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Journal Article
Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Mwangombe AW, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J. "The Role of Moisture in the Successful Rehabilitation of Denuded Patches of a Semi-Arid Environment in Kenya." Journal of environmental Science and technology . 2010;3(4):195-207. Abstract

This study investigated the role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya and the primary productivity of three perennial rangelands grasses namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) at three phenological stages (early growth, elongation and reproduction) as pure stands and two-grass mixtures. The grasses were sown on either rainfed (Sites 1 and 2) or simulated rainfall conditions (site 3). Site preparation in all the 3 sites involved mechanical bush clearing, use of fire and creation of micro-catchments using an ox-drawn plough. Soils in site 3 were sandy clay loams and those in sites 1 and 2 were sandy clays. There was total failure in establishment sites 1 and 2 under natural rainfall. Site 3 had good germination and subsequent establishment. These results were attributed to the moisture conditions in the three sites. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in primary production of the three grasses at the different phenological stages. Cenchrus ciliaris was the most productive among the three grasses at the reproduction stage. Eragrostis superba and Enteropogon macrostachyus were ranked second and third respectively. Enteropogon macrostachyus was more prolific at the early growth stages. Results from this study strongly suggest that moisture is the most important ecological factor necessary for successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid environments of Kenya and that differences in primary production among the three grass species can be attributed to their growth, morphological and physiological characteristics and competitive advantage.

Mganga KZ, Msimba NKR;, Nyangito, Moses M, Nyariki D, Mwang'ombe AW, Ekaya W, Muiru W, Clavel D, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Vergahen J. "The role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches of a Semi-Arid environment in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

This study investigated the role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid land, of Kenya and the primary productivity of three perennial rangelands grasses namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) at three phenological stages (early growth, elongation and reproduction) as pure stands and two-grass mixtures. The grasses were sown on either rainfed (Sites 1 and 2) or simulated rainfall conditions (site 3). Site preparation ill all the 3 sites involved mechanical bush clearing, use of fire and creation of micro-catchments using an ox-drawn plough. Soils in site 3 were sanely clay loams and those in sites 1 and 2 were sandv clavs. There was total failure in establishment ,./ ..I :' • sites 1 and 2 under natural rainfall. Site 3 had good germination and subsequent establishment These results were attributed to the moisture conditions in the three sites. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in primary production of the three grasses at the different phenological stages. Cenchrus ciliaris was the most productive among the three grasses at the reproduction stage. Eragrostis superba and Enteropogon macrostachyus were ranked second and third respectively. Enterapogan macrostachyus was more prolific at the early growth stages. Results from this study strongly suggest that moisture is the most important ecological factor necessary for successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid environments of Kenya and that differences in primary production among the three grass species can be attributed to their growth. morphological and physiological characteristics and competitive advantage.

Ogoma SB, Lweitoijera DW, Ngonyani H, Furer B, Russell TL, WR M, GF K, SJ. M. "Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2010;4(8):e773.
FARAH DRIBRAHIM. "SOMALIA: TWENTY YEARS AFTER.". 2010.
N K, F Y, S M, M N. "Strengthening capacity for sustainable livelihoods and food security through urban agriculture among HIV and AIDS affected households in Nakuru, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

The promotion and support of urban agriculture (UA) has the potential to contribute to efforts to address pressing challenges of poverty, under nutrition and sustainability among vulnerable populations in the growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This may be especially relevant for HIV/AIDS-affected individuals in SSA whose agricultural livelihoods are severely disrupted by the devastating effects of the disease on physical productivity and nutritional well-being. This paper outlines the process involved in the conception, design and implementation of a project to strengthen technical, environmental, financial and social capacity for UA among HIV-affected households in Nakuru, Kenya. Key lessons learned are also discussed. The first has been the value of multi-stakeholder partnerships, representing a broad range of relevant experience, knowledge and perspectives in order to address the complex set of issues facing agriculture for social purposes in urban settings. A second is the key role of self-help group organizations, and the securing of institutional commitments to support farming by vulnerable persons affected by HIV-AIDS is also apparent. Finally, the usefulness of evaluative tools using mixed methods to monitor progress towards goals and identify supports and barriers to success are highlighted.

Admani B, F. E. "Successful resuscitation of a three month old child with intralipid infusion, presumed to have bupivacaine induced seizures and cardiovascular complications: case report." East Afr Med J. 2010 Aug;87(8):354-6.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Anaesthetic agents used locally can be toxic especially if given as an inappropriate dose or route. Lipid infusion has been demonstrated in several animal models to successfully resuscitate bupivacaine induced toxicity. We present a case of successful use of 26% lipid infusion to resuscitate a paediatric patient with a presumed subcutaneous injection of bupivacaine and lignocaine which led to neurological and cardiologic consequences.

Hans RH, Guantai EM, Carmen L, Smith PJ, Baojie W, Gut J, Franzblau SG, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. "Synthesis, antimalarial and antitubercular activity of acetylenic chalcones.". 2010. Abstract

A series of acetylenic chalcones were evaluated for antimalarial and antitubercular activity. The antimalarial data for this series suggests that growth inhibition of the W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum can be imparted by the introduction of a methoxy group ortho to the acetylenic group. Most compounds were more active against non-replicating than replicating cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, an unusual pattern with respect to existing anti-TB agents

Ngugi EN, Bonell C, Rhodes T, Jolley E, Sorhaindo A, Fletcher A, Grenfell P, Platt L. "Systematic review examining differences in HIV, sexually transmitted infections and health-related harms between migrant and non-migrant female sex workers.". 2010. Abstract

I have picked this evaluation because it focuses on the special needs of migrant female sex workers (FSWs), in particular those in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STls) and HIV is high and the health infrastructure is insufficient to respond to these problems. In addition, migrant FSWs might initially be too afraid to immediately seek medical help in the 'new country' due to the fear of being apprehended for real or perceived reasons. By the same token, they might not have access to male or female condoms, but may have a high incidence of partner change and unprotected sex. Fear of stigma and discrimination might also keep them away from appropriate services.

Akama MK, F.G. M, chindia ML, Muriithi JM, Malupi E, Sang LK. "temporomandibular joint dislocation in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Despite the diverse conservative and surgical modalities for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the controversy that surrounds them, very little has been done within the East-African setup in terms of highlighting and provoking greater interest in the epidemiology and management of TMJ dislocation. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of occurrence, demographics, aetiology and enumerate the treatment modalities of TMJ dislocation at the oral and maxillofacial surgery division (OMFS) of the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) from January 1995 to July 2005. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients had been diagnosed and managed for TMJ dislocation. Twenty (69%) were females and nine (31%) were males. Their ages ranged from 10-95 years with a mean of 42 years. The cases managed were primarily chronic in nature. The most common form being anterior TMJ dislocation, accounting for twenty-five (86.2%) cases. Trauma was implicated as an aetiology in only five (17%) of the cases while the remaining majority of twenty four (83%) cases were spontaneous. Amongst the causes of spontaneous TMJ dislocation, yawning was the most common accounting for fourteen cases (48.3%). Dislocations caused by trauma were found to be 12.6 times more likely to be associated with other injuries than spontaneous dislocations. Anterior TMJ dislocations were found to be 1.3 times more likely to be associated with absence of molars than posterior TMJ dislocations. Anatomical aberrations, as predisposing factors, were not a significant finding in this research. Eight (28%) of the cases were managed conservatively. Twenty one (72%) of the cases were managed surgically. The eminectomy was the most common technique with a 75% success rate. The highest incidence of TMJ dislocation occurs in the 3rd-5th decade with a female preponderance with bilateral anterior TMJ dislocation being the most common. Most of the cases were managed surgically with eminectomy being the preferred technique with the highest success rate. A study needs to be undertaken to determine reasons' why conservative modalities are least employed in the management of TMJ dislocation in our setup and what can be done about it.

and Furukawa, T. FKMKSKP. "Threshold change in forest understory vegetation as a result of selective fuel wood extraction in Nairobi, Kenya. ." Forest Ecology and Management . 2010; 262:962-969.
Nixon CA, Achterberg RK, Teanby NA, Irwin PGJ, Flaud J-M, Kleiner I, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Brown LR, Sams RL, Bezard B, Coustenis A, Ansty TM, Mamoutkine A, Vinatier S, Bjoraker GL, Jennings DE, Romani PN, Flasar MF. "Upper limits for undetected trace species in the stratosphere of Titan." Faraday Discussions. 2010;147:1-17.
Mozaffarian D, Kris-Etherton P, Van Horn L, Lichtenstein AH, Kumanyika S, Kraus WE, Fleg JL, Redeker NS, Meininger JC, Banks JA, others. "Interventions to Promote Physical Activity and Dietary Lifestyle Changes for Cardiovascular Risk Factor Reduction in Adults." Circulation. 2010;122:406-441. Abstract
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Artinian NT, Fletcher GF, Mozaffarian D, Kris-Etherton P, Van Horn L, Lichtenstein AH, Kumanyika S, Kraus WE, Fleg JL, Redeker NS, others. "Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association." Circulation. 2010;122:406-441. Abstract
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Tabu C, Sharif S, Okoth P, Kioko J, Nzioka C, Muthoka P, Ope M, Makama S, Kalani R, Ochieng W, Simwa J, Schnabel D, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Onsongo J, Njenga K, Breiman R, Kearney A, Sick A, Harris R, Lebo E, Munyua P, Wakhule L, Waiboci-Muhia L, Gikundi S, Gikunju S, Omballa V, Nderitu L, Mayieka L, Kabura W, Omulo S, Odhiambo D, Wachira C, Kikwai G, Feikin D, Katz M. "Introduction and Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus — Kenya, June–July 2009." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2009;58:1144-1146. Abstract
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Ueda Y, Aizawa M, Takahashi A, Fujii M, Isaka Y. "Exaggerated compensatory response to acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder is induced by increased lactic acid production." Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2009;24:825-828. AbstractWebsite

Background. In acute respiratory alkalosis, the severity of alkalaemia is ameliorated by a decrease in plasma [HCO3−] of 0.2 mEq/L for each 1 mmHg decrease in PaCO2. Although hyperventilation in panic disorder patients is frequently encountered in outpatients, the drop in plasma [HCO3−] sometimes surpasses the expectation calculated from the above formula. The quantitative relationship between reduced PaCO2 and plasma [HCO3−] in acute respiratory alkalosis has not been studied in panic disorder patients. Our objective was to provide reference data for the compensatory metabolic changes in acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder patients. Methods. In 34 panic disorder patients with hyperventilation attacks, we measured arterial pH, PaCO2, plasma [HCO3−] and lactate on arrival at the emergency room. Results. For each decrease of 1 mmHg in PaCO2, plasma [HCO3−] decreased by 0.41 mEq/L. During hypocapnia, panic disorder patients exhibited larger increases in serum lactate levels (mean ± SD; 2.59 ± 1.50 mmol/L, range; 0.78–7.78 mmol/L) than previously reported in non-panic disorder subjects. Plasma lactate accumulation was correlated with PaCO2 (P {\textless} 0.001). Conclusions. These results suggest that the compensatory metabolic response to acute respiratory alkalosis is exaggerated by increased lactic acid production in panic disorder patients. Here, we call attention to the diagnosis of acid–base derangements by means of plasma [HCO3−] and lactate concentration in panic disorder patients.

Falk E, Thim T, Kristensen IB. "Atherosclerotic plaque, adventitia, perivascular fat, and carotid imaging." JACC. Cardiovascular imaging. 2009;2:183-186. Abstract
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Gichuhi S, Bosire R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, Wariua G, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, John-Stewart GC. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009;16(6):337-45. Abstract

To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers.

Katz DA, Kiarie JN, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, John FN, Farquhar C. "HIV testing men in the antenatal setting: understanding male non-disclosure." Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20(11):765-7. Abstract

Prevention of infant HIV is a powerful incentive for maternal HIV diagnosis and an opportunity to increase male HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status within couples. We examined male HIV disclosure in couples who attended a Nairobi antenatal clinic (ANC), had individual HIV testing, and were counselled to disclose to their partner. At two-week follow-up, men and women independently reported HIV disclosure. Of 2104 women, 1993 requested partner attendance; 313 male partners came, of whom 183 chose individual HIV testing. Of 106 couples who followed up, 93% of both partners reported disclosure by women versus 71% by men (P < 0.0001); 27% of men reported disclosure while their female partner reported not knowing partner HIV status. In these couples, male ANC HIV testing did not result in shared knowledge of HIV status. Couple counselling models that incorporate disclosure may yield greater HIV prevention benefits than offering individual partner HIV testing services at ANC.

Matemo D, Kinuthia J, John F, Chung M, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J. "Indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers." Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20(11):790-2. Abstract

The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine and false-negative Uni-Gold rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine were re-tested by Uni-Gold. Vironostika HIV-1 and Uni-FORM II Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to confirm samples that had positive Abbott Determine and negative Uni-Gold. Among 2311 women who accepted HIV-1 testing, 1238 (54%) were tested antenatally and 1073 (46%) were tested postnatally. Of tested women, 274 (12%) women were reactive by Abbott Determine and on retesting with Uni-Gold 30 (11%) had indeterminate results. The prevalence of indeterminate results was significantly higher in antenatal women than in postnatal women (2% versus 1%, P = 0.03). In conclusion, indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results are more common in the antenatal period and appropriate safeguards to confirm HIV-1 infection status should be implemented in antenatal programmes.

Marston E, Weston V, Jesson J, Maina E, McConville C, Agathanggelou A, Skowronska A, Mapp K, Sameith K, Powell JE, Lawson S, Kearns P, Falciani F, Taylor M, Stankovic T. "Stratification of pediatric ALL by in vitro cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical response." Blood. 2009;113(1):117-26. Abstract

The molecular basis of different outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains poorly understood. We addressed the clinical significance and mechanisms behind in vitro cellular responses to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks in 74 pediatric patients with ALL. We found an apoptosis-resistant response in 36% of patients characterized by failure to cleave caspase-3, -7, -9, and PARP1 by 24 hours after IR and an apoptosis-sensitive response with the cleavage of the same substrates in the remaining 64% of leukemias. Resistance to IR in vitro was associated with poor early blast clearance at day 7 or 15 and persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) at day 28 of induction treatment. Global gene expression profiling revealed abnormal up-regulation of multiple prosurvival pathways in response to IR in apoptosis-resistant leukemias and differential posttranscriptional activation of the PI3-Akt pathway was observed in representative resistant cases. Importantly, pharmacologic inhibition of selected prosurvival pathways sensitized apoptosis-resistant ALL cells to IR in vitro. We suggest that abnormal prosurvival responses to DNA damage provide one of the mechanisms of primary resistance in ALL, and that they should be considered as therapeutic targets in children with aggressive disease.

Bose S, Yap L-F, Fung M, Starzcynski J, Saleh A, Morgan S, Dawson C, Chukwuma MB, Maina E, Buettner M, Wei W, Arrand J, Lim PVH, Young LS, Teo SH, Stankovic T, Woodman CBJ, Murray PG. "The ATM tumour suppressor gene is down-regulated in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma." J. Pathol.. 2009;217(3):345-52. Abstract

A micro-array analysis using biopsies from patients with EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and from cancer-free controls revealed down-regulation of tumour suppressor genes (TSG) not previously associated with this disease; one such gene was the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Q-PCR confirmed down-regulation of ATM mRNA and ATM protein expression in tumour cells was weak or absent in almost all cases. In NPC cell lines, however, ATM was down-regulated only in the EBV-positive line, C666.1, and in none of five EBV-negative lines. In vitro infection of EBV-negative NPC cell lines with a recombinant EBV was followed by the down-regulation of ATM mRNA and protein, and only EBV-positive cells showed a defective DNA damage response following gamma-irradiation. Our data suggest that loss of ATM function could be an important step in the pathogenesis of NPC, and may have implications for the treatment of this disease.

Lingappa JR, Kahle E, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Magaret A, Baeten J, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife K, de Bruyn G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, McIntyre J, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington W, Corey L, Wald A, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(4):e5272. Abstract

The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort.

Katz DA, Kiarie JN, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, John FN, Farquhar C. "Male perspectives on incorporating men into antenatal HIV counseling and testing." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(11):e7602. Abstract

Male partner involvement in antenatal voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) has been shown to increase uptake of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify methods for increasing male involvement in antenatal VCT and determine male correlates of accepting couple counseling in these settings.

Guthrie BL, Kiarie JN, Morrison S, John-Stewart GC, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Whittington WLH, Farquhar C. "Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(12):e8276. Abstract

More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.

Inwani I, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, G J-S, Farquhar C. " Performance of clinical algorithms for HIV-1 diagnosis and antiretroviral initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15;50(5):492-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a8a4.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy, approximately 50% die before 2 years.
METHODS:
We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: (1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), (2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and (3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA polymerase chain reaction testing.
FINDINGS:
A total of 1418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. Compared with HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI criteria were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4% improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD criteria to 74% and 84%, respectively; however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively.
INTERPRETATION:
Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high-prevalence resource-limited setting remains a challenge, and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Franceschi L, Gachenga E, Lutz D, Akech M. "14) GOVERNANCE, INSTITUTIONS AND THE HUMAN CONDITION ." Strathmore University & Law Africa. 2009.
F.G. M, Ogwell AEO, Dimba EAO, Komu P. "cigarette smoking and oral health among health care students.". 2009.
Brown ER, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, R W Nduati, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Comparison of CD4 Cell Count, Viral Load, and other markers for the prediction of mortality among HIV-1–Infected Kenyan pregnant women.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Background. There are limited data regarding the relative merits of biomarkers as predictors of mortality or time
to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Methods. We evaluated the usefulness of the CD4 cell count, CD4 cell percentage (CD4%), human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 (HIV-1) load, total lymphocyte count (TLC), body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin measured
at 32 weeks’ gestation as predictors of mortality in a cohort of HIV-1–infected women in Nairobi, Kenya. Sensitivity,
specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC)
were determined for each biomarker separately, as well as for the CD4 cell count and the HIV-1 load combined.
Results. Among 489 women with 10,150 person-months of follow-up, mortality rates at 1 and 2 years postpartum
were 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7%–3.4%) and 5.5% (95% CI, 3.0%–8.0%), respectively. CD4 cell count
and CD4% had the highest AUC value ( 0.9). BMI, TLC, and hemoglobin were each associated with but poorly
predictive of mortality (PPV, 7%). The HIV-1 load did not predict mortality beyond the CD4 cell count.
Conclusions. The CD4 cell count and CD4% measured during pregnancy were both useful predictors of mortality
among pregnant women. TLC, BMI, and hemoglobin had a limited predictive value, and the HIV-1 load did not
predict mortality any better than did the CD4 cell count alone.

Faridah H Were, Njue WM, Murungi J, Wanjau R. "Comparison of Some Essential and Heavy Metals in the Toenails and Fingernails of School-Age Children in Kenya." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009;23(1):117-122. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes the determination of the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn),
calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) in the toenails and fingernails of children under the age of six years in urban and rural
areas in Kenya by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Lead levels in urban areas ranged from 8.0-49.0 μg/g in
fingernails and 7.0-62.0 μg/g in toenails as compared to those in rural areas (5.0-36.5 μg/g and 5.5-31.5 μg/g,
respectively). A similar trend was observed for Cd where significantly high levels were found in children in urban
areas than those in rural areas. The Fe and Zn levels were significantly higher in children in rural areas than those
in the urban areas. The levels of all the metals studied were higher in the toenails except for Fe and Ca where the
levels were higher in fingernails; however, the difference in the levels was not significant. These results indicate
that either the toenails or fingernails can be used as a reference for levels of metals environmental exposure.

Boaz MJ, Hayes P TSCBKSKSAFTLAJ, Farah B, Ogola S IMVETPMGMMJPMM, Sathyamoorthy P, Mahalingam J NPRRVDCJHDGDKGLJ. "Concordant proficiency in measurement of T-cell immunity in human immunodeficiency virus vaccine clinical trials by peripheral blood mononuclear cell and enzyme-linked immunospot assays in laboratories from three continents." Clin Vaccine Immunol.. 2009;16(2):147-55.
R. TT, Rice J. IL, B. J, A. M, F. N. "The Difference Interventions for Guardians Can Make." Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. 2009.
Mortimore M, Anderson S, Cotula L, Davies J, Faccer K, C.Hesse, Morton J, Nyangena W, J.Skinner, C.Wolfangel. "Dryland Opportunities: A new paradigm for people, ecosystems and development.". 2009.
and F. M. A. BUTT, Lecturer BDS(UN) FDSRCS(E) MDS-OMFS(UN)1 GUTHUAPDBDS(UN) MMEDS(H)SW. "Early outcome of three cases of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy." Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. 2009;37:434-437.dec_progonoma_2009.pdf
Kirui GK, Misra AK, Olanya OM, Friedman M, El-Bedewy R, Ewell PT. "Glycoalkaloid content of some superior potato (Solanum tuberosum L) clones and commercial cultivars." Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2009;42(5):453-463.
G.K. Kirui, Misra AK, O.M. Olanya, Friedman M, El-Bedewy R, Ewell PT. "Glycolakaloid content of some superior potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) clones and commercial cultivars." Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2009;42(5):453-463.
Mulwa J, Fairhead D, Barongo J, Mariita N. "Heat source mapping and evaluation of geothermal resource potential in Lake Bogoria basin, Kenya." Society of Exploration Geophysicists. 2009;28:1294-1299. AbstractWebsite

The Lake Bogoria basin, here in referred to as the study area, is located in the greater Baringo-Bogoria basin (BBB), about 250 km to the north of the city of Nairobi and about 100 km to the north of Menengai geothermal prospect on the floor of Kenya Rift Valley (KRV). It is bound by latitudes 0o 00’ and 0o 30’N and longitudes 35o45’E and 36o15’E within the rift graben. The study area is characterised by geothermal surface manifestations which include hot springs, spouting geysers, fumaroles/steam jets and mud pools. The area is overlain by Miocene lavas lavas, mainly basalts and phonolites, and Pliocene to recent sediments and pyroclastics such as tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, superficial deposits, volcanic soils, alluvium and lacustrine silts. The terrain is characterized by extensive faulting forming numerous N-S ridges and fault scarps.

Gravity survey was undertaken in the study area to map the possible heating source and evaluate the geothermal resource potential of the basin. Gravity survey results indicate Bouguer anomaly having an amplitude of ~40 mGals aligned in a north-South direction and interpreted to be due to a series of dyke injections and hence the heat source in the basin. The interpretation of Bouguer anomaly has been constrained by using results from previous seismic surveys undertaken in the Kenya rift valley by Simiyu and Keller (2001), Keller et al., (1994a) and Braile et al., (1994). P-wave velocities have been converted to densities using the equation derived from Gardner et al. (1974).

Microseismic studies in Lake Bogoria basin by Young et al. (1991), Tongue (1992) and Tongue et al., (1992, 1994) show that the basin is characterised by high frequency of low magnitude (< 3) seismic events which are correlated with surface faulting and multiple episodes of dyke injections. The gravity results in this study are therefore fairly consistent with results of previous microseismic studies undertaken in the basin.

On the basis of the gravity results, the heat source in Lake Bogoria basin is due to cooling dyke injections occurring at depths of ~3 – 6 km. Since a heat source, in addition to fluid circulation, is an integral component of a geothermal system, it is evident that a geothermal reservoir exists in Lake Bogoria basin and the fluids can be tapped for generation of geothermal power.

Katz, DA; John FN;, Kiarie JN;, John-Stewart GC;, Richardson BA;, John FN;, Farquhar C. "HIV testing men in the antenatal setting: understanding male non-disclosure.". 2009. Abstract

Prevention of infant HIV is a powerful incentive for maternal HIV diagnosis and an opportunity to increase male HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status within couples. We examined male HIV disclosure in couples who attended a Nairobi antenatal clinic (ANC), had individual HIV testing, and were counselled to disclose to their partner. At two-week follow-up, men and women independently reported HIV disclosure. Of 2104 women, 1993 requested partner attendance; 313 male partners came, of whom 183 chose individual HIV testing. Of 106 couples who followed up, 93% of both partners reported disclosure by women versus 71% by men (P < 0.0001); 27% of men reported disclosure while their female partner reported not knowing partner HIV status. In these couples, male ANC HIV testing did not result in shared knowledge of HIV status. Couple counselling models that incorporate disclosure may yield greater HIV prevention benefits than offering individual partner HIV testing services at ANC.

Fujita M;, Ngugi EN;, Rotha EA. "HIV/AIDS risk and worry in Northern Kenya HIV/AIDS risk and worry in Northern Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Data from a 2003 survey of sexual behaviour (n = 400) conducted in the Ariaal community of Karare, Marsabit District, northern Kenya, were used to delineate patterns of risk and worry about contracting HIV/AIDS. Despite widespread reporting of high-risk sexual behaviours (including multiple partners, concurrency, sexual mixing and not using condoms) by survey participants, logistic regression analysis found only one statistically significant positive association between these behaviours and self-assessment of being at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. In contrast, log-linear analysis of worry patterns found highly significant relationships between self-assessment of high risk of HIV/AIDS and worry about one's partner's sexual behaviour. These findings indicate that in relation to contracting HIV/AIDS currently Ariaal are more concerned about the sexual behaviour of others, rather than their own behaviour. More generally, results point to the potential for combining concepts of worry with risk assessment in HIV/AIDS research to generate insights into how both concepts are linked to individual, dyadic and population-level factors within specific cultural settings.

Kimutai D, Maleche-Obimbo E, Kamenwa R, F. M. "Hypo-phosphataemia in children under five years with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor." East Afr Med J. 2009 Jul;86(7):330-6.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Severe malnutrition contributes up to 50% of childhood mortality in developing countries is frequently characterised by electrolyte depletion, including low total body phosphate. During therapeutic re-feeding, electrolyte shift from extracellular to intra-cellular compartments may induce hypo-phosphataemia (hypo-P) with resultant increased morbidity and mortality. This biochemical imbalance is under-recognised, and the frequency of this problem among African malnourished children is unclear.
OBJECTIVES:
To determine the magnitude of hypo-phosphataemia in children under five years of age presenting to Kenyatta National Hospital with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor and to evaluate the relationship between hypo-phosphataemia and nutritional intervention during the first five days of treatment.
DESIGN:
Short longitudinal survey.
SETTING:
The General Paediatric wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi.
SUBJECTS:
Children under five years of age presenting with kwashiorkor or marasmic kwashiorkor at KNH were recruited into the study. Main outcome measures: Low serum phosphate level (< 1.20 mmol/l) and patient outcome (survival or death) during the first five days of treatment.
RESULTS:
One hundred and sixty five children were enrolled between June 2005 and February 2006 of which 107 (64%) had kwashiorkor and 58 (36%) had marasmic kwashiorkor. They were of mean age 20 months (range 3-60), and 95 (58%) were male. The prevalence of hypo-phosphataemia was 86% on admission, increased to 90% and 93% on day one and two respectively, and then declined to 90% by the fourth day. At admission 6% were hypo-phosphataemic, increasing to 18% and 22% on day one and two respectively, and declining to 11% by day four. On admission mean serum phosphate was below normal at 0.91 mmol/l, declined significantly to 0.67 mmol/l and to a nadir of 0.63 mmol/l after the first and second day of treatment respectively, then rose slightly to 0.75 mmol/l on the fourth day (p < 0.001 comparing each follow-up mean level with the admission level). There was a positive association between severity of nadir serum phosphate level and mortality (p = 0.028). There were no deaths among children with normal nadir serum phosphate levels. However, among children with mild, moderate and severe nadir hypo-phosphataemia, 8,14 and 21% died respectively. Children with dermatosis and hypomagnesaemia showed a trend for association with mortality (p = 0.082 and 0.099 respectively).
CONCLUSION:
Hypo-phosphataemia is frequent among children with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor presenting at KNH. Serum phosphate levels decline significantly during the first two days of nutritional

Farquhar C, Selig S, John-Stewart G, Mabuka J, Majiwa M, Sutton W, Haigwood N, Wariua G L-PB. "Immune responses to measles and tetanus vaccines among Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy and revaccination." Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Apr;28(4):295-9. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181903ed3. 14. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
: HIV-1-infected children have lower response rates after measles and tetanus immunization than uninfected children. We determined the extent to which highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) augments vaccine immunity and promotes responses to revaccination.
METHODS:
: Previously immunized, antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected children were evaluated for immunity against measles and tetanus. After 6 months on HAART, children meeting CD4% criteria (>15%) who were persistently antibody negative were revaccinated and immunity was reassessed.
RESULTS:
: At enrollment, among 90 children with mean age of 4.9 years, 67% had negative measles IgG and 22% negative tetanus IgG. Among 62 children completing 6 months on HAART, 17 (40%) of 43 without protective measles IgG converted and 10 (53%) of 19 positive children lost measles responses (P = 0.3). Children who lost responses had significantly lower measles antibody concentrations than those who remained measles IgG positive during follow-up (7.1 vs. 20.3 mg/mL; P = 0.003). Three (23%) of 13 children negative for tetanus IgG spontaneously seroconverted on HAART, while 15 (31%) of 49 children lost tetanus antibody (P = 0.008). There was a nonsignificant trend for an association between spontaneous measles seroconversion and lower baseline HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.06). Tetanus seroconversion was associated with older age (P = 0.03). After revaccination, positive responses were observed in 78% and 75% of children reimmunized against measles and tetanus, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
: After 6 months of HAART, more than half of previously immunized children still lacked positive measles antibody. With increased use of HAART in pediatric populations, revaccination against measles and tetanus should be considered to boost response rates and immunization coverage.

J.W. Muthomi, J.N. Nyaga, F. M. Olubayo, J.H.Nderitu, J.N. Kabira, S.M. Kiretai, and AJA, Wakahiu M. "Incidence of aphid-transmitted viruses in farmer-based seed potato tubers in Kenya." Asian journal of plant science. 2009;8(2):166-171.incidence_of_aphid-transmitted_viruses_in_farmer-based_seed_potato_tubers_in_kenya.pdf
F.O. Ayuke, N.K. Karanja, E.M. Muya, B.K. Musombi, Mungatu J, Nyamasyo GHN. "Macrofauna diversity and abundance across land use systems in Embu, Kenya." Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems,. 2009:371-384.
Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA, et al. "Medication diaries do not improve outcomes with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Kenyan children: a randomized clinical trial ." Journal of the International AIDS Society Research. 2009. Abstractmedication_diaries_do_not_improve_outcomes.pdf

Abstract
Background: As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) becomes increasingly available to African children,
it is important to evaluate simple and feasible methods of improving adherence in order to maximize benefits of
therapy.
Methods: HIV-1-infected children initiating World Health Organization non-nucleoside reverse transcriptaseinhibitor-
containing first-line HAART regimens were randomized to use medication diaries plus counselling, or
counselling only (the control arm of the study). The diaries were completed daily by caregivers of children
randomized to the diary and counselling arm for nine months. HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ T cell count, and z-scores for
weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were measured at a baseline and every three to six months.
Self-reported adherence was assessed by questionnaires for nine months.
Results: Ninety HIV-1-infected children initiated HAART, and were followed for a median of 15 months
(interquartile range: 2–21). Mean CD4 percentage was 17.2% in the diary arm versus 16.3% in the control arm at
six months (p = 0.92), and 17.6% versus 18.9% at 15 months (p = 0.36). Virologic response with HIV-1 RNA of
<100 copies/ml at nine months was similar between the two arms (50% for the diary arm and 36% for the control,
p = 0.83). The weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height at three, nine and 15 months after HAART
initiation were similar between arms. A trend towards lower self-reported adherence was observed in the diary
versus the control arm (85% versus 92%, p = 0.08).
Conclusion: Medication diaries did not improve clinical and virologic response to HAART over a 15-month
period. Children had good adherence and clinical response without additional interventions. This suggests that
paediatric HAART with conventional counselling can be a successful approach. Further studies on targeted
approaches for non-adherent children will be important.

Terkawi AM, Aboge G, Jia H, Goo Y-K, Ooka H, Yamagishi J, Nishikawa Y, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I, Kawazu S-I, Fujisaki K, Xuan X. "Molecular and immunological characterization of Babesia gibsoni.". 2009. Abstract

Serological immune screening was used to identify a gene encoding heat shock protein-70 from Babesia gibsoni (BgHSP-70) that showed high homology with HSP-70s from other apicomplexan parasites. This gene corresponded to a full-length cDNA containing an open reading frame of 1968 bp predicted to result in a 70-kDa mature protein consisting of 656 amino acids. Analysis of the expression levels of BgHSP-70 indicated elevated transcription from cultured parasites incubated at 40C for 1 h, but not at 30C. Interestingly, antiserum raised against recombinant BgHSP-70 protein reacted specifically not only with a 70-kDa protein of B. gibsoni but also with a corresponding native protein of B. microti (BmHSP-70), indicating the high degree of conservation of this protein. The BmHSP-70 gene was then isolated and characterized and the immunoprotective properties of recombinant BgHSP-70 (rBgHSP-70) and rBmHSP-70 were compared in vitro and in vivo. Both proteins had potent mitogenic effects on murine and canine mononuclear cells as evidenced by high proliferative responses and IFN-c production after stimulation. Immunization regimes in BALB⁄c and C57BL⁄6 mice using rBgHSP-70 and rBmHSP-70 elicited high antibody levels, with concurrent significant reductions in peripheral parasitaemias. Taken together, these results emphasize the potential of HSP-70s as a molecular adjuvant vaccine

F M, JG K. "Multifetal preganancies at a maternity hospital in Nairobi. ." ; East African Medical Journal. 2009;86 .((4)):162-5.
Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, Richardson B, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Farquhar C, Bosire R, Barbara Lohman Payne, John-Stewart G. "Pediatric HIV-1 in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Background—There is limited information regarding the pattern and correlates of viral replication in vertically HIV-1–infected children and its role on their outcomes in resource-limited settings. Methods—HIV-1–infected infants were followed from birth to 24 months. Serial HIV-1 RNA levels were compared in infants infected in utero (<48 hours), peripartum (48 hours–1 month), and late postnatal (after 1 month). Cofactors for viral peak [highest viral load (VL) within 6 months of infection] and set point and mortality were determined. Results—Among 85 HIV-1–infected infants, 24 were infected in utero, 41 peripartum, 13 late postnatal; 7 had no 48-hour assay. HIV-1 VL set point was significantly lower in infants infected >1 month vs. ≤1 month (5.59 vs. 6.24 log10 copies per milliliter, P = 0.01). Maternal VL correlated with peak infant VL (P < 0.001). Univariately, infant peak and set point VL and 6-month CD4% <15% predicted mortality; and 6-month CD4% <15% remained independently predictive in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.90 to 12.36). Conclusions—Infants infected after the age of 1 month contained virus better than infants infected before 1 month of age. Maternal VL predicted infant VL, which, in turn was associated with early mortality

Inwani I, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G. "Performance of Clinical Algorithms for HIV-1 Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Initiation among HIV-1-Exposed Children Aged Less Than 18 Months in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately 50% die before 2 years. Methods We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and ART initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: 1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), 2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and 3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA PCR testing. Findings A total of 1,418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1-infected. Compared to HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4 percent improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD to 74% and 84% respectively, however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively. Interpretation Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high prevalence, resource-limited setting remains a challenge and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Inwani I, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Performance of Clinical Algorithms for HIV-1 Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Initiation among HIV-1-Exposed Children Aged Less Than 18 Months in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately 50% die before 2 years. Methods We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and ART initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: 1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), 2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and 3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA PCR testing. Findings A total of 1,418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1-infected. Compared to HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4 percent improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD to 74% and 84% respectively, however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively. Interpretation Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high prevalence, resource-limited setting remains a challenge and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Jaoko W, OGUTU H, WAKASIAKA S, MALOGO R, NDAMBUKI R, NYANGE J, OMOSA-MANYONYI G, FAST P, SCHMIDT C, VERLINDE C, SMITH C, Bhatt KM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Anzala O. "Pregnancy rates among female participants in phase I and phase IIA AIDS vaccine clinical trials in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Female participants in AIDS candidate vaccine clinical trials must agree to use effective contraception to be enrolled into the studies, and for a specified period after vaccination, since the candidate vaccines’ effects on the embryo or foetus are unknown.country settings. Effective female-controlled contraceptives, administered at the clinical trial site, may empower female participants to better control their fertility, leading to more complete clinical trial data.

Jaoko W, OGUTU H, WAKASIAKA S, MALOGO R, NDAMBUKI R, NYANGE J, OMOSA-MANYONYI G, FAST P, SCHMIDT C, VERLINDE C, SMITH C, Bhatt KM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Anzala O. "Pregnancy rates among female participants in phase I and phase IIA AIDS vaccine clinical trials in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Female participants in AIDS candidate vaccine clinical trials must agree to use effective contraception to be enrolled into the studies, and for a specified period after vaccination, since the candidate vaccines’ effects on the embryo or foetus are unknown.country settings. Effective female-controlled contraceptives, administered at the clinical trial site, may empower female participants to better control their fertility, leading to more complete clinical trial data.

Willems P, Ogiramoi NP, Mutua F, Abdo G, Kabubi J, Fahmi AH, Sonbol M, Lotfy A, Kimaro TA, Mkhandi S, Opere AI. "Regional Flood Frequency Analysis for the River Nile Basin." Bull. Séanc. Acad. R. Sci. Outre-Mer / Meded. Zitt. K.Acad. Overzeese Wet.. 2009;55(4):555-570.
Willems P, Ogira PN, Mutua F, Abdo G, Kabubi J, Fahmi AH, Sonbol M, Lotfy A, Kimaro TA, Mkhandi S, Opere A, Ibrahim YA, Kizza M, Tadesse L, Motaleb AM, Farid S, Zaki A, Al-Weshah R. "Regional Flood Frequency Analysis for the River Nile Basin." Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen. 2009;55(4):555-570. AbstractLirias

Regional differences have been investigated in the probabilities of high and low river flow extremes along the river Nile basin in eastern Africa. This has been done on the basis of statistical extreme value analysis applied to about one hundred flow gauging stations spread over the basin. The statistical analysis results have been combined with physical sub-basin characteristics such as topography and land use. The research has been conducted within the framework of the FRIEND/Nile project, which focuses on regional hydrology research cooperation between the main Nile countries (Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda) and the Flemish universities. The high- and low-flow statistics developed can be used in water engineering and civil engineering design applications. Of equal importance are the supratechnical research outputs, among which enhancement of water-related transboundary research cooperation in the Nile region. During the course of the project, trust among the researchers and water managers from the different Nile countries gradually increased, data sharing enhanced, and politically sensitive issues (on transboundary water sharing) became debatable.

Stephen Gichuhi, Rose Bosire DM-N, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009 ; 16(6): 337–345. doi:10.3109/09286580903144746. 2009. Abstractrisk_factors_for_neonatal_conjunctivitis_in_babies_of_hiv-1.pdf

Abstract
Purpose—To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born
to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers.
Methods—This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1
seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after
delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth.
Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida)
were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections
diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular
prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine
cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status.
Results—Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal
conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR)
and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis
(adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91,
95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95%
CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis.
Conclusions—Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal
conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a
need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis,
birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of
neonatal conjunctivitis in this population.

Gichuhi S, Bosire R, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, Wariua G, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, John-Stewart GC. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers.". 2009. Abstract

o determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers. Methods—This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1 seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth. Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida) were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status. Results—Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis (adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91, 95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis. Conclusions—Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis, birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of neonatal conjunctivitis in this population.

Gichuhi S, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, Otieno P J-SGC. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009 Nov-Dec;16(6):337-45. doi: 10.3109/09286580903144746.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
PURPOSE:
To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers.
METHODS:
This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1 seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth. Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida) were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status.
RESULTS:
Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis (adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91, 95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis.
CONCLUSIONS:
Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis, birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of neonatal conjunctivitis in this population.

Karanja N.K, F.O A, E.M M, B.K M. "Soil macrofauna community structure across land use systems of Taita, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

This paper presents data on diversity and abundance of soil macrofauna in various land use systems in Taita (natural forest, plantation forest, fallow, coffee, napier, and maize, Horticulture. Each was sampled for macrofauna using three sampling methods (monolith, transect and pitfall trapping). Seventy eight (78) genera/species were recorded across the different land use systems of Taita. Rényi diversity profile indicated no significant differences in species richness across land use systems as reflected by the very close diversity profiles at α = 0. However, the two diversity indices (Shannon index: α = 1 and Simpson’s index: α = 2) indicated that plantation forest was the most diverse of the land use systems, while fallow and maize were least diverse. Rényi evenness profile indicated that the plantation forest was most even in terms of species distribution which was least in maize. However because some of the profiles for some land use systems cross each other, they could not be ranked. The major macrofauna groups recorded in the Taita benchmark site included: Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Coleoptera, Oligochaeta and Orthoptera and Arenae. Generally Hymenoptera were the most abundant of the macrofauna groups constituting about 36% of the total followed by Isoptera (22%), Oligochaeta (16%), Coleoptera (10%). The other macrofauna (Arenae, Diplopoda, Diptera, Orthoptera, Blattidae, Isopoda, Chilopoda- Geopholomorpha, Hemiptera, Opiliones,Chiopoda-Scolopendromorpha, Lepidoptera, Dermaptera, Phasmidae, Blattelidae and Mantodea each constituted <10% of the total macrofauna recorded. Hymenoptera was ranked 1st as it had the highest total abundance (59,440 individuals m-2), while Mantodea was ranked 18th and had the lowest total abundance (6 individuals m-2). Generally macrofauna density was higher in arable systems than forests, although the differences were not always significant. Except for Chilopoda-Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda- Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda, all the other macroafauna groups were not significantly different across land use systems. The three groups (Chilopoda- Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda- Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda) were significantly highest in the forests than in all the other land use systems. These variation appear to be associated with management practices that consequently results in the destruction of nesting habitats, modification of soil microclimate within these habitats and removal of substrate, low diversity and availability of food sources for the associated macrofauna groups. The significant correlations between some soil macrofauna groups with selected soil chemical properties too show that, soil chemical characteristics may indirectly play a role in influencing the density, distribution and structure of macrofauna communities. This indicates the potential of using these fauna groups as bio-indicators of soil productivity. Key words: Macrofauna; community structure; diversity; abundance; land use systems.

N.K. Karanja, F.O. Ayuke, E.M. Mua, Musombi BK, Nyamasyo GHN. "Soil Macrofauna community structure across land-use systems of Taita, Kenya, ." Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. . 2009:385-396.
Bredholt T, Dimba EAO, Hagland HR, Wergeland L, Skavland J, Fossan KO, Tronstad KJ, Johannessen AC, Vintermyr OK, Gjertsen BT. "Camptothecin and khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) induced distinct cell death phenotypes involving modulation of c-FLIPL, Mcl-1, procaspase-8 and mitochondrial function in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines." Molecular cancer. 2009;8:1-13. Abstract
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Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, Fisher JN. "Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1335-1343. Abstract
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Tabu C, Sharif C, Okoth P, Kioko J, Nzioka C, Muthoka P, Ope M, Makama S, Kalani R, Ochieng W, Simwa J, Schnabel D, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Onsongo J, Njenga K, Breiman R, Kearney A, Sick A, Harris R, Lebo E, Munyua P, Wakhule L, Waiboci-Muhia L, Gikundi S, Gikunju S, Omballa V, Nderitu L, Mayieka L, Kabura W, Omulo S, Odhiambo D, Wachira C, Kikwai G, Feikin D, Katz M. "Introduction and transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus - Kenya, June-July 2009." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2009;58:1143-1146. Abstract
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Berenyi M, Mauleon RP, Kopecky D, Wandl S, Friedl R, Fluch S, Boonruangrod R, Muge E, Burg K. "Isolation of plant gene space-related sequence elements by high C+ G patch (HCGP) filtration: model study on rice." Plant molecular biology reporter. 2009;27:79-85. Abstract
n/a
Adebambo AO, G. Bjørnstad, W. Bulimo, H. Jianlin, G. Kierstein, L. Mazhani, B. Podisi, J. Hirbo, K. Agyemang, C. Wollny, T. Gondwe, V. Zeuh D, Tadelle, G. Abebe, P. Abdoulaye, S. Paco, L. Serunjogi, M. Abrerrahman, R. Sow, S. Weigend, R. Sanfo, F. Gaye, E. Ssewanyana, M. D. Coulibaly, B. Teme, VSF(Sudan), Hanotte. O. "Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Analysis of South Western Nigerian Chicken." Archivos de Zootecnia. 2009;58:637-643. Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop segment was sequenced for a total of 98 individuals of domestic chicken from South Western Nigeria. Domestic chicken populations were: Anak titan (Israeli breed,n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzleXOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (Indian breed,n= 3), Normal (n= 55), Naked neck (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for the analysis. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in the samples, 15 for Nigerian indigenous chicken population, 1 for Giriraja and 1 for Anak titan from 23 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nigerian indigenous and Anak titan chicken were all grouped under clade IV, while the Indian Giriraja was under clade IIIc. Clade IV had 16 haplotypes, while clade IIIc had one haplotype. AMOVA analysis indicates that 97.32% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within population and 2.68% between populations. Our results suggest single multiple maternal origins for the South Western Nigerian domestic chicken.

Stankovic T, Taylor M, Falciani F, Kearns P, Lawson S, Powell JE, Sameith K, Mapp K, Skowronska A, Agathanggelou A, others. "Stratification of pediatric ALL by in vitro cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical response.". 2009. Abstract
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Ting JYS, Farley R. "Subhepatically located appendicitis due to adhesions: a case report." Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2008;2:339. AbstractWebsite

Acute appendicitis occurs frequently and is a major indication for acute abdominal surgery. Subhepatic appendicitis has rarely been reported and is more difficult to diagnose. PMID: 18973703

Thim T, Hagensen MK, Bentzon JF, Falk E. "From vulnerable plaque to atherothrombosis." Journal of internal medicine. 2008;263:506-516. Abstract

Plaque rupture precipitates approximately 75% of all fatal coronary thrombi. Therefore, the plaque prone to rupture is the primary focus of this review. The lipid-rich core and fibrous cap are pivotal in the understanding of plaque rupture. Plaque rupture is a localized process within the plaque caused by degradation of a tiny fibrous cap rather than by diffuse inflammation of the plaque. Atherosclerosis is a multifocal disease, but plaques prone to rupture seem to be oligofocal at most.

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Stentz FB. "Thirty years of personal experience in hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2008;93:1541-1552. Abstract

CONTEXT: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) cause major morbidity and significant mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. For more than 30 yr, our group, in a series of prospective, randomized clinical studies, has investigated the pathogenesis and evolving strategies of the treatment of hyperglycemic crises. This paper summarizes the results of these prospective studies on the management and pathophysiology of DKA. SETTING: Our earliest studies evaluated the comparative efficacy of low-dose vs. pharmacological amounts of insulin and the use of low-dose therapy by various routes in adults and later in children. Subsequent studies evaluated phosphate and bicarbonate therapy, lipid metabolism, ketosis-prone type 2 patients, and use of rapid-acting insulin analogs as well as leptin status, cardiac risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and the mechanism of activation of T lymphocytes in hyperglycemic crises. MAIN OUTCOME: The information garnered from these studies resulted in the creation of the 2001 American Diabetes Association (ADA) technical review on DKA and HHS as well as the ADA Position and Consensus Paper on the therapy for hyperglycemic crises. CONCLUSIONS: Areas of future research include prospective randomized studies to do the following: 1) establish the efficacy of bicarbonate therapy in DKA for a pH less than 6.9; 2) establish the need for a bolus insulin dose in the initial therapy of DKA; 3) determine the pathophysiological mechanisms for the absence of ketosis in HHS; 4) investigate the reasons for elevated proinflammatory cytokines and cardiovascular risk factors; and 5) evaluate the efficacy and cost benefit of using sc regular insulin vs. more expensive insulin analogs on the general ward for the treatment of DKA.

Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Ruth Nduati, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Condom use among sexually active Kenyan female adolescents at risk for HIV-1 infection." AIDS Behav. 2008;12(6):923-9. Abstract

High rates of unintended pregnancy and HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa yet few Kenyan studies have defined correlates of condom use in sexually active female adolescents. Female adolescents receiving reproductive health care and aged 15-19 were interviewed. The prevalence of ever-use of condom was 21.4% and 52 (7.3%) subjects were infected with HIV-1. Older age, higher levels of education, ever-use of hormonal contraceptives and higher numbers of sexual partners, non-consensual sex and exchange of sex for favours, were independent correlates of condom use. Condom use should be promoted in this population. Further exploration is needed on the developmental and contextual factors predisposing female adolescents to increased risk of HIV.

John FN, Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Kabura MN, John-Stewart GC. "Cost effectiveness of couple counselling to enhance infant HIV-1 prevention." Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19(6):406-9. Abstract

Data collected in the years 2001--2003 from an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, were used to assess the benefit of couple counselling and test it as a way of increasing the uptake of interventions in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Among 2833 women enrolled, 311 (11%) received couple pretest counselling and 2100 (74%) accepted HIV-1 testing. Among those tested 314 (15%) were HIV-1 seropositive. We incorporated these and other data from the cohort study into a spreadsheet-based model and costs associated with couple counselling were compared with individual counselling in a theoretical cohort of 10,000 women. Voluntary couple counselling and testing (VCT), although more expensive, averted a greater number of infant infections when compared with individual VCT. Cost per disability-adjusted life year was similar to that of individual VCT. Sensitivity analyses found that couple VCT was more cost-effective in scenarios with increased uptake of couple counselling and higher HIV-1 prevalence.

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Peshu N. "Health systems research in a low-income country: easier said than done." Arch. Dis. Child.. 2008;93(6):540-4. Abstract

Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in the health systems of many low-income countries. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved, hospital care for referred severely ill children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet little is known about how to achieve this. This article describes the evolution and final design of an intervention study that is attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. It illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system, rather than an individual, level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question: does it work? Although there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries, the importance of strong, broadly based local partnerships and long-term commitment even to initiate projects is not always appreciated.

De Vuyst H, Gichangi P, Estambale B, Njuguna E, Franceschi S, Temmerman M. "Human papillomavirus types in women with invasive cervical carcinoma by HIV status in Kenya." Int. J. Cancer. 2008;122(1):244-6. Abstract

To evaluate the fraction of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) that could be prevented in HIV-infected women by vaccines currently available against human papillomavirus (HPV)16 and 18, we conducted a cross-sectional study in women with ICC in Nairobi, Kenya. Fifty-one HIV-positive women were frequency-matched by age to 153 HIV-negative women. Cervical cells were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction-based assays (SPF10-INNO-LiPA). Comparisons were adjusted for multiplicity of HPV types. As expected, multiple-type infections were much more frequent in HIV-positive (37.2%) than in HIV-negative (13.7%) women, but the distribution of HPV types was similar. HPV16 was detected in 41.2% versus 43.8% and HPV16 and/or 18 in 64.7% versus 60.1% of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women, respectively. The only differences of borderline statistical significance were an excess of HPV52 (19.6% versus 5.2%) and a lack of HPV45 (7.8% versus 17.0%) in HIV-positive women compared to HIV-negative women, respectively. We have been able to assess an unprecedented number of ICCs in HIV-positive women, but as we did not know the age of HIV acquisition, we cannot exclude that it had occurred too late in life to affect the type of HPV involved in cervical carcinogenesis. However, if our findings were confirmed, they would suggest that the efficacy of current vaccines against HPV16 and 18 to prevent ICC is similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, provided vaccination is administered before sexual debut, as recommended.

Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2008;3(2):e1599. Abstract

Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya.

WG C, GW D, MO N, FK N, JM M. "Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants." Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103(7):650-2.
Fredrick O. "THE BULL AND BEAR MARKET AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." Aim Journal of Business . 2008. Abstract

This research sought to establish the existence of the bull and bear market at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The bull market is experienced when the prices of securities are in an upward trend while the Bear market is experienced when the prices of securities are in a downward trend. Bull and bear market can be traced back to the time of Charles Dow when he made analysis of trends in the stock market. The current and potential investors do not have any form of reference when making investment decisions, they will therefore benefit from this research since they will confirm which months are prone to the bull and bear markets and therefore not dispose their stocks in panic and also know the best time to purchase shares respectively. The Government will also benefit from it since it will be able to create a conducive environment for investment in the stock exchange and also for taxation purposes. It will also be useful to the Capital Markets Authority which is the main regulator of the Nairobi Securities Exchange since they will establish the genuine bull and bear market. The research was entirely based on secondary data from stocks of the year 2006. The research design was historical since it was dealing with issues that had occurred. Some fifteen out of the fifty two equities of companies trading in the Nairobi Securities Exchange were analyzed. Stratified and purposive samplings were used to select the fifteen companies. The data was analysed using percentages, mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. The findings confirmed that all the sampled stocks experienced both the bull and bear market. January, February and March were the months when most stocks experienced the bear market while August to November were the months when the majority of stocks experienced bull market. The study recommends the licensing of more stock brokers by CMA and also a further research into the role of stock brokers in influencing stock prices in the secondary market.

Flora N. Namu, John M. Githaiga, Esther N.Kioko, Paul N. Ndegwa, L. C. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests, in:Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya)." Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft, Germany. 2008:47-61.
F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E.N. Kioko, Ndegwa PN, C.L. Häuser, L.Kühn. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica (Drury, 1773) in Kakamega Forest National Reserve (KFNR) Kenya." Metamorphosis. 2008;18(4):142-143. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M. "Effect of Newborn Resuscitation Training on Health Worker Practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya.". 2008;3(2):1-7. Abstract

Background: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya.

Methods/Principal Findings: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group, n = 55). The training was adapted locally from the approach of the UK Resuscitation Council. The primary outcome was the proportion of appropriate initial resuscitation steps with the frequency of inappropriate practices as a secondary outcome. Data were collected on 97 and 115 resuscitation episodes over 7 weeks after early training in the intervention and control groups respectively. Trained providers demonstrated a higher proportion of adequate initial resuscitation steps compared to the control group (trained 66% vs control 27%; risk ratio 2.45, [95% CI 1.75–3.42], p,0.001, adjusted for clustering). In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of inappropriate and potentially harmful practices per resuscitation in the trained group (trained 0.53 vs control 0.92; mean difference 0.40, [95% CI 0.13–0.66], p = 0.004).

Conclusions/Significance: Implementation of a simple, one day newborn resuscitation training can be followed immediately by significant improvement in health workers’ practices. However, evidence of the effects on long term performance or clinical outcomes can only be established by larger cluster randomised trials.

Mathara JM;, Schillinger U, Kutima PM, Mbugua SK, Guigas C, Franz C, Holzapfel WH. "Functional properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk products in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Lactobacillus plantarum was the major species among the lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk of the Maasai in Kenya. Selected strains were characterized for their functional properties using in vitro standard procedures. All strains expressed acid tolerance at pH 2.0 after 2-h exposure of values that ranged from 1% to 100%, while bile tolerance of acid-stressed cells at 0.3% oxgal varied from 30% to 80%. In vitro adhesion to the mucus-secreting cell line HT 29 MTX and binding capacity to extracellular protein matrices was demonstrated for several strains. The four strains tested in a simulated stomach duodenum passage survived with recovery rates ranging from 17% to 100%. Strains were intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics tested. From these in vitro studies, a number of Lb. plantarum strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk showed probiotic potential. The strains are good candidates for multifunctional starter culture development.

Wall DH, Bradford MA, John MGST, Trofymows JA, Behan-Pelletier V, Bignell DE, Dangerfield JM, Parton WM, Rusek, J. FOI, Voight, W., Wolters V, Gardel HZ, Ayuke FO, Bashford R, Beljakova OI, Bohlen PJ, Brauman A, Flemming S, Henschel JR, Johnson DL, Jones TF, Kovarova, M., Kranabetter JM, Kutny L, Kuo-Chuan L, Maryati M, Masse D, Pokarzhevskii A, Rahman H, Sabara MG, Joerg-Alfred S, Swift MJ, Varela A, Vasconcelos HL, White D, Zou X. "Global decomposition experiment shows soil animal impacts on decomposition are climate- dependent." Global Change Biology. 2008;14:2661-2677. Abstract

Climate and litter quality are primary drivers of terrestrial decomposition and, based on evidence from multisite experiments at regional and global scales, are universally factored into global decomposition models. In contrast, soil animals are considered key regulators of decomposition at local scales but their role at larger scales is unresolved. Soil animals are consequently excluded from global models of organic
mineralization processes. Incomplete assessment of the roles of soil animals stems from the difficulties of manipulating invertebrate animals experimentally across large geographic gradients. This is compounded by deficient or inconsistent taxonomy. We report a global decomposition experiment to assess the importance of soil animals in C mineralization, in which a common grass litter substrate was exposed to natural decomposition in either control or reduced animal treatments across 30 sites distributed from 431S to 681N on six continents. Animals in the mesofaunal size range were recovered from the litter by Tullgren extraction and identified to common specifications, mostly at the ordinal level. The design of the trials enabled faunal contribution to be evaluated against abiotic parameters between sites. Soil animals increase decomposition rates in temperate and wet tropical climates, but have neutral effects where temperature or moisture constrain biological activity. Our findings highlight that faunal influences on
decomposition are dependent on prevailing climatic conditions. We conclude that (1) inclusion of soil animals will improve the predictive capabilities of region- or biomescale decomposition models, (2) soil animal influences on decomposition are important at the regional scale when attempting to predict global change scenarios, and (3) the statistical relationship between decomposition rates and climate, at the global scale, is robust against changes in soil faunal abundance and diversity.

Keywords: climate decomposition index, decomposition, litter, mesofauna, soil biodiversity, soil
carbon, soil fauna

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Peshu N. "Health systems research in a low income country - easier said than done.". 2008;93(6):540-544. Abstract

Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in many low-income country health systems. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved hospital care for severely ill, referred children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet we know little about how to achieve this. We describe the evolution and final design of an intervention study attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. We believe our experience illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system rather than an individual level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question - does it work? While there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries the importance of strong, broadly-based local partnerships and long term commitment even to initiate projects are not always appreciated.

J..W. Kimenju, A.M. Kagundu, J.H.Nderitu, F. Mambala, and MGK, Kariuki GM. "Incorporation of Green Manure Plants into Bean Cropping Systems Contribute to Root-Knot Nematode Suppression." Asian journal of plant science. 2008;7:404-408.
Matemo D;, Kinuthia J;, John F;, Chung M;, Farquhar C;, Stewart J;G, Kiarie J. "Indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers.". 2008. Abstract

Summary: The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott DetermineTM and false-negative Uni-GoldTM rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott DetermineTM and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine were re-tested by Uni-GoldTM. Vironostika HIV-1 and Uni-FORM II Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to confirm samples that had positive Abbott DetermineTM and negative Uni-GoldTM. Among 2311 women who accepted HIV-1 testing, 1238 (54%) were tested antenatallyand 1073 (46%) were tested postnatally. Of tested women, 274 (12%) women were reactive by Abbott DetermineTM and on retesting with Uni-GoldTM 30 (11%) had indeterminate results. The prevalence of indeterminate results was significantly higher in antenatal women than in postnatal women (2% versus 1%,P¼ 0.03). In conclusion, indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results are more common in the antenatal period and appropriate safeguards to confirm HIV-1 infection status should be implemented in antenatal programmes.

Musembi RJ, Rusu M, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner MC. "Intensity and temperature dependent characterization of eta solar cell." 9. physica status solidi (a). 2008;205(7):1713-1718. AbstractWebsite

Temperature-dependent electrical characterization of a highly structured TiO2/In(OH)x Sy /Pb(OH)x Sy /PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell has been carried out. The transport mechanism in this type of solar cell has been investigated. A schematic energy band diagram which explains the photoelectrical properties of the device has been proposed. The solar cell has been characterized in the temperature range 200–320 K at illumination intensities between 0.05 mW/cm2 and 100 mW/cm2. The diode ideality factor A under illumination has been found to vary between 1.2 and 1.6, whereas in the dark 6.9 ≤ A ≤ 10.1. The device has been found to undergo a thermally activated recombination under illumination, while tunnelling enhanced recombination has been established to dominate the current in the dark. The solar cell efficiency shows a logarithmic dependence on illumination in the whole temperature range investigated, achieving its maximum at an illumination of ∼45 mW/cm2. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

and F. A. Okalebo, I. O. Kibwage MTGCKGAN. "Isolation of Quercetrin from Clematis brachiata Thunberg." East African Journal of Botany. 2008;1 (2) :179-181. Abstract

Quercetrin (3-0-beta-L-rbamnosyl 3', 4', 5, 7 tetra hydroxy flavone) was isolated from the
stem of Clematis brachiata Thunberg. The yield was 0.029 % w/w of dried stem powder.

Onwonga RN, Lelei JJ, Freyer B, Friedel JK, Mwonga SM, Wandhawa P. "Low Cost Technologies for Enhancing N and P Availability and Maize (Zea mays L.) Performance on Acid Soils." World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;4(s):862-873.onwonga_et_al_2008_low_cost_technologies_for_enhancing_n_and_p_availability_2.pdf
F.G. M, Wagaiyu EG, EM N, Gathece L, Mutara LN, T.K M. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly in Nairobi popolation.". 2008.
Dimba EAO, F.G. M, IN N, P W, Chindia ML. "oral and dental effects of khat chewing in the Eastleigh area of Nairobi.". 2008.
Chindia M, W. GS, F.G. M, odhiambo W.A. "pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.". 2008.
F. M. A. Butt, M. L. Chindia RMFFG. "Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIVinfected patients in Kenya." Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 2008;37:907-911.head_and_neck_maniferstations_of_hiv_2008.pdf
Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, F.G. M. "Patttern and clinical characteristics of Firearm Injuries.". 2008.
Muasya T, Lore W, Yano K, Yatsuhashi H, Owiti FR, Fukuda M, Tamada MY, Kulundu J, Tukei J, Okoth FA. "Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and its genotypes among a cohort of drug users in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and that of its main genotypes varies between the worlds geographic regions. The risk factors for infection with HCV include blood transfusion, tattoing and injecting drug use. To examine the prevalence of HCV and determine its main genotypes among a cohort of drug users in Kenya. A laboratory based study. Hepatitis research laboratory in the Centre for Virus Research at the Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi. Three hundred and fourteen male and 19 female intravenous and non-intravenous drug users aged between 15-55 years. Seventy four (22.2%) out of 333 samples tested positive for anti-HCV. Sixty nine out of the 74 serum samples were assayed for HCV RNA and 38 (55.5%) were positive. The RNA positive samples were further subjected to sequencing and 19 (73%) of the samples were classified as genotype 1a, while seven (27%) samples were classified as genotype 4. Genotypes 2, 3, 5 and 6 were not identified in this study. These results demonstrate a high HCV infection prevalence among this cohort of drug users (22.2%) as compared to that of the general population, which is estimated to be 0.2-0.9%. The study also confirms the presence of at least two major genotypes among Kenyan drug users (genotypes 1 and 4).

Falco DG, Cerino G, Leucci E, Nyagol J, Cocco M, Onnis A, Tosi P, Giordano A, Leoncini L. "Role of chromatin remodelling mediated by the HIV-1 Tat protein in the genesis of the HIV-1-associated malignancies." Virchows Archives. 2008;452(S43).
Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatta K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin B, Dally L, Johnson B, Muluubya A, Nielsen L, Hayes P, Boaz M, Hughes P, Hanke T´aˇs, McMichael A, Bwayo JJ, Kaleebu P. "Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant low-dosage HIV-1 A vaccine candidates vectored by plasmid pTHr DNA or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in humans in East Africa.". 2008. Abstract

The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN- ) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

Farquhar C, VanCott T, Bosire R, Bermudez C, Mbori-Ngacha D, Lohman-Payne B, Nduati R, Otieno P, John-Stewart G. "Salivary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific immunoglobulin A in HIV-1-exposed infants in Kenya.". 2008.
McKinnon LR, Ball TB, Wachihi C, Chinga N, Maingi A, Luo M, Fowke KR, Plummer FA. "Substantial Intrapatient Differences In The Breadth And Specificity Of Hiv-specific Cd8+ T-cell Interferon-gamma And Proliferation Responses.". 2008. Abstract

HIV vaccine design and evaluation require a better understanding of protective immune responses. HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses have been characterized extensively using interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays, which do not always correlate with control of viral replication or disease progression. Alternative aspects of CD8+ T-cell responses, in particular those associated with a central memory (Tcm) phenotype, may be more protective against disease progression. To determine the extent that the breadth and specificity of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses differ based on immunological readout, we screened in HIV-infected Kenyan sex workers for responses to HIV Env using IFN-gamma ELISPOT and 6-day carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester-based proliferation assays. This comparison revealed substantial differences in the epitopes recognized when the assay readout was IFN-gamma versus proliferation. Although 24 and 41 IFN-gamma and proliferative responses were identified, overlapping specificity was observed for only 5 responses. Breadth also differed between assays in several patients. Env-specific IFN-gamma breadth was found to correlate inversely with CD4 count (r = -0.66, P = 0.005), although this was not the case for proliferation. These data suggest that efforts to define HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses may need to be revisited using additional immunological readouts.

Mureithi MW, Finn A, Ota MO, Zhang Q, Davenport V, Mitchell TJ, Williams NA, Adegbola RA, Heyderman RS. "T Cell memory response to pneumococcal protein antigens in an area of high pneumococcal carriage and disease.". 2008. Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable disease worldwide. Pneumococcal protein antigens are currently under study as components of potential vaccines that offer protection against multiple serotypes. We have therefore characterized T cell pneumococcal immunity acquired through asymptomatic carriage. Methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 healthy Gambian adults were stimulated with supernatants derived from S. pneumoniae strain (D39), 2 isogenic mutant strains lacking either pneumolysin or choline binding protein A, and recombinant pneumolysin. Immune responses were measured by cellular proliferation and by interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-g (IFN-g) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot and bioplex cytokine assays. Nasopharyngeal swabs were cultured to determine carriage rates. Results. S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was detected in 60% of individuals. Both effector and resting (or central) CD4+ T cell memory were frequently present to a range of pneumococcal antigens. However, the level of the effector memory response did not relate to current nasopharyngeal carriage. Pneumolysin was not immunodominant in these T cell responses but induced a distinct proinflammatory profile (high IFN-g, IL-12[p40], and L-17 levels and low IL-10 and IL-13 levels). Conclusions. In this population, T cell–mediated immunological memory potentially capable of pathogen clearance and immune surveillance is common but is not associated with the absolute interruption of pneumococcal carriage. How this naturally acquired immune memory influences pneumococcal vaccine efficacy remains to be determined.

Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, F.G. M. "A two-Year Audit of the Occurrence and characteristic of cranio-Maxillofacial Firearm injuries at a Major Teaching Hospital in Nairobi." Afr. journal of Oral Health Schience. 2008.
Huch NKM, Hanak AS, Specht I, Dortu CM, Thonart P, Mbugua S, Holzapfel WH, Hertel C, Franz CM. "Use of Lactobacillus strains to start cassava fermentations for Gari production.". 2008.
Frenea, J.; Bonneaua MD; S. "Velocity Measurements Grease – Lubricating Film of a Sliding Contact.". 2008. Abstract

Experimental results of the velocity distribution in a grease-lubricated cylindrical sliding contact are obtained. A comparison is made with the theoretical results of a parabolic velocity distribution similar to that of a Newtonian fluid, derived from a Bingham plastic flow model. This equation compares very well with the experimental results.

Huberman AD, Feller MB, Chapman B. "Mechanisms underlying development of visual maps and receptive fields." Annual review of neuroscience. 2008;31:479-509. Abstract

Patterns of synaptic connections in the visual system are remarkably precise. These connections dictate the receptive field properties of individual visual neurons and ultimately determine the quality of visual perception. Spontaneous neural activity is necessary for the development of various receptive field properties and visual feature maps. In recent years, attention has shifted to understanding the mechanisms by which spontaneous activity in the developing retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex instruct the axonal and dendritic refinements that give rise to orderly connections in the visual system. Axon guidance cues and a growing list of other molecules, including immune system factors, have also recently been implicated in visual circuit wiring. A major goal now is to determine how these molecules cooperate with spontaneous and visually evoked activity to give rise to the circuits underlying precise receptive field tuning and orderly visual maps.

Huberman AD, Feller MB, Chapman B. "Mechanisms {Underlying} {Development} of {Visual} {Maps} and {Receptive} {Fields}." Annual Review of Neuroscience. 2008;31:479-509. AbstractWebsite

Patterns of synaptic connections in the visual system are remarkably precise. These connections dictate the receptive field properties of individual visual neurons and ultimately determine the quality of visual perception. Spontaneous neural activity is necessary for the development of various receptive field properties and visual feature maps. In recent years, attention has shifted to understanding the mechanisms by which spontaneous activity in the developing retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex instruct the axonal and dendritic refinements that give rise to orderly connections in the visual system. Axon guidance cues and a growing list of other molecules, including immune system factors, have also recently been implicated in visual circuit wiring. A major goal now is to determine how these molecules cooperate with spontaneous and visually evoked activity to give rise to the circuits underlying precise receptive field tuning and orderly visual maps.

Taussky P, Widmer HR, Takala J, Fandino J. "Outcome after acute traumatic subdural and epidural haematoma in {Switzerland}: a single-centre experience." Swiss medical weekly. 2008;138:281-285. AbstractWebsite
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Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Wariua G, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Bosire R, John-Stewart G. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;45(3):311-7. Abstract

To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine.

Leucci E, Cocco M, Cleef PV, Bellan C, Rijik AV, Falco GD, Onnis A, Joshua Nyagol, Byakika B, Lazzi S, Tosi P, Kricken HV, Leoncini L. "Altered expression of mirnas in c-MYC negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Virchows Archives. 2007;451(2):119.
Matasyoh, Lexa G., Josphat C. Matasyoh, Francis N. Wachira, Miriam G. Kinyua, Muigai ATW, Mukiama TK. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6:760-765 .
M.N M, R.D N, R.K M, F.W M. "Effect of plant extracts on growth of Alernaria porri (Ellis) Cif and other fungal pathogens of onion." Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007;3(1):7-11.
Opiyo, P., Mukabana, W.R., Kiche, I.O., Mathenge, E.M., Killeen, G.F., Fillinger, U. "An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya. ." Malaria Journal. 2007;6:48.
Aboge GO, Jia H, Kuriki H, Zhou J, Nishikawa Y, Igarashi I, Fujisaki K, Suzuki H, Xuan X. "Molecular characterization of a novel 32-kDa merozoite antigen of Babesia gibsoni with a better diagnostic performance by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.". 2007. Abstract

We cloned and expressed 3 novel gene encoding a 32-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgP32). The length of nucleotide sequence of the cD;\' A \\'3. 1-1-6-1 bp with an open reading frame of 969 bp. The truncated recombinant BgP32 (rBgP32) without a signal peptide and Cvterrninal hydrophobic sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli as a oluble glutathione- -rran ferase (GST) fusion protein. We stern blotting demonstrated that the native protein was 32-kDa, consistent with molecular weight of thc predicted mature polypeptide. Enzyme-linked irnmunosorbent assay (ELISA) using rBgP32 detected specific antibodi s from 8 days to 541 days post-infection in the sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected wirh B. gibsoni. Moreover. the antigen did not cross-react with B. canis subspecies and closely related protozoan parasites, indicating that rBgP32 is a specific diagnostic antigen. Analysis of 47 era taken from dogs with anaemic signs re ealed that rBgP32 detected a higher proportion of B. gibson! seroposirive sample' (77%) than its previou Iy identified rBgPSO (68%) homologue. These results indicate that the BgP32 is a novel immunodominant antigen of B. gibsoni, and rBgP32 might be useful for diagno is of B. gibsoni infection

Akama MK, Chindia ML, F.G. M, Guthua SW. "Pattern of Maxxillofacial and Associated Injuries in Road Traffic Accidents.". 2007.
Furukawa T, Fujiwara K, Meguro S, Hayashi H, Mathenge S, Kiboi S, Miyawaki A. "A PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE MONTANE FORESTS OF CENTRAL KENYA FOR THEIR CONSERVATION." Abstracts of EcoSummit 2007——Ecological Complexity and Sustainability——Challenges & Opportunities for 21st Century's Ecology. 2007.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Embree J, Fowke K, Ndinya-Achola J, MacDonald K, Ball T, Nagelkerke N, Kimani J, Ma L. "Rapid selection for HLA alleles that protect against HIV-1 infection correlates significantly to the declining incidence of HIV-1 in an East African sex worker population.". 2007.
Fonseca G, Muthumbi AWN, Vanreusel A. "Species richness of the genus Molgolaimus (Nematoda) from local to ocean scale along continental slopes." Marine Ecology . 2007;28 :446-459 .
Thornton PK, Herrero M, Freeman HA, Mwai AO, Rege E, Jones PG, McDermott J. "Vulnerability, climate change and livestock–opportunities and challenges for the poor.". 2007.
Farquhar C, John-Stewart GC, John FN, Kabura MN, Kiarie JN. "Pediatric HIV type 1 vaccine trial acceptability among mothers in Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2006;22(6):491-5. Abstract

Vaccination of infants against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Successful trials and immunization efforts will depend on the willingness of individuals to participate in pediatric vaccine research and acceptance of infant HIV-1 vaccines. In a cross-sectional study, pregnant women presenting to a Nairobi antenatal clinic for routine care were interviewed regarding their attitudes toward participation in research studies and HIV-1 vaccine acceptability for their infants. Among 805 women, 782 (97%) reported they would vaccinate their infant against HIV-1 and 729 (91%) reported willingness to enroll their infant in a research study. However, only 644 (80%) would enroll their infants if HIV- 1 testing was required every 3 months and 513 (64%) would agree to HIV-1 vaccine trial participation. Reasons for not wanting to enroll in a pediatric HIV-1 vaccine trial included concerns about side effects (75%), partner objection (34%), and fear of discrimination (10%), HIV-1 acquisition (8%), or false-positive HIV-1 results (5%). The strongest correlate of pediatric vaccine trial participation was maternal willingness to be a vaccine trial participant herself; in univariate and multivariate models this was associated with a 17-fold increased likelihood of participation (HR 17.1; 95% CI 11.7-25; p < 0.001). We conclude from these results that immunizing infants against HIV-1 and participation in pediatric vaccine trials are generally acceptable to women at high risk for HIV-1 infection. It will be important to address barriers identified in this study and to include male partners when mobilizing communities for pediatric HIV-1 vaccine trials and immunization programs.

Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, John-Stewart GC. "Domestic violence and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1." AIDS. 2006;20(13):1763-9. Abstract

To determine the prevalence of life-time domestic violence by the current partner before HIV-1 testing, its impact on the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and frequency after testing.

Muraguri GR, Ngumi PN, Wesonga D, Ndungu SG, Wanjohi JM, Bang K, Foxb A, Dunneb J, McHardy N. "Clinical efficacy and plasma concentrations of two formulations of buparvaquone in cattle infected with East Coast fever.". 2006.Website
J N, E L, A O, G DF, C T, F S, M T, N P, L P, R S, D S, P G, L M, S L, F P, Leoncini L, A G. "The Effects of HIV-1 Tat Protein on Cell Cycle during Cervical Carcinogenesis." Cancer Biol Ther. . 2006;5(6):684-90.
Dehayem A, Pirali O, Orphal J, Kleiner I, Flaud J-M. "The far-infrared rotational spectrum of nitrous acid (HONO) and its deuterated species (DONO) studied by high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy." Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy . 2006;234:182-189.
Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Kalongolela, M.S., Kannady, K., Lindsay, S.W., Tanner, M., Castro, M.C., Fillinger U. "Habitat targeting for controlling aquatic stages of malaria vectors in Africa." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2006;74(4):517-518.
Knols BGJ, Hood-Nowotny RC, Bossin H, Franz G, Robinson A, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Kemboi SK. "Knols, B.G.J., Hood-Nowotny, R.C., Bossin, H., Franz, G., Robinson, A., Mukabana, W.R., & Kemboi, S.K. GM sterile mosquitoes: a cautionary note. Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068." Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068.. 2006. AbstractWebsite

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Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

G.O.Oyoo, F.A.Odhiambo. "Non-Compressive myelopathy: case report.". 2006.
JO M, LU(1) W, Faxelid EA, PN C, AA O'any, EB. N. "Nurse-midwives' attitudes towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health needs in Kenya and Zambia." Reprod Health Matters. 2006 May;14(27):119-28.. 2006.dr.musandu.pdf
F.G. M, Gathece LW, Guthua SW, Njeru EK, Wagaiyu EG. "Oral Hygiene practices and Risk of oral Leukoplakia.". 2006.
F.G. M, Gathece LW, Wagaiyu EG, T.K M, E.K N, W. GS. "Oral Hygiene practices and Risk of oral Leukoplakia.". 2006.
Farquhar C, STEWART GRACEC, John FN, Kabura MN, Kiarie JN. "Pediatric HIV Type 1 Vaccine Trial Acceptability among Mothers in Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Vaccination of infants against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Successful trials and immunization efforts will depend on the willingness of individuals to participate in pediatric vaccine research and acceptance of infant HIV-1 vaccines. In a cross-sectional study, pregnant women presenting to a Nairobi antenatal clinic for routine care were interviewed regarding their attitudes toward participation in research studies and HIV-1 vaccine acceptability for their infants. Among 805 women, 782 (97%) reported they would vaccinate their infant against HIV-1 and 729 (91%) reported willingness to enroll their infant in a research study. However, only 644 (80%) would enroll their infants if HIV1 testing was required every 3 months and 513 (64%) would agree to HIV-1 vaccine trial participation. Reasons for not wanting to enroll in a pediatric HIV-1 vaccine trial included concerns about side effects (75%), partner objection (34%), and fear of discrimination (10%), HIV-1 acquisition (8%), or false-positive HIV-1 results (5%). The strongest correlate of pediatric vaccine trial participation was maternal willingness to be a vaccine trial participant herself; in univariate and multivariate models this was associated with a 17-fold increased likelihood of participation (HR 17.1; 95% CI 11.7–25; p 0.001). We conclude from these results that immunizing infants against HIV-1 and participation in pediatric vaccine trials are generally acceptable to women at high risk for HIV-1 infection. It will be important to address barriers identified in this study and to include male partners when mobilizing communities for pediatric HIV-1 vaccine trials and immunization programs.

Maecker HT, Rinfret A, D'Souza P, Darden J, Roig E, Landry C, Hayes P, Birungi J, Anzala O, Garcia M, Harari A, Frank I, Baydo R, Baker M, Holbrook J, Ottinger J, Lamoreaux L, Epling LC, Sinclair E, Suni MA, Punt K, Calarota S, El-Bahi S. "Standardization of cytokine flow cytometry assays.". 2006. Abstract

Cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) or intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) can quantitate antigen-specific T cell responses in settings such as experimental vaccination. Standardization of ICS among laboratories performing vaccine studies would provide a common platform by which to compare the immunogenicity of different vaccine candidates across multiple international organizations conducting clinical trials. As such, a study was carried out among several laboratories involved in HIV clinical trials, to define the inter-lab precision of ICS using various sample types, and using a common protocol for each experiment (see additional files online). Results: Three sample types (activated, fixed, and frozen whole blood; fresh whole blood; and cryopreserved PBMC) were shipped to various sites, where ICS assays using cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 peptide mix or control antigens were performed in parallel in 96-well plates. For one experiment, antigens and antibody cocktails were lyophilised into 96-well plates to simplify and standardize the assay setup. Results (CD4+cytokine+ cells and CD8+cytokine+ cells) were determined by each site. Raw data were also sent to a central site for batch analysis with a dynamic gating template. Mean inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (C.V.) ranged from 17–44% depending upon the sample type and analysis method. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yielded lower inter-lab C.V.'s than whole blood. Centralized analysis (using a dynamic gating template) reduced the inter-lab C.V. by 5–20%, depending upon the experiment. The inter-lab C.V. was lowest (18–24%) for samples with a mean of >0.5% IFNγ + T cells, and highest (57–82%) for samples with a mean of <0.1% IFNγ + cells. Conclusion: ICS assays can be performed by multiple laboratories using a common protocol with good inter-laboratory precision, which improves as the frequency of responding cells increases. Cryopreserved PBMC may yield slightly more consistent results than shipped whole blood. Analysis, particularly gating, is a significant source of variability, and can be reduced by centralized analysis and/or use of a standardized dynamic gating template. Use of pre-aliquoted lyophilized reagents for stimulation and staining can provide further standardization to these assays.

Peters BS, Jaoko W, Vardas E, Panayotakopoulos G, Fast P, Klavinskis L, Bogoshi M, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Dally L, Klavinskis L, Farah B, Tarragona T, Bart P-A, Robinson A, Pieterse C, Stevens W, Thomas R, Barin B, McMichael AJ, McIntyre JA, Pantaleo G, Hanke T´aˇs, Bwayo JJ. "Studies of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine candidate based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with and without DNA priming: Effects of dosage and route on safety and immunogenicity.". 2006. Abstract

Two parallel studies evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine in 192 HIV-seronegative, low-risk volunteers. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and plasmid DNA (pTHr) expressed HIV-1 clade A gag p24 and p17 fused to a string of 25 overlapping CD8+ T cell epitopes (HIVA). Methods: These studies compared intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intradermal MVA at dosage levels ranging from 5×106–2.5×108 pfu. In Study IAVI-010, DNA vaccine was given as a prime at months 0 and 1, followed by MVA as a boost at months 5 and 8. In Study IAVI-011, MVA alone was given at months 0 and 2. Regular safety monitoring was performed. Immunogenicity was measured by the interferon (IFN)- ELISPOT assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results: No serious adverse events were attributed to either vaccine; most adverse events were mild or moderate, although MVA resulted in some severe local reactions. Five vaccine recipients had at least one positive IFN- ELISPOT response, but none were sustained. Conclusion: This HIV-1 vaccine candidate was in general safe and well-tolerated. Local reactions were common, but tolerable. Detectable immune responses were infrequent.

G.O.Oyoo, F.A.Odhiambo. "Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.". 2006.
G.O.Oyoo, F.A.Odhiambo. "Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.". 2006.
Fehr J, Hatz C, Soka I, Kibatala P, Urassa H, Battegay M, Jeffrey Z, Smith T, Mshinda H, Frei R, others. "Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infections in a rural sub-{Saharan} hospital." Clinical microbiology and infection. 2006;12:1224-1227. AbstractWebsite
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Teng W, Shan Z, Teng X, Guan H, Li Y, Teng D, Jin Y, Yu X, Fan C, Chong W, others. "Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in {China}." New England Journal of Medicine. 2006;354:2783-2793. AbstractWebsite
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Fisher SK, Lewis GP, Linberg KA, Verardo MR. "Cellular remodeling in mammalian retina: results from studies of experimental retinal detachment." Progress in retinal and eye research. 2005;24:395-431. Abstract

Retinal detachment, the separation of the neural retina from the retinal pigmented epithelium, starts a cascade of events that results in cellular changes throughout the retina. While the degeneration of the light sensitive photoreceptor outer segments is clearly an important event, there are many other cellular changes that have the potential to significantly effect the return of vision after successful reattachment. Using animal models of detachment and reattachment we have identified many cellular changes that result in significant remodeling of the retinal tissue. These changes range from the retraction of axons by rod photoreceptors to the growth of neurites into the subretinal space and vitreous by horizontal and ganglion cells. Some neurite outgrowths, as in the case of rod bipolar cells, appear to be directed towards their normal presynaptic target. Horizontal cells may produce some directed neurites as well as extensive outgrowths that have no apparent target. A subset of reactive ganglion cells all fall into the latter category. Muller cells, the radial glia of the retina, undergo numerous changes ranging from proliferation to a wholesale structural reorganization as they grow into the subretinal space (after detachment) or vitreous after reattachment. In a few cases have we been able to identify molecular changes that correlate with the structural remodeling. Similar changes to those observed in the animal models have now been observed in human tissue samples, leading us to conclude that this research may help us understand the imperfect return of vision occurring after successful reattachment surgery. The mammalian retina clearly has a vast repertoire of cellular responses to injury, understanding these may help us improve upon current therapies or devise new therapies for blinding conditions.

Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Maxwell TJ, Ameyaw M-M, Pritchard S, Thornton N, Folayan G, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Tariq M, Mobarek A, Evans DA, Ofori-Adjei D, Templeton AR, McLeod HL. "Beta-2 adrenergic receptor genotypes and haplotypes in different ethnic groups." Int. J. Mol. Med.. 2005;16(4):573-80. Abstract

The human beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is responsible for the binding of endogenous catecholamines and their exogenously administered agonists and antagonists. Three functional polymorphisms in codons 16, 27 and 164 have been described which have clinical importance for several diseases, including asthma, hypertension, heart failure, cystic fibrosis and obesity, as well as response to beta-agonist therapy. These were evaluated in 726 individuals from 8 distinct ethnic populations (Chinese, Filipino, Southwest Asian, Saudi, Ghanaian, Kenyan, Sudanese, and European from Scotland). The results show that most haplotypes are shared among all populations, yet there are marked differences in their frequency distributions geographically. The genetic distance tree is different from standard human population distance trees, implying a different mode of evolution for this locus than that for human population gene-flow history. The multilocus frequency differences between the observed clusters of populations correspond to historical haplotype groupings that have been found to be functionally different with respect to multiple medically related phenotypes. Further studies are needed to see if functional relationships are the same across populations.

Adhiambo C, Forney JD, Asai DJ, LeBowitz JH. "The two cytoplasmic dynein-2 isoforms in Leishmania mexicana perform separate functions." Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.. 2005;143(2):216-25. Abstract

Eukaryotic organisms with cilia or flagella typically express two non-axonemal or "cytoplasmic" dyneins, dynein-1 and dynein-2. Interestingly, we find that Leishmania mexicana is unusual and contains two distinct cytoplasmic dynein-2 heavy chain genes (designated LmxDHC2.1 and LmxDHC2.2) along with a single dynein-1 heavy chain (LmxDHC1). Disruption of LmxDHC2.2 resulted in immotile parasites that had a rounded cell body. Although they assume amastigote morphology, immunoblot analysis of these cells demonstrates protein expression consistent with the promastigote stage. Ultrastructural analysis revealed non-emergent flagella that lacked the paraflagellar rod and an axoneme with deficiencies in several components. We confirmed the absence of paraflagellar rod proteins PFR1 and PFR2. These results show that LmxDHC2.2 is required for flagellar assembly and also participates in the maintenance of promastigote cell shape. In contrast to the results with LmxDHC2.2, we were unable to generate homologous disruptions of LmxDHC2.1. This result suggests that, unlike LmxDHC2.2, LmxDHC2.1 is an essential gene in Leishmania. Together, these findings demonstrate that the two dynein-2 heavy chain isoforms in Leishmania perform distinct functions. The observation that the genomes of Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma brucei also contain two dynein-2 isoforms suggests that this unusual aspect of cytoplasmic dynein is a conserved feature of the kinetoplastids.

Aligianis IA, Johnson CA, Gissen P, Chen D, Hampshire D, Hoffmann K, Maina EN, Morgan NV, Tee L, Morton J, Ainsworth JR, Horn D, Rosser E, Cole TRP, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Fieggen K, Clayton-Smith J, Mégarbané A, Shield JP, Newbury-Ecob R, Dobyns WB, Graham JM, Kjaer KW, Warburg M, Bond J, Trembath RC, Harris LW, Takai Y, Mundlos S, Tannahill D, Woods GC, Maher ER. "Mutations of the catalytic subunit of RAB3GAP cause Warburg Micro syndrome." Nat. Genet.. 2005;37(3):221-3. Abstract

Warburg Micro syndrome (WARBM1) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities of the eye and central nervous system and by microgenitalia. We identified homozygous inactivating mutations in RAB3GAP, encoding RAB3 GTPase activating protein, a key regulator of the Rab3 pathway implicated in exocytic release of neurotransmitters and hormones, in 12 families with Micro syndrome. We hypothesize that the underlying pathogenesis of Micro syndrome is a failure of exocytic release of ocular and neurodevelopmental trophic factors.

Ogutu O, F W. "12. Steroid use in Rhesus negative sensitized mothers to reduce Rhesus anti-D titres." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2005;19:40-43.
Alimonti JB, Koesters SA, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Cd4+ T Cell Responses In Hiv-exposed Seronegative Women Are Qualitatively Distinct From Those In Hiv-infected Women.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The immune response of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (ESN) women may be qualitatively different from that in those infected with HIV (HIV(+)). In a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, we found significantly lower (P< or =.01) levels of CD4(+)-specific immune activation and apoptosis in the ESN women compared with those in the HIV(+) women. Compared with the HIV(+) women, a lower proportion of the ESN women showed p24 peptide pool responses by the short-term, CD4(+)-specific, interferon (IFN)- gamma intracellular cytokine staining assay, whereas the proportion showing responses by the long-term, CD8(+)-depleted T cell proliferation assay was similar. Interestingly, the ESN responders had a 4.5-fold stronger proliferation response (P=.002) than the HIV(+) group. These data suggest that, compared with those in HIV(+) women, CD4(+) T cells in ESN women have a much greater ability to proliferate in response to p24 peptides.

Munyua, W.K., F. M. Olubayo, J.H.Nderitu, S. Shibairo, Obudo E. "Comparative resistance /tolerance of commercial potato cultivars in Kenya to major aphid pests." agric entomology. 2005.
Dehayem A, Orphal J, Ibrahim N, Kleiner I, Bouba O, Flaud J-M. "The fundamental bands of trans-and cis-DONO studied by high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy." Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy . 2005;238:29-35.
Nielsen L, Sang-oum W, Cheevadhanarak S, Flegel TW. "Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in Thailand and its relationship to TSV in China and the Americas.". 2005. Abstract

The cultivation of exotic Penaeus vannamei in Thailand began on a very limited scale in the late 1990s, but a Thai government ban on the cultivation of P. monodon in freshwater areas in 2000 led many Thai shrimp farmers to shift to cultivation of P. vannamei. Alarmed by the possibility of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) introduction, the Thai Department of Fisheries required that imported stocks of P. vannamei be certified free of TSV by RT-PCR (Reverse Trasciption Polymerase Chain Reaction) testing. During the interval of allowed importation, over 150 000 broodstock shrimp were imported, 67% of these from China and Taiwan. Despite the safeguards, TSV outbreaks occurred and we confirmed the first outbreak by RT-PCR in early 2003. This resulted in a governmental ban on all shrimp broodstock imports from February 2003, but TSV outbreaks have continued, possibly due to original introductions or to the continued illegal importation of stocks. To determine the origin of the TSV in Thailand, the viral coat protein gene VP1 was amplified by RT-PCR from several shrimp specimens found positive for TSV by RT-PCR from January to November 2003. These included 7 samples from P. vannamei disease outbreaks in Thailand, 3 other non-diseased shrimp samples from Thailand and Burma and 6 samples including P. vannamei and P. japonicus from China. Comparison revealed that the Thai, Burmese and Chinese TSV types formed a clade distinct from a clade of TSV types from the Americas.

Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, others. "Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial." JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2005;38:329-334. Abstract
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Zimmermann MB, Ito Y, Hess SY, Fujieda K, Molinari L. "High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakes." The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005;81:840-844. AbstractWebsite
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Ndoye JM, Ndiaye A, Dia A, Fall B, Diop M, Sow ML. "[{Cadaveric} topography and morphometry of the vermiform appendix]." Morphologie: bulletin de l'Association des anatomistes. 2005;89:59-63. AbstractWebsite
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Umpierrez GE, Latif K, Stoever J, Cuervo R, Park L, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE. "Efficacy of subcutaneous insulin lispro versus continuous intravenous regular insulin for the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 2004;117:291-296. Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous insulin lispro with that of a standard low-dose intravenous infusion protocol of regular insulin in patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized open trial, 20 patients treated with subcutaneous insulin lispro were managed in regular medicine wards (n=10) or an intermediate care unit (n=10), while 20 patients treated with the intravenous protocol were managed in the intensive care unit. Patients treated with subcutaneous lispro received an initial injection of 0.3 unit/kg followed by 0.1 unit/kg/h until correction of hyperglycemia (blood glucose levels {\textless}250 mg/dL), followed by 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/h until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis (pH {\textgreater} or =7.3, bicarbonate {\textgreater} or =18 mEq/L). Patients treated with intravenous regular insulin received an initial bolus of 0.1 unit/kg, followed by an infusion of 0.1 unit/kg/h until correction of hyperglycemia, then 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/h until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Mean (+/- SD) admission biochemical parameters in patients treated with subcutaneous lispro (glucose: 674 +/- 154 mg/dL; bicarbonate: 9.2 +/- 4 mEq/L; pH: 7.17 +/- 0.10) were similar to values in patients treated with intravenous insulin (glucose: 611 +/- 264 mg/dL; bicarbonate: 10.6 +/- 4 mEq/L; pH: 7.19 +/- 0.08). The duration of treatment until correction of hyperglycemia (7 +/- 3 hours vs. 7 +/- 2 hours) and resolution of ketoacidosis (10 +/- 3 hours vs. 11 +/- 4 hours) in patients treated with subcutaneous lispro was not different than in patients treated with intravenous regular insulin. There were no deaths in either group, and there were no differences in the length of hospital stay, amount of insulin until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis, or in the rate of hypoglycemia between treatment groups. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in the intensive care unit was associated with 39% higher hospitalization charges than was treatment with subcutaneous lispro in a non-intensive care setting (\$14,429 +/- \$5243 vs. \$8801 +/- \$5549, P {\textless}0.01). CONCLUSION: Treatment of adult patients who have uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous lispro every hour in a non-intensive care setting may be safe and more cost-effective than treatment with intravenous regular insulin in the intensive care unit.

Fagiolini M, Fritschy J-M, Löw K, Möhler H, Rudolph U, Hensch TK. "Specific {GABAA} circuits for visual cortical plasticity." Science (New York, N.Y.). 2004;303:1681-1683. Abstract

Weak inhibition within visual cortex early in life prevents experience-dependent plasticity. Loss of responsiveness to an eye deprived of vision can be initiated prematurely by enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated transmission with benzodiazepines. Here, we use a mouse "knockin" mutation to alpha subunits that renders individual GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptors insensitive to diazepam to show that a particular inhibitory network controls expression of the critical period. Only alpha1-containing circuits were found to drive cortical plasticity, whereas alpha2-enriched connections separately regulated neuronal firing. This dissociation carries implications for models of brain development and the safe design of benzodiazepines for use in infants.

Ingebrigtsen T, Morgan MK, Faulder K, Ingebrigtsen L, Sparr T, Schirmer H. "Bifurcation geometry and the presence of cerebral artery aneurysms." Journal of Neurosurgery. 2004;101:108-113. Abstract

OBJECT: The angles of arterial bifurcations are governed by principles of work minimization (optimality principle). This determines the relationship between the angle of a bifurcation and the radii of the vessels. Nevertheless, the model is predicated on an absence of significant communication between these branches. The circle of Willis changes this relationship because the vessels proximal to the ring of vessels have additional factors that determine work minimization compared with more distal branches. This must have an impact on understanding of the relationship between shear stress and aneurysm formation. The authors hypothesized that normal bifurcations of cerebral arteries beyond the circle of Willis would follow optimality principles of minimum work and that the presence of aneurysms would be associated with deviations from optimum bifurcation geometry. Nevertheless, the vessels participating in (or immediately proximal to) the circle of Willis may not follow the geometric model as it is generally applied and this must also be investigated. METHODS: One hundred seven bifurcations of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), distal internal carotid artery (ICA), and basilar artery (BA) were studied in 55 patients. The authors analyzed three-dimensional reconstructions of digital subtraction angiography images with respect to vessel radii and bifurcation angles. The junction exponent (that is, a calculated measure of the division of flow at the bifurcation) and the difference between the predicted optimal and observed branch angles were used as measures of deviation from the geometry thought best to minimize work. The mean junction exponent for MCA bifurcations was 2.9 +/- 1.2 (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]), which is close to the theoretical optimum of 3, but it was significantly smaller (p {\textless} 0.001; 1.7 +/- 0.8, mean +/- SD) for distal ICA bifurcations. In a multilevel multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the observed branch angles were significant independent predictors for the presence of an aneurysm. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for the presence of an aneurysm was 3.46 (1.02-11.74) between the lowest and highest tertile of the observed angle between the parent vessel and the largest branch. The corresponding OR for the smallest branch was 48.06 (9.7-238.2). CONCLUSIONS: The bifurcation beyond the circle of Willis (that is, the MCA) closely approximated optimality principles, whereas the bifurcations within the circle of Willis (that is, the distal ICA and BA) did not. This indicates that the confluence of hemodynamic forces plays an important role in the distribution of work at bifurcations within the circle of Willis. In addition, the observed branch angles were predictors for the presence of aneurysms.

Faxon DP, Fuster V, Libby P, Beckman JA, Hiatt WR, Thompson RW, Topper JN, Annex BH, Rundback JH, Fabunmi RP, Robertson RM, Loscalzo J. "Atherosclerotic {Vascular} {Disease} {Conference} {Writing} {Group} {III}: {Pathophysiology}." Circulation. 2004;109:2617-2625. AbstractWebsite
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Umpierrez GE, Cuervo R, Karabell A, Latif K, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE. "Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous insulin aspart." Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1873-1878. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: In this prospective, randomized, open trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of aspart insulin given subcutaneously at different time intervals to a standard low-dose intravenous (IV) infusion protocol of regular insulin in patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 45 consecutive patients admitted with DKA were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous (SC) aspart insulin every hour (SC-1h

Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2004;37(5):1620-6. Abstract

To determine effect of partner involvement and couple counseling on uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission, women attending a Nairobi antenatal clinic were encouraged to return with partners for voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing (VCT) and offered individual or couple posttest counseling. Nevirapine was provided to HIV-1-seropositive women and condoms distributed to all participants. Among 2104 women accepting testing, 308 (15%) had partners participate in VCT, of whom 116 (38%) were couple counseled. Thirty-two (10%) of 314 HIV-1-seropositive women came with partners for VCT; these women were 3-fold more likely to return for nevirapine (P = 0.02) and to report administering nevirapine at delivery (P = 0.009). Nevirapine use was reported by 88% of HIV-infected women who were couple counseled, 67% whose partners came but were not couple counseled, and 45%whose partners did not present for VCT (P for trend = 0.006). HIV-1-seropositive women receiving couple counseling were 5-fold more likely to avoid breast-feeding (P = 0.03) compared with those counseled individually. Partner notification of HIV-1-positive results was reported by 138 women (64%) and was associated with 4-fold greater likelihood of condom use (P = 0.004). Partner participation in VCT and couple counseling increased uptake of nevirapine and formula feeding. Antenatal couple counseling may be a useful strategy to promote HIV-1 prevention interventions.

Otieno AC, Carter AB, Hedges DJ, Walker JA, Ray DA, Garber R, Anders BA, Stoilova N, Laborde ME, Fowlkes JD, Huang CH, and B. Perodeau, Batzer MA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage." Journal of Molecular Biology. 2004;342:109-118.
Wagaiyu EG, T.K M, EM N, Gathece LW, F.G. M. "oral health seeking behaviour of an elderly in a Kenyan popolation.". 2004.
Flegel TW, Nielsen L, Thamavit V, Kongtim S, Pasharawipas T. "Presence of multiple viruses in non-diseased, cultivated shrimp at harvest.". 2004. Abstract

Histological examinations were carried out with 400 cultivated black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from 12 commercial rearing ponds from three different areas in Thailand over a period of 3 years. The shrimp were collected at or near harvest time as two arbitrary size groups of 10–20 each from each pond. Aside from size difference, they showed no gross signs of disease and were normally active. Pathognomonic histopathological lesions were found only for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) or monodon baculovirus (MBV). Although these were relatively frequent, no unusual shrimp mortality had occurred in any of the ponds examined. Severity of these infections was negatively correlated with shrimp size. When grouped together, HPV-infected shrimp gave mean lengths of approximately 6.5 cm that were significantly different from uninfected shrimp at 9 cm length, early in the cultivation cycle while MBV-infected groups of approximately 9 cm length were not readily distinguishable until uninfected shrimp were 10 cm or more, later in cultivation. Thus, HPV infection was correlated with more severe stunting than MBV. In addition to histopathological examination, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for HPV, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were carried out on one large sample of 240 shrimp from 6 ponds where visible lesions were apparent for MBV only. Surprisingly, 94% of the specimens gave a positive test for at least one of the four viruses. HPV and IHHNV alone or in combination were detected at high prevalence (approximately 60%) despite the absence of visible histological lesions and were confirmed by southern blot hybridization. Although the prevalence of the four viral pathogens was very high, it would normally have gone unnoticed, since normal shrimp are rarely examined for viruses.

Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Noor IM, Guliye AY. "The Somali and the Camel: Ecology, Management and Economics.". 2004. Abstractabstract7.pdfWebsite

The Somali are one of the multi-state communities of Eastern Africa. Somalia is their main state, but they also occupy a large part of Djibuoti, northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rangelands, loosely referred to as arid and semiarid lands (ASAL). Unpredictable rainfall, long periods of drought, limited water, and inadequate knowledge and technology of water resource management characterize the ASAL. There is also rapid population growth, coupled with low or declining real incomes, low nutritional levels, serious environmental degradation, and the externalities of modernization and economic development (Darkoh, 1996). Somali pastoralists are a camel community mainly because of the dry and harsh environment they live in; pastoralists, by definition, being those who primarily derive their living from the management of livestock on rangelands (Prior, 1994). There is no other community in the world where the camel plays such a pivotal role in the local economy and culture as in the Somali community. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 1979) estimates, there are approximately 15 million dromedary camels in the world, of which 65% are found in the northeast African states of Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya. The Somali community (in Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia) has the largest population and highest density of camels in the world, and to the same extent this animal also pervades the Somali culture. Historically, the geographical area that is now Somalia may have been a focal point in the introduction and dispersal of the domesticated dromedary (Abokor, 1993). The possession of a certain amount of livestock and of physical strength are the primary requirements for survival and success in the demanding environment of Somali pastoral nomads. The climatic and geographic conditions prompt the Somali pastoral nomads to pursue animal husbandry with constant movement from place to place in search of better pasture and water. This economic system in part determines social relations and institutions and creates a division of labour whereby tasks essential for survival are allocated to particular groups of people. The camel is an important livestock species uniquely adapted to hot and arid environments (Schwartz, 1992) and therefore contributes significantly to the food security of the nomadic pastoral households. This unique adaptability makes it ideal for exploitation under the ASAL conditions. The contribution of camels to the human welfare of developing countries, including Kenya, is generally obscured by a combination of several factors, which tend to underestimate their true value. Firstly, the estimates of camel populations are usually inaccurate due to lack of regular census. Secondly, their products seldom enter a formal marketing system; thus their contribution to subsistence and the national economy tends to be grossly underestimated. As a consequence, less attention has been given to camel improvements for many years when planning national development. For example, the major livestock development effort in Kenya between 1969 and 1982 (funded by the European Community) aimed at developing range areas completely ignored the camel (Njiru, 1993). In Somali occupied northern Kenya, camels are raised under traditional management systems. However, the changing socio-economic and environmental conditions are leading to a change in pastoral production systems from mainly subsistence towards market orientation. Generally, there are few practical, result-oriented studies on camel production. Wilson and Bourzat (1988) stated that the vast amount of research in the last two decades has contributed little to increased productivity. This has been attributed to the fact that most studies have had little general application to the practical aspects of camel production under pastoral production systems. Pastoral camel production is under pressure because of multiple changes in the production environment. Increasing human population pressure on pastoral grazing areas and the economic implications resulting from diseases and lack of veterinary services are some of the factors that adversely affect traditional camel production. Additionally, reproductive performance is low in camels due to late first parturition, long parturition intervals, and high calf mortality. Improvement of the reproductive performance and reduction of animal losses by management measures that are applicable to a mobile system appear to offer possibilities of increasing camel productivity and capacity to support the increasing human population. An adequate understanding of traditional camel production practices forms the foundation upon which improvement and innovations could be based. Using Moyale District as a case, this study was carried out in order to understand the status of traditional camel production systems of the Somali camel keeping pastoralists.

Sinja J, Karugia J, Waithaka M, Miano D, Baltenweck L, Franzel S, Nyikal R. "“Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach”." Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, . 2004;9(1):222-226.134898-article_text-362029-1-10-20160503.pdfWebsite
K. AF, O. MW, F. OC. "“Transfusion haemosiderosis in spite of regular use of Desferrioxiamine-Case Report”." East. Afr. Med. J.. 2004;81:326-328.
Dimba EAO, Gjertsen BT, Bredholt T, Fossan KO, Costea DE, Francis GW, Johannessen AC, Vintermyr OK. "Khat (Catha edulis)-induced apoptosis is inhibited by antagonists of caspase-1 and-8 in human leukaemia cells." British Journal of Cancer. 2004;91:1726-1734. Abstract
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Kaul R, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Fonck K, Ngugi EN, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Maclean IW, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, others. "Monthly antibiotic chemoprophylaxis and incidence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 infection in Kenyan sex workers: a randomized controlled trial." Jama. 2004;291:2555-2562. Abstract
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Sharma RK, O’Leary TE, Fields CM, Johnson DA. "Development of the outer retina in the mouse." Developmental Brain Research. 2003;145:93-105. AbstractWebsite

Mice represent a valuable species for studies of development and disease. With the availability of transgenic models for retinal degeneration in this species, information regarding development and structure of mouse retina has become increasingly important. Of special interest is the differentiation and synaptogenesis of photoreceptors since these cells are predominantly involved in hereditary retinal degenerations. Thus, some of the keys to future clinical management of these retinal diseases may lie in understanding the molecular mechanisms of outer retinal development. In this study, we describe the expression of markers for photoreceptors (recoverin), horizontal cells (calbindin), bipolar cells (protein kinase C; PKC) and cytoskeletal elements pivotal to axonogenesis (beta-tubulin and actin) during perinatal development of mouse retina. Immunocytochemical localization of recoverin, calbindin, PKC and beta-tubulin was monitored in developing mouse retina (embryonic day (E) 18.5 to postnatal day (PN) 14), whereas f-actin was localized by Phalloidin binding. Recoverin immunoreactive cells, presumably the photoreceptors, were observed embryonically (E 18.5) and their number increased until PN 14. Neurite projections from the immunoreactive cells towards the outer plexiform layer (OPL) were noted at PN 0 and these processes reached the OPL at PN 7 coincident with histological evidence for the differentiation of the OPL. Outer segments, all the cell bodies in the ONL, as well as the OPL were immunoreactive to recoverin at PN 14. Calbindin immunoreactive horizontal cells were also present in E 18.5 retinas. These cells became progressively displaced proximally as the ONL developed. A calbindin immunoreactive plexus was seen in the OPL at PN 7. PKC immunoreactive bipolar cells developed postnatally, becoming distinguished at PN 7. Both beta-tubulin and actin immunoreactive cells were present in the IPL as early as E 18.5; however, appearance of processes labeled with these markers in the OPL was delayed until PN 7, concurrent with the first appearance of photoreceptor neurites, development of the horizontal cell plexus, and development of synaptophysin immunoreactivity at this location. These results provide a developmental timeframe for the expression of recoverin, calbindin, synaptophysin, beta-tubulin and actin. Our findings suggest that the time between PN 3 and PN 7 represents a critical period during which elements of the OPL are assembled.

Feller MB. "Visual system plasticity begins in the retina." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. Abstract

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

Feller MB. "Visual {System} {Plasticity} {Begins} in the {Retina}." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. AbstractWebsite

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

Gradus-Pizlo I, Bigelow B, Mahomed Y, Sawada SG, Rieger K, Feigenbaum H. "Left anterior descending coronary artery wall thickness measured by high-frequency transthoracic and epicardial echocardiography includes adventitia." The American journal of cardiology. 2003;91:27-32. Abstract

{High-frequency, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (HR-2DTTE) measurements of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery wall thickness are larger than measurements obtained by intravascular ultrasound. We hypothesize that this difference is due to inclusion of the third vascular layer, which may represent adventitia by HR-2DTTE, and that this layer must be increasing in thickness with the development of atherosclerosis. We evaluated the contribution of this third layer to the wall thickness of the normal and atherosclerotic LAD artery imaged by HR-2DTTE using high-frequency epicardial echocardiography (HFEE) as the reference standard. Eighteen patients (10 men, mean age 62 years), 13 with coronary atherosclerosis and 5 with normal coronary arteries, referred for open-heart surgery, underwent preoperative HR-2DTTE evaluation of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 3- to 8-MHz transducer) and intraoperative HFEE of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 6- to 15-MHz transducer). Wall thickness was greater in patients with coronary atherosclerosis than in those with normal coronary arteries by both HR-2DTTE (1.9 +/- 0.3 vs 1.0 +/- 0.1 mm

Kolodgie FD, Gold HK, Burke AP, Fowler DR, Kruth HS, Weber DK, Farb A, Guerrero LJ, Hayase M, Kutys R, Narula J, Finn AV, Virmani R. "Intraplaque hemorrhage and progression of coronary atheroma." The New England journal of medicine. 2003;349:2316-2325. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Intraplaque hemorrhage is common in advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions. The relation between hemorrhage and the vulnerability of plaque to disruption may involve the accumulation of free cholesterol from erythrocyte membranes. METHODS: We stained multiple coronary lesions from 24 randomly selected patients who had died suddenly of coronary causes with an antibody against glycophorin A (a protein specific to erythrocytes that facilitates anion exchange) and Mallory's stain for iron (hemosiderin), markers of previous intraplaque hemorrhage. Coronary lesions were classified as lesions with pathologic intimal thickening, fibrous-cap atheromas with cores in an early or late stage of necrosis, or thin-cap fibrous atheromas (vulnerable plaques). The arterial response to plaque hemorrhage was further defined in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Only traces of glycophorin A and iron were found in lesions with pathologic intimal thickening or fibrous-cap atheromas with cores in an early stage of necrosis. In contrast, fibroatheromas with cores in a late stage of necrosis or thin caps had a marked increase in glycophorin A in regions of cholesterol clefts surrounded by iron deposits. Larger amounts of both glycophorin A and iron were associated with larger necrotic cores and greater macrophage infiltration. Rabbit lesions with induced intramural hemorrhage consistently showed cholesterol crystals with erythrocyte fragments, foam cells, and iron deposits. In contrast, control lesions from the same animals had a marked reduction in macrophages and lipid content. CONCLUSIONS: By contributing to the deposition of free cholesterol, macrophage infiltration, and enlargement of the necrotic core, the accumulation of erythrocyte membranes within an atherosclerotic plaque may represent a potent atherogenic stimulus. These factors may increase the risk of plaque destabilization.

Moulton KS, Vakili K, Zurakowski D, Soliman M, Butterfield C, Sylvin E, Lo K-M, Gillies S, Javaherian K, Folkman J. "Inhibition of plaque neovascularization reduces macrophage accumulation and progression of advanced atherosclerosis." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2003;100:4736-4741. Abstract

Plaque angiogenesis promotes the growth of atheromas, but the functions of plaque capillaries are not fully determined. Neovascularization may act as a conduit for the entry of leukocytes into sites of chronic inflammation. We observe vasa vasorum density correlates highly with the extent of inflammatory cells, not the size of atheromas in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. We show atherosclerotic aortas contain activities that promote angiogenesis. The angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin reduces plaque angiogenesis and inhibits atherosclerosis. Macrophages in the plaque and around vasa vasorum are reduced, but we detect no direct effect of angiostatin on monocytes. After angiogenesis blockade in vivo, the angiogenic potential of atherosclerotic tissue is suppressed. Activated macrophages stimulate angiogenesis that can further recruit inflammatory cells and more angiogenesis. Our findings demonstrate that late-stage inhibition of angiogenesis can interrupt this positive feedback cycle. Inhibition of plaque angiogenesis and the secondary reduction of macrophages may have beneficial effects on plaque stability.

Fisher SK, Lewis GP. "Müller cell and neuronal remodeling in retinal detachment and reattachment and their potential consequences for visual recovery: a review and reconsideration of recent data." Vision research. 2003;43:887-897. Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that the adult mammalian retina is far more plastic than was previously thought. Retinal detachment induces changes beyond the degeneration of outer segments (OS). Changes in photoreceptor synapses, second- and even third-order neurons may all contribute to imperfect visual recovery that can occur after successful reattachment. Changes that occur in Müller cells have obvious effects through subretinal fibrosis and proliferative vitreoretinopathy, but other unidentified effects seem likely as well. Reattachment of the retina induces its own set of responses aside from OS re-growth. Reattachment halts the growth of Müller cell processes into the subretinal space, but induces their growth on the vitreal surface. It also induces the outgrowth of rod axons into the inner retina.

M. M. Oliva, Demo MS, Malele RS, Mutayabarwa CK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Faillaci SM, Scrivanti RL, Lopez AG, Zygadlo JA. "Essential Oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania: Composition and Antimicrobial Activity and composition." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2003;6:61-63.
Lohman BL, Slyker J, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Bosire R, Farquhar C, Obimbo E, Otieno P, R W Nduati, Rowland-Jones S, John-Stewart G. "Prevalence and magnitude of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific lymphocyte responses in breast milk from HIV-1-seropositive women.  .". 2003. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific cell-mediated immunity of breast milk may influence the likelihood of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast-feeding. In breast-milk specimens collected during the first month postpartum from HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi, HIV-1 gag-specific cellular responses were detected in 17 (47%) of 36, and env-specific cellular responses were present in 20 (40%) of 50. Peripheral blood lymphocyte responses against either gag or env were detected in 35 (66%) of the 53 subjects, 18 (51%) of whom had positive gag or env responses in their breast milk. In paired analyses of blood and breast milk, the mean magnitude of responses to env or gag stimulation in breast milk was significantly higher than that in blood and remained higher in breast milk after normalization of responses according to CD8+ lymphocyte count. These results suggest that CD8+ lymphocytes present in breast milk have the capacity to recognize HIV-1-infected cells and may be selectively transported to breast milk to reduce either viral replication or transmission in breast milk

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