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Journal Article
McCauley DJ, Dawson TE, Power ME, Finlay JC, Ogada M, Gower DB, Caylor K, WD Nyingi, Githaiga JM, Nyunja J, Joyce FH, Lewison RL. "Carbon stable isotopes suggest that hippopotamus-vectored nutrients subsidize aquatic." Issue: Ecosphere, 6 (4). 2015.
S. N, M. V, F. K, M. K, F. B, C. O’, A. M, N. H. "Challenges and prospects of integrating livestock into smallholder organic pineapple production in Uganda. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2015;26(#113).
FN O, JP O, F W. "The challenges fraughting isoniazid prophylaxis as a child tuberculosis prevention strategy in high burden settings in Nairobi, Kenya." East and Central Africa Medical Journal. 2015;2(1):39-45. Abstractthe_challenges_fraughting_isoniazid_prophylaxis_as_a_child_tuberculosis_prevention.pdf

Background: Paediatric Tuberculosis (TB) is rapidly becoming a major public health concern among the urban poor. Though contacts' tracing and Isoniazid Prophylaxis Therapy (lPT) is an effective prevention strategy, its benefits have not been realized in many resource poor settings. Barriers to its uptake have not been fully elucidated.
Objectives: To evaluate the challenges that fraught the implementation of' contact tracing and IPT, as a TB prevention strategy in children in household contact with adults with TB from informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.
Metbodology: A prospective longitudinal multicenter cohort study was done, where 366 recently diagnosed TB smear positive source cases were asked to enroll their child contacts for IPT. Consent was sought. Structured standard questionnaire was used to get information on source case TB treatment, socio-demographics, TB knowledge and perceptions. Baseline screening was done to exclude those with TB and/or other chronic illnesses. Contacts were then put on daily isoniazid for 6 months and followed up monthly for one year for new TB disease. Adherence, safety and challenges were monitored. Focused group discussions and key informant interviews were used to provide secondary data.
Results: All the 366 source cases interviewed were on first line anti- TB treatment. IPT acceptability was 87.3%. A total of 428 child contacts were screened, but 14(3.2%) had TB disease hence excluded. Compliance rates were 93% (95% CI 90.1 - 96.2%) and 85% (95% CI 80.2%- 88%) after 1'1and 6th months respectively. Challenges reported included; side effects in 22%, programmatic concerns in 86%, drug related issues in 70.1 %, and various health system challenges. The leading programmatic challenge was too many hospital visits (65.2%) and the drug related challenge was difficulty in administering tablets to children (44.3%). IPT completion rate was 368 out of 414 (88.8%). By endpoint, IPT failure was documented in 6( 1.6%), hence the relative risk of new TB disease in contacts on IPT was 0.49 (95% CI 0.21 -0.86).
Conclusion: IPTwas an effective and safe child TB prevention strategy in informal settlements, but it's implementation had been hampered by relatively low acceptability, sub-optimal adherence, programmatic challenges, and high defaulting rates and by limited benefits realized.

EK G, G.O.Oyoo, F.O O, E.A O, S J, J O, B.C S. "Clinical characteristics of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Nairobi, Kenya." Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):62-66. Abstractclinical_characteristics_of_patients.pdf

Abstract
Background: Systemic lupus
erythematosus (SLE), a chronic
multisystem autoimmune disease with a
wide spectrum of manifestations, shows
considerable variation across the globe,
although there is data from Africa is
limited. Quantifying the burden of SLE
across Africa can help raise awareness and
knowledge about the disease. It will also
clarify the role of genetic, environmental
and other causative factors in the natural
history of the disease, and to understand
its clinical and societal consequences in
African set up.
Objective: To determine the clinical
profile of SLE patients at a tertiary care
centre in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Case records of patients who
were attending the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic seen between January 2002
and January 2013 were reviewed.
This was a cross-sectional study done
on 100 patients fulfilling the 2012
Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics
(SLICC) criteria for SLE attending
the Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Kenya.
The patients were evaluated for sociodemographic,
clinical and immunological
manifestations and drugs used to manage
SLE.
Results: Hundred patients diagnosed with
SLE were recruited into the study. Ninety
seven per cent of the study participants
were female with a mean age of 36.6
years. Thirty three years was the mean
age of diagnosis. The mean time duration
of disease was 3 years with a range of
0-13 years. There was extensive disease
as many had multi-organ involvement.
Majority (83%) of the study participants
met between 4 and 6 manifestations
for the diagnosis criteria for SLE. Non
erosive arthritis and cutaneous disease
were the commonest initial manifestation.
The patients had varied cutaneous,
haematological, pulmonary, cardiac, renal
and neuropsychiatric manifestations.
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) assay and
anti-dsDNA was positive in 82% and
52%. Patients on steroids, non-steroidal
drugs and synthetic disease modifying
anti-rheumatic drugs were 84%, 49% and
43% respectively. None of the patients
were on biologic disease modifying antirheumatic
drugs.

FO Otieno, GO Oyoo CFOEAO, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF, Omondi EA. "Clinical presentation of patients with adult onset still’s disease in Nairobi: case series." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2015;3(1). AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adult Still’s Disease (ASD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, typically characterized by a clinical triad (daily spiking high fevers, evanescent rash, arthritis), and a biological triad (hyperferritinemia, hyperleukocytosis with neutrophilia and abnormal liver function test).
Objective: This case series set out to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with ASD seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi.
Results: After a record search, 8 patients were noted to have ASD. Fever and arthritis were noted to be most predominant presenting features with almost all the patients having hyperferritinemia.

J.W. Ngaii, Manene MM, F.K.Njui. "Construction of some Balanced Asymmetrical Factorial Designs." Icastor Journal of Mathematical Sciences . 2015;9(2 (2015) ):57-82.
Keroboto BZ Ogutu, Fabio D'Andrea, Michael Ghil, Nyandwi C, Manene MM, Mutha JN. "Coupled Climate–Economy–Biosphere (CoCEB) model–Part 2: Deforestation control and investment in carbon capture and storage technologies." Earth System Dynamics Discussions. 2015;6(1):865-906. AbstractWebsite

This study uses the global climate–economy–biosphere (CoCEB) model developed in Part 1 to investigate economic aspects of deforestation control and carbon sequestration in forests, as well as the efficiency of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies as policy measures for climate change mitigation. We assume – as in Part 1 – that replacement of one technology with another occurs in terms of a logistic law, so that the same law also governs the dynamics of reduction in carbon dioxide emission using CCS technologies. In order to take into account the effect of deforestation control, a slightly more complex description of the carbon cycle than in Part 1 is needed. Consequently, we add a biomass equation into the CoCEB model and analyze the ensuing feedbacks and their effects on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Integrating biomass into the CoCEB and applying deforestation control as well as CCS technologies has the following results: (i) low investment in CCS contributes to reducing industrial carbon emissions and to increasing GDP, but further investment leads to a smaller reduction in emissions, as well as in the incremental GDP growth; and (ii) enhanced deforestation control contributes to a reduction in both deforestation emissions and in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, thus reducing the impacts of climate change and contributing to a slight appreciation of GDP growth. This effect is however very small compared to that of low-carbon technologies or CCS. We also find that the result in (i) is very sensitive to the formulation of CCS costs, while to the contrary, the results for deforestation control are less …

Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina S. "Diversity of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies and their pests in Cameroon.". 2015.
W.O.Osawa, Sahoo PK, J.M.Onyari, F.J.Mulaa. "Effects of antioxidants on oxidation and storage stability of Croton megalocarpus biodiesel." International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering. 2015. Abstractart3a10.10072fs40095-015-0191-z.pdf

The effects of antioxidants and storage on
oxidation stability of croton biodiesel and its blends with
petro-diesel were determined using PetroOxy equipment.
The biodiesel and blends were kept in Pyrex reagent bottles
and stored in a metallic locker at room temperature for
8 weeks, a condition that imitated ordinary storage environment
in tanks before use. The oxidation stability indices
of the biodiesel and blends were determined by measuring
Rancimat induction periods for 8 weeks at intervals of
2 weeks. Although the Rancimat induction period for
freshly prepared biodiesel of 4 h was higher than the
commonly used American standard (ASTM D6751) limit
of 3 h, it was lower than the European standard (EN 14214)
of 6 h. The induction periods of B50 and lower blends
were, however, equal to or greater than 6 h. The Rancimat
induction periods for biodiesel with 100 ppm antioxidants
were 5.6, 6.8 and 7.8 h for Butylated hydroxyanisol
(BHA), Propyl gallate (PRG) and Pyrogallol (PYG),
respectively, while the Rancimat induction periods for
biodiesel with 1000 ppm antioxidants were 6.8, 8.2 and
10 h for BHA, PRG and PYG, respectively. The oxidation
stability index for neat biodiesel decreased by 45 % while
that for biodiesel with 1000 ppm antioxidants depreciated
by 16, 12.2 and 20.59 % for PYG, PRG and BHA,
respectively, during the 8-week storage period. A more
rapid decline in oxidation stability was observed in the
biodiesel and blends without antioxidants than those with
antioxidants. The results from this study showed that the
use of appropriate concentrations of suitable antioxidants
can greatly improve the oxidation stability of biodiesel and
blends which can therefore be stored over longer periods of
time before use without undergoing extensive and deleterious
oxidative deterioration.
Keywords Croton biodiesel Oxidation stability
Antioxidants Storage stability
A

LN K, van den LW S, E D, NHJ C, MAW M, FF S, van der AJAM V. "High level drug resistance in patients on chronic anti-retroviral treatment presenting with oropharyngeal candidiasis in Kenya." Oral Diseases. 2015.
Olago D, Christopher Campisano, Asrat A, Arrowsmith R, Deino A, Feibel C, Hill A, Kingston J, Cohen AS, et al. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): Understanding the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic context of human origins through continental drilling." EGU General Assembly 2015, held 12-17 April, 2015 in Vienna, Austria. id.3134. 2015. Abstractegu2015-3134.pdfFull Text Link

The influence of climate and environmental history on human evolution is an existential question that continues to be hotly debated, in part because of the paucity of high resolution records collected in close proximity to the key fossil and archaeological evidence. To address this issue and transform the scientific debate, the HSPDP was developed to collect lacustrine sediment drill cores from basins in Kenya and Ethiopia that collectively encompass critical time intervals and locations for Plio-Quaternary human evolution in East Africa. After a 17 month campaign, drilling was completed in November, 2014, with over 1750m of core collected from 11 boreholes from five areas (1930m total drilling length, avg. 91% recovery). The sites, from oldest to youngest, include 1) N. Awash, Ethiopia (~3.5-2.9Ma core interval); 2) Baringo-Tugen Hills, Kenya (~3.3-2.5Ma); 3) West Turkana, Kenya (~1.9-1.4Ma); L. Magadi, Kenya (0.8-0Ma) and the Chew Bahir Basin, Ethiopia (~0.5-0Ma). Initial core description (ICD) and sampling for geochronology, geochemistry and paleoecology studies had been completed by mid2014, with the two remaining sites (Magadi and Chew Bahir) scheduled for ICD work in early 2015. Whereas the primary scientific targets were the lacustrine deposits from the hominin-bearing basin depocenters, many intervals of paleosols (representative of low lake stands and probable arid periods) were also encountered in drill cores. Preliminary analyses of drill core sedimentology and geochemistry show both long-term lake level changes and cyclic variability in lake levels, both of which may be indicative of climatic forcing events of interest to paleoanthropologists. Authors of this abstract also include the entire HSPDP field team.

Chen AA, Gheit T, Franceschi S, Tommasino M, GM; C, IARC HPV Variant Study Group. "Human Papillomavirus 18 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide." J Virol. . 2015;89(20):10680-7.
Joseph OO, Francis K. "The Influence of Organizational Culture and Market Orientation on Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Management. 2015;10(8):204-211. Abstractthe_influence_of_organizational_culture_and_market_orientation_on_performance_of_microfinance_institutions_in_kenya.pdf

The objective of our study is to assess the influence of organizational culture and market orientation on
performance. The population of the study comprise microfinance institutions that are members of the Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) in Kenya. We used descriptive cross-sectional survey design. We collected primary data using structured questionnaire. We test our hypotheses through regression analysis. Our results demonstrate that organizational culture significantly and positively influence variations in performance. The partial mediation effect of market orientation on the relationship between organizational culture and performance was confirmed. The complimentary effect of organizational culture on market orientation implies that organizations need to spend more resources in nurturing market orientation to create sustainable competitive advantage through delivery of superior customer experience. We conclude that the influence of organizational culture and market orientation on performance is more plausible for mature industries regarded as diverse in terms of customer needs.
Keywords: organizational culture, market orientation, performance, microfinance

Joseph OO, Francis K. "The Influence of Organizational Culture and Market Orientation on Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Management. 2015;10(8):204-211. Abstractthe_influence_of_organizational_culture_and_market_orientation_on_performance_of_microfinance_institutions_in_kenya.pdf

The objective of our study is to assess the influence of organizational culture and market orientation on
performance. The population of the study comprise microfinance institutions that are members of the Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) in Kenya. We used descriptive cross-sectional survey design. We collected primary data using structured questionnaire. We test our hypotheses through regression analysis. Our results demonstrate that organizational culture significantly and positively influence variations in performance. The partial mediation effect of market orientation on the relationship between organizational culture and performance was confirmed. The complimentary effect of organizational culture on market orientation implies that organizations need to spend more resources in nurturing market orientation to create sustainable competitive advantage through delivery of superior customer experience. We conclude that the influence of organizational culture and market orientation on performance is more plausible for mature industries regarded as diverse in terms of customer needs.
Keywords: organizational culture, market orientation, performance, microfinance

F.Kibegwa, Githui K, J.O.Jung'a, M.S.Badamana. "Mitochondrial DNA variation and maternal lineage of indigenous goats in Narok and Isiolo Counties of Kenya." ISSN 0931-2668. 2015;1-10.
F.Kibegwa M, Githui KE, Junga JO, Badamana MS, Nyamu MN. "Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goats in Narok and Isiolo counties of Kenya." Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. 2015:1-10.
Joop JA van Loon, Renate C Smallegange, Gabriella Bukovinszkiné-Kiss, Frans Jacobs, Marjolein De Rijk, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Niels O Verhulst, Menger DJ, Takken W. "Mosquito attraction: crucial role of carbon dioxide in formulation of a five-component blend of human-derived volatiles." Journal of chemical ecology. 2015;41(6):567-573.
Duysburgh E, Kerstens B, Kouanda S, Kaboré CP, Belemsaga Yugbare D, P G, Masache G, Crahay B, Gondola Sitefane G, Bique Osman N, Foia S, Barros H, Castro Lopes S, Mann S, Nambiar B, Colbourn T, M. T. "Opportunities to improve postpartum care for mothers and infants: design of context-specific packages of postpartum interventions in rural districts in four sub-Saharan African countries." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.. 2015;3;15:131. (doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0562-8. ).
M K, SW G, F M, M M. "Orbito-Maxillofacial cutaneous anthrax." The Annals of African Surgery. 2015;12(2):100-103.
M K, M M, S G, F M. "Orbito-Maxillofacial Cutaneous Anthrax." The Annals of African Surgery. 2015;12(2):100-103.
O.J.Owino, F.Kibera, R.Musyoka. "ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, INDUSTRY COMPETITION AND PERFORMANCE OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS IN KENYA." DBA-Africa Management Review. 2015;5(2):1-14. Abstractjournal_article_organizational_culture_industry_competion_performance_dba.pdf

The objective of our study is to assess the influence of organizational culture and industry competition on performance of microfinance institutions in Kenya. The population of the study comprise microfinance institutions that are members of the Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) in Kenya. We used descriptive cross-sectional survey design. We collected secondary data from annual industry performance reports by AMFI. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. We analyze data through Chi-square tests, factor analysis and regression analysis. Results of Cronbach’s alpha test confirm reliability of our measurement scales. Our results demonstrate that organizational culture has significant positive influence on performance when the latter is measured using subjective performance indicators. However, the relationship between organizational culture and financial performance is not statistically significant. The results also indicate that industry competition has significant but, moderate positive influence on firm performance. Our results do not confirm significant influence of interaction between organizational culture and industry competition on firm performance. Finally, our results show that the joint influence of organizational culture and industry competition on performance is statistically significant. Findings of the study have implications for theory and marketing practice. Our results support resource based view and resource advantage theories of competition. The results imply that possession of strong organizational culture that enhances reconfiguration and deployment of organizational resources is a key success factor in the microfinance industry. Findings of the study also imply that industry competition is beneficial to firms within the industry. The above findings inform our conclusion that organizational culture positively and strongly influence performance outcomes in the microfinance industry. However, the study is limited by the cross-sectional research design used. Based on the limitations of the study, we recommend the use of longitudinal research design to assess changes in organizational culture and performance over time.

D.N T, J.O J'a, J.M K, J.O A, F.M K, K.E G. "Population Viability Analysis of Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) in Lake Nakuru Nationa park Kenya." Biodiversity and Endangered Species. 2015;3(1):2332-2543.
F.W.Mugo. "Relationship Between Household Food Access and Feeding Habits." Research journali.com. 2015.
T D, I G, F P, A G, Mumo M, Holleran J, Duffy S, Fitzpatrick PA, Heydenreich M, G L, S D, Avery V, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, A Y. "Rotenoids, Flavonoids, and Chalcones from the Root Bark of Millettia usaramensis." J Nat Prod. 2015;78(12):2932-9. Abstract

J Nat Prod. 2015 Dec 24;78(12):2932-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00581. Epub 2015 Dec 14.
Rotenoids, Flavonoids, and Chalcones from the Root Bark of Millettia usaramensis.
Deyou T1, Gumula I1, Pang F2, Gruhonjic A, Mumo M1, Holleran J3, Duffy S3, Fitzpatrick PA, Heydenreich M4, Landberg G, Derese S1, Avery V3, Rissanen K2, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A1.
Author information
Abstract
Five new compounds, 4-O-geranylisoliquiritigenin (1), 12-dihydrousararotenoid B (2), 12-dihydrousararotenoid C (3), 4'-O-geranyl-7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 4'-O-geranyl-7-hydroxydihydroflavanol (5), along with 12 known natural products (6-17) were isolated from the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, whereas their absolute configurations were established on the basis of chiroptical data and in some cases also by X-ray crystallography. The crude extract was moderately active (IC50 = 11.63 μg/mL) against the ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line, and accordingly compounds 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 16 also showed moderate to low cytotoxic activities (IC50 25.7-207.2 μM). The new natural product 1 exhibited antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.7 and 5.3 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 Plasmodium falciparum strains, respectively, and was also cytotoxic to the HEK293 cell line.

Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Fischer-Jores A. "Saving livestock fodder in East Africa: development of a rapid penside diagnostic assay for detection of napier grass stunt phytoplasma." Phytopathogenic Mollicutes. 2015;5(1s):S23-S24.
Farquhar C, Newman LP, Mashalla Y, O'Malley G, Odero T, Gachuno O. "Theresa Mary Awuor Odero Theresa Mary Awuor Odero The Afya Bora Fellowship in Global Health Leadership: dual mentorship to strengthen the next generation of African health leaders." Annals of Global Health. 2015;81(1):25. AbstractWebsite

Mentorship is critical to develop effective leaders. The Afya Bora Fellowship in Global Health Leadership program, a consortium of four African and four US universities formed in 2008, has incorporated a robust dual mentorship component into its training of over 70 fellows. Each Fellow was assigned two mentors to guide professional growth over the fellowship period. Here, we evaluate 39 Fellows' experiences with their mentors between 2012 and 2014, and identify how these relationships prepare Fellows to lead major health programs

Odada E, Fekete BM, Robarts RD, Kumagai M, Nachtnebel H-P, Zhulidov AV. "Time for in situ renaissance." Science. 2015;349(6249):685-686. AbstractFull Text

of satellite observations is that measurements are readily collected and shared across
political boundaries. In contrast, many countries refuse to share ground-based hydrologic
measurements for socioeconomic and political reasons, whereas others simply lack the
capacity to centralize and digitize what data are collected. This impedes investigations on a
continental-to-global scale, as well as efforts to avert food and water crises. Because
satellites can monitor water resources at scales relevant to effective transboundary water
management and because data are often provided through freely accessible digital
archives, policies of international data denial may ultimately become obsolete (17).
Governments around the world are now instructing their water management agencies to
plan for the uncertain hydrologic future that satellite observations have helped reveal.

Francis Opiyo, Oliver V. Wasonga MNSMJOMM, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015. Abstract
n/a
F.N MJA, Kibera. "The influence of service quality management practices on the performance of Hotel firms in Kenya." European Scientific Journals. 2015;11:315-336. Abstract
n/a
Wafula H, Robinson M, Juma A, Sakwa T, Kitui M, Araoz R, Fischer C-H. "Role of Cl on diffusion of Cu in In2S3 layers prepared by ion layer gas reaction method." Coatings. 2015;5:54-62. Abstract
n/a
Naidoo S, Dimba E, Yengopal V, Folayan MO, Akpata ES. "Strategies for oral health research in Africa and the middle eastern region." Advances in dental research. 2015;27:43-49. Abstract
n/a
Mæhle K, Haug B, Flaatten H, Nielsen EW. "Metabolic alkalosis is the most common acid–base disorder in {ICU} patients." Critical Care. 2014;18:420. AbstractWebsite

PMID: 22585659

Francoz M, Fenolland J-R, Giraud J-M, El Chehab H, Sendon D, May F, Renard J-P. "Reproducibility of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measurement with cirrus {HD}-{OCT} in normal, hypertensive and glaucomatous eyes." The British journal of ophthalmology. 2014;98:322-328. Abstract

AIM: To evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness measurement by automated detection on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images in normal, hypertensive (ocular hypertensive (OHT)) and glaucomatous eyes. METHODS: A total of 138 eyes were enrolled in three groups: 69 normal, 35 OHT and 34 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination, 24-2 automated perimetry, biometry and pachymetry. Macular imaging was performed in each eye using the Cirrus HD-OCT 4000 with software V.6.0. (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA) three times on the same day by each of two observers, and the GC analysis (GCA) algorithm provided parameters expressed as average, minimum and six sectoral GC-IPL thicknesses. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV) and test-retest variability (TRTV) calculated as 1.96 times the SD. RESULTS: Mean GC-IPL thickness was 82.27±7.37 μm, 76.84±7.01 μm and 66.16±11.16 μm in normal, OHT and glaucoma groups, respectively. GC-IPL thickness was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal and OHT eyes (p{\textless}0.0001 for all parameters). In all groups, ICC ranged from 96.4 to 99.9% and 92.5 to 99.8%, CV ranged from 0.41 to 2.24% and 0.55 to 1.67%, and TRTV ranged from 0.61 to 2.64 μm and 0.83 to 2.22 μm for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of GCA algorithm reproducibility in normal, OHT and glaucomatous eyes. The reproducibility of GC-IPL thickness measurements using the Cirrus HD-OCT GCA algorithm was found to be highly satisfactory. GC-IPL thickness may be a promising new OCT parameter for analysis of ganglion cell damage in glaucoma.

Vogel JP, Souza JP, Gülmezoglu MA, Mori R, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Carroli G, Laopaiboon M, Fawole B, Ganchimeg T, Zhang J, Torloni MR, Bohren M, Temmerman M. "Use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in 29 countries: an analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Lancet. 2014;384(9957):1869-77. Abstract

Despite the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with preterm birth, little evidence is available for use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS) to assess coverage for these interventions in preterm deliveries.

Kibore MW, Daniels JA, Child MJ, Ruth Nduati, Njiri FJ, Kinuthia RM, O'Malley G, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Kenyan medical student and consultant experiences in a pilot decentralized training program at the University of Nairobi." Educ Health (Abingdon). 2014;27(2):170-6. Abstract

Over the past decade, the University of Nairobi (UoN) has increased the number of enrolled medical students threefold in response to the growing need for more doctors. This has resulted in a congested clinical training environment and limited opportunities for students to practice clinical skills at the tertiary teaching facility. To enhance the clinical experience, the UoN Medical Education Partnership Initiative Program Undertook training of medical students in non-tertiary hospitals around the country under the mentorship of consultant preceptors at these hospitals. This study focused on the evaluation of the pilot decentralized training rotation.

Newman LP, Njoroge A, Ben-Youssef L, Merkel M, Gatuguta A, Ton Q, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, Lohman-Payne B, Richardson BA, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Measles Seropositivity in HIV-Infected Kenyan Children on Antiretroviral Therapy." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2014. Abstract

This paper describes results from a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected children 15 months to 12 years of age who were receiving antiretroviral therapy. We found a low prevalence of measles IgG seropositivity (45.7%) and identified CD4% ≥ 25 as a predictor. Most HIV-infected children on ART were not measles seropositive and might benefit from revaccination.

Naarding MA, Fernandez N, Kappes JC, Hayes P, Ahmed T, Icyuz M, Edmonds TG, Bergin P, Anzala O, Hanke T, Clark L, Cox JH, Cormier E, Ochsenbauer C, Gilmour J. "Development of a luciferase based viral inhibition assay to evaluate vaccine induced CD8 T-cell responses." J. Immunol. Methods. 2014;409:161-73. Abstract

Emergence of SIV and HIV specific CD8 T cells has been shown to correlate with control of in vivo replication. Poor correlation between IFN-γ ELISPOT responses and in vivo control of the virus has triggered the development of more relevant assays to assess functional HIV-1 specific CD8 T-cell responses for the evaluation and prioritization of new HIV-1 vaccine candidates. We previously established a viral inhibition assay (VIA) that measures the ability of vaccine-induced CD8 T-cell responses to inhibit viral replication in autologous CD4 T cells. In this assay, viral replication is determined by measuring p24 in the culture supernatant. Here we describe the development of a novel VIA, referred to as IMC LucR VIA that exploits replication-competent HIV-1 infectious molecular clones (IMCs) in which the complete proviral genome is strain-specific and which express the Renilla luciferase (LucR) gene to determine viral growth and inhibition. The introduction of the luciferase readout does provide significant improvement of the read out time. In addition to switching to the LucR read out, changes made to the overall protocol resulted in the miniaturization of the assay from a 48 to a 96-well plate format, which preserved sample and allowed for the introduction of replicates. The overall assay time was reduced from 13 to 8 days. The assay has a high degree of specificity, and the previously observed non-specific background inhibition in cells from HIV-1 negative volunteers has been reduced dramatically. Importantly, we observed an increase in positive responses, indicating an improvement in sensitivity compared to the original VIA. Currently, only a limited number of "whole-genome" IMC-LucR viruses are available and our efforts will focus on expanding the panel to better evaluate anti-viral breadth. Overall, we believe the IMC LucR VIA provides a platform to assess functional CD8 T-cell responses in large-scale clinical trial testing, which will enhance the ability to select the most promising HIV-1 vaccine candidates capable of controlling HIV-1 replication in vivo.

Osoti AO, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J, Richardson B, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Krakowiak D, Farquhar C. "Home visits during pregnancy enhance male partner HIV counselling and testing in Kenya: a randomized clinical trial." AIDS. 2014;28(1):95-103. Abstract

HIV testing male partners of pregnant women may decrease HIV transmission to women and promote uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) interventions. However, it has been difficult to access male partners in antenatal care (ANC) clinics. We hypothesized that home visits to offer HIV testing to partners of women attending ANC would increase partner HIV testing.

Mackelprang RD, Bosire R, Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu A, Gatuguta A, Rositch AF, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "High rates of relationship dissolution among heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2014;18(1):189-93. Abstract

HIV-1 serodiscordant couples may experience increased risks of relationship dissolution; however, longitudinal stability of these relationships is poorly understood. We determined rates and correlates of separation among 469 serodiscordant couples in Nairobi and found that 113 (24 %) separated during 2 years of follow-up. Couples with a female HIV-1 infected partner (F+M-) and no income were more likely to separate than M+F- couples without income (HR = 5.0; 95 % CI 1.1-25.0), and F+M- and M+F- couples with income (HR = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.3-4.5 and HR = 2.3; 95 % CI 1.2-4.8, respectively). High separation rates may be important for couple support services and for conducting discordant couple studies.

Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Right from primary school, I liked science: understanding health research capacity building in sub-Saharan Africa through Kenyan training experiences." Glob Health Promot. 2014;21(2):32-42. Abstract

Defining research career paths that enable Africans to address local and global health issues is essential for population health. This study was conducted to better understand how international health training programs contribute to human resource capacity building in health research. Research career motivations, decision-making and experiences were explored among a small group of Kenyan HIV/AIDS researchers who had completed an international training program. We found that intersecting social dynamics within specific geographic spaces influenced individual training decision-making and motivated research career decisions over time. The concept that 'geo-social motivation' is an important determinant of success for an African considering a research career developed from this study, and may be used to tailor future health research human resource capacity-building programs.

Slyker J, Farquhar C, Atkinson C, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Roxby A, Drake A, Kiarie J, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Odem-Davis K, John-Stewart G, Emery V. "Compartmentalized cytomegalovirus replication and transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2014;58(4):564-72. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. Determinants of vertical CMV transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection are not well-defined.

Bezemer D, Faria NR, Hassan A, Hamers RL, Mutua G, Anzala O, Mandaliya K, Cane P, Berkley JA, Rinke de Wit TF, Wallis C, Graham SM, Price MA, Coutinho RA, Sanders EJ. "HIV Type 1 transmission networks among men having sex with men and heterosexuals in Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2014;30(2):118-26. Abstract

We performed a molecular phylogenetic study on HIV-1 polymerase sequences of men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual patient samples in Kenya to characterize any observed HIV-1 transmission networks. HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, 226 other men, and 364 women from 2005 to 2010. Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. Finally, we compared 84 MSM sequences with all HIV-1 sequences available online at GenBank. Significant clustering of sequences from MSM at both coastal Kenya and Nairobi was found, with evidence of HIV-1 transmission between both locations. Although a transmission pair between a coastal MSM and woman was confirmed, no significant HIV-1 transmission was evident between MSM and the comparison population for the predominant subtype A (60%). However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together. GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Our data suggest infrequent intermingling of MSM and heterosexual HIV-1 epidemics in Kenya.

Juno JA, Lajoie J, Stalker AT, Julius Oyugi, Kimani M, Kimani J, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Enrichment of LAG-3, but not PD-1, on double negative T cells at the female genital tract." Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.. 2014;72(6):534-40. Abstract

The expression of inhibitory markers such as LAG-3 and PD-1 on T lymphocytes regulates immune function. Their expression at the genital mucosa is poorly understood, but regulation of immune activation at the female genital tract likely controls susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections.

Child MJ, Kiarie JN, Allen SM, Ruth Nduati, Wasserheit JN, Kibore MW, John-Stewart G, Njiri FJ, O'Malley G, Kinuthia R, Norris TE, Farquhar C. "Expanding clinical medical training opportunities at the University of Nairobi: adapting a regional medical education model from the WWAMI program at the University of Washington." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S35-9. Abstract

A major medical education need in Sub-Saharan Africa includes expanding clinical training opportunities to develop health professionals. Medical education expansion is a complicated process that requires significant investment of financial and human resources, but it can also provide opportunities for innovative approaches and partnerships. In 2010, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief launched the Medical Education Partnership Initiative to invest in medical education and health system strengthening in Africa. Building on a 30-year collaborative clinical and research training partnership, the University of Nairobi in Kenya developed a pilot regional medical education program modeled on the WWAMI (Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho) medical education program at the University of Washington in the United States. The University of Nairobi adapted key elements of the WWAMI model to expand clinical training opportunities without requiring major capital construction of new buildings or campuses. The pilot program provides short-term clinical training opportunities for undergraduate students and recruits and trains clinical faculty at 14 decentralized training sites. The adaptation of a model from the Northwestern United States to address medical education needs in Kenya is a successful transfer of knowledge and practices that can be scaled up and replicated across Sub-Saharan Africa.

Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
Murnane PM, Heffron R, Ronald A, Bukusi EA, Donnell D, Mugo NR, Were E, Mujugira A, Kiarie J, Celum C, Baeten JM. "Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention does not diminish the pregnancy prevention effectiveness of hormonal contraception." AIDS. 2014. Abstract

For women at risk of HIV-1, effective contraception and effective HIV-1 prevention are global priorities.

Soh J, Rositch AF, Koutsky L, Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire RK, Gatuguta A, Smith JS, Kiarie J, Lohman-Payne B, Farquhar C. "Individual and partner risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology among women in HIV-discordant relationships." Int J STD AIDS. 2014;25(5):315-24. Abstract

Individual and sexual partner characteristics may increase the risk of abnormal cervical cytology among women in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant relationships. Papanicolaou smears were obtained in a prospective cohort of Kenyan HIV-discordant couples. Of 441 women, 283 (64%) were HIV-infected and 158 (36%) were HIV-uninfected with HIV-infected partners. Overall, 79 (18%) had low-grade and 25 (6%) high-grade cervical abnormalities. Male herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and lower couple socioeconomic status were associated with cervical abnormalities (p < 0.05). HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected male sex partners (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) had the lowest prevalence of high-grade cervical lesions. HIV-infected women (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) and HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected partners (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) were at similar intermediate risk (p > 0.05), and HIV-infected women (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) had significantly higher risk of high-grade cervical abnormalities (p = 0.05). Women in HIV-discordant relationships have high rates of cervical lesions and this may be influenced by couple-level factors, including HIV status and CD4 count of the infected partner.

Omosa-Manyonyi G, Park H, Mutua G, Farah B, Bergin PJ, Laufer D, Lehrman J, Chinyenze K, Barin B, Fast P, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal specimen collection in clinical trial participants in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e110228. Abstract

Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Monroe-Wise A, Kibore M, Kiarie J, Ruth Nduati, Mburu J, Drake FT, Bremner W, Holmes K, Farquhar C. "The Clinical Education Partnership Initiative: an innovative approach to global health education." BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:1043. Abstract

Despite evidence that international clinical electives can be educationally and professionally beneficial to both visiting and in-country trainees, these opportunities remain challenging for American residents to participate in abroad. Additionally, even when logistically possible, they are often poorly structured. The Universities of Washington (UW) and Nairobi (UoN) have enjoyed a long-standing research collaboration, which recently expanded into the UoN Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). Based on MEPI in Kenya, the Clinical Education Partnership Initiative (CEPI) is a new educational exchange program between UoN and UW. CEPI allows UW residents to partner with Kenyan trainees in clinical care and teaching activities at Naivasha District Hospital (NDH), one of UoN's MEPI training sites in Kenya.

Slyker JA, Patterson J, Ambler G, Richardson BA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Bosire R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G. "Correlates and outcomes of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in HIV-exposed uninfected infants." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:7. Abstract

Preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) contribute to neonatal mortality. Maternal HIV-1 infection has been associated with an increased risk of PTB, but mechanisms underlying this association are undefined. We describe correlates and outcomes of PTB, LBW, and SGA in HIV-exposed uninfected infants.

Korir A, Mauti N, Moats P, Gurka MJ, Mutuma G, Metheny C, Mwamba PM, Oyiro PO, Fisher M, Ayers LW, Rochford R, Mwanda WO, Remick SC. "Developing clinical strength-of-evidence approach to define HIV-associated malignancies for cancer registration in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85881. Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa cancer registries are beset by an increasing cancer burden further exacerbated by the AIDS epidemic where there are limited capabilities for cancer-AIDS match co-registration. We undertook a pilot study based on a "strength-of-evidence" approach using clinical data that is abstracted at the time of cancer registration for purposes of linking cancer diagnosis to AIDS diagnosis.

Roxby AC, Atkinson C, Asbjörnsdóttir K, Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Drake AL, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Emery V, John-Stewart G, Slyker JA. "Maternal valacyclovir and infant cytomegalovirus acquisition: a randomized controlled trial among HIV-infected women." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(2):e87855. Abstract

Studies in HIV-1-infected infants and HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants link early cytomegalovirus (CMV) acquisition with growth delay and cognitive impairment. We investigated maternal valacyclovir to delay infant acquisition of CMV.

Sherr K, Gimbel S, Rustagi A, Ruth Nduati, Cuembelo F, Farquhar C, Wasserheit J, Gloyd S. "Systems analysis and improvement to optimize pMTCT (SAIA): a cluster randomized trial." Implement Sci. 2014;9:55. Abstract

Despite significant increases in global health investment and the availability of low-cost, efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden, the translation of scientific advances into effective delivery strategies has been slow, uneven and incomplete. As a result, pediatric HIV infection remains largely uncontrolled. A five-step, facility-level systems analysis and improvement intervention (SAIA) was designed to maximize effectiveness of pMTCT service provision by improving understanding of inefficiencies (step one: cascade analysis), guiding identification and prioritization of low-cost workflow modifications (step two: value stream mapping), and iteratively testing and redesigning these modifications (steps three through five). This protocol describes the SAIA intervention and methods to evaluate the intervention's impact on reducing drop-offs along the pMTCT cascade.

Macheyeki AS, Chapola LS, Manhiça V, Chisambi J, Feitio P, Ayele A, Barongo J, Ferdinand RW, Ghebrebrhan O, Goitom B, Hlatywayo JD, Kianji GK, Marohbe I, Mulowezi A, Mutamina D, Mwano JM, Shumba B, andTumwikiri. "Active Fault Mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 Seismic Event.". 2014.
Murithi CK, Fidahusein DS, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." Int J Edu Res. 2014;2:395-406.
Kitonde CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;1(2):1-12.
Kitonde CK, Fidahusein D, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(1):1-12.
Kitonde* CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Senna didymobotrya used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(1):1-12.
Silvanus SK, Veronica N, Hudson N, Isaac J, Fredrick O. "Assessment of mineral deficiencies among grazing areas in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya." Int. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2014;3:44-48. AbstractInt. J. Nutr. Food Sci

Description
A study conducted in the major grazing areas of Uasin Gishu involved twenty-eight (28) soils, twenty-eight (28) forage and forty-two (42) serum samples collected in six divisions at different sites. The purpose of the study was to determine the macro-and trace elements in soils, forages and animal serum, and compare to the recommended standards so as to identify those that could be presenting deficiencies in the area. Soils were extracted for available macro-minerals; Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) magnesium (Mg) and trace elements; Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn; the forage samples were assayed for the same elements plus phosphorus as total concentration on dry matter (DM) basis while blood serum was analyzed for the same forage elements plus molybdenum (Mo). Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and UV/visible spectrophotometer were used to analyze the metal elements and molybdenum respectively. Soil and Forage analysis of samples from southern region including Kesses and Ainabkoi revealed lower levels in both macro and trace elements analyzed. Serum samples from grazing areas situated in southern region revealed similar deficiencies in most minerals. The factors responsible for the variations as soil pH, forage species and cattle breed were investigated using correlation analysis.

Temu CK, F.J.Gichaga. "Axle Load Study along the Nairobi-Thika Road (A2) ." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(2).
L Z, ME E, G K, S R, P M, B C, K M, S I, A J, R D, V F, S O, B G, C M, E O, P L, MM A-K, C H-H, SS S, A H, W D, DY G, SG A, AG D, BA S, DM B, A ES, AS I, J M, F B-T, BN O, O I, C S, R M, A AF, N K, A D, M S, OS O, T O, HH E, AO M, AM A, P M, D O, J M, S Y, BM M. "Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study)." Eur Heart J. . 2014.
Faridah H Were, Moturi CM, Wafula GA. "Chromium Exposure and Related Health Effects among Tannery Workers in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2014;4(7):25-35. Abstract

Background. There is increasing concern over the health effects of chromium (Cr) exposure stemming from various activities in tanneries in Kenya. Chromium is a toxic metal in its hexavalent form, and is widely used in the tanning process. Objectives. A detailed exposure assessment of Cr and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya was performed. Methods. Spot urine and 8-hour full-shift personal breathing zone air samples of the workers (N = 40) and control group (N = 40) were collected and subsequently analyzed for total Cr using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The medical history, respiratory, and dermatological condition of each of the selected workers was determined. Lung function was further investigated using a spirometer. Results. Tannery workers in various production lines had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean airborne Cr levels (± standard deviation [SD] of 63.0±11.6 µg/m3) compared to those in the control group (1.39±0.64 µg/m3), and general workers had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of Cr (66.8±13.1 µg/m3) than those in other lines of production. A significant positive association (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001) was also observed between urinary and breathing zone air Cr levels. Mean urinary Cr level exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists biological exposure index for Cr of 30 µg/g creatinine, and 78% of Cr levels of the general workers exceeded this limit. Tannery workers showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms (30% and 20%, respectively) compared to the control group (10% and 7.5%, respectively). It was further established that production workers had significantly reduced ventilatory function, with 17% experiencing pulmonary obstruction, 13% pulmonary restriction, and 7.5% both manifestations compared to 5% for each of the listed corresponding manifestations in the control group. Conclusions. Our study revealed inadequate engineering controls, work practices and personal hygiene, together with improper management of tannery wastes that has led to considerable exposures to Cr and related health effects among workers.

Key Words. Kenya; developing country; chromium; tannery workers; adverse health effects; respiratory diseases; dermatological condition

Faridah H Were, Moturi CM, Wafula GA. "Chromium exposure and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya." Journal of Health Pollution. 2014;4(7):25-35. AbstractJournal of Health Pollution

Description
Background. There is increasing concern over the health effects of chromium (Cr) exposure stemming from various activities in tanneries in Kenya. Chromium is a toxic metal in its hexavalent form, and is widely used in the tanning process.
Objectives. A detailed exposure assessment of Cr and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya was performed.
Methods. Spot urine and 8-hour full-shift personal breathing zone air samples of the workers (N = 40) and control group (N = 40) were collected and subsequently analyzed for total Cr using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The medical history, respiratory, and dermatological condition of each of the selected workers was determined. Lung function was further investigated using a spirometer.
Results. Tannery workers in various production lines had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean airborne Cr levels (± standard deviation [SD] of 63.0±11.6 μg …

Yenesew A, Sunnerhagen, P., Erdelyi M, Abdissa N, Induli, M., Fitzpatrick P, Alao JP, Landberg G. "Cytotoxic Quinones from the Roots of Aloe dawei." Molecules. 2014;19,:3264-3273. Abstractpaper_69_abdissa_et_al_molecules_2014.pdf

Seven naphthoquinones and nine anthraquinones were isolated from the roots of Aloe dawei by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR and MS analyses. Out of the sixteen quinones, 6-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is a new compound. Two of the isolates, 5,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone showed high cytotoxic activity (IC₅₀ 1.15 and 4.85 µM) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, whereas the others showed moderate to low cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (ER Negative) and MCF-7 (ER Positive) cancer cells.

Onyango MA, FA O, Nyamu DG, Osanjo GO, Sinei K. "Determinants of antibiotic dose adjustment in patients with chronic kidney disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2014;3(1):19-28. Abstract

Background: Reduced renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) necessitates appropriate dose alterations to avoid drug accumulation.

Objectives: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic dosing in patients with CKD in the largest referral hospital in eastern Africa. Variables associated with inappropriate dosing were identified.

Methods: The design was a retrospective review of patients’ records. The study population was adult patients, with CKD admitted between January, 2006 and December, 2010. Data was abstracted from patient files. Logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with appropriate antibiotic dosing.

Results: Ceftriaxone and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics. Dose adjustment was required for 379 (59.9%) antibiotic prescriptions. Of these, 105 doses (27.7% [95% CI: 23.2 – 32.2%]) were appropriate and 274 (72.3% [95% CI 67.8 – 76.8%]) were inappropriate. The resultant dosing errors were: 271 (98.9%) and 3 (1.1%) cases of over and under dosing respectively. Key explanatory variables for appropriate dosing were: stage of renal disease (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.159 [95% CI: 0.082, 0.309]); administration; (adjusted OR 1.724 [95% CI:1.185, 2.508]); and treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (adjusted OR 0.101 [95% CI 0.024, 0.420].

Conclusion: Antibiotic doses in patients with CKD were often inappropriate.
Keywords: Antibiotic, dose adjustment, chronic kidney disease

Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Ohkura N, Fujimura M, Nakai S, Honda Y, Saijoh K, Hayakawa K, Kobayashi F, Michigami Y, EO A. "Effects of Asian dust on daily cough occurrence in patients with chronic cough: A panel study." Atmospheric Environment. 2014;92:506-513.
Njogu RNE, Kariuki DK, D.M. K, F.N. W. "Effects of Foliar Fertilizer (NPK) Uptake in Tea Camellia sinensis on Tea Quality and Nutrient Residue Levels in Kenyan Highlands." American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2014;5(18):2707-2715.
Fogoum AL, Atteh NI, Atteh NI, Ndongo BC, Wami B, Nouedoui C, Muna WFT. "Elijah N. Ogola Elijah N. Ogola OP78 Observance médicamenteuse chez les patients diabétiques suivis au Centre National d'Hypertension et de Diabétologie de l'Hôpital Central de Yaoundé (CNHD-HCY)." Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2014;103. AbstractWebsite

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Ndiwa NGAINAJ, James N, Francis M, Kipkoech MB, Owuor OA. "Flood Forecasting over Lower Nzoia Sub-Basin in Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;1(1):25-31. Abstractflood_forecasting_over_lower_nzoia_sub-basin_in_kenya.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Real time flood forecasting is one of the most effective non- structural measures for flood management. In this study, Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is used with Probability Distributed Moisture model (PDM) to forecast flood events over Nzoia sub-basin. The performance of four variations of EnKF (state updating, parameter updating, dual (state parameter) and dual (parameter-state) updating) were evaluated using the Root Mean Square (RMSE) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) for 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-hour lead time forecasts. In 1EE01 gauging station, RMSE and CoE values was 30m3/s and 0.70 while 1EF01 station had RMSE and CoE values of 50m3/s and 0.82 respectively. For the state variables, standard deviation of 1.1, 0.32, 0.21 and 0.05 were found for recharge, surface storage, groundwater storage and storage respectively while for the PDM parameters, standard deviation of 4.0, 0.2 and 0.2 were found for maximum store capacity, exponent of recharge function and ground recharge time respectively. Parameter updating performed better in terms of RMSE and CoE and thus potential of improving flood forecasting to enable management of flood related risk on real time basis over the sub-basin.
Key Words: Discharge, rainfall, Ensemble Kalman Filter, flood forecasting, rainfall-runoff model.

Fujiwara K, Furukawa T, Kiboi S, MATHENGE S, MUTISO P, HAYASHI H, MEGURO S-ichi. "Forest types and biodiversity around the Great Rift Valley in Kenya." Contributii Botanice. 2014;49.
Campisano CJ, Cohen A, Asrat A, Feibel C, Kingston J, Lamb H, Olago D, Owen R, Renaut R, Schabitz F. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) drilling campaigns: the trials and triumphs of trying the unique and new." 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. 2014. AbstractFull Text Link

Between the summers of 2013 and 2014, the HSPDP successfully completed 4 of its 5 drilling campaigns. To date, >1,200m of core has been collected with the final site at Chew Bahir, Ethiopia scheduled for the end of 2014. The initial core description and sampling have been completed on all but the Magadi cores. Despite the challenges associated with a large-scale multinational project, we have accomplished our goal of collecting lacustrine dominated cores proximate to key paleoanthropological sites. Challenges included the availability/import of suitable drill rigs and equipment in country, long supply lines in remote areas, challenging lithologies for coring and recovery, and interpretation of geophysical data. At our oldest site, 600m of Pliocene-age core was collected from 3 boreholes at 2 sites in the northern Awash, Ethiopia. This resulted in a composite depth of ~285m with significant overlap between cores and >96% core recovery. Several unexpectedly thick basalts not originally identified in seismic surveys were interbedded with lake sediments. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target of 500m when rehydrated clays made advancing impractical and work in progress will determine how much of the 2.9-3.8Ma target interval was recovered. A single 228m borehole with ~95% core recovery was drilled at the Plio-Pleistocene Tugen Hills, Kenya location. Just shy of our 250m target depth, preliminary comparisons with outcrop records suggest that this core may cover a time interval of ~2.5-3.45Ma, longer than our original target of 2.5-3.1Ma. A single 216m borehole with ~93% core recovery was drilled at the early Pleistocene West Turkana, Kenya location. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target depth of 350m due to complications likely associated with penetrating a hydrothermal fracture system. Nonetheless, tephrostratigraphic data indicates that the core covers our original target interval of ~1.45-2.0Ma. Recently, 202m of modern to Middle Pleistocene core was collected from 4 boreholes at 2 sites at Lake Magadi, Kenya. Challenging lithologies to core/collect (e.g., trona, chert) resulted in core recovery of 55-60%. Contact with the basement trachyte (~800 ka) at each site occurred at 137m and 197m, respectively, shallower than original estimates from low-resolution geophysical surveys.

Chen AA, Heideman DA, Boon D, Gheit T, Snijders PJ, Tommasino M, Franceschi S, Clifford GM. "Human papillomavirus 45 genetic variation and cervical cancer risk worldwide." J Virol. . 2014;88(8):4514-21.
Olang LO, Kundu PM, Ouma G, Fürst J. "Impacts of Land Cover Change Scenarios on Storm Runoff Generation: A Basis for Management of the Nyando Basin, Kenya." Land Degradation & Development. 2014;25(3):267-277. AbstractWiley Online Library

The effects of conceptual land cover change scenarios on the generation of storm runoffs were evaluated in the Nyando Basin. The spatial scenarios represented alternatives that vary between full deforestation and reforestation. Synthetic storm events of depths 40, 60 and 80 mm were formulated according to the rainfall patterns and assumed to have durations corresponding to the runoff times of concentration. The Natural Resource Conservation Service–Curve Number model was used to generate runoff volumes within the sub‐catchments, which were subsequently routed downstream to obtain effects in the whole basin. The simulated land cover change impacts were evaluated relative to values obtained from the actual land cover state of the basin in the year 2000. From the results, an agricultural land cover scenario constituting of about 86 per cent of agriculture indicated increased runoff volumes in the entire basin by about 12 per cent. An agricultural‐forested land cover scenario with 40 and 51 per cent of forest and agriculture respectively revealed reduced runoff volumes by about 12 per cent. Alternatively, a scenario depicting a largely forested land cover state with about 78 per cent of forests reduced the runoff volumes by about 25 per cent according to the model estimates. Runoff volumes in the basin were also likely to reduce by about 15 per cent if the appropriate land cover scenario for the respective sub‐catchments were to be assumed for runoff management purposes. Considering the prevalent data uncertainty, the study effectively highlights the potential hydrological vulnerability of the basin. The results obtained can form a basis for appropriate catchment management of the area. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Baleg AA, Jahed N, Ozoemena KI, Yonkeu ADL, Njomo N, Mbambisa G, Molapo KM, Fuku XG, Fomo G, Makelane H, Tsegaye A, Waryo TT, Baker P, Vilakazi S, Tshikhudo R, Iwuoha EI. "Impedimetry and microscopy of electrosynthetic poly (propylene imine)-co-polypyrrole conducting dendrimeric star copolymers." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:448-457. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
A novel generation 2 poly(propylene imine)-co-polypyrrole conducting dendrimeric star copolymer (G2PPI-co-PPy) was synthesised electrochemically by oxidative copolymerization of pyrrole and pyrrole-functionalised dendrimer (G2PPI-2Py) in LiClO4 NMR spectra of G2PPI-2Py gave a new chemical shift at 8.1 ppm for N = CH, which confirmed the incorporation of 2-pyrrole aldehyde into the PPI dendrimer structure. Strong FT-IR bands appeared at 1630 cm−1 for N = C in the dendrimer moiety and at 729 cm−1 for C-H at the α-position of the PPy ring. Electroanalysis of the polymer films deposited on Pt electrode indicated that G2PPI-co-PPy has a lower electrochemical charge transfer resistance (Rct) value compared to PPy. The decrease in Rct is due to the increase in the conjugation length of the polymer as a result of the linking of the highly conjugated PPy to the PPI dendrimer. Bode impedimetric analysis …

Tarkang PA, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Liuzzi M, Nolé T, Ayong LS, Agbor GA, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN. "In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic Combinations of Differential Solvent Extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang." BioMed Research International. 2014;Article ID 835013:DOI: /10.1155/2014/835013. Abstract2014_-_in_vitro_antiplasmodial_activities.pdf

Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extractswere analyzed onCQ-sensitive (3D7) andmultidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2,

Tarkang PA, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Luizzi M, Tsabang N, Ayong LS, Agbor G, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN. "In vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang." Biomed. Res. Int.. 2014;Article ID 835013.
Faridah H Were, M Charles Moturi, P Gottesfeld, Wafula GA, Kamau GN, Shiundu PM. "Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya." Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene. 2014;11(11):706-715. AbstractWebsite

The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m3 in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m3 in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m3 in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m3 in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m3 in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m3 in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m3 in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R2 = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.

FH W, MC M, P G, A WG, GN K. "Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya." PubMed. 2014;11(11):706-15. Abstract

Abstract

The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m(3) in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m(3) in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m(3) in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m(3) in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m(3) in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m(3) in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m(3) in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.
KEYWORDS:

airborne lead; blood lead; industrial workers; occupational exposure;  blood pressure

A.A O-O, Fadairo O, Ameyaw J, Yiran G, Mutisya E, Mfune O, Fuh D, Nyerere J, Sulemana N. "Learning to Solve Africa's Problems by Africans: Innovations for Addressing the Canker of Corruption." African journal of Sustainable Development. 2014;Vol 4(3)(Special Issue, ISSN 2315-6317.).
MO O, FN K. "The need for Databases and User-Interface Systems for Urban Planning." International Refereed Journal Africa Habitat Review. 2014;8.
Frances A, et al. "One Health- the WSPA Approach.". 2014.
Hayashi Y, Ogada CN, Kihara E, Wagaiyu EG, Fukuda H. "Oral Health Status among 12-Year-Old Children in a Rural Kenyan Community." Dent Oral Health . 2014;1:1-5.
Calatayud PA, Silvain JF, Branca A, Dupas S, Gigot G, Ong'amo G, LeRu B, Campagne P, Sezonlin M, Faure N. "Phylogeography in continuous space: coupling species distribution models and circuit theory to assess the effect of contiguous migration at different climatic periods on ….". 2014.
Kitonde* CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;3(1):65-72.
SD G, D P, Linden A AG, E B, J.F C, SR F, P J, M K, M L, F L, MA M, E O'F, S O, R R, F A. "A pilot comparison of standardized online surgical curricula for use in low- and middle-income countries." JAMA Surg. 2014;149(4):341-316.
Njogu RNE &, Kariuki DK, D.M. K, F.N. W. "Relationship between Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaf Uptake of Major Nutrients, Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) and Leaf Anatomy of Different Varieties Grown in the Kenyan Highlands." BEST: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicines and Sciencies (BEST: IJHAMS). 2014;2(8):95-102.
Nyerere YFAGOJ, J. MO, D. Fuh N, Sulemana, Mutisya E, Fadairo O, Ameyaw J, Oluoko-Odingo AA. "The Role of Higher Education in Building a Sustainable African Society." African journal of Sustainable Development.. 2014;Vol. 4 (3), (Special).
Jerome K, James M, Vigheri N, Johnson K, Rockefeller E, Ivan R, Wilberforce T, Fina O. "Strategies for rehabilitation of banana fields infested with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacrearum." Journal of Crop Protection. 2014;3(1):21-29.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, R W Nduati, Mwanda W, M'imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening Health Systems by Integrating Health Care, Medical Education and Research: University of Nairobi Experience." Academic Medicine . 2014;89 (8)(August Supplement.):109-110.abstract.pdf
Field CB, Barros VR, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Opondo M, Poloczanska ES, Pörtner HO. "Technical summary Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment ….". 2014:35-94. Abstractpure.iiasa.ac.at

Human interference with the climate system is occurring. Climate change poses risks for human and natural systems. The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change and how risks can be reduced through mitigation and adaptation. It recognizes that risks of climate change will vary across regions and populations, through space and time, dependent on myriad factors including the extent of mitigation and adaptation.

F B, EAO D, K S. "Treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour by marsupialization." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2014.
F O, Nyangito MM, Wasonga OV, P. O. "Trend Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability in Arid Environment of Turkan, Kenya. Environ." Environ. Res. J. . 2014;8(2):30-43.
F Okumu, L Biswaro, E Mbeleyela, Killeen GF, R Mukabana, Moore SJ. "Using Nylon Strips to Dispense Mosquito Attractants for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae s.s." Journal of medical entomology. 2014;47(2):274-282.
Fikir Alemayehu, Onwonga Richard MJK, V WO. "Assessment of Shoreline Changes in the Period 1969-2010 in Watamu area, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: H Environment & Earth Science. 2014;14. Abstract
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Borgese L, Bilo F, Tsuji K, Fernández-Ruiz R,... "First total reflection X-ray fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results." … Acta Part B: Atomic …. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of …

Koyio LN, van der Sanden WJM, Dimba EO, Mulder J, van der Ven AJAM, Merkx MAW, Frencken JE. "Knowledge of Nairobi East District Community Health Workers concerning HIV-related orofacial lesions and other common oral lesions." BMC public health. 2014;14:1-8. Abstract
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Koyio LN, van der Sanden WJM, Dimba E, Mulder J, Creugers NHJ, Merkx MAW, van der Ven A, Frencken JE. "Oral health training programs for community and professional health care workers in Nairobi East District increases identification of HIV-infected patients." PLoS One. 2014;9:e90927. Abstract
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Avery K, Barham C, Berrisford R, Blazeby J, Blencowe N, Donovan J, Elliott J, Falk S, Goldin R, Hanna G, Hollowood A, Metcalfe C, Noble S, Sanders G, Streets C, Titcomb D, Wheatley T. "Understanding surgical interventions in {RCTs}: the need for better methodology." The Lancet. 2013;381:27-28. AbstractWebsite
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Poole DC, Copp SW, Ferguson SK, Musch TI. "Skeletal muscle capillary function: contemporary observations and novel hypotheses." Experimental physiology. 2013;98:1645-1658. Abstract

The capillary bed constitutes a vast surface that facilitates exchange of O2, substrates and metabolites between blood and organs. In contracting skeletal muscle, capillary blood flow and O2 diffusing capacity, as well as O2 flux, may increase two orders of magnitude above resting values. Chronic diseases, such as heart failure and diabetes, and also sepsis impair these processes, leading to compromised energetic, metabolic and, ultimately, contractile function. Among researchers seeking to understand blood-myocyte exchange in health and the basis for dysfunction in disease, there is a fundamental disconnect between microcirculation specialists and many physiologists and physiologist clinicians. While the former observe capillaries and capillary function directly (muscle intravital microscopy), the latter generally use indirect methodologies (e.g. post-mortem tissue analysis, 1-methyl xanthine, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, permeability-surface area product) and interpret their findings based upon August Krogh's observations made nearly a century ago. 'Kroghian' theory holds that only a small fraction of capillaries support red blood cell (RBC) flux in resting muscle, leaving the vast majority to be 'recruited' (i.e. to initiate RBC flux) during contractions, which would constitute the basis for increasing surface area for capillary exchange and reducing capillary-mitochondrial diffusion distances. Experimental techniques each have their strengths and weaknesses, and often the correct or complete answer to a problem emerges from integration across multiple technologies. Today, Krogh's entrenched 'capillary recruitment' hypothesis is challenged by direct observations of capillaries in contracting muscle, which is something that he and his colleagues could not do. Moreover, in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, application of a range of contemporary physiological technologies, including intravital microscopy of contracting muscle, magnetic resonance, near-infrared spectroscopy and phosphorescence quenching, combined with elegant in situ and in vivo models, suggest that the role of the capillary bed, at least in contracting muscle, is subserved without the necessity for de novo capillary recruitment of previously non-flowing capillaries. When viewed within the context of the capillary recruitment hypothesis, this evidence casts serious doubt on the interpretation of those data that are based upon Kroghian theory and indirect methodologies. Thus, today a wealth of evidence calls for a radical revision of blood-muscle exchange theory to one in which most capillaries support RBC flux at rest and, during contractions, capillary surface area is 'recruited' along the length of previously flowing capillaries. This occurs, in part, by elevating capillary haematocrit and extending the length of the capillary available for blood-myocyte exchange (i.e. longitudinal recruitment). Our understanding of blood-myocyte O2 and substrate/metabolite exchange in health and the mechanistic basis for dysfunction in disease demands no less.

Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya Using Fecal Sampling." Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.). 2013. Abstractofula_et_al._2103.pdf

Abstract Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/H5N1 has been reported in 11 African countries. Migratory waterbirds have the potential of introducing A/H5N1 into east Africa through the Rift Valley of Kenya. We present the results of a wild bird surveillance system for A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses based on avian fecal sampling in Kenya. We collected 2630 fecal samples in 2008. Viral RNA was extracted from pools of 3-5 fecal samples and analyzed for presence of avian influenza virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. Twelve (2.3%) of the 516 sample pools were positive for avian influenza virus RNA, 2 of which were subtyped as H4N6 viruses. This is the first report of avian influenza virus in wild birds in Kenya. This study demonstrates the success of this approach in detecting avian influenza virus in wild birds and represents an efficient surveillance system for avian influenza virus in regions with limited resources.

Muiru AN, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Merkel M, Liu AY, Choi RY, Lohman-Payne B, Gatuguta A, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Incident HSV-2 infections are common among HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;208(7):1093-101. Abstract

The synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well known, but lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of HSV-2 acquisition in HIV-1-discordant couples hampers development of HSV-2 prevention interventions that could reduce HIV-1 transmission.

Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, Makanya A, Styp-Rekowska B, Ceausu A, Flueckiger S, Lang S, Semela D, Le Noble F, Chatterjee S, Djonov V. "Inhibition of Notch signaling induces extensive intussusceptive neo-angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells." Angiogenesis. 2013;16(4):921-37. Abstract

Notch is an intercellular signaling pathway related mainly to sprouting neo-angiogenesis. The objective of our study was to evaluate the angiogenic mechanisms involved in the vascular augmentation (sprouting/intussusception) after Notch inhibition within perfused vascular beds using the chick area vasculosa and MxCreNotch1(lox/lox) mice. In vivo monitoring combined with morphological investigations demonstrated that inhibition of Notch signaling within perfused vascular beds remarkably induced intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) with resultant dense immature capillary plexuses. The latter were characterized by 40 % increase in vascular density, pericyte detachment, enhanced vessel permeability, as well as recruitment and extravasation of mononuclear cells into the incipient transluminal pillars (quintessence of IA). Combination of Notch inhibition with injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells dramatically enhanced IA with 80 % increase in vascular density and pillar number augmentation by 420 %. Additionally, there was down-regulation of ephrinB2 mRNA levels consequent to Notch inhibition. Inhibition of ephrinB2 or EphB4 signaling induced some pericyte detachment and resulted in up-regulation of VEGFRs but with neither an angiogenic response nor recruitment of mononuclear cells. Notably, Tie-2 receptor was down-regulated, and the chemotactic factors SDF-1/CXCR4 were up-regulated only due to the Notch inhibition. Disruption of Notch signaling at the fronts of developing vessels generally results in massive sprouting. On the contrary, in the already existing vascular beds, down-regulation of Notch signaling triggered rapid augmentation of the vasculature predominantly by IA. Notch inhibition disturbed vessel stability and led to pericyte detachment followed by extravasation of mononuclear cells. The mononuclear cells contributed to formation of transluminal pillars with sustained IA resulting in a dense vascular plexus without concomitant vascular remodeling and maturation.

Amornkul PN, Karita E, Kamali A, Rida WN, Sanders EJ, Lakhi S, Price MA, Kilembe W, Cormier E, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Allen SA, Gilmour J, Fast PE. "Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2775-86. Abstract

To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).

Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Kenyan women medical doctors and their motivations to pursue international research training." Educ Health (Abingdon). 2013;26(2):89-97. Abstract

There is a need to understand the factors that influence African women medical doctors to pursue international health research training because they remain under-represented in research fields but increasingly represented in medicine.

Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Kenyan women medical doctors and their motivations to pursue international research training." Educ Health (Abingdon). 2013;26(2):89-97. Abstract

There is a need to understand the factors that influence African women medical doctors to pursue international health research training because they remain under-represented in research fields but increasingly represented in medicine.

Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Vogel J, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Costa MJ, Fawole B, Mugerwa Y, Nafiou I, Neves I, Wolomby-Molondo J-J, Bang HT, Cheang K, Chuyun K, Jayaratne K, Jayathilaka CA, Mazhar SB, Mori R, Mustafa ML, Pathak LR, Perera D, Rathavy T, Recidoro Z, Roy M, Ruyan P, Shrestha N, Taneepanichsku S, Tien NV, Ganchimeg T, Wehbe M, Yadamsuren B, Yan W, Yunis K, Bataglia V, Cecatti JG, Hernandez-Prado B, Nardin JM, Narváez A, Ortiz-Panozo E, Pérez-Cuevas R, Valladares E, Zavaleta N, Armson A, Crowther C, Hogue C, Lindmark G, Mittal S, Pattinson R, Stanton ME, Campodonico L, Cuesta C, Giordano D, Intarut N, Laopaiboon M, Bahl R, Martines J, Mathai M, Merialdi M, Say L. "Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study." Lancet. 2013;381(9879):1747-55. Abstract

We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities.

Wamalwa DC, Lehman DA, Benki-Nugent S, Gasper MA, Gichohi R, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, John-Stewart GC, Overbaugh J. "Long-term virologic response and genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1 infected Kenyan children on combination antiretroviral therapy." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;62(3):267-74. Abstract

HIV-infected children may require the use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) into adulthood. However, regimens are limited to first line and second line in many African settings. Therefore, understanding the long-term rate of virologic failure and drug resistance during prolonged antiretroviral treatment is important for establishing treatment strategies in African pediatric cohorts.

Cournil A, de Vincenzi I, Gaillard P, Cames C, Fao P, Luchters S, Rollins N, Newell M-L, Bork K, Read JS. "Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting: the Kesho Bora study." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1621-30. Abstract

To assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and mortality by 18 months of age among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the Kesho Bora trial (Burkina-Faso, Kenya and South Africa).

Cournil A, de Vincenzi I, Gaillard P, Cames C, Fao P, Luchters S, Rollins N, Newell M-L, Bork K, Read JS. "Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting: the Kesho Bora study." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1621-30. Abstract

To assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and mortality by 18 months of age among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the Kesho Bora trial (Burkina-Faso, Kenya and South Africa).

Mose F, Newman LP, Njunguna R, Tamooh H, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C, Kiarie J. "Biomarker evaluation of self-reported condom use among women in HIV-discordant couples." Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(7):537-40. Abstract

Self-reported condom use is a commonly collected statistic, yet its use in research studies may be inaccurate. We evaluated this statistic among women in HIV-discordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Vaginal swabs were acquired from 125 women and tested for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ten (10%) of 98 women who reported 100% use of condoms in the previous month tested PSA positive. In a bivariate logistic regression analysis, among women who reported 100% condom use in the previous month, those with ≤8 years of school had significantly higher odds of testing PSA-positive (odds ratio [OR] = 8.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-69.13) than women with more schooling. Our estimate may be conservative, as the ability to detect PSA may be limited to 24-48 hours after exposure. Less educated women may be a target group for counselling regarding reporting sexual behaviour in clinical trials.

Lingappa JR, Thomas KK, Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Wald A, Farquhar C, de Bruyn G, Fife KH, Campbell MS, Kapiga S, Mullins JI, Celum C. "Partner characteristics predicting HIV-1 set point in sexually acquired HIV-1 among African seroconverters." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):164-71. Abstract

Plasma HIV-1 RNA set point is an important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression. We hypothesized that inoculum size and HIV-1 exposure prior to HIV-1 transmission may modulate set point. We evaluated predictors of set point among 141 African HIV-1 seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected study partners. We compared characteristics of seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected partners and HIV-1 set point. Data were from a clinical trial of genital HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with HIV-1 transmission linkage assigned through virus sequencing. Our analysis includes data from all transmissions including those with transmission linkage to the HIV-1-infected "source partner" and those that were not linked to their HIV-1-infected study partner. In multivariable analysis, higher plasma HIV-1 in source partners was associated with higher seroconverter set point ( + 0.44 log10 copies/ml per log(10) source partner plasma HIV-1, p < 0.001). In addition, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among female source partners near the time of infection was associated with higher set point in their male seroconverters ( + 0.49 log(10), p = 0.04). Source partner characteristics associated with lower set point included male circumcision ( - 0.63 log(10), p = 0.03) and assignment to acyclovir ( - 0.44 log10, p = 0.02). The proportion of variation in set point explained by plasma HIV-1 RNA of the source partner, after controlling for other factors, was 0.06. Source partner plasma HIV-1 level is the most significant predictor of seroconverter set point, possibly reflecting characteristics of the transmitted virus. Acyclovir use, BV among women source partners, and circumcision among male source partners may alter the set point by affecting transmitted virus inoculum in the source partners' genital compartment.

Roxby AC, Matemo D, Drake AL, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, John-Stewart GC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Pregnant women and disclosure to sexual partners after testing HIV-1-seropositive during antenatal care." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(1):33-7.
Roxby AC, Matemo D, Drake AL, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, John-Stewart GC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Pregnant women and disclosure to sexual partners after testing HIV-1-seropositive during antenatal care." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(1):33-7.
Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Campbell MS, Kahle EM, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Kapiga S, Mujugira A, Mugo NR, Fife KH, Mullins JI, Baeten JM. "Plasma viral loads during early HIV-1 infection are similar in subtype C- and non-subtype C-infected African seroconverters." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(7):1166-70. Abstract

Recent data suggest that infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C results in prolonged high-level viremia (>5 log10 copies/mL) during early infection. We examined the relationship between HIV-1 subtype and plasma viremia among 153 African seroconverters. Mean setpoint viral loads were similar for C and non-C subtypes: 4.36 vs 4.42 log10 copies/mL (P = .61). The proportion of subtype C-infected participants with viral loads >5 log10 copies/mL was not greater than the proportion for those with non-C infection. Our data do not support the hypothesis that higher early viral load accounts for the rapid spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Sartorius BKD, Chersich MF, Mwaura M, Meda N, Temmerman M, Newell ML, Farley TMM, Luchters S. "Maternal anaemia and duration of zidovudine in antiretroviral regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission: a randomized trial in three African countries." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2013;13:522. Abstract

Although substantiated by little evidence, concerns about zidovudine-related anaemia in pregnancy have influenced antiretroviral (ARV) regimen choice for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, especially in settings where anaemia is common.

John-Stewart GC, Wariua G, Beima-Sofie KM, Richardson BA, Farquhar C, Maleche-Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, Dalton Wamalwa. "Prevalence, perceptions, and correlates of pediatric HIV disclosure in an HIV treatment program in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(9):1067-76. Abstract

Disclosure to HIV-infected children regarding their diagnosis is important as expanding numbers of HIV-infected children attain adolescence and may become sexually active. In order to define correlates of pediatric disclosure and facilitate development of models for disclosure, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of primary caregivers of HIV-1 infected children aged 6-16 years attending a pediatric HIV treatment program in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted focus group discussions with a subset of caregivers to further refine perceptions of disclosure. Among 271 caregiver/child dyads in the cross-sectional survey, median child age was 9 years (interquartile range: 7-12 years). Although 79% of caregivers believed children should know their HIV status, the prevalence of disclosure to the child was only 19%. Disclosure had been done primarily by health workers (52%) and caregivers (33%). Caregivers reported that 5 of the 52 (10%) who knew their status were accidentally disclosed to. Caregivers of older children (13 vs. 8 years; p<0.001), who were HIV-infected and had disclosed their own HIV status to the child (36% vs. 4%; p=0.003), or who traveled frequently (29% vs. 16%, p=0.03) were more likely to have disclosed. Children who had been recently hospitalized (25% vs. 44%, p=0.03) were less likely to know their status, and caregivers with HIV were less likely to have disclosed (p=0.03). Reasons for disclosure included medication adherence, curiosity or illness while reasons for nondisclosure included age and fear of inadvertent disclosure. Our study found that disclosure rates in this Kenyan setting are lower than observed rates in the USA and Europe but consistent with rates from other resource-limited settings. Given these low rates of disclosure and the potential benefits of disclosure, strategies promoting health worker trainings and caregiver support systems for disclosure may benefit children with HIV.

R.W. W, P.G. K, Mbaria J.M., F.K N, G. N, S.O. R. "Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2013; 3(1): 8-15.
G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;1(25):15-21. Abstractantenatal_corticosteroid_use_in_preterm_birth_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background:Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;25(1):15-21. Abstractfull_article.pdf

AbstractBackground: Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

Forthal DN, Landucci G CRBASMCJBOBRW. "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI) antibody activity does not correlate with risk of HIV-1 superinfection." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2013; 63(1): 31-3.
Forthal DN, Landucci G CRBAMCRSJBOBWC. "Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Virus Inhibition Antibody Activity Does Not Correlate With Risk of HIV-1 Superinfection." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.. 2013;63(1):31-33.
Kitonde CK, F. DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF VERNONIA GLABRA (STEETZ) OLIV. & HIERN. IN KENYA." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines. 2013;10(1):149-157. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. Majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in different parts of Vernonia glabra ; a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems. The plant sample was collected in January 2010 in Machakos, and different parts dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane: Methanol in the ratio 1:1, and water. These crude extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for active crude extracts were done using disc diffusion technique after the failure of agar and broth dilution methods. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of flower, leaf, stem, root, and/or entire plant, showed activity against one or four micro-organisms, and at concentrations lower than the aqueous crude extracts. Organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (mean inhibition zone 1.85), recording higher activity than the commercially used standard antibiotic (Streptomycin mean inhibition zone of 1.30). The organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity only against S.aureus , with the lowest MIC of 1.5625mg/100μl, compared to streptomycin with M.I.C of 6.25mg/100μl. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar-Overlay showed that, flower alkaloids (50% active), root sapogenins (43.8% active), and root terpenoids (38.5% active) were identified as the potential antibacterial compounds against S.aureus. These results suggest that, V.glabra contains phytochemicals of medicinal properties and justify the use of V.glabra in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial based diseases. However, research on toxicity which is missing in this study is recommended for V. glabra in order to verify, validate and document the safety of this medicinal plant to the society.

S. M. Githigia, M. Mutugi, P. G. Kareru, F. K. Njonge, R. Waihenya, Nyakundi. WO. "Assessment of herbal anthelmintics used by the farmers in Kirinyaga county, Kenya, for the treatment of helminthiosis in cattle." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2013;Vol. 7(29):2100-2104. Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess and validate the herbal anthelmintic remedies used by farmers in
Kirinyaga county, Kenya for the treatment of their cattle against gastrointestinal nematodes. The herbs
used were identified via questionnaire surveys through focused group discussions. The aqueous
extracts of plants used: Aspillia pluriseta, Vernonia lasiopus, Entada leptostachya and Erythrina
abyssinica were prepared and using dosage between 10 and 30%, the viability of infective strongyle
larvae were assessed for a period of 48 h. The results of the in vitro antihelmintic study indicated a high
to moderate anthelmintic activity for the tested extracts. E. leptostachya exhibited the highest in vitro
anthelmintic activity, while E. abyssinica had the lowest activity. The anthelmintic activity may have
been due to the presence of saponins in the herbal remedies. There was a positive correlation between
the saponin concentration and the anthelmintic activity of the extracts. In general, the in vitro
anthelmintic activity increased with the extract concentration for the medicinal plants examined.

KS S, FMA B, EAO D. "Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. Anatomy Journal of Africa." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013.
Omondi PAO, Awange JL, Forootan E, Ogallo LA, Barakiza R, Girmaw GB, Komutunga E. "Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over the Greater Horn of Africa region from 1961 to 2010.". 2013.Website
Nakanwagi-Mukwaya A, Reid AJ, Fujiwara PI, Mugabe F, Kosgei RJ, Tayler-Smith K. "Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis retreatment cases in three regional hospitals, Uganda." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):149-155.characteristics_and_treatment_outcomes_of_tuberculosis_3_regions_uganda.pdf
Long J, Kanyinga K, Ferree K, Gibson C. "Choosing Peace over Democracy." Journal of Democracy. 2013;Vol. 24(No. 3):140-155.
De Vuyst H, Chung MH, Baussano I, Mugo NR, Tenet V, van Kemenade FJ, Rana FS, Sakr SR, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ, Franceschi S. "Comparison of HPV DNA testing in cervical exfoliated cells and tissue biopsies among HIV-positive women in Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

HIV-positive women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) (especially with multiple types), and develop cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer more frequently than HIV-negative women. We compared HPV DNA prevalence obtained using a GP5+/6+ PCR assay in cervical exfoliated cells to that in biopsies among 468 HIV-positive women from Nairobi, Kenya. HPV prevalence was higher in cells than biopsies and the difference was greatest in 94 women with a combination normal cytology/normal biopsy (prevalence ratio, PR = 3.7; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.4-5.7). PR diminished with the increase in lesion severity (PR in 58 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)/CIN2-3 = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.2). When HPV-positive, cells contained 2.0- to 4.6-fold more multiple infections than biopsies. Complete or partial agreement between cells and biopsies in the detection of individual HPV types was found in 91% of double HPV-positive pairs. The attribution of CIN2/3 to HPV16 and/or 18 would decrease from 37.6%, when the presence of these types in either cells or biopsies was counted, to 20.2% when it was based on the presence of HPV16 and/or 18 (and no other types) in biopsies. In conclusion, testing HPV on biopsies instead of cells results in decreased detection but not elimination of multiple infections in HIV-positive women. The proportion of CIN2/3 attributable to HPV16 and/or 18 among HIV-positive women, which already appeared to be lower than that in HIV-negative, would then further decrease. The meaning of HPV detection in cells and random biopsy from HIV-positive women with no cervical abnormalities remains unclear.

F. NJ, O LK. "Determinants of Commercial Mixed Farming on Small Farms in Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management . 2013;5(22):47-54. Abstract

Agriculture is a topic of concern for rural development programs in Kenya because of the high poverty incidents among farmers. Fundamentally, smallholder agriculture contributes substantially to total agricultural production and total employment. Despite the fact that Kenyan farmers largely practice mixed farming, some are unable to act commercially and consequently, unable to improve their livelihoods. This paper therefore aims at establishing the entrepreneurial indicators of farming activities that lead to improved rural livelihoods. Cross-sectional survey of 388 small farms in Thika was carried out to investigate the determinants of commercial mixed farming. Linear probability model, logit and probit models were used to estimate the determinants of commercial mixed farming. The results show that the size of the farm, gender of the farmer, availability of electricity supply and running water on the farm are the main determinants of mixed farming. This study suggests that policies be put in place to discourage partitioning of farm land into uneconomical sizes. It also recommend that rural electrification and training programs on best farming practices be intensified in the rural areas to enable farmers to act commercially.
Key words: Commercial Mixed Farming, Farm Characteristics, Entrepreneurship, Logit and Probit models

Dugassa S, Lindh JM, Oyieke F, Mukabana WR, Lindsay SW, Fillinger U. "Development of a Gravid Trap for Collecting Live Malaria Vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.". 2013.Website
D.C K, F.M O, M. H, E.M A, Kimenju, J.W. "Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 2013;(special).
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland Cement with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;6(3):97-114.
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland Cement with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;Vol 6(3):97-114.mwero_1.docx
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;6(3):97-114.
Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2013;3(3):183-189. AbstractWebsite

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K – 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell, Recombination, Series Resistance, Buffer Layer

Cite this paper: Robinson Musembi, Bernard Aduda, Julius Mwabora, Marin Rusu, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos, Martha Lux-Steiner, Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer, International Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 183-189. doi: 10.5923/j.ijee.20130303.09.

Musembi R;, Aduda B;, Mwabora J;, Rusu M;, Fostiropoulos K;, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." Internatio n al J ournal of Ene r g y En gi nee ri ng 20 1 3. 2013. Abstract

Transport mechanism studies in Ti02/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under Varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K - 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

Aketch ON, Lee H, Fischer TP, Ranka LS, Onguso B, Kanda I, et al. "Gas Geochemistry of Volcanic and Geothermal Areas in the Kenya Rift: Implications for the Role of Fluids in Continental Rifting." American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013. 2013. AbstractFull Text

The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift and ideal to investigate the processes of rift initiation and the breaking apart of continental lithosphere. Mantle and crust-derived fluids may play a pivotal role in both magmatism and faulting in the EAR. For instance, large quantities of mantle-derived volatiles are emitted at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano [1, 2]. Throughout the EAR, CO2-dominated volatile fluxes are prevalent [3, 4] and often associated with faults (i.e. Rungwe area, Tanzania, [5, 6]). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between volcanism, faulting and the volatile compositions, focusing on the central and southern Kenyan and northern Tanzanian section of the EAR. We report our analysis results for samples obtained during a 2013 field season in Kenya. Gases were sampled at fumaroles and geothermal plants in caldera volcanoes (T=83.1-120.2°C) and springs (T=40-79.6°C and pH 8.5-10) located near volcanoes, intra-rift faults, and a transverse fault (the Kordjya fault, a key fluid source in the Magadi rift) by 4N-NaOH solution-filled and empty Giggenbach bottles. Headspace gases were analyzed by a Gas Chromatograph and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer at the University of New Mexico. Both N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of all gases (35.38-205.31 and 142.92-564,272, respectively) range between air saturated water (ASW, 40 and ≥150,000) and MORB (100-200 and 40-50). In addition, an N2-Ar-He ternary diagram supports that the gases are produced by two component (mantle and air) mixing. Gases in the empty bottles from volcanoes and springs have N2 (90.88-895.99 mmom/mol), CO2 (2.47-681.21 mmom/mol), CH4 (0-214.78 mmom/mol), O2 (4.47-131.12 mmom/mol), H2 (0-35.78 mmom/mol), Ar (0.15-10.65 mmom/mol), He (0-2.21 mmom/mol), and CO (0-0.08 mmom/mol). Although some of the samples show an atmospheric component, CO2 is a major component in most samples, indicating both volcanoes and springs are emitting CO2. Gases from volcanoes are enriched in CH4 and H2, denoting their sources are reduced (oxygen-poor) magma chambers or hydrothermal systems. 40Ar/36Ar ratios (average of all samples=299.15) are similar to our air standard value (299.65×4.05), however, some volcanoes (~308.75) and springs (~321.96) have slightly higher ratios. The springs with elevated 40Ar imply that both the intra-rift (Lake Bogoria) and transverse (Lake Magadi) faults are possibly pathways to carry volatiles from deep sources to the surface. In future work, we will carry out wet chemistry and ion chromatography analyses of the NaOH solutions, measure 3He/4He ratios and complete C, N, and S isotope analyses to further constrain fluid sources and migration processes. [1] Fischer et al., 2009, Nature 459. [2] de Moor et al., 2013, EPSL 361. [3] Sawyer et al., 2008, G-cubed 9. [4] Tassi et al., 2009, G-cubed 10. [5] Barry et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339. [6] de Moor et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339.

Melaku G, Haileselassie T, Feyissa T, Kiboi S. "Genetic diversity of the African wild rice (Oryza longistaminata Chev. et Roehr) from Ethiopia as revealed by SSR markers." Genetic resources and crop evolution. 2013;60(3):1047-1056.
J.K L, I.O JUMBA, J.K K, F.D.O O. "Influence of Acacia Senegal varieties on quality of gum arabic in Baringo District Kenya." African Journal of Plant Science. 2013;7 (6):190-200. Abstract

A study was done to determine the influence of Acacia senegal variety and var.kerensis on quality of gum arabic in solit, kapkun, kimorok and maoi, Marigat division, baringo District. Soil and gum arabic samples were collected, dried and analysed to establish their chemical characteristics. Gum nitrogen from A. senegal variety senegal in kapnun and solit was negatively correlated to soil nitrogen (r=-0.28), while gum nitrogen from variety kerensis at kimorok and Maoi was positively correlated to soil nitrogen (r=0.16), respectively. High nitrogen content in soils was significantly correlated to high content of nitrogen (0.30%) in gum arabic obtained from A.senegal varieties. Gum copper was highly correlated to soil copper (r=0.09;p<0.01), soil iron was highly correlated to gum iron (r=0.09; p<0.05) and soil manganese and gum manganese was negatively correlated (r= -0.08; p<0.05). Gum zinc from A. senegal variety senegal at kapkun and Solit was negatively correlated to soil nitrogen and (r=-0.15), respectively. Nitrogen, iron, manganese and zinc contents in gums from A.senegal varieties fell within the ranges of the international standard specifications (0.26 to 0.39% N, iron (730 to 2490 ppm), manganese (69 to 117 ppm) and zinc (45 to 111ppm), respectively. A.senegal variety senegal in Solit and kapkun produced better quality of gum arabic than A. senegal variety kerensis in kimorok and Maoi.

Omondi P, Awange JL, Ogallo LA, Ininda J, Forootan E. "The Influence of Low Frequency Sea Surface Temperature Modes on Delineated Decadal Rainfall Zones in Eastern Africa Region." Advances in water resources. 2013;54:161-180. AbstractScienceDirect

Influence of low frequency global Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) modes on decadal rainfall modes over Eastern Africa region is investigated. Fore-knowledge of rainfall distribution at decadal time scale in specific zones is critical for planning purposes. Both rainfall and SST data that covers a period of 1950–2008 were subjected to a ‘low-pass filter’ in order to suppress the high frequency oscillations. VARIMAX-Rotated Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) was employed to delineate the region into decadal rainfall zones while Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) techniques was used to examine potential linkages of these zones to various areas of the tropical global oceans. Ten-year distinct decadal signals, significant at 95% confidence level, are dominant when observed in-situ rainfall time series are subjected to spectral analysis. The presence of variability at El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related timescales, combined with influences in the 10–12 year and 16–20 year bands were also prevalent. Nine and seven homogeneous decadal rainfall zones for long rainfall season i.e. March-May (MAM) and the short rainfall season i.e. October-December (OND), respectively, are delineated. The third season of June–August (JJA), which is mainly experienced in western and Coastal sub-regions had eight homogenous zones delineated. The forcing of decadal rainfall in the region is linked to the equatorial central Pacific Ocean, the tropical and South Atlantic Oceans, and the Southwest Indian Ocean. The high variability of these modes highlighted the significant roles of all the global oceans in forcing decadal rainfall variability over the region.

Andollo AA, M RC, F. M. "Influence of Quality Management Systems on Service Provision in the University of Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2013;VOL III, 2013 (ISBN: 978-9966-1570-3-4).
F. NJ, O. LK. "An Investigation into the entrepreneurial behaviours and human capital formation among small-scale farmers in Kenya." Journal for Social Science. 2013;3(4):122-134. Abstract

Kenya is an agrarian economy and most people derive their livelihoods from smallholder agriculture but there is no consensus among policy makers and scholars on the viability of small scale farming in the country. There is a tendency for small farmers to ebeen made to identify entrepreneurial activities that result into human capital formation. This study addresses this problem by identifying the entrepreneurial
behaviour that lead to human capital collected from a survey of a sample size of 388 small farmers, drawn from Thika region of Kenya. Quantitative description was used to measure the extent of entrepreneurial behaviour while logit model was used to e
entrepreneurial behaviour on the human capital formation. The results show that
the entrepreneurial behaviour of blending agricultural and non
businesses have a significant effect on the small farmers’ ability to pay med
bills. However, commercial mixed farming and value addition in agriculture were
found to be more of survival strategies as they do not result in human capital
formation. Furthermore, availability of business opportunities and favourable government policies, has a positive influence on the human capital formation. The research recommends the government to come up with policies that can create a favourable environment for farmers to establish non agricultural businesses.

Kanyinga K, Long J, Ferree K, Gibson C. "Kenya’s 2013 Election. Democracy on Trial?". 2013.Website
Aduda B, Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Mwabora J, Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Marin R, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Materials Sciences and Applications. 2013;4,2013:718-722. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Addition- ally, studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell; Light Soaking; Conversion Efficiency; TiO2; In(OH)xSy; Pb(OH)xSy

Onyari JM, Addis Teshome, Suresh K. Raina, Kabaru JM, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silk from African wild silkmoths.". 2013. AbstractFull text link

Variations among silk of four African wild silkmoths, Argema mimosae, Anaphe panda, Gonometa postica, and Epiphora bauhiniae, was studied regarding their mechanical properties and thermal degradation behaviors. Cocoon shells and individual degummed fibers were examined using tensile testing, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A. mimosae and G. postica cocoon shells had marginally higher initial moduli and strains at maximum stress. The stress–strain curves of Bobmyx mori and A. panda degummed fibers lacked clear yielding points. G. postica fibers had the highest breaking energy (76.4 J/cm3) and breaking strain (41.3%). The ultimate tensile strength was the highest for B. mori (427 MPa). Fiber pull-out and detachment was predominant in fracture surfaces of both the cocoon shells and the fibers. Wild cocoon shells and degummed fibers had higher temperature for dehydration loss than B. mori. A. mimosae fibers (11.9%) and G. postica cocoon shells (13.3 %) had the highest weight loss due to dehydration. E. bauhinae cocoon shells and B. mori fibers had the highest total weight losses of 97.2 and 93.4%, respectively. The African silks exhibited variations in their mechanical and thermal degradation properties related to their physical and chemical structure and composition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013

Ismaiel Y, Anand P, Megan L, Karen M, C. FK, Sam O, Nyongesa S, Francis Maiga, H. A, O SAB, Stefanos L, Wole S, M ASCE. "Porosity, Flow, and Filtration Characteristics of Frustum-Shaped Ceramic Water Filters." Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2013.
Faridah H Were, M CM, Wafula GA. "Respiratory Diseases Due to Occupational Exposure to Nickel and Chromium among Factory Workers in Kenya." Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education. 2013;3(7):1-7. AbstractWebsite

Inhalation of airborne nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) in workplaces causes a variety of respiratory ailments which
adversely affects the productivity of employees. A study was therefore conducted on production workers (N=233) from
six different types industrial plants, to investigate the influence of Ni and Cr exposure on their respiratory systems.
Breathing zone air and urinary samples were collected, and analyzed for total Ni and Cr using atomic absorption
spectroscopy. The medical history of the workers was obtained using questionnaires. Their lung functions were further
examined using a spirometer. Mean (± standard deviation) breathing zone air of 23.4 ± 11.6 μg/m3 Cr and 10.3 ± 4.3 μg/
m3 Ni was highest among the tanners and welders, respectively. The mean level of 35.2 ± 12.1 Cr and 28.4 ± 7.8 Ni in
μg/g creatinine were also highest in the urine of corresponding workers. A significant (P<0.01) correlation of r=0.86 Cr
and r=0.89 Ni was observed between airborne and urinary levels in all production workers. Approximately 26.6% of the
workers had respiratory diseases that were associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, sneezing attacks among
other related symptoms. Most of these workers were welders, tanners and, to lesser extent, paint manufacturers. The
breathing zone air of the afflicted workers had significantly (P<0.05) high mean levels of 6.4 ± 4.4 μg/m3 Ni and 9.6 ±
5.3 μg/m3 Cr than those who were not affected (3.9 ± 3.2 μg/m3 Ni and 4.4 ± 3.8 μg/m3 Cr). A high proportion of the
workers had reduced ventilatory function measurements. We recommend comprehensive assessment of Cr and Ni in
related industries with significant exposures. Designing and developing of training programs and educative manuals
on safety and health procedures, and regular medical surveillance is also recommended.

MUIGUA" "KARIUKI, FRANCIS" "KARIUKI. "Safeguarding Environmental Rights in Kenya." Kenya Law Review . 2013;Vol. IV ((2012-2013)):279-294.
Jeremiah M, Pamela M, Fawzia B. "Sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices for a black Kenyan population." International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences . 2013;5(2):81-84 . AbstractIJMMS

Craniometric parameters including cranial and orbital indices have been employed to determine the sex of a person in forensic medicine. These parameters are usually population specific. However, they have not been documented for a black Kenyan population. This study aimed at calculating the sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices. The cranial vault height, glabellomaximal length and orbital height and length were measured from 150 crania (80 male and 70 female) using a sliding vernier caliper. Cranial and orbital indices were calculated and the results were analyzed. The cranial index was 71.04 for the male and 72.37 for the female (P=0.095). The orbital index was 82.57 and 83.48 for the male and female, respectively (P=0.472). From these results, although the cranial and orbital indices are within range of previously reported values for an African population, they cannot be used independently in sexing of black Kenyan crania.

Nagata JM, Fiorella KJ, Young SL, Otieno OD, Kapule I, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. "Socio-demographic and health associations with body mass index at the time of enrollment in HIV care in Nyanza Province, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Low body mass index (BMI) at the time of enrollment into HIV care has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality independent of CD4 count. This study investigated socio-demographic associations with underweight (BMI < 18.5) among adults in Nyanza Province, Kenya, upon enrollment into HIV care. BMI, socio-demographic, and health data from a cross-sectional sample of 8254 women and 3533 men were gathered upon enrollment in the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) program in Nyanza Province, Kenya, between January 2005 and March 2010. Overall, 27.4% of adults were underweight upon enrollment in HIV care. Among each women [W] and men [M], being underweight was associated with younger age (W: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.85-4.55; M: AOR, 5.87; 95% CI, 2.80-12.32 for those aged 15-19 compared to ≥50 years old), less education (W: AOR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.83-4.65; M: AOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04-2.31 for primary education compared to some college/university), low CD4 count (W: AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.50-3.03; M: AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.76-2.70 for 0-250 compared to ≥750 cells/mm3), and poor self-reported health status (W: AOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.89-3.33; M: AOR, 9.78; 95% CI, 1.26-75.73 for poor compared to excellent). Among all enrollees to HIV care, low BMI was associated with male gender, lower educational attainment, younger age, and poor self-reported health. HIV care and treatment programs should consider using socio-demographic and health risk factors associated with low BMI to target and recruit patients with the goal of preventing late enrollment into care.

Mweu MM, Fournié G, Halasa T, Toft N, Nielsen SS. "Temporal characterisation of the network of Danish cattle movements and its implication for disease control: 2000–2009." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110:379-387. Abstractsna_paper.pdf

Social network analysis provides a valuable framework for understanding the dynamics of diseases on networks as well as a means for defining effective control measures. An understanding of the underlying contact pattern for a susceptible population is advisable before embarking on any strategy for disease control. The objective of this study was to characterise the network of Danish cattle movements over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 with a view to understanding: (1) cohesiveness of the network, (2) influential holdings and (3) structural vulnerability of the network.
Network analyses of data involving all cattle movements in Denmark registered during the period of interest were performed. A total of 50,494 premises participated in 4,204,895 individual movements during the 10-year period. The results pointed to a predominantly scale-free structure of the network; though marked by small-world properties in March–April 2001 as well as in 24 other months during the period October 2006 to December 2009. The network was sparsely connected with markets being the key influential holdings. Its vulnerability to removal of markets suggests that targeting highly connected holdings during epidemics should be the focus of control efforts.

Félix A-E, Calatayud P-A, LeRu B, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Ong’amo G, Silvain J-F, Frérot B. "To be or not to be a species: use of reproductive isolation experiments and genetic analysis to clarify the taxonomic status of two Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species in Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France . 2013;49(3):345-354. Abstract

Phylogenetic analysis combined with chemical ecology can contribute to the delimitation of closely related insect species, particularly in Lepidoptera. In this study, the taxonomic status of a species in the genus Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was discussed using morphological data, cross-mating experiments, sex pheromone chemistry, field-trapping, and molecular classification. The results of the chemical ecology experiments corroborated those from the phylogeny studies. It was concluded that several reproductive isolation components, namely host plants, geography, pheromone emission time, pheromone blend, and post-zygotic isolation factors, led to the separation of Busseola n. sp. from its closely related species B. segeta. Molecular data showed a strong difference between these two species, regardless of the marker used. The new species named Busseola nairobica was morphologically described and a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of the studied species was put forward.

Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner MC. "Transport Mechanism in TiO2/In (OH) xSy/Pb (OH) xSy/PEDOT: PSS eta Solar Cell." Researchgate. 2013. Abstract

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In (OH) xSy/Pb (OH) xSy/PEDOT: PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K–320 K. The recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark has been found to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The illumination intensity and temperature have also been found to have a strong influence on the device conversion efficiency, with the highest efficiency being realized at 200 K

Awange JL, Forootan E, Kusche J, Kiema JBK, Omondi PA, Heck B, Fleming K, Ohanya SO, Goncalves RM. "Understanding the decline of water storage across the Ramser-Lake Naivasha using satellite-based methods." Advances in Water Resources. 2013;60:7-23.
Keter LK, Mwikwabe NM, Mbaabu MP, Sudheer HM, Festus M Tolo, Dhanani P, Orwa JA. "Validation of Safety and Efficacy of Antitussive Herbal Formulations. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics.". 2013;2(1):26-31.
Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of avian influenza viruses in wild waterbirds in the Rift valley of Kenya using fecal sampling." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2013;13:394-400. Abstract
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Finch B, Bjørnstad G, Shanni I, Muchai M, Bishop A, Hanotte O, Bishop R. "High levels of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence diversity are present within the Anthus similis complex in sub-Saharan Africa." Ostrich. 2013;84:145-151. Abstract
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Popescu MR, Zugun FE, Cojocaru E, Tocan L, Folescu R, Zamfir CL. "Morphometric study of aortic wall parameters evolution in newborn and child." Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie. 2013;54:399-404. Abstract

The largest artery in the human body, intimately connected to the heart, aorta is usually regarded as the major source of oxygenated blood for the circulatory system. The three concentric layers, which surround the aortic lumen-the tunics intima, media and adventitia, transform the aorta in a large elastic duct, which is irregular calibrated according to its segments. The special aortic distensibility is facilitated by its elastic circumferential lamellar complex. Any disturbance of its structural components is able to interfere with its normal and vital activity. Our study intends to reveal that the development of elastic lamellae should be regarded not only as an indispensable step for the aortic wall configuration, but also like a process in a firm connection with the rest of aortic wall components. The transition from intrauterine life to a new stage of life, childhood, has to determine an adequate adaptation of almost all the components of aortic wall, in order to sustain a consistent pulsatile blood flow. Stereological quantitative analysis of thoracic aortic fragments prelevated from newborns and children was performed in order to estimate the dynamic of vascular wall increase. We first estimated the general configuration of the thoracic aortic wall, quantifying the principal constituents; the connective tissue profile, investigated through its main elements, collagen and elastic fibers, supports the idea that each type of fiber has a distinct evolution in different groups of ages and has to be correlated with their involvement in maintaining of the aortic wall mechanical properties. Elastic fibers percentage volume was increased in both examined groups, with a small difference reported in children aorta, while collagen fibers exhibit a slow increase in children aorta. Our morphometric quantitative assessment suggests that further studies have to draw of in a precisely manner the outline of the secretory well defined function of vascular smooth muscle cells; the elucidation of the manner in which the secretory pathway for each type of fiber becomes fully adapted to every stage of aortic development will allow a new perspective in aortic pathology.

Stenmark KR, Yeager ME, El Kasmi KC, Nozik-Grayck E, Gerasimovskaya EV, Li M, Riddle SR, Frid MG. "The {Adventitia}: {Essential} {Regulator} of {Vascular} {Wall} {Structure} and {Function}." Annual Review of Physiology. 2013;75:23-47. AbstractWebsite

The vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and is composed of a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells (dendritic cells and macrophages), progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells and pericytes, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and reprogrammed to influence the tone and structure of the vessel wall; to initiate and perpetuate chronic vascular inflammation; and to stimulate expansion of the vasa vasorum, which can act as a conduit for continued inflammatory and progenitor cell delivery to the vessel wall. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure from the outside in.

Campbell KA, Lipinski MJ, Doran AC, Skaflen MD, Fuster V, McNamara CA. "Lymphocytes and the adventitial immune response in atherosclerosis." Circulation research. 2012;110:889-900. Abstract

Although much of the research on atherosclerosis has focused on the intimal accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells, there is an increasing amount of interest in the role of the adventitia in coordinating the immune response in atherosclerosis. In this review of the contributions of the adventitia and adventitial lymphocytes to the development of atherosclerosis, we discuss recent research on the formation and structural nature of adventitial immune aggregates, potential mechanisms of crosstalk between the intima, media, and adventitia, specific contributions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, and the role of the vasa vasorum and surrounding perivascular adipose tissue. Furthermore, we highlight techniques for the imaging of lymphocytes in the vasculature.

Stenmark KR, Frid MG, Yeager M, Li M, Riddle S, McKinsey T, El Kasmi KC. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary circulation. 2012;2:3-14. Abstract

Experimental data indicate that the adventitial compartment of blood vessels, in both the pulmonary and systemic circulations, like the connective tissue stroma in tissues throughout the body, is a critical regulator of vessel wall function in health and disease. It is clear that adventitial cells, and in particular the adventitial fibroblast, are activated early following vascular injury, and play essential roles in regulating vascular wall structure and function through production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The recognition of the ability of these cells to generate and maintain inflammatory responses within the vessel wall provides insight into why vascular inflammatory responses, in certain situations, fail to resolve. It is also clear that the activated adventitial fibroblast plays an important role in regulating vasa vasorum growth, which can contribute to ongoing vascular remodeling by acting as a conduit for delivery of inflammatory and progenitor cells. These functions of the fibroblast clearly support the idea that targeting chemokine, cytokine, adhesion molecule, and growth factor production in activated fibroblasts could be helpful in abrogating vascular inflammatory responses and thus in ameliorating vascular disease. Further, the recent observations that fibroblasts in vascular and fibrotic diseases may maintain their activated state through epigenetic alterations in key inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes suggests that current therapies used to treat pulmonary hypertension may not be sufficient to induce apoptosis or to inhibit key inflammatory signaling pathways in these fibroblasts. New therapies targeted at reversing changes in the acetylation or methylation status of key transcriptional networks may be needed. At present, therapies specifically targeting abnormalities of histone deacytelase (HDAC) activity in fibroblast-like cells appear to hold promise.

Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E, Kaynig V, Longair M, Pietzsch T, Preibisch S, Rueden C, Saalfeld S, Schmid B, Tinevez J-Y, White DJ, Hartenstein V, Eliceiri K, Tomancak P, Cardona A. "Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis." Nature Methods. 2012;9:676-682. AbstractWebsite

Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.

Fagundes A, Pereira AH, Corrêa RK, de Oliveira MT, Rodriguez R. "Effects of removal of the adventitia of the descending aorta and structural alterations in the tunica media in pigs." Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. 2012;39:133-138. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of removal of the adventitia on the tunica media in a pig model. METHODS: The experiment was performed in eight pigs. The adventitia of the descending aorta was removed. Following euthanasia, at two, four, six and eight weeks, the aortic segment was removed. Next, slices of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Weigert-Van Gieson. RESULTS: After two weeks there was a slight cellular breakdown in the outer third of the media. After four weeks structural breakdown of elastic fibers was observed in the outer two thirds of the same layer. In six weeks, several areas of necrosis and almost complete disruption of elastic fibers were identified. Finally, after eight weeks, there was fibrosis of the entire wall with disruption of the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: The removal of the adventitia leads to degeneration of the media, determining loss of the normal structure of the aortic wall that is variable in its location, intensity and shape, depending on the length and duration of the ischemic insult.

Fagundes A, Pereira AH, Corrêa RK, de Oliveira MT, Rodriguez R. "Effects of removal of the adventitia of the descending aorta and structural alterations in the tunica media in pigs." Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. 2012;39:133-138. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of removal of the adventitia on the tunica media in a pig model. METHODS: The experiment was performed in eight pigs. The adventitia of the descending aorta was removed. Following euthanasia, at two, four, six and eight weeks, the aortic segment was removed. Next, slices of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Weigert-Van Gieson. RESULTS: After two weeks there was a slight cellular breakdown in the outer third of the media. After four weeks structural breakdown of elastic fibers was observed in the outer two thirds of the same layer. In six weeks, several areas of necrosis and almost complete disruption of elastic fibers were identified. Finally, after eight weeks, there was fibrosis of the entire wall with disruption of the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: The removal of the adventitia leads to degeneration of the media, determining loss of the normal structure of the aortic wall that is variable in its location, intensity and shape, depending on the length and duration of the ischemic insult.

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