AR, Piot P, Cameron DW. "Standardization of an enzyme immunoassay for human antibody to Haemophilus ducreyi.". 1992. Abstractstandardization_of_an_enzyme_immunoassay_for_human_antibody_to_haemophilus_ducreyi.pdf

We standardized a serologic enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for human immunoglobulin G and M antibodies against Haemophilus ducreyi. We evaluated the performance of this test with respect to the time from acute chancroid and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibody to a crude, soluble bacterial antigen of one H. ducreyi strain was detected in a panel of serum samples from clinically and microbiologically confirmed cases of chancroid and from controls. Test interpretation was standardized for optimal sensitivity and specificity. Performance of the EIA was enhanced in the period of early convalescence from acute primary chancroid and was not diminished in the presence of HIV coinfection. The EIA performed adequately as a serologic screening test for field evaluation and epidemiologic application in conjunction with sexually transmitted disease and HIV detection and control efforts.

Okumbe JA, F.A K. "Staff Development Part One.". 1991.
Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Friedrich A, Ziegert W, Brückner G, Schober W. "Development of the rabbit retina. {I}. {Size} of eye and retina, and postnatal cell proliferation." Anatomy and Embryology. 1991;183:287-297. Abstract

Measures of rabbit eyes and retinal wholemounts were used to evaluate the development of retinal area and shape. The retina is shown to have a horizontal axis about a third longer than the vertical axis just before birth, and to adopt an almost symmetrical shape during postnatal development to adulthood. In general, retinal thickness is shown to decrease after birth, but differently in particular retinal regions: the reduction is marked in the periphery, and less pronounced in the visual streak. As an exception, the myelinated region–after it becomes really myelinated, from 9 days p.p.–even increases in thickness. In all regions of the retina, the absolute and relative thickness of the nuclear layers decreases, whereas the relative thickness of plexiform and fibrous layers increases. Proliferation of cells within the rabbit retina was studied during the first three postnatal weeks. 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to demonstrate DNA synthesis autoradiographically in histological sections as well as in enzymatically isolated retinal cells. A first proliferation phase occurs in the neuroblastic cell layer and ceases shortly after birth in the retinal center, but lasts for about one week in the retinal periphery. We found, however, a few 3H-thymidine-labeled cells as late as in the third postnatal week. These late-labeled cells were found within the nerve fiber layer and in the inner plexiform layer. The latter cells were shown to express antigens detected by antibodies directed to the intermediate-sized filament protein vimentin, which are known to label Müller cells and neuroepithelial stem cells. This was confirmed in our preparation of enzymatically isolated cells; all cells with autoradiographically labeled nuclei revealed a characteristic elongated morphology typical for Müller radial glia (and also for early neuroepithelial stem cells). 3H-thymidine-labeled cells in the nerve fiber layer were most probably astrocytic. In analogy to the brain, we conclude that the mammalian retina undergoes a series of proliferation phases: first an early phase producing both neurons and glial cells, and then a late phase producing glial cells, e.g., in the nerve fiber layer. Most probably, the late phase within the inner nuclear layer is glial as well, i.e., consists of dividing Müller cells; it cannot be excluded, however, that there may remain some mitotically active stem cells.

Arimi SM, Fricker CR, Park RWA. "Study of haemolytic activity of some Campylobacter spp. on blood agar plates.". 1990. Abstract

A total of 152 strains of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. laridis and C. fetus subsp. fetus were tested for haemolysis on blood agar plates. Distinct haemolysis was detected in 92.% (96/104) of strains of C. jejuni and 21.7% (5/23) of strains of C. coli on sheep blood heart infusion agar after incubation for 4 d microacrobically at 42°C. Haemolysis was also detected on horse blood heart infusion agar. Haemolysis was not detected at 37°C except with one of 50 strains of C. jejuni tested at this temperature, which was weakly positive. Campylobacter laridis was not haemolytic; C. fetus subsp. fetus, which does not grow at 42°C, showed no haemolysis at 37°C. Blood agar (Oxoid, BA Base No. 2) was not suitable for testing for haemolysis by these organisms. A microaerobic gas mixture containing hydrogen is better than that containing nitrogen because the medium has a brighter colour, making haemolysis casier to detect. There was no synergistic haemolysis with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae. The plate haemolysis test as described here may aid differentiation within the thermophilic campylobacters

Boleij JS, Brunekreef B, EM W, FE O, de Koning, A P. "Domestic pollution as a factor causing respiratory health effects." Chest. 1989;96(3 Suppl):368S-372S.
Kato A, Ichimaru M, Matsukawa M, Moriyasu M, Fukuoka N, Kishida K, Ogeto JO, Juma FD. "Studies on unused medicinal resources in africa, occurrence of sulfur compounds in cassipourea genus in kenya.". 1989. Abstract

In the current re earch, the inland genus Ca sipourea of Rhizophoraceae in Kenya was pinpointed as a target for developing new medicinal resources. The field work on four species of Cassipourea, i.e. Cassipourea malosana, C. gummiflua, C. euryoides, and C. celastroides was carried out during three months in 1987, which all are grown in different habitats each other. It was proved with detective indicator (PdcI) at field work that the barks of these trees contain some sulfur compounds as we had expected. The plant materials transfered from field to laboratory provided some sulfur compounds as result of chemical studies such as isolation of compounds and determination of their structures. These compounds were such various alkaloid a pyrrolidine and pyrrolizidine posessing 1,2-dithiolane ring and bisdi¬sulphide bridge systern respectively. Among the alkaloid two new pyrrolidine alkaloids named guinesine-D and euryoidine have been isolated from Cassipourea euryoides.Guinesine¬D has als0 been found in C. celastroides. Another new pyrrolizidine alkaloid named is ocassi¬pourine have been isolated from C. malosana and C. gummiflua, For these three compounds, structure 1. 8 and were Proposed respectively on toe basis of spectro copic evidence

Kato A, Ichimaru M, Matsukawa M, Matsukawa M, Fukuoka N, Kishida K, Ogeto JO, Juma FD. "Studies on unused medicinal resources in africa, occurrence of sulfur compounds in cassipourea genus in kenya.". 1989. Abstract

In the current re earch, the inland genus Ca sipourea of Rhizophoraceae in Kenya was pinpointed as a target for developing new medicinal resources. The field work on four species of Cassipourea, i.e. Cassipourea malosana, C. gummiflua, C. euryoides, and C. celastroides was carried out during three months in 1987, which all are grown in different habitats each other. It was proved with detective indicator (PdcI) at field work that the barks of these trees contain some sulfur compounds as we had expected. The plant materials transfered from field to laboratory provided some sulfur compounds as result of chemical studies such as isolation of compounds and determination of their structures. These compounds were such various alkaloid a pyrrolidine and pyrrolizidine posessing 1,2-dithiolane ring and bisdi¬sulphide bridge systern respectively. Among the alkaloid two new pyrrolidine alkaloids named guinesine-D and euryoidine have been isolated from Cassipourea euryoides.Guinesine¬D has als0 been found in C. celastroides. Another new pyrrolizidine alkaloid named is ocassi¬pourine have been isolated from C. malosana and C. gummiflua, For these three compounds, structure 1. 8 and were Proposed respectively on toe basis of spectro copic evidence

Todd, Judith; Friedman A; KPW, Friedman A;, Kariuki PW. "Women growing stronger with age: The effect of status in the United States and Kenya .". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Previous research suggests that there is a shift in the perceived balance of interpersonal power in the second half of life in favor of older women, towards equality between men and women. To see if this age shift in power is universal, a study of women in two cultures, the United States and Kenya, examined the effect of status on the shift. As an indirect measure of interpersonal power, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories were collected from 60 U.S. and 60 Kenyan women and rated by trained judges for aspects of the interpersonal power of the characters in the stories. In each country there were two groups of 15 women under age 36 and 15 women over age 44, one of higher and one of lower status. In both countries, only the higher status women showed the shift in power with age. That status modulated the shift in power with age in two different cultures is discussed in terms of the necessity for a resource base for power.

Luzi L, Barrett EJ, Groop LC, Ferrannini E, DeFronzo RA. "Metabolic effects of low-dose insulin therapy on glucose metabolism in diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes. 1988;37:1470-1477. Abstract

The effect of low-dose insulin treatment (5-10 U/h) on hepatic glucose production (HGP) and peripheral glucose disposal was determined in 5 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects who were admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA; plasma glucose 598 +/- 50 mg/dl, blood pH 7.20 +/- 0.06, plasma bicarbonate 12 +/- 2 meq/L). Basal hepatic glucose production (4.3 +/- 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1) in the DKA patients was 1.5- to 2-fold greater (P less than .01) than in controls (2.1 +/- 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1) and nonketotic IDDM subjects (2.9 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1), whereas tissue glucose disposal was significantly reduced (1.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .05). After the institution of insulin therapy (1 mU.kg-1.min-1), the plasma glucose concentration fell at the rate of 60 +/- 5 mg.dl-1.h-1 to reach a value of 220 +/- 10 mg/dl, which was maintained constant for 2 h (insulin-clamp technique). Blood pH (7.21 +/- 0.06 to 7.35 +/- 0.05) and plasma bicarbonate (12 +/- 3 to 18 +/- 2 meq/L) both increased during insulin therapy (P less than .01). The decline in plasma glucose concentration during insulin therapy primarily resulted from a suppression of HGP (from 4.3 +/- 0.5 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .01) and to a lesser extent from the stimulation of tissue glucose disposal (1.7 +/- 0.2 to 2.6 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .01). At this time, urine glucose excretion decreased from 2.6 +/- 0.2 to 0.6 +/- 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Farbman AI, Brunjes PC, Rentfro L, Michas J, Ritz S. "The effect of unilateral naris occlusion on cell dynamics in the developing rat olfactory epithelium." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1988;8:3290-3295. AbstractWebsite

The effect of unilateral naris occlusion on the cellular dynamics of developing olfactory epithelium was investigated in postnatal rats. Nares of rat pups, at 1, 5, and 10 d postnatally, were cauterized; after a 30 d survival period, the olfactory mucosa was examined histologically, and quantitative estimates were made of total number of receptor neurons (together with basal cells), supporting cells, and epithelial thickness. In each group, there were significant differences between occluded and patent sides in total numbers of neurons and in epithelial thickness but no difference in number of supporting cells. The differences were greater in the animals that had been occluded for 1–30 d than in the 5–35 or 10–40 d groups, suggesting that the earlier postnatal days are more sensitive to the effects of occlusion. We evaluated the number of mature olfactory neurons by staining immunohistochemically with an antibody against olfactory marker protein. There were no differences in the number of mature receptor neurons between the occluded and non-occluded sides, indicating the effect of naris occlusion was on the neurons in the immature and/or the “almost mature” population. Using 3H-thymidine autoradiography, we determined that there was a 40% reduction in the rate of neurogenesis in the animals occluded 1–30 d after birth. Further, the rate of cell proliferation in nasal respiratory epithelium declined by approximately the same amount.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Beck T, Höckel M, Friese K. "[Degree of placental maturity and histopathologic finding: clinical prospective studies of a sample of term births and premature births]." Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol. 1988;192(1):24-32. Abstract

By analogy with Grannum et al.'s sonographic classification of the placenta (1979), macroscopic observation of the cut surfaces of the afterbirth enables the extent of placental segmentation to be determined and macroscopic maturity to be established in accordance with sonographic findings. Out of a total of 767 clinically-prospectively documented obstetrical cases, 674 were identified as term births and 93 as premature. For the purposes of comparison they were subdivided into two groups: term births with stage 0 to II and stage III maturity; and premature births with stage 0 to II and stage III maturity. Proceeding from this morphological classification and grouping, the clinical data, such as age of the mother, parity, gravidity, diseases during pregnancy, premature labour, type of delivery, fetal outcome, and biometric data of the newborn, as well as histologic findings regarding villous maturity, were recorded and statistically analyzed. The findings revealed no significant differences between term births with stage III maturity and those in the control group of placentas with stage 0 to II maturity and the same gestation time. Therefore, stage III maturity at term corresponds chronopathologically to a normal temporal development of fetomaternal flow units of the mature human placenta at term and does not imply any perinatological risk. Histopathologically, placentas with stage III maturity manifest a significantly advanced degree of villous maturity, with lower mean placental weight as the morphological correlate to threshold placental function, which is reflected in the clinical data of perinatological complications. Therefore, premature detection of a stage III placenta before term indicates a risk that should be kept in mind in the overall concept of prenatal monitoring parameters.

Kinyari TN, White E, Sharma A, Morris M, Bukusi EA, Meier AS, Farqhuar C, Ngugi EN, Cohen CR. "The relationship between sexual partnerships characteristics and condom use among young female sex workers in Nairobi , Kenya (Manuscript under.". 1988.
Dommergues Y, Keya SO, Freire J, Diem Hoang G, Dreyfus B. "Nitrogen fixation in tropical agriculture and forestry.". 1987. Abstract

Nitrogen compounds comprise from 40 to 50 percent of the dry matter of protoplasm, the living substance of plant cells. For this reason, nitrogen is required in large quantities by growing plants and is indeed the key to soil fertility. Non-nitrogen-fixing plants, for example cereals, obtain all the nitrogen they need from the soil. In Senegalese conditions this uptake was estimated to be as follows: 79-132 kg N ha/crop for pearl millet; 74-84 kg N ha/crop for rice; 134 kg N hdcrop for sorghum; and 121-139 kg N ha/crop for maize. Nitrogen-fixing plants, essentially legumes, take a part of the nitrogen they require from the atmosphere, the other part being provided by the soil."

Da Silva EJ, Freire J, Hillali A, Keya S. "Nuestros amigos los microbios.". 1987.
Kahunyo JM, Maitai CK, Frøslie A. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken fat: a survey." Poult. Sci.. 1986;65(6):1084-9. Abstract

One hundred and five chicken fat samples were collected between April, 1980 and February, 1982 from seven geographical locations in Kenya (15 samples/area). The samples were subjected to standard extraction and clean up procedures to recover organochlorine pesticides and were subsequently analysed using gas-liquid-chromatography. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride (HCH/BHC; Lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, [1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene] (p,p'-DDE), [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dichloroethane] (o,p'-DDD/TDE), p,p'-DDD, [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1, 1-trichloroethane] (o,p'-DDT), and p,p'-DDT were detected in the samples in varying concentrations. A few samples had lindane, dieldrin, and total DDT residue levels above the respective practical residue limit (PRL) values, but for all pesticides, the mean residue values were below the PRL.

Farci, P; Osidiana MRZFJTWGV; CN;, et al. "Hepatitis delta virus infection in Kenya. Its geographic and tribal distribution.". 1986. Abstract

In 1982-1984, an epidemiologic survey of the prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in circulating blood (HBs-antigenemia) and of hepatitis delta virus infection was performed in Kenya. The distributions of hepatitis B virus and the delta virus were shown to be very variable. In southern Kenya, only two of 202 sera from HBsAg-positive individuals with no known liver disease and none from 123 HBsAg-positive patients with hepatitis B-related liver disease were positive for delta antibody. In contrast, in northern Kenya, there was an overall prevalence of delta antibody in healthy individuals of 31%. The distribution of delta infection is discussed in relation to lifestyle, ethnic group, and geographic area.

Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H;, Karasira P, Fransen L, Fransen L, Piot P, Ronald AR. "Three day oral course of Augmentin to treat chancroid.". 1986. Abstract

Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin; Beecham Research Laboratories) was used to treat patients with bacteriologically proved chancroid in three different dose regimens. A single dose of Augmentin (amoxycillin 3 g, clavulanic acid 350 mg) was found to be ineffective. A similar dose repeated after 24 hours was equally ineffective, but a dose (amoxycillin 500 mg, clavulanic acid 250 mg) given every 8 hours for three days was found to be effective. The drug was well tolerated and no side effects were noted in any of the patients treated

Hsiao CF, Fukuda Y. "Plastic changes in the distribution and soma size of retinal ganglion cells after neonatal monocular enucleation in rats." Brain research. 1984;301:1-12. Abstract

Using the method of retrograde labeling of ganglion cells with HRP, we studied in adult rats the plastic changes in the retinogeniculate projections due to monocular enucleations shortly after birth. Four normal and 6 neonatally enucleated rats were used. In two of the normal and 4 of the enucleated rats a small amount of HRP was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and in 4 other rats massive injections were made into the optic tract near the LGd. Neonatally unilaterally eye-enucleated rats were characterized by an expanded distribution of ipsilaterally projecting ganglion cells all over the retina of the remaining eye and by a densely packed distribution of these cells in the lower temporal retina in which area these cells have only a moderate density in normal rats. On the contrary, in the lower temporal retina of monocularly enucleated rats the incidence of contralaterally projecting ganglion cells was decreased. Soma areas of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting ganglion cells were measured for the peripheral crescent in lower temporal and lower nasal retinas. As compared with normal rats, neonatally enucleated rats had a larger mean soma area of ipsilaterally projecting cells and a smaller mean soma area of contralaterally projecting cells. This result was interpreted as suggesting that after neonatal monocular enucleation medium to large cells had changed their side of axonal projection from the contralateral to ipsilateral LGd.

Hsiao CF, Fukuda Y. "Plastic changes in the distribution and soma size of retinal ganglion cells after neonatal monocular enucleation in rats." Brain research. 1984;301:1-12. Abstract

Using the method of retrograde labeling of ganglion cells with HRP, we studied in adult rats the plastic changes in the retinogeniculate projections due to monocular enucleations shortly after birth. Four normal and 6 neonatally enucleated rats were used. In two of the normal and 4 of the enucleated rats a small amount of HRP was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and in 4 other rats massive injections were made into the optic tract near the LGd. Neonatally unilaterally eye-enucleated rats were characterized by an expanded distribution of ipsilaterally projecting ganglion cells all over the retina of the remaining eye and by a densely packed distribution of these cells in the lower temporal retina in which area these cells have only a moderate density in normal rats. On the contrary, in the lower temporal retina of monocularly enucleated rats the incidence of contralaterally projecting ganglion cells was decreased. Soma areas of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting ganglion cells were measured for the peripheral crescent in lower temporal and lower nasal retinas. As compared with normal rats, neonatally enucleated rats had a larger mean soma area of ipsilaterally projecting cells and a smaller mean soma area of contralaterally projecting cells. This result was interpreted as suggesting that after neonatal monocular enucleation medium to large cells had changed their side of axonal projection from the contralateral to ipsilateral LGd.

C.K M, J.O O, R.W M, S O, F.D J. "A comparative study of the efficacy of seven brands of frusemide tablets." East Afr Med J. . 1984;61(1):6-10.
Fisher JN, Kitabchi AE. "A randomized study of phosphate therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1983;57:177-180. Abstract

The use of phosphate therapy in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been controversial, particularly with respect to the effect of phosphate intermediates on tissue oxygenation. In a prospective randomized study we evaluated the effect of phosphate (8.5 mmol/h or approximately 6 g phosphate/24 h) (experimental group) vs. no phosphate therapy (control group) in 30 DKA patients, 15 in each group. Various determinations including erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), oxyhemoglobin dissociation (p50), serum phosphate, calcium, lactate, pyruvate, electrolytes, and response time to reach predetermined values for glucose, bicarbonate, and pH were measured at frequent intervals during the first 24 h of therapy and daily for 5 days after metabolic control. Initial electrolytes, glucose, pH, erythrocyte 2,3-DPG, lactate, and p50 were not different in either group. Whereas the experimental group had a greater level of 2,3-DPG than the control group by 48 h, the difference was not statistically significant. Recovery indices, including hours to reach glucose of 250 mg/dl, bicarbonate greater than 15 meq/liter, pH greater than 7.3, and mental alertness, were not different in the two groups nor were the p50 or lactate measurements. The experimental group exhibited significantly lower plasma ionized calcium values during therapy. We conclude that phosphate therapy may accelerate regeneration of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG but in the relatively small number of patients studied it had no demonstrable influence on tissue oxygenation or clinical response to low dose insulin therapy of DKA. Furthermore, the exaggeration of hypocalcemia seen in phosphate-treated patients may be reason for caution in the use of such therapy.

D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bowmer I, Fransen L. "Single dose spectinomycin for the treatment of chancroid: a comparison of 2 g versus 4 g.". 1983.
F.N K. " “A Critical Review of Communication Theory”, ." Journal of African Management. 1982:2-8.
FN. K. " “Rural Buyers’ Exposure to mass media”, ." Management, Journal of Kenya Institute of Management. 1982.
Varma S, Lumb WV, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL. "Further Studies with Polyglycolic Acid (Dexon) and Other Sutures in Infected Wounds." American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1981;42:571-574.
Varma S, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL, Lumb WV. "Tissue Reaction to Suture Materials in Infected Surgical Wounds – A Histopathologic Evaluation." American Journal of Veterinary Research . 1981;42:563-570.
Varma S, Lumb WV, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL. "Further Studies with Polyglycolic Acid (Dexon) and Other Sutures in Infected Wounds." American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1981;42:571-574. Abstract
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Varma S, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL, Lumb WV. "Tissue Reaction to Suture Materials in Infected Surgical Wounds – A Histopathologic Evaluation." American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1981;42:563-570. Abstract
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Sprung CL, Rackow EC, Fein IA. "Pulmonary edema; a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1980;77:687-688. Abstract

Hemodynamic evaluation in two patients and analysis of pulmonary edema fluid in one patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and acute pulmonary edema were performed. Pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in both patients were low or normal (1 and 9 mm Hg). In one patient the colloid osmotic pressure of the pulmonary edema fluid was 68 percent of the value of the serum. The serum colloid osmotic pressure-pulmonary arterial wedge pressure gradient in the second patient was markedly reduced. Pulmonary edema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis may be the result of increased permeability of pulmonary capillary membranes and altered intravascular colloid-hydrostatic forces.

FN. K. " “A bird’s eye view of Factors influencing Product Distribution Systems in Kenya”, ." CONTACT, Journal of Consumer Association,. 1980:3-6.
Fisher LJ. "Development of retinal synaptic arrays in the inner plexiform layer of dark-reared mice." Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. 1979;54:219-227. Abstract

In the central area of the retina of mouse the rate of synaptogenesis in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) drops precipitously at about the time the eyes open. To determine if the visual input at eye opening provides a signal for the neurons to stop adding synapses, mice were raised in darkness during the period of maximal synaptogenesis and through eye opening. Retinal synaptic arrays of dark-reared and normally reared animals were compared quantitatively. The rate of synaptogenesis after eye opening in dark-reared mice indicated that the onset of visual stimulation was not the cue to stop synaptogenesis. However, the synaptic arrays of the IPL of dark-reared mice consistently had more conventional synapses than those of normally reared mice. It is concluded that the number of conventional synapses in the central retina was increased by dark-rearing.

Mendelow AD, Karmi MZ, Paul KS, Fuller GA, Gillingham FJ. "Extradural haematoma: effect of delayed treatment." BMJ. 1979;1:1240-1242. AbstractWebsite
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Oh MS, Carroll HJ, Goldstein DA, Fein IA. "Hyperchloremic acidosis during the recovery phase of diabetic ketosis." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1978;89:925-927. Abstract

We have studied 35 patients to find the occurrence of hyperchloremic acidosis during the recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis. At admission the patients had typical normochloremic acidosis, with increased anion gap exactly balancing decreased serum bicarbonate. In contrast, in 18 patients with phenformin-induced lactic acidosis, the increase in anion gap at admission was much greater than the decrease in bicarbonate. The difference between lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis may be explained by a slower rate of excretion of lactate than of ketone anions. After the patients with ketoacidosis were treated, the acidosis became predominantly hyperchloremic with normal anion gap. Failure to normalize serum bicarbonate is attributed to excretion of ketone anions in the urine.

Fraley DS, Adler S. "Correction of hyperkalemia by bicarbonate despite constant blood {pH}." Kidney International. 1977;12:354-360. Abstract

Patients having hyperkalemia often are given bicarbonate to raise blood pH and shift extracellular potassium into cells. Blood pH in many hyperkalemic patients, however, is compensated. To determine whether bicarbonate, independent of its pH action, affects plasma potassium, 14 hyperkalemic patients were treated with bicarbonate in 5% dextrose. In five patients (changed pH group), blood pH rose at least 0.08, while in nine (constant pH group), it changed less than 0.04. In the first group, pH rose 0.12, bicarbonate rose 5.9 mEq/liter, and plasma potassium fell 1.6 mEq/liter, and plasma potassium fell 1.4 mEq/liter. The correlation between changes in plasma potassium and bicarbonate was identical in the two groups and independent of urinary potassium excretion. Four additional patients, who were treated with 5% dextrose alone, did not significantly lower their plasma potassium, although subsequent treatment with bicarbonate in 5% dextrose lowered their plasma potassium. Thus, bicarbonate lowers plasma potassium, independent of its effect on blood pH, and despite a risk of volume overload, should be used to treat hyperkalemia in compensated acid-base disorders, even in the presence of renal failure, provided the plasma bicarbonate concentration is decreased.

Fisher JN, Shahshahani MN, Kitabchi AE. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: low-dose insulin therapy by various routes." The New England Journal of Medicine. 1977;297:238-241. Abstract

Since in normal persons the hypoglycemic effect of low-dose intramuscular exceeds that of subcutaneous insulin we studied the effect of routes of insulin therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis. Forty-five patients with diabetic ketoacidosis entered a randomized prospective protocol with insulin administered either intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Initial priming dose of insulin had to be repeated in two of 15, three of 15 and six of 15 of the intravenous, subcutaneous and intramuscular groups respectively. The intravenous group had a more rapid fall in plasma glucose (P less than 0.01) and ketone bodies (P less than 0.05) during the first two hours. Thereafter, there were no significant differences in the rate of decline of plasma glucose or ketones nor in the time required for glucose to reach 250 mg per deciliter or for complete recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis. The data confirm the efficacy of low-dose insulin therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis and indicate that the optimal route of insulin administration is by initial intravenous combined with subcutaneous or intramuscular.

Ostenson RC, Fields BT, Nolan CM. "Polymyxin B and rifampin: new regimen for multiresistant Serratia marcescens infections." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.. 1977;12(6):655-9. Abstract

Polymyxin B and rifampin were given to 12 patients with multi-drug-resistant nosocomial Serratia marcescens infections. Eight cures were achieved; drug hepatotoxicity occurred once; one fatal suprainfection was encountered; and two patients died during therapy of causes related to severe underlying illnesses. Polymyxin B and rifampin were uniformly synergistic in vitro against the infecting strains and against 40 additional clinical isolates of S. marcescens.

Silverstein E, Friedland J, Lyons HA, Gourin A. "Markedly elevated angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes containing non-necrotizing granulomas in sarcoidosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1976;73(6):2137-41. Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the generalized formation of granulomas and is accompanied by elevation in the serum in less than half the patients of angiotensin converting enzyme, a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of the decapeptide, angiotensin I, to the pressor octapeptide, angiotensin II, and L-histidyl-L-leucine. Mean activity of angiotensin converting enzyme was elevated generally more than 10-fold in granuloma-containing lymph nodes, but not in lung in which normally it is abundant, in 19 of 20 patients with sarcoidosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes from subjects with sarcoidosis was similar to the enzyme from normal lung and lymph node with respect to activity as a function of pH, inhibition of activity by EDTA and o-phenanthroline, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and requirement for chloride for activity, but appeared to be more heat labile. The data suggest that the granulomas in sarcoidosis may be the source of the elevated serum enzyme and that cells of the granulomas, particularly the epitheloid cells which appear by electron microscopy to have active protein biosynthesis, may be actively synthesizing the enzyme.

Fowler NO, McCall D, Chou TC, Holmes JC, Hanenson IB. "Electrocardiographic changes and cardiac arrhythmias in patients receiving psychotropic drugs." Am. J. Cardiol.. 1976;37(2):223-30. Abstract

Eight patients had cardiac manifestations that were life-threatening in five while taking psychotropic drugs, either phenothiazines or tricyclic antidepressants. Although most patients were receiving several drugs, Mellaril (thioridazine) appeared to be responsible for five cases of ventricular tachycardia, one of which was fatal in a 35 year old woman. Supraventricular tachycardia developed in one patient receiving Thorazine (chlorpromazine). Aventyl (nortriptyline) and Elavil (amitriptyline) each produced left bundle branch block in a 73 year old woman. Electrocardiographic T and U wave abnormalities were present in most patients. The ventricular arrhythmias responded to intravenous administration of lidocaine and to direct current electric shock; ventricular pacing was required in some instances and intravenous administration of propranolol combined with ventricular pacing in one. The tachyarrhythmias generally subsided within 48 hours after administration of the drugs was stopped. Five of the eight patients were 50 years of age or younger; only one clearly had antecedent heart disease. Major cardiac arrhythmias are a potential hazard in patients without heart disease who are receiving customary therapeutic doses of psychotropic drugs. A prospective clinical trial is suggested to quantify the risk of cardiac complications to patients receiving phenothiazines or tricyclic antidepressant drugs.

Silen W, Machen TE, Forte JG. "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa." Am. J. Physiol.. 1975;229(3):721-30. Abstract

It has been established that H+ secretion can be maintained in frog stomach in the absence of exogenous CO2 by using a nutrient bathing fluid containing 25 mM H2PO4 (pH approximately equal to 4.5) or by lowering the pH of a nonbuffered nutrient solution to about 3.0-3.6. Exogenous CO2 in the presence of these nutrient solutions uniformly caused a marked decrease in H+ secretion, PD, adn short-circuit current (Isc) and an increase in transmucosal resistance (R). Elevation of nutrient [k+] to 83 mM reduced R significantly but transiently without change in H+ when nutrient pH less than 5.0, whereas R returned to base line and H+ increased when nutrient pH greater than 5.0. Acidification of the nutrient medium in the presence of exogenous CO2 results in inhibition of the secretory pump, probably by decreasing intracellular pH, and also interferes with conductance at the nutrient membrane. Removal of exogenous CO2 from standard bicarbonate nutrient solution reduced by 50% the H+, PD, and Isc without change in R; K+-free nutrient solutions reverse these changes in Isc and PD but not in H+. The dropping PD and rising R induced by K+-free nutrient solutions in 5% CO2 - 95% O2 are returned toward normal by 100% O2. Our findings support an important role for exogenous CO2 in maintaining normal acid-base balance in frog mucosa by acting as an acidifying agent.

Flohr H, Breull W. "Effect of etafenone on total and regional myocardial blood flow." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1400-3. Abstract

The distribution of blood flow to the subendocardial, medium and subepicardial layers of the left ventricular free wall was studied in anaesthetized dogs under normoxic (A), hypoxic (B) conditions and under pharmacologically induced (etafenone) coronary vasodilation (C). Regional myocardial blood flow was determined by means of the particle distribution method. In normoxia a transmural gradient of flow was observed, with the subendocardial layers receiving a significantly higher flow rate compared with the subepicardial layers. In hypoxia induced vasodilation this transmural gradient of flow was persistent. In contrast a marked redistribution of regional flow was observed under pharmacologically induced vasodilation. The transmural gradient decreased. In contrast to some findings these experiments demonstrate that a considerable vasodilatory capacity exists in all layers of the myocardium and can be utilized by drugs. The differences observed for the intramural distribution pattern of flow under hypoxia and drug induced vasodilation support the hypothesis that this pattern reflects corresponding gradients of regional myocardial metabolism.

Fluck RA, Jaffe MJ. "Cholinesterases from plant tissues. VI. Preliminary characterization of enzymes from Solanum melongena L. and Zea mays L." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):130-4. Abstract

Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing esters of thiocholine have been assayed in extracts of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) and Zea Mays L. (corn). The enzymes from both species are inhibited by the anti-cholinesterases neostigmine, physostigmine, and 284c51 and by AMO-1618, a plant growth retardant and they both have pH optima near pH 8.0. The enzyme from eggplant is maximally active at a substrate concentration of 0.15 mM acetylthiocholine and is inhibited at higher substrate concentrations. On the basis of this last property, the magnitude of inhibition by the various inhibitors, and the substrate specificity, we conclude that the enzyme from eggplant, but not that from corn, is a cholinesterase.

Hattori M, Frazier J, Miles HT. "Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid): formation of ordered self-structures and interaction with poly(cytidylic acid)." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5033-45. Abstract

Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid) has in neutral solution a novel ordered structure of high stability. The 8-amino group permits formation of three hydrogen bonds between two residues along the "top", or long axis, of the purines. The usual hydrogen bonding protons and Watson-Crick pairing sites are not involved in the association. The bonding scheme has a twofold rotation axis and is hemiprotonated at N(7). Poly(8NH2G) is converted by alkaline titration (pK = 9.7) to a quite different ordered structure, which is the favored form over the range approximately pH 10-11. The bonding scheme appears to be composed of a planar, tetrameric array of guanine residues, in which the 8-amino group does not participate in interbase hydrogen bonding. Poly (8NH2G) does not interact with poly(C) in neutral solution because of the high stability of the hemiprotonated G-G self-structure. Titration to the alkaline plateau, however, permits ready formation of a two-stranded Watson-Crick helix. In contrast to the monomer 8NH2GMP, poly(8NH2G) does not form a triple helix with poly(C) under any conditions. The properties of the ordered structures are interpreted in terms of a strong tendency of the 8-amino group to form a third interbase hydrogen bond, when this possibility is not prevented by high pH.

Hattori M, Frazier J, Miles HT. "Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid): formation of ordered self-structures and interaction with poly(cytidylic acid)." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5033-45. Abstract

Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid) has in neutral solution a novel ordered structure of high stability. The 8-amino group permits formation of three hydrogen bonds between two residues along the "top", or long axis, of the purines. The usual hydrogen bonding protons and Watson-Crick pairing sites are not involved in the association. The bonding scheme has a twofold rotation axis and is hemiprotonated at N(7). Poly(8NH2G) is converted by alkaline titration (pK = 9.7) to a quite different ordered structure, which is the favored form over the range approximately pH 10-11. The bonding scheme appears to be composed of a planar, tetrameric array of guanine residues, in which the 8-amino group does not participate in interbase hydrogen bonding. Poly (8NH2G) does not interact with poly(C) in neutral solution because of the high stability of the hemiprotonated G-G self-structure. Titration to the alkaline plateau, however, permits ready formation of a two-stranded Watson-Crick helix. In contrast to the monomer 8NH2GMP, poly(8NH2G) does not form a triple helix with poly(C) under any conditions. The properties of the ordered structures are interpreted in terms of a strong tendency of the 8-amino group to form a third interbase hydrogen bond, when this possibility is not prevented by high pH.

Fitch W, MacKenzie ET, Harper AM. "Effects of decreasing arterial blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in the baboon. Influence of the sympathetic nervous system." Circ. Res.. 1975;37(5):550-7. Abstract

The influence of the sympathetic nervous system on the cerebral circulatory response to graded reductions in mean arterial blood pressure was studied in anesthetized baboons. Cerebral blood flow was measured by the 133Xe clearance method, and arterial blood pressure was decreased by controlled hemorrhage. In normal baboons, the constancy of cerebral blood flow was maintained until mean arterial blood pressure was approximately 65% of the base-line value; thereafter, cerebral blood flow decreased when arterial blood pressure was reduced. Superior cervical sympathectomy of 2-3 weeks duration did not affect the normal response. In contrast, both acute surgical sympathectomy (cervical trunk division) and alpha-receptor blockade (1.5 mg/kg of phenoxybenzamine) enhanced the maintenance of cerebral blood flow in the face of hemorrhagic hypotension in that cerebral blood flow did not decrease until mean arterial blood pressure was approximately 35% of the base-line value. The results indicate that the sympathetic nervous system is not involved in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow in the face of a fall in arterial blood pressure. Indeed, the implication is that the sympathicoadrenal discharge accompanying hemorrhagic hypotension is detrimental to, rather than responsible for, cerebral autoregulation.

Orskov ER, Fraser C. "The effects of processing of barley-based supplements on rumen pH, rate of digestion of voluntary intake of dried grass in sheep." Br. J. Nutr.. 1975;34(3):493-500. Abstract

1. In one experiment the effect on rumen pH of feeding with restricted amounts of whole or pelleted barley was studied. With whole barley there was little variation in rumen pH associated with feeding time, but with pelleted barley the pH decreased from about 7-0 before feeding to about 5-3, 2--3 h after feeding. 2. The rate of disappearance of dried grass during incubation in the rumens of sheep receiving either whole or pelleted barley was studied in a second experiment. After 24 h incubation only 423 mg/g incubated had disappeared in the rumen of sheep receiving pelleted barley while 625 mg/g incubated had disappeared when it was incubated in the rumen of sheep receiving whole barley. 3. The voluntary intake of dried grass of lambs was studied in a third experiment when they received supplements of either 25 or 50 g whole or pelleted barley/kg live weight 0-75. At the high level, pelleted barley reduced intake of dried grass by 534 g/kg but whole barley reduced it by only 352 g/kg. The digestibility of acid-detergent fibre was reduced more by pelleted barley than by whole barley but there was a tendency for a small increase in digestibility of the barley due to processing. 4. The implications of these findings on supplementation of roughages with cereals are discussed.

Stites DP, Caldwell J, Carr MC, Fudenberg HH. "Ontogeny of immunity in humans." Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol.. 1975;4(4):519-27.
Ferren LG, Ward RL, Campbell BJ. "Monoanion inhibition and 35Cl nuclear magnetic resonance studies of renal dipeptidase." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5280-5. Abstract

Kinetic analyses of monoanion inhibition and 15Cl nuclear magnetic resonance at 5.88 MHz were employed to study monoanion interactions with the zinc metalloenzyme, renal dipeptidase. The enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycyldehydrophenylalanine exhibited competitive inhibition when the reaction rate was determined in the presence of the monovalent anions fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, azide, nitrate, or thiocyanate or upon the addition of the divalent anion, sulfate. Competitive inhibition was produced by these anions. One anion was bound per enzyme molecule, and except in the case of fluoride all of the anions appeared to bind at the same site. Cyanide ion produced a much more effective inhibition of renal dipeptidase than the other monoanions, and it was shown that two cyanide ions were bound per enzyme molecule. An investigation of the effect of pH upon monoanion inhibition suggested that the anion inhibitors bind to the group with a pK of approximately 7.8. Complete dissociation of this group (approximately pH 8.4) eliminates the inhibitory effect of anions. The 35Cl line broadening produced by renal dipeptidase in 0.5 M NaCl solutions was 100 times more effective than that produced by equivalent concentrations of aquozinc(II). The line broadening was dependent upon the concentration of the metalloenzyme and independent of the frequency of the exciting radiation. When zinc ion was removed from the metalloenzyme by dialysis or when chloride was titrated from the metalloenzyme by cyanide, line broadening was decreased. Treatment of renal dipeptidase with saturating concentrations of the competitive inhibitor, guanosine triphosphate, in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl also produced a significant decrease in the 35Cl line width. The 35Cl line broadening produced by renal dipeptidase was shown to decrease with increasing pH through the range pH 5.8-10.8. This line-width variation with pH appeared to result from the titration of a site on the metalloprotein with an approximate pK of 7.4. Temperature studies of 35Cl line broadening by the metalloenzyme in the presence of chloride and cyanide inhibitors suggest that the fast exchange process pertains and that the dominant relaxation mechanism is quadrupolar in nature.

Fleet GH, Phaff HJ. "Glucanases in Schizosaccharomyces. Isolation and properties of an exo-beta-glucanase from the cell extracts and culture fluid of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus var. versatilis." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(2):318-32. Abstract

(11 Cell extracts and extracellular culture fluids of species of the yeast genus Schizosaccharomyces exhibited exo-beta-(1 leads to 3)- and exo-beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.-) activities. (2) Using a combination of Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-cellulose chromatography, the exo-beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucanases from the cell extracts and culture fluid of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus var. versatilis were purified extensively. The enzymes from either location exhibited similar purification and other properties. (3) The purified enzymes hydrolysed the beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucosidic linkage in addition to the beta-(1 leads to 3) linkage. Heat denaturation, inhibition and electrophoretic studies indicated that both hydrolytic activities were properties of a single protein. Laminarin and pustulan hydrolysis followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Km and V for laminarin hydrolysis were 6.25 mg/ml and 350 mumol of glucose released/min/mg protein, and for pustulan they were 166 mg/ml and 52 mumol of glucose released/min/mg protein. (4) The exo-beta-glucanase was assigned a molecular weight of 43 000. (5) the purified enzyme failed to hydrolyse isolated cell walls from either baker's yeast or Schizosaccharomyces pombe or to induce protoplast formation from intact cells of S. japonicus var. versatilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Di Ferrante N, Leachman RD, Angelini P, Donnelly PV, Francis G, Almazan A, Segni G, Franzblau C, Jordan RE. "Ehlers-Danlos type V (X-linked form): a lysyl oxidase deficiency." Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser.. 1975;11(6):31-7.
Varma S, Ferguson HL, Breen H, Lumb WV. "Comparison of Seven Suture Materials in Infected Wounds." Journal of Surgical Research. 1974;17:165-170.
Varma S, Ferguson HL, Breen H, Lumb WV. "Comparison of Seven Suture Materials in Infected Wounds." Journal of Surgical Research. 1974;17:165-170. Abstract
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Fulop M, Tannenbaum H, Dreyer N. "Ketotic hyperosmolar coma." Lancet. 1973;2:635-639. Abstract
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Fifková E. "Effect of light and visual deprivation on the retina." Experimental Neurology. 1972;35:450-457. AbstractWebsite

The effect of light and unilateral visual deprivation (achieved by lid-suturing) on the retina of albino rats has been studied. Lid-sutured and unoperated animals were illuminated daily for 8, 11, or 16 hrs. With increasing time of illumination a progressive decrease in thickness of the outer retinal layers was observed in undeprived animals and in the open eye of the monocularly deprived rats. The shrinkage was greater in the outer plexiform than in the outer nuclear layer. In the lid-sutured eye considerably less change was found in the outer nuclear layer. The difference in thickness of the outer retinal layers of the sutured and companion open eye was 2.5 times greater after 16 than after after 8 hr of light exposure. The loss of receptors seems to be a function of the length of illumination. The decrease in thickness of the outer retinal layers in the open eye of the deprived animals was greater than in the undeprived ones suggesting that more light enters the former eye. It was assumed that an animal which has only one eye available keeps it open for longer periods of time than when both eyes are used.

Fifková E. "Effect of visual deprivation and light on synapses of the inner plexiform layer." Experimental Neurology. 1972;35:458-469. AbstractWebsite

The effect of unilateral lid closure on synaptic contacts of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) has been studied. The operation was carried out on 14-day-old albino rats which survived for 8 weeks and were kept in a room illuminated 8 hr a day. The open eye as well as the deprived one are affected by unilateral lid closure. The presence of two processes caused by unilateral deprivation was postulated: the effect of deprivation itself, which stimulates the formation of new amacrine contacts in the IPL of the closed eye; the effect of an assumed excess of light to the open eye with the consequent damage to receptors. Because of direct connection between receptors and bipolar elements the damage of the receptors seems to induce changes in the bipolar terminals that decreases the density of bipolar contacts in the IPL of the open eye.

Bhui KS, Fiorillo A, Stein D, Okasha T, Ndetei D, Lam L, Chaturvedi S, Maj M. "Improving education, policy and research in mental health worldwide: the role of the WPA Collaborating Centres." Immunology. 1972.Website
Fifková E. "The effect of monocular deprivation on the synaptic contacts of the visual cortex." Journal of Neurobiology. 1969;1:285-294. AbstractWebsite

The effect of visual deprivation on synaptic contacts in the visual cortex was studied with the electron microscope. The deprivation was achieved by unilateral lid suture in 14-day old white rats before eye opening after which the animals were kept for 8 weeks. The density and the size of synaptic contacts in the upper part of the visual cortex (from the surface of layer II up to V) were estimated. The mean density of synapses of the visual cortex supplied by the deprived eye was 20% less than on the control side, the upper levels of the cortex being more affected. The mean size of synaptic contacts was larger (+7.5%) in the upper levels of the deprived cortex. No right left difference in density and size were found in control animals.

Follis Jr RH, Connor DH. "Some patterns of urinary iodine excretion in {Uganda}." East African medical journal. 1966;43:114. AbstractWebsite
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Magazine Article
Florence N. "Emerging retrofitting of University Campuses within Highrise buildings in Nairobi." The Architect Magazine . 2015;1(001):001.
Foeken D, Owuor SO, Mwangi AM. "Urban School Farming to Improve School Feeding: The Case of Nakuru Town, Kenya." Children, Youth and Environments . 2010;20(1):276-300.
Foeken D, Owuor SO, Mwangi AM. "Coping with Increasing Food Prices in Nakuru, Kenya: Urban school farming as a way to make school lunches affordable." Urban Agriculture Magazine . 2009;22:31-33.
FG M, SW G, LW G. "Challenges in tobacco control in Kenya." KDA News letter (2002).
Manuscript
Hawary, El., Yumoto, K., Yamazaki, Y., Mahrous, A., Ghamry, E., Meloni, A., Badi K, Kianji, G., Uiso CBS, Mwiinga N, Joao, L., Affluo, T., Sutcliffe, P.R., Mengestu, G., Baki, P., Abe, Ikeda, A., Fujimoto A. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. Earth and planets space; 2012.
Miscellaneous
Mans BJ, Featherston J, Kvas M, Pillay KA, de Klerk DG, Pienaar R, de Castro MH, Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Teel P, others. Argasid and ixodid systematics: Implications for soft tick evolution and systematics, with a new argasid species list. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 10: 219–240.; 2019. Abstract
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Bredholt T, Dimba EA, Johannessen AC, Costea D, Francis GW, Vintermyr OK, Gjertsen5 BT. The Role of Bcl-2 in Apoptosis Induced by khat (Catha Edulis) in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines.. American Society of Hematology; 2005. Abstract
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Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. Effects of {Visual} {Deprivation} on {Ocular} {Dominance}.; 2001. Abstract
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Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. Effects of {Visual} {Deprivation} on {Ocular} {Dominance}.; 2001. Abstract
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Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. Effects of {Visual} {Deprivation} on {Ocular} {Dominance}.; 2001. Abstract
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Miscellaneous Section
Newspaper Article
Report
Gitao, C.G., Toroitich, K, Khalif, Field, C, Wario, S. Mass Livestock Deaths In EL-HADI Of North-Horr Sub-County, MARSABIT COUNTY. Nairobi: RPLP; 2019.marsabit_camel_deaths-paper_-1.docx
Research Paper
Mwai AO;, Malmfors B;, Andersson-Eklund L;, Philipsson J;, Rege JEO;, Hanotte O;, Fulss R. Capacity building for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. ILRI-SLU Project progress report for the period 1999-2003.; 2005. Abstract

To promote a sustainable and improved use of animal genetic resources in developing countries, ILRI in collaboration with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), and supported by Sida (Sweden), launched a project training the trainers, for national agricultural research systems (NABS) scientists (national university teachers and researchers) in developing countries. The main objectives of the project were to strengthen subject knowledge and skills, and teaching and communication skills of scientists teaching and supervising students in animal breeding and genetics at least up to MSc level. Other objectives were to catalyse curriculum development, stimulate contacts and networking, and to develop computer-based training resources relevant for use by NARS scientists in teaching and research. This capacity building project was an integrated component of the ILRI research agenda on Animal Genetic Resources. It was also an endeavour by ILRI to collaborate with and strengthen NARS institutions and scientists. The project was initially planned to include regions in sub-Saharan Africa, SouthEast Asia and South Asia, resources allowing, Latin America. The activities in each region or sub-region included: planning activities (questionnaire, country visits, planning workshop), training course for university teachers and researchers (three weeks, combining training in animal genetics/breeding and teaching methodologies), development of an Animal Genetics Training Resource' (on CD-ROM, and later also on the Web), follow-up activities, including impact assessment (questionnaires and follow-up workshops). During the period 1999 to 2003 a full round of activities was completed for sub Saharan Africa. The training course was conducted for Eastern/Southern Africa (20 scientists from 10 countries) and for Western/Central Africa (18 scientists from 10 countries). The planning and follow-up workshops were performed jointly for the region. In addition, the planning activities and training course (18 scientists from 9 countries) were completed for South-East Asia. Version 1 of the computer-based training resource (CD) was released in late 2003. The resource contains modules, i.e. core texts on issues related with farm animal genetic resources, quantitative methods and teaching methods, and Resources containing case studies, breed information, maps, examples, exercises, video clips, a glossary and a virtual library. It also contains references to web links, books and other CDs. The participants found the training courses very useful; average score for Overall Impression was 8.2 (scale 1-9). They also indicated that the computer-based training resource would be a valuable tool both in teaching and in research, but had not yet had a chance to explore and use it fully. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants' home institutions, both on teaching methods and on course content. Students have shown more interest and understanding of animal breeding and genetics. The impact on participants' research has been just as large; more focus on research involving indigenous animal genetic resources, improved research proposal writing, research methodologies and science communication skills, and also more efficient supervision of students' research. Many of the participants have actively disseminated materials and experiences from the course to colleagues in their home institutions. Other important outcomes have been increased contacts and an open e-mail network `Afrib' formed by the African course participants. The project also strengthened Swedish knowledge and expanded PhD activities on animal genetic resources in developing countries; these were valuable `spin-off effects' of the project. The 'training the trainers' approach adopted in the ILRI-SLU project seems to be a good model for effective capacity building to promote a sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. The approach was innovative and has functioned well; the model could be extended to other disciplines. Furthermore, linking universities from the North to those of the South, with a CGIAR institute playing both a facilitating and catalytic role was beneficial. The project will now proceed to South Asia and version 2 of the computer-based training resource will be developed. More impact analyses will also be performed.

Freeman, H.Ade; Rohrbach DA-OCD;. Strategic Assessments and Development Pathways for Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics.; 2002. Abstract

The agricultural economies of Africa have witnessed three major changes during the past 10 to 15 years that justify a reassessment of agricultural research priorities. First, liberalization of macroeconomic and trade policies has increased the relative importance of tradeables in the commodity mix. Second, agricultural input and product markets have expanded, broadening the range of livelihood strategies available to rural households. Finally, broader partnerships for technology development and dissemination are creating new opportunities. Many of Africa’s poorest and most food-insecure farmers live in semiarid areas. To survive in a harsh and variable environment, they pursue a range of livelihood strategies. Different households pursue different development paths. But almost all seek to diversify their income sources and investment strategies as a means to reduce risk and respond to changing market conditions. How can R&D agencies improve the payoffs to farmers’ investments? There are trade-offs between different alternatives – should the farmer spend her limited money looking for an off-farm job, or on livestock, or on a bag of fertilizer? It is hard to evaluate these trade-offs. But recent investment trends offer some clues on the trade-offs involved, and on how farmers’ investment decisions are influenced by changes in policy, technologies, and market conditions. In July 2002, ICRISAT sponsored a conference on Targeting agricultural research for development in the semi-arid tropics of sub-Saharan Africa to discuss how best to link technology development, market expansion, and agricultural growth in Africa’s semiarid tropics (SAT). This meeting • Examined and compared alternative growth paths for poverty alleviation and development of smallholder agriculture • Reviewed the market and institutional factors influencing technology adoption • Assessed the current stock of available technologies • Discussed institutional arrangements linking national and international research programs and the public and private sectors. The meeting concluded with a series of recommendations for better targeting of agricultural research to achieve faster development. This policy brief summarizes the discussions and outputs from the meeting.

Thesis
FO N, M B, Gachago MM, D K. Outcomes of Combined Cataract and Trabeculectomy Surgery In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kanduma E, Francis Gakuyab, Naftaly Githakaa, Saori Suzukia, Edward Kariukib, Hirohisa Mekataa, Satoru Konnaia, Tomohiro Okagawaa, Shirai T, Ikenakad Y, Ishizuka M, Murata S, Ohashi K. Transcriptional profiling of inflammatory cytokine genes in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) infected with Theileria parva. Vol. IX. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012.
Njage PMK. Microbial diversity, safety and role of predominant lactic acid bacteria in raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk in Kenya and Somalia. Wangoh J, Farah Z, L M, eds. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Abstract
In Eastern Africa, where 60 % of the world camel population is held, there is a long tradition
of preparing fermented camel milk known as suusac. The fermentation is spontaneous and
results in a product whose quality varies greatly, may be risky and even dangerous for
consumer health due to unpredictable microbial inhabitants. These risk factors arise not only
from unhygienic handling of camel milk but also from zoonotic bacteria usually attributed to
producing animal mastitis. Misuse of common antibiotics in treatment of camels could also
push bacteria to develop mechanisms to evade the inhibitory power of antibotics.
There is now a major change in consumer choice with shift towards good hygienic quality
camel milk and products and also readiness to pay more for the better quality. This calls for
development of formal camel dairy to address this value addition potential and also reduce
health risks leading to improved camel milk commercialisation.
It is therefore important to understand the predominant microorganisms in raw milk and
suusac and to ascertain their potential impact safety and quality of raw camel milk and
suusac. The diversity of pathogens and yeasts in raw and spontaneously fermented camel
milk in Kenya and Somalia was studied using phenotypic and molecular techniques.
Potential pathogenic microorganisms were studied for their virulence and antibiotic
resistance profiles. Technological properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria were studied
as prerequisite to the introduction of an adapted starter culture for suusac fermentation.
A total of 235 presumptive staphylococci isolated from 105 camel milk and related samples
from five locations in Kenya and two locations in Somalia were identified and characterized
phenotypically and genotypically. PCR amplification of the genes encoding antiphagocytic
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capsular polysaccharides cap5 and cap8, and staphylococcal enterotoxins SEA to SEE and
SEG to SEJ was also carried out. Secondly, the antibiotic resistance patterns of 47
Staphylococcus aureus isolates was studied using microdilution assays to determine minimal
inhibitory concentrations and disc diffusion tests. Genotyping was then done using
microarray hybridization and confirmation of antibiotic resistance genes by PCR.
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumomia and Enterobacter cloacae which have
been implicated worldwide as producers of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were
the predominant Enterobacteriaceae in raw milk and suusac. Antibiotic resistance risk posed
by these bacterial pathogens was characterized for 95 isolates both phenotypically and
genotypically. Escherichia coli isolates were also evaluated for presence of virulence factors.
The prevalence and epidemiology of E. coli O157 and non-O157 shigatoxigenic E. coli
(STEC) along the raw and fermented camel milk marketing chain was studied in 70 samples.
Serotypes and associated virulence factors in the isolated strains were also determined.
Various selective media and immunomagnetic separation were used followed by multiplex
PCR for virulence genes stx1, stx2 and eae and for positive samples a second multiplex PCR
to type for the serotypes O157, O113 and O111. PCR-RFLP of the fliC gene also carried out
on the O157, O113 and O111STEC to elucidate the epidemiology of the serotypes.
Yeasts were identified using combination of both phenotypic and genotypic techniques.
Identification was done using API 20C AUX followed by Restriction Fragment Length
Polymorphism (RFLP) of intergenic spacers ITS1 and ITS2 using restriction endonucleases
HhaI, HinfI and HaeIII. RAPD was performed with (GTG)5, (GAC)5, (GACA)4
microsatellite primers and M13 core sequence (5'-GAG GGT GGC GGT TCT-3'). Sequence
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analysis of either ITS1 and ITS2 or the 26S rRNA encoding gene was performed on selected
isolates.
Finally, 95 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) consisting of Lb. helveticus, Lb. fermentum, Lc. lactis
subsp. Lactis and Str. thermophilus isolated from various camel milk and associated sources
from main camel milk production points in Kenya and Somalia were studied for acidification
and metabolic properties. Str. infantarius which is a putative human pathogen was also
studied due to its predominance amongst presumed streptococci isolated to ascertain its role
in the spontaneous fermentation. Initial screening was carried out in a microtiter assay and
LAB were then selected for fermentation in batch culture experiments using a CINAC
system which allowed continuous follow-up of pH changes during fermentation in camel
milk during incubation at 30, 35 and 40oC for 36 h. Parameters including maximal
acidification rate (Vmax), time and pH at which Vmax occurred (tmax and pHmax), lag phase (ta),
time during which the acidification rate was equal to or higher than Vmax/2 (dt50), time to
reach pH 5.0 (tpH5), final pH (pHF) and time to reach final pH (tpHF) were calculated.
Metabolites of sugars, lactose, glucose and galactose and flavour compounds, citrate, acetate,
acetaldehyde, diacetyl and ethanol, were also quantified using High Performance Liquid
Chromatography (HPLC). L(+)-/D(-)-lactic acid production was studied using an enzymatic
assay. Potential cultures were selected based on the number of desirable acidification kinetic
values for fast acidification and also flavor metabolites when compared to the other cultures.
Presumptive staphylococci increased along the market chain. There were 146 (62 %)
confirmed staphylococci isolates of which, 66 (45 %) were Staphylococcus aureus.
Coagulase positive staphylococci were predominant in raw camel milk directly obtained
from the camel (25 %), at the market level (23 %) and fermented milk (suusac) (21 %). S.
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epidermidis accounted for 29 % of coagulase negative Staphyolococci (CNS) studied. The
remaining CNS were distributed among S. simulans (18 %), S. saprophyticus (11 %), S.
haemolyticus (2 %), S. hyicus (2 %), S. xylosus (2 %), S. lentus (1 %), S. carnosus (1 %) and
S. microti (1 %). Aerococcus viridans (1 %), Macrococcus caseolyticus (1 %) and M.
nishinomiyaensis (1 %) were also identified. The gene cap5 encoding antiphagocytic
capsular polysaccharide was observed for 9 (14 %) and cap8 for 16 (24 %) of the isolates.
Enterotoxin genes were observed in 47 % of the isolates with sej in 34 %, seb in 6 %, sed in
5 % and seg in 3 % of the isolates. Amongst the species enterotoxin genes were detected in
90 %, 65 %, 38 % and 22 % of the S. simulans, S. epidermidis, S. sapropyticus and S. aureus
respectively. Rep-PCR genotyping revealed diversity of the isolates though with close
similarities irrespective of the level along the market chain and sampling location indicating
ubiquity of the isolates in primary and secondary environments.
There were 11 (23 %), 12 (26 %), 5 (11 %), 6 (13 %), 3 (6 %) and 18 (38 %) isolates
resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, fusidic acid
respectively. Amongst the multi-resistant isolates 2 were resistant to 2 antibiotics, 7 to 3
antibiotics and 6 to 4 or more antibiotics. Based on microarray, all 3 isolates tested were
positive for the β-lactamase resistant genes (blaZ), tetracycline resistance with gene tet38 and
the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene pvl. Additionally, 2 isolates harboured streptomycin
resistance gene and tetracycline resistance through the gene tet(K). PCR targeting these
genes was performed for all isolates and 6 were positive for tetK, 9 for blaZ and 2 isolates
harboured both tet(K) and blaZ genes.
Enterobacteriaceae were not detected at milking and first collection point but were present at
104- 106 CFU/ml in final market raw camel milk and 103-107 CFU/ml in suusac. The
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Enterobacteriaceae belonged to 14 species and 10 genera. Predominant isolates were
Escherichia coli 1 (47), Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumoniae (35) and Enterobacter sakazakii
(18). Salmonella arizonae, Serratia odorifera 1, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli 1
occurred at mean cell counts greater than 8 log cfu/ml. Enterotoxin genes stx1 and stx2 were
not detected in any of the E. coli isolates with only one isolate with sequence coding for
intimin (eae) was detected.
Of the isolates, 61 (63 %) were resistant to ampicillin, of which 46 (48 %) were E. coli, 45
(46%) K. pneumoniae Pneumoniae and 16 (7%) E. cloacae. ESBLs were not phenotypically
detected in any of the isolates by double disc diffusion test. However, PCR revealed
prevalence of blaSHV, blaCTX-M-3-like and blaCTX-M-14-like genes in 37 (60 %), 25 (40 %) and
11 (18 %) of the isolates respectively. K. pneumoniae Pneumoniae not only harbored
majority of the genes (74 % of K. pneumoniae Pneumoniae), but a strain of K. pneumoniae
Pneumoniae possessed all 3 genes and 13 harbored both blaSHV and blaCTX-M-3-like genes.
Thirty six percent of the isolates harbored either single or combinations of factors stx1, stx2
and eae with 78 % being stx1 positive, 18.6 % eae positive, 3.9 % stx1 and stx2 positive and
0.78 % stx2 and eae positive. Prevalence of isolates positive for the virulence factors stx1,
stx2 and eae increased from 32.6 % at herd level to 34.2 % in first collection point and 44.3
% in the final market. Though highest percentage of presumptive E. coli isolates (57 %) were
isolated using EMB agar while the rest were from CHROMagar (23 %) and CT-SMAC (21
%), amongst the isolates harboring virulence genes, 100 %, 12 % and 39 % were isolated
from CT-SMAC, EMB agar and CHROMagar respectively. Serotypes O157, O111 and O113
represented 94 %, 2 % and 4 % of the STEC respectively. Thirty nine different restriction
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endonuclease digestion profiles were revealed by the RFLP of the flic gene with O157 having
29 profiles bearing 7 clusters with common profiles.
There were low numbers of yeasts in milk at herd level but 4.4±1.4 log cfu/ml and 5 ±1.5 log
cfu/ml at the first collection point and final market respectively. Counts of up to 7.5 ± 2.5 log
cfu/ml were found in laboratory fermented suusac. Amongst the identified isolates, API
enabled the identification of 80 (47%) and resulted in either incorrect identification or
inability to identify the others. RFLP, RAPD and sequence analysis enabled complete
identification to species and some differentiation at strain level with RAPD allowing more
discrimination within species. There were 21 yeast species belonging to the genera
Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Candida, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon, Geotrichum and
Issatchenkia. The most frequently isolated yeasts were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (19 % of
the identified isolates), Candida inconspicua (12 %), Trichosporon mucoides (11 %),
Candida famata (11 %), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (8 %), Candida lusitaniae (6 %),
Cryptococcus laurentii (5 %), Cryptococcus albidus (5 %), Candida guilliermondii (5 %),
and Trichosporon cutaneum (5 %). Lowest viable counts for the identified yeasts were 2.4
cfu/ml for C. tropicalis and highest were 7.6 cfu/ml (range; 2.4-8.5 cfu/ml) for C. famata and
8.0 cfu/ml (range; 2.6-8.5 cfu/ml) for C. guilliermondii.
When LAB were ranked in the increasing order of mean pH from the microtiter acidification
assay, the strains were Str. infantarius (5.32 ±0.36), Lb. helveticus (5.33±0.09), Lc. lactis
subsp. lactis (5.5±0.49), Lb. fermentum (5.67±0.53) and Str. thermophilus (5.7±0.15). Lc.
lactis subsp. lactis had a short ta (145 min), tmax (424.5 min) tpH5 (535 min) and tpHF (30h),
and low pHF (4.10) during incubation at 30 oC. Moreover, at 35oC, the Vmax increased from
0.00531 to 0.006805 pH units min-1, tmax decreased from 424 to 271 min and tpHF decreased
XXIV
from 30.75 to 19.00 min. Even though Str. thermophilus 150A3.1 showed short ta (183 min),
tmax (378 min) and low pHF (4.4) at 30oC, at 35oC Str. thermophilus was in the grouped with
slowest acidifiers. Str. thermophilus 150A3.1 however, produced the highest quantity of
galactose (3.8 g/l) and glucose (3.56 g/l) at 37oC. Str. thermophilus 221A11.3 performed
better at 35 than 30oC with increased Vmax (from 0.00169- 0.0063 pH units min-1) together
with shorter ta ( from 279 to 82.5 min) and tpHF (from 43 to 19.0 h). Str. thermophilus
221A11.3 also produced highest formate (2072 mg/l) at 35oC. Lb. helveticus showed second
highest Vmax (0.00937 pH units min-1), had a low pHmax (5.17), short tpH5 (705 min) and low
pHF (4.23) at 30oC. Lb. helveticus also produced highest amounts of acetaldehyde (106.7
mg/l at 37oC), ethanol (1590 mg/l at 37oC) and acetate (1540 mg/l at 35oC). However highest
quantities of D(-) lactate (1.338 g/l at 37oC) were also produced by Lb. helveticus. Mixed
cultures Lc. Lactis subsp. lactis + Str. thermophilus 150A3.1, acidifed at highest overall Vmax
(0.07999 pH units min-1) and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis + Lb. helveticus to lowest pHF (3.9). By
combining Lb. helveticus with either of Str. thermophilus 221A 11.3 and Str. thermophilus
150A3.1, they produced lactate at highest (7.62 g/l) and second highest (7 g/l) quantities
respectively at 35oC. Lb. helveticus + Str. thermophilus 221A 11.3 also reached pH 4.1
within 33.5 h at 30oC. Even though Str. infantarius had short relatively short tmax at 30oC, at
35oC it reached a lower pHmax (5.29) and acidified at a longer dt50 (1202 min) when
compared with other strains. The range in time it took to reach maximum acidification for all
the strains or their combinations was was however high (9-1204 min at 40oC incubation).
The high prevalence of toxin-producing staphylococci requires consideration for food
hygiene and safety especially regarding the aspect that the milk is consumed raw or as
fermented raw milk.
XXV
Controlled antibiotic therapy in Kenyan and Somali camels should be introduced to prevent
the increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Pastoralists should also be instructed on the use
for rapid detection mastitis tests and the best single antibiotic or their combinations that
minimize development of resistances.
Molecular methods remain the most reliable methods of choice for identification of ESBLproducing
enterobacteria isolates. The finding of a high diversity of enterobacteria in camel
milk especially at market level and suusac calls for measures to improve handling of camel
milk.
The higher prevalence of STEC in camel milk than in cases with milk from other species
indicates that this milk could be an important vehicle for transmission of STEC to humans.
Possibility of a continuous contamination with different STEC strains then distribution of
these strains during handling and storage of milk at this point was also revealed. This calls
for interventions on hygienic factors and animal health at all levels in the marketing chain.
A combination of phenotypic and molecular methods for proper yeast identification is
recommended. The high diversity and numbers of yeasts indicate their role in the
fermentation of camel milk and potential for inclusion as starter cultures.
In order to further select and adapt the starter cultures, sensory analysis, antibiotic
susceptibility tests and also survival of the cultures under different preservation methods
should be studied in order to optimize their application. The robust nature of Str. infantarius
calls for challenge tests including Str. infantarius as a contaminant to further select starter
combinations that would show competitive advantage over this predominant but potentially
pathogenic bacterium.

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