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Akech M. "4) Constraining Government Power in Africa." JOURNAL OF DEMOCRACY96. 2011;Vol. 22(96):No. 1.
Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. 10) The Justice Sector and the Rule of Law in Kenya. African Governance Monitoring and Advocacy ; 2009.
Akech M. "12) Transboundary Freshwater Governance and the Environment.". In: The Environmental Sustainability Challenge. United Nations Environment Program, Bangkok, Thailand; 2009.
Akech M. "28) The Common Law’s Approach to Liability and Redress and its Applicability to East Africa.". In: Liability and Redress under the Cartagena Protocol. Mombasa, Kenya; 200.
Akech M. 7) Towards Professionalized Prosecution Services in Kenya. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime & Directorate of Public Prosecutions; 2010.
Akech M. "6) Institutional Reform in the New Constitution of Kenya.". In: International Center for Transitional Justice.; 2010.
Akech M. "1) Is the Vetting Process Really Fair to Judges? ." Nairobi Star, June 29, 2020.
Akech M. "16) Governing Security in Kenya: How Should We Respond to the Post-2007 Election Crisis.". In: Security Governance. Grand Regency Hotel, Nairobi; 2008.
Akech M. "5) Abuse of Power and Corruption in Kenya: Will the New Constitution Enhance Government Accountability?" INDIANA JOURNAL OF GLOBAL LEGAL STUDIES. 2011;Vol. 18(341):No. 1 .
Akech M. "Privatization and Democracy in East Africa: The Promise of Administrative Law.". Submitted. Abstractprivatization_and_democracy.pdfWebsite

This book explores the role of democracy and Public Law in privatization processes in the three East African countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. In particular, the book recommends the creation of strongly institutionalized Administrative Law frameworks to facilitate meaningful democratization of privatization processes in these countries. The book anticipates that such reforms would enhance the day-to-day accountability of, and public participation in, privatization processes in the three countries. The book seeks to contribute to the study of the relationship between Public Law, markets and democracy in African countries. Its particular contribution is the argument that privatization processes can only be efficient, fair and legitimate if they are democratic, that is, participatory and accountable.

AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2002). Targeting Agricultural Research for Development in Semi-Arid Tropics of Sub-Sahara Africa. Report by Workshop Facilitator for ICRISAT/Nairobi.". In: Report by Workshop Facilitator for ICRISAT/Nairobi. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mwambazi, E. and C. Ackello-Ogutu (1996). Women's Access to Land, Security of Tenure and Agricultural Productivity: A Case Study of Monze District, Zambia, in Mukhebi, A. et al (Eds.) Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa:.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C., Q. Paris and W. A. Williams (1985). "Nutrient Non-Substitution in Crop Response. A Non -Nested Hypothesis Test". Working Paper No. 85-4, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis.". In: A Non -Nested Hypothesis Test". Working Paper No. 85-4, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2003). Policy Influence by Selected Natural Resource Management Projects of the East and Central Africa Program for Agricultural Policy Analysis (ECAPAPA). Project Evaluation Case Study of IDRC funded projects in East Africa. Report to .". In: Project Evaluation Case Study of IDRC funded projects in East Africa. Report to IDRC/Ottawa. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2003.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1996). Methodologies for estimating Informal Cross-Border trade in Eastern and Southern Africa. USAID SD Publication Series, Technical Paper # 29.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Chabari, F.N., A. C. Ackello-Ogutu and M.O. Odhiambo (1988). Factors Determining Market Prices of Small Ruminants from a Pastoral Production System in Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, Vol 52, No.4.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2004). Markets to raise incomes for Poor Farmers in Africa, Abstracts of Workshop Papers. Rockefeller Foundation, Food Security Division.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1997). Unrecorded Trade between Kenya and Uganda: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Tiffen, M., Mortimore and A. C. Ackello-Ogutu (1993). From Agro-Pastoralism to Mixed Farming: The Evolution of Farming Systems in Machakos, Kenya, 1930 - 1990. ODI Network Paper No 45.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2007). FAO-Kenya Government National Medium Term Priority Framework(NMTPF). FAO/Kenya.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2007.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1998). Unrecorded Trade between Tanzania and her Neighbors: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper No. 89.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper No. 89. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1991). Livestock Production Profile in Environmental Change and Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya 1930 - 1990, M. Tiffen (Editor), ODI/University of Nairobi.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1999). Constraints and Future Prospects in Marketing of Agricultural Commodities within the East African Community. Paper presented at a Ministerial Seminar on the East African Cooperation; Arusha, March 25 - 26, 1999.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1999.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Seckler, D. (Editor) 1993. Agricultural Transformation in Africa: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1993.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1976). "The Marketing of Poultry Meat and Eggs in Nairobi". Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1976.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah, N Mwania and T. Oketch, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on Agribusiness Development and regional integration in Malawi held at Capi.". In: Proceedings of a forum on Agribusiness Development and regional integration in Malawi held at Capital Hotel Lilongwe, Malawi 16th April 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and W. Mwangi (1994). Training of Agricultural Economists in Eastern and Southern Africa, in Peters, G. H. and Douglas D. Hedley (Editors), Agricultural Competitiveness: Market Forces and Policy Choice, Proceedings of XXII International .". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. The need for a new approach to fertilizer use and Food Production in the Less Developed Countries. Contributed Paper IAAE Occasional Paper No.4. Agriculture and Economic Instability, IAAE Conference, Malaga, Spain, 26th August - 4th Sept.". In: Contributed Paper IAAE Occasional Paper No.4. Agriculture and Economic Instability, IAAE Conference, Malaga, Spain, 26th August - 4th September,1985. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Freeman, H. A.; D. D. Rohrbach and C. Ackello-Ogutu .". In: Proceedings of a Workshop, 1-3 July 2002, ICRISAT Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1996). Informal Cross-border Trade between Kenya and Uganda: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A. C. (Editor),Kenya's Rural Research Priorities: Proceedings of a Seminar held at Naivasha. University of Nairobi. Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Occasional Paper No.53.". In: Proceedings of a Seminar held at Naivasha 28-30 April, 1988. University of Nairobi. Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Occasional Paper No.53. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2004). Review of Research on Agriculture and Rural Development in Kenya over the past five years. World Bank/Kenya.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1997). Regional Cooperation and Trade in the Greater Horn of Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the Kenya Commercial Bank Institute, Nairobi, February 18-19 1997. Publication of the Technical Advisory Committee of the African Rur.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and John J. Waelti (1990). Basic Concepts of Microeconomics with Special Reference to Kenya. University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2005). Kenya.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Macamo, J. L.; Ackello-Ogutu, C.; and P. Echessah - Editors (1998). Unrecorded Trade between Mozambique and her Neighbors: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Maputo, November, 1997. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Maputo, November, 1997. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A.C., J. M. Bahemuka and E. N. Mwaura (1990). Reducing Post-Harvest Losses: Perceptions of Farmers and Extension Workers in Kenya. Discovery and Innovation Journal of the African Academy of Sciences (Volume 2 Number 1 pp.36-39.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2008). Supply and Demand for Major Agricultural Commodities in the COMESA Region. COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2008.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1999). Trade in agricultural Commodities in eastern and Southern Africa: Policy Options for Malawi. Paper presented at a Seminar on Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration in southern Africa; Rural Policy Research Center/Malawi In.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1999.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and NATURA/NECTAR (1992). Diffusion and Adoption of Technology, in Agricultural Research and Development Towards Sustainable Production Systems. University of Reading. NATURA/NECTAR Teaching Modules.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1992.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mwania, N. and C. Ackello-Ogutu, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Ethiopian cereals markets held in Addis Ababa, 19th July 2002.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Ethiopian cereals markets held in Addis Ababa, 19th July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mukhebi, A.W., C. Ackello-Ogutu, W. Nguyo, R. Hassan and W. Oluoch-Kosura (Editors) 1996. Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Kenya Commercial Bank, Nairobi, Kenya, May 18 - 20, 19.". In: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Kenya Commercial Bank, Nairobi, Kenya, May 18 - 20, 1994. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C., Q. Paris, William A. Williams (1985). Testing a Von Liebig Crop Response Function against Polynomial Specifications. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 67 No.4.". In: Testing a Von Liebig Crop Response Function against Polynomial Specifications. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 67 No.4. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah, N Mwania and T. Oketch, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a Regional Workshop held in Zanzibar December 6-8 2001. RTAA/Technoserve, USAID RED.". In: Proceedings of a Regional Workshop held in Zanzibar December 6-8 2001. RTAA/Technoserve, USAID REDSO/ESA, Nairobi. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
Akello MO, Nzuve F, Olubayo F, Macharia G, Muthomi J. "Identification of Resistance Sources to Wheat Stem Rust from Introduced Genotypes in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(2):73-87.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Nyikal, R. and C. Ackello-Ogutu (1996). An Evaluation of Institutional Credit and its Role in Agricultural Production in Kenya, in Mukhebi, A. et al (Eds.) Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: Proceedings of a Syposium h.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Kere, P. A., W. M. Mwangi and C. Ackello-Ogutu (1986). The Supply Responsiveness of Wheat Farmers in Kenya. Eastern Africa Economic Review Vol.2 No.2.". In: Proceedings of a Seminar held at Naivasha 28-30 April, 1988. University of Nairobi. Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Occasional Paper No.53. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1986.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and Echessah, P. (2003). Changing Comparative Advantage and Regional Trade in the Greater Horn of Africa: Implications for Food Security. REMPAI Technical Paper.". In: Implications for Food Security. REMPAI Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2003.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Wachira, K., C. Ackello-Ogutu and S. Stall (1996). Economic Analysis of Technology Adoption in Dairy Production in Kenya; in Proceedings of the Scientific Conference held in Nairobi, 1997.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A. C. (1989). Extension Services and Appropriate Farming Technologies for Women in the Dryland Areas of Kenya. European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE) Conference, Montpellier, France May 29 - June 2, 1989.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Afework Aklilu, L. Eturu; and C. Ackello-Ogutu, (2005). Evaluation of AfDB Bank Group Assistance Strategy for the Agriculture and Rural Development Sector of Kenya. August, AfDB/Tunis. July.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1997). Informal Cross-border Trade in east Africa: Implications for Food Security in Ackello-Ogutu, C. (Editor) - - Regional Cooperation and Trade in the Greater Horn of Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the Keny.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Maputo, November, 1997. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A. C. (1990). The Farming Systems Approach to Research and Extension (FSA/RE): Model and Training Requirements. National Workshop on Farming Systems Approach to Research, Extension and Training, March 5-7 1990.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1998) Informal Cross-border Trade in Eastern and Southern Africa: Methodological Approaches and Preliminary Results. In Asiwaju, A. I. and M. de Leeuw (Editors): Border Region Development in Africa: Focus on eastern and southern Sub-Reg.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and S. G. Mbogoh (1991). Environmental Change and Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya 1930-90. ODI Working Paper No 55, Edited by M. Tiffen.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Echessah P. and C. Ackello-Ogutu, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Otieno, L, C. Ackello-Ogutu, G. Mullins and L. Reynolds (1993). Evaluation of Small Ruminant Marketing in Coastal Kenya. Paper Presented at XI SR CRSP Workshop 3 - 4 March, Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Kenya Commercial Bank, Nairobi, Kenya, May 18 - 20, 1994. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1993.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1982). "A Test of the Nutrient Non-Substitution Hypothesis in Crop Response and Fertilizer Carry-over Analysis". University of California, Davis. Ph.D. Dissertation that received the award for being one of the top ten dissertations prod.". In: Ph.D. Dissertation that received the award for being one of the top ten dissertations produced in Canada and USA for the year 1982. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1982.
Akelo PA, E.S A, S. O. "Girl Child prostitution in the Context of HIV/AIDS among the Youth in Kisumu City, Kenya." Nursing Journal . 2007;36(2):14-19.
AKELO EO, NYAMWANGE SO. "Inventory Management by Simulation Analysis.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . Erick Onyango Odada; 2008. Abstract

This paper presents the findings of a study that explored the use of Monte Carlo simulation method to optimally manage inventory in the water equipment industry. The study treated both demand and lead time as stochastic. It proposes an inventory model that will minimize the total inventory costs through simulation analysis while demonstrating how simulation technique can be effectively used to solve inventory management problems

Akendo I.C.O., Gumbe LO, Gitau AN. "Dewatering and drying characteristics of water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) petiole. Part I: Dewatering characteristics. ." Agricultural engineering international the CIGR E-journal.. 2008;X(Manuscript FP 070).
Akendo I.C.O., Gumbe LO, Gitau AN. "Dewatering and drying characteristics of water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) petiole. Part II: Drying characteristics. ." Agricultural engineering international the CIGR E-journal. 2008;X (Manuscript FP 07033.).
Aketch NO, Masibo M, Olago DO. Mineral, Oil and Gas Resources: A natural Outlook-Geoenvironmental Resources and Hazards..; 2013. Abstract

The mineral, oil and gas sectors have not played an important role in the economy of Kenya in the past, but the recent discovery of mineral sands and rare earth elements at the coast and oil in the Lokichar Basin in the northern part of the country are proving to be game changers in the mining, oil and gas sectors. The most important minerals mined in the past have been mainly industrial minerals with soda ash and fluorspar being the most important products. Significant tonnage of gold was mined in western parts of Kenya, but currently only minor exploration and production from the old mine sites is taking place. However, with the increased interest and the government resolve to improve mineral exploration, new mineral finds are possible. Exploration for oil and gas has been taking place in Kenya since the 1950s, but it is only recently that significant oil finds have been reported. The findings have inspired several companies to explore for oil and gas within all the major sedimentary basins in Kenya, namely, the Lokichar Basin, Turkana Basin, the Kerio and Baringo Basin, the Anza Basin, and the Lamu Basin.

Aketch ON, Lee H, Fischer TP, Ranka LS, Onguso B, Kanda I, et al. "Gas Geochemistry of Volcanic and Geothermal Areas in the Kenya Rift: Implications for the Role of Fluids in Continental Rifting." American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013. 2013. AbstractFull Text

The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift and ideal to investigate the processes of rift initiation and the breaking apart of continental lithosphere. Mantle and crust-derived fluids may play a pivotal role in both magmatism and faulting in the EAR. For instance, large quantities of mantle-derived volatiles are emitted at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano [1, 2]. Throughout the EAR, CO2-dominated volatile fluxes are prevalent [3, 4] and often associated with faults (i.e. Rungwe area, Tanzania, [5, 6]). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between volcanism, faulting and the volatile compositions, focusing on the central and southern Kenyan and northern Tanzanian section of the EAR. We report our analysis results for samples obtained during a 2013 field season in Kenya. Gases were sampled at fumaroles and geothermal plants in caldera volcanoes (T=83.1-120.2°C) and springs (T=40-79.6°C and pH 8.5-10) located near volcanoes, intra-rift faults, and a transverse fault (the Kordjya fault, a key fluid source in the Magadi rift) by 4N-NaOH solution-filled and empty Giggenbach bottles. Headspace gases were analyzed by a Gas Chromatograph and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer at the University of New Mexico. Both N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of all gases (35.38-205.31 and 142.92-564,272, respectively) range between air saturated water (ASW, 40 and ≥150,000) and MORB (100-200 and 40-50). In addition, an N2-Ar-He ternary diagram supports that the gases are produced by two component (mantle and air) mixing. Gases in the empty bottles from volcanoes and springs have N2 (90.88-895.99 mmom/mol), CO2 (2.47-681.21 mmom/mol), CH4 (0-214.78 mmom/mol), O2 (4.47-131.12 mmom/mol), H2 (0-35.78 mmom/mol), Ar (0.15-10.65 mmom/mol), He (0-2.21 mmom/mol), and CO (0-0.08 mmom/mol). Although some of the samples show an atmospheric component, CO2 is a major component in most samples, indicating both volcanoes and springs are emitting CO2. Gases from volcanoes are enriched in CH4 and H2, denoting their sources are reduced (oxygen-poor) magma chambers or hydrothermal systems. 40Ar/36Ar ratios (average of all samples=299.15) are similar to our air standard value (299.65×4.05), however, some volcanoes (~308.75) and springs (~321.96) have slightly higher ratios. The springs with elevated 40Ar imply that both the intra-rift (Lake Bogoria) and transverse (Lake Magadi) faults are possibly pathways to carry volatiles from deep sources to the surface. In future work, we will carry out wet chemistry and ion chromatography analyses of the NaOH solutions, measure 3He/4He ratios and complete C, N, and S isotope analyses to further constrain fluid sources and migration processes. [1] Fischer et al., 2009, Nature 459. [2] de Moor et al., 2013, EPSL 361. [3] Sawyer et al., 2008, G-cubed 9. [4] Tassi et al., 2009, G-cubed 10. [5] Barry et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339. [6] de Moor et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339.

Aketch ON, Lee L, Chou J, Huang S, Chang S, Wu Y, et al. "Analyses of the ISUAL Dancing Sprites and Secondary Sprites." American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013. 2013. AbstractFull Text

From July 2004 to May 2012, about 1,700 sprites were recorded by ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning). Most of them were singly occurring sprites that were not followed by other sprites; while about 7% of them were multi-sprites, which typically start with a sprite and then followed by another sprite that showed a spatial displacement relative to the preceding sprites. Almost all of these events show horizontal shifts between the preceding sprites and the follow-up ones, which previously have been called the dancing sprites. In contrast to the majority cases of dancing sprites with horizontal displacements, three follow-up sprites were found to exhibit a vertical displacement relative to the preceding sprites, which are termed as the secondary sprites in in this report. These three secondary sprites exhibit similar occurring sequences and characteristics; with the preceding clustering sprite spanning the altitudes of ~60-85 km, and then 30 ms or more later, a secondary sprite appears at ~40-65 km altitudes and seems to be connected to the dimming channels of the preceding sprite. From analyzing the spectral and the ULF data, possible generating mechanisms for dancing sprites and secondary sprites are proposed in this report. Several researches [Lyons, 1994; Lyons, 1996; Lu et al., 2012] had indicated that the successive sprite production in the dancing sprites aligned with the lateral leader propagation direction of lightning. We consider that the successively occurring dancing sprites and the secondary sprites are related to the extending leaders of the cloud-to-ground lightning, which are often followed by a continuing current or even a second stroke. The dancing sprites may be induced by the subsequent leaders in the cloud extending mainly in the horizontal direction, while the secondary sprites may be triggered by the leaders extending primarily in the vertical direction. In addition, a numerical quasi-electrostatic (QE) field model is developed with the aim to validate the occurring scenario of the secondary sprites. Based on the information inferred from the associate ULF data of a secondary sprite, salient parameters, including the charge, the charge height, and the discharging time constant, are estimated and used in the QE model calculations. Through performing QE modeling with the ULF inferred parameters, we find that the electric field in the region below the preceding sprites could be enhanced by the continuing current.

Akhusama PM, Moturi CA. "Cloud Computing Adoption in Insurance Companies in Kenya." American Journal of Information Systems,. 2016;4(1):11-16. AbstractWebsite

Cloud Computing allows companies to access ICT-based services (infrastructure, applications, platforms and business processes) via the Internet. Cloud Computing is still at the infancy stage in Africa. Studies have indicated a lack of cloud based awareness, even among big organizations in Africa. Kenya just like any other African market is yet to fully adopt cloud based systems due to trust and security concerns. This study aimed at identifying the extent and characteristics of Cloud Computing adoption in insurance companies in Kenya. The study assessed Cloud Computing uses in terms of productivity applications, business applications (CRM, SaaS), infrastructure on-demand (storage, network, and server), finance applications, core business application, databases and desktop. The adoption of the Cloud Computing services in insurance companies was relatively low. The results obtained would assist in providing a roadmap for the best practices to improve Cloud Computing services in the insurance industry in Kenya.

Akidah, Abdinur. "Form 2 Arabic Course Book."; 2008.
Akimanya A, Midiwo JO, Matasyoh J, Okanga F, Masila VM, Walker L, Tekwani BL, Muhammad I, Omosa LK. "Two polymethoxylated flavonoids with antioxidant activities and a rearranged clerodane diterpenoid from the leaf exudates of Microglossa pyrifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2015;11:183-187.akimanya_et_al.pdf
Akinkunle O, Stefan J, Ndetei D, Musau A, Mutiso V, Mudenge C, Ngirababyeyi A, Gasovia A, Mamah D. " A comparative study of psychotic and effective symptoms in Rwandan and Kenyan students.". 2016.
Akinyeye R, Michira I, Botha S, Baker P, Iwuoha E. "Electrocatalytic Sensor Applications of Nanostructured Polypyrolles and Polythiophenes.". In: Recent advances in Electroanalytical chemistry. Vol. T.C. 37/661(2), Fort P.O., Trivandrum-695 023, kerala, India. Keralala, India: Transworld Network; 2007:.
AKINYI DRDWASIJANE. "Jane A. Dwasi, Regulation of Pesticides in Developing Countries, The Environmental Law Reporter, Volume XXXII, Number 1, January.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
Akinyi 10. OJ, Sigana DAO, Wang’ondu V, Wambiji N, Ong’anda H, Orembo B. "Length-weight relationship of selected teleost fishes from Kilifi County, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science. 2018; 17 (1):125-135.
AKINYI DRDWASIJANE. "Jane A. Dwasi, et al, Women and the Criminal Justice System in Kenya, Kenya Law Reform Commission,.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
AKINYI DRDWASIJANE. "Jane Dwasi and Judy Oglethorpe, HIV/AIDS and Ecoregion Conservation (Island Press.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
Akpata, D.O. G& ER. "Social Economic status of secondary schools interscholastic athletes in Nairobi province, Kenya." Journal of International Council for Physical Education, Recreation, Sports and Dance . 2002;353(2):28-30.
AKUKU DROKOTHPATRICK. "Okoth PA.Neurological manifestations following partial excision in spinal meningioma: case report. East Afr Med J. 2007 Jan;84(1):44-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jan;84(1):44-8. East African Medical Journal; 2007. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
AKUKU DROKOTHPATRICK. "Changing pattern of intracranial lesions.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jan;77(1):1-3. East African Medical Journal; 2000. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Upflow Filters in Flocculation and Direct Filtration of Waters of High Turbidity; Ph.D. Thesis,.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "River Pollution profile: A case Study of Thika River. Proceedings of National Seminar on Technological Solutions for Economic Development in Kenya now and in the 21st Century,.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Anaerobic Treatability of Sugarcane Mill Wastewater.". In: Paper submitted to Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice JCERP (under review awaiting publication). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2004. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Human Resources Development for the Water Sector in the Next Decade.". In: Proceedings of 4th African Water Technology Conference,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Upflow Filters in Direct Filtration of High Turbidity Waters; Aqua Fennica, Vol 17, No. 1,.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1987. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Development of Parametric Numbers in Filter-bed Flocculation.". In: JKUAT Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 7,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2002. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Pollution Profile of Thika River.". In: Proceedings of 17th WEDC International Conference on Infrastructure, Environment, Water and People. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Selection of Drifts or Bridges in Semi-Desert Areas of Flash Floods;.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology,Finland. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1981. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Computer Simulation of Orthokinetic Flocculation in a Filterbed.". In: JKUAT Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 7,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2002. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Upflow Filters in Direct Filtration of High Turbidity Waters; Aqua Fennica, Vol 17, No. 1,.". In: International Journal of Biochemiphysics, Vol. 5 (Nos 1& 2). Materials Research Society; 1987. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Performance of Crushed Coconut Shell Dual Media Filter Paper.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice (under review awaiting publication). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2004. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Akunda EM, Kumar B. "Using internal plant water status as a criterion for scheduling irrigation in coffee in east of rift valley Kenya.". In: Kenya coffee vol. 47. No. 560, 281- 284. Kisipan, M.L.; Submitted. Abstract

n/a

Akundabweni LSM;, Chweya JA. "Indigenous Plants in agriculture."; 1995.
Akundabweni LSM. "Research on indigenous Food Plants.". 1993.
Akunga ND, Keraka M, Anyango SO. 2Burden of Childhood Diarrhea from Water sanitation and hygiene: The case of Nairobi City, Kenya. . Bonn: Verlag Dr. Muller (VDM). ISBN978-3-639-27847-7 .; 2010.
Akuon P, Xu H. Rate and reliability implementation scheme for Polar Codes,SATNAC2012,EastLondon,SA. George, Western Cape, South Africa; 2012. Abstract

 Communications channel coding that achieves capacity is implemented and solution suggested for selection of the optimal design parameter to achieve capacity:Rate or reliability of channels.

Akuon P, Xu H. "Polar coded spatial modulation." IET Journal. 2014;vol. 8(no.9): pp.1459-1466.
Akuon P, Afullo TJO. "Rain cell sizing for the design of high capacity radio link systems in South Africa,PIERJournalB,2011." PIERS. 2011;35:263-285, . AbstractWebsite

Full report on the derivation of rain characteristics and consequential application to microwave linkk designs.

Akuon P, Xu H. Polar coded MQAM with no noise variance estimation for capacity and soft decision metric. Ile Maurice, Mauritius: IEEE Africon 2013; 2013.
Akuon P, Afullo TJO. "Negative power law attenuation estimation for rainy earth-space radio links,Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.". In: PIERS . Kuala Lampur, Malaysis: PIERS; 2012. Abstract

Attenuation prediction for satelite links s derived and validated from measurements all over tropical zones in the world. The power law model is based on the modelling of the stochastic nature of rain drops over an average rain field area. Best performig for the tests.

Akuon P, Xu H. Optimal bit error analysis of Nr-branch EGC under Rayleigh fading channels. Addis Ababa, Ethipia: IEEE Africon; 2015.
AKUON MRPETERODERO. "Path reduction factor modelling for terrestrial links based on rain cell growth,IEEE.Africon,Zambia, 2011,.". In: IEEE. IEEE; 2011. Abstract
Suggested prediction for Rain attenuation in Terrestrial links based on growth modelling of the rain cell is validated from measurements.
Akuon P, Afullo TTJO. Rain cell size statistics from rain gauge data for site diversity planning and attenuation prediction. SATNAC 2011,East London, South Africa: SATNAC 2011; 2011.
AKUON MRPETERODERO. "Optimized hybrid green power model for remote telecom sites,.". In: PowerAfricaIEEE. IEEE; 2012. Abstract
Site Installation results of a hybrid green power model are discussed to assist power solution design engineers in proper implementation of various components.
Akuon P, Xu H. Layered baud-space modulation. Cape Town, South Africa: SATNAC 2015; 2015.
Akuon P, H X. "Secure signal and space Alamouti scheme." SAIEE. 2016;1(1):1-5.
Akusala KG, Aagaard-Hansen J, Isaac NK, Simiyu W. "Attitudes to Body Image among the Rural Luo of Bondo sub-County, Western Kenya.". 2015.
Akwale WS, Ongore D, Kimani VN, Njoroge FK. "Use of insecticide treated bed nets among pregnant women in Kilifi District, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Malaria is one of the most serious public health problems in Kenya. Pregnant women are among the groups with the highest risk of malaria. Use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) is a cost-effective method of controlling malaria. Despite this, there is low utilisation of ITNs among pregnant women in Kilifi district which is an endemic malaria zone. To determine knowledge, attitude and practice on the use of ITNs in the prevention of malaria among pregnant women in Kilifi district. A descriptive cross-sectional study. The district hospital and the five health centres in Kilifi district Two hundred and twenty pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) between October and December 2007. Knowledge on malaria illness and ITNs was high with majority of pregnant women having adequate level of knowledge (86.9%). There was significant association between level of education and adequate knowledge (P-value = 0.010). Good attitude on ITNs use was low. There was no association between good attitude and any of the socio-demographic variables. The majority of pregnant women attending ANC owned ITNs (75.4%). ITNs usage was high (70.5%). There was significant association between religion and good practice (p-value = 0.050). Although adequate level of knowledge on malaria and protective role of ITNs was high, there was no association between knowledge with practice and attitude. Before any malaria preventive intervention is implemented in an area, different socio-cultural factors must be considered when behavioural interventions for malaria control are designed and implemented. Targeted health education should be disseminated to the community to remove stigma and misconceptions associated with ITNs. Community concerns and fears should be addressed.

Akweya BA, Gitao CG. "The acceptability of camel milk and milk products from north eastern province in some urban areas of Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

A total of 138 households were interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey in Garisa, Wajir and Eastleigh the main urban centres with high camel milk consumption. 75% of the respondents generally take camel milk or milk products every day. Raw and sour milk are the most popular products. The most important purchasing criterion for raw camel milk was taste (19 and18%) while packaging was more important for pasteurized milk (18, 18 and 16%) for Wajir, Garisa and Eastleigh respectively. For Yoghurt, the most important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of sour milk is the most important attribute in both Garisa (30%) and Eastleigh (24%). To enhance marketing of camel milk, the appropriate attributes demanded by customers needs to be seriously addressed. Promotion of camel milk and products to non conventional consumers should be done in order to increase their consumption.

Akweya BA. Prevalence of streptococcus agalactiae and staphylococcus aureus in camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk in Garissa and Wajir districts of Kenya, their sensitivity to antibiotics and acceptability of camel milk and its products. Wangoh J, Gitau P, eds. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Camel milk is commonly consumed raw by pastoralists in arid areas who may
be unaware of the risks posed by such milk. It was therefore very important to
determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae, which are some of the most common pathogens in such milk.
Camel milk samples from Garissa and Wajir were analyzed to determine the
prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The
antibiotic resistance of the bacteria was also studied. Milk samples (n =207)
were aseptically obtained from primary marketing agents. Samples were
analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae. The confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae were subjected to diffusion sensitivity test. Resistance was
determined by measuring the diameter of the zone cleared by the antibacterial
and the isolates were reported as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant.
Questionnaires were administered to evaluate camel milk and milk product
acceptability.
The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in the
two districts differed with Garissa having higher percent incidence both for
Staphylococcus aureus (34.95%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (37.79%).
Wajir, had lower prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (10.58%) and
Streptococcus agalactiae (7.69%). Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae were resistant to most of the antibiotics except Gentamicin.
x
Although camel milk and milk products were acceptable, each had different
quality parameters that attracted customers. The most important purchasing
criterion for raw camel milk was taste (27%, 19% and 18%) for Wajir, Garissa
and Nairobi respectively. While packaging (18%, 18% and 16%) was more
important for pasteurized milk also in the same order. For yoghurt the most
important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of
sour camel milk is the most important attribute in both Garissa (30%) and
Nairobi (24%).
The results indicate the potential health risk of consuming raw camel milk and
increasing incidences of resistance of mastitis organisms to the common
antibiotics. There is need to educate camel milk producers on hygienic milk
production as well as inform the raw camel milk consumers on dangers
involved. Marketing of camel milk and products can be enhanced using the
attributes appropriate for each product in the respective district.

Akyıldız Hızır, Biri I, Akcan A, Küçük C, Sözüer E, others. "Ileal lipoma: case report." Erciyes Med J. 2011;33:83-6. AbstractWebsite
n/a
al FME. "Flood Forecasting over Lower Nzoia Sub-Basin in Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;1-1 2014.jos.pdf
Al-Qahtani S, Gudinchet F, Laswed T, Schnyder P, Schmidt S, Osterheld M-C, Alamo L. "Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in children: typical radiological findings and pathological correlation." Clinical imaging. 2010;34:152-156. AbstractWebsite
n/a
ALANDO MRSOMONDIESTHER. "Nationalism in Africa and Other Third World Countries.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 2000. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
ALANDO MRSOMONDIESTHER. "History of Kenya.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 2006. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
Alasow KB. Efficiency of light curing units in Dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Background: To achieve adequate cure, a resin composite restoration must be
exposed for a specified duration of time to a light of sufficient intensity and the right
wavelength. However, some commonly used light curing units (LCUs) may yield
inadequately cured restorations due to their insufficient light intensity output.
Furthermore, the efficiency of light curing units in dental clinics and the extent to which
dentists practice the recommended maintenance techniques is largely unknown.
Objective: To determine the efficiency of Light Curing Units (LCUs) in dental clinics in
Nairobi, Kenya.
Study design: A laboratory-based, cross-sectional analytical study.
Study area: The study was set in private and public dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. A
total of 83 light curing units selected through a convenient sampling procedure were
used.
Materials and methods: The light intensity output of light curing units in dental clinics
was measured using a digital dental radiometer and the result entered in a data
collection form. Each light curing unit was then used to polymerise two cylindrical resin
composite specimens made using custom-made split brass moulds; one measuring
4mm in diameter and 6mm in thickness used to determine the depth of cure (DOC) and
the other 8mm in diameter and 3mm in thickness used to determine the surface
hardness by using a Vickers Hardness tester. Within 6-7 hours of fabrication, the depth
of cure specimens were immersed in a capsule containing 99%- acetone solvent which
was then vibrated in a mixing device. The DOC was calculated from the undissolved
length of the specimen. The surface Vickers Hardness was evaluated by making three
xv
surface indentations with a diamond indenter using a load of 200g and a dwell time of
15-seconds. A conversion table was used to convert measurements from the diamond
indentations into hardness numbers. The light intensity output and the depth of cure and
surface micro-hardness numbers of the resin composite specimens were then used to
assess the efficiency of each dental light curing unit. Three main components of the
maintenance history of the light curing units, as well as the age and type of the light
curing unit were also recorded.
The data was entered into a computer using SPSS version 12. The independent sample
t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Post Hoc test and Chi-square tests
were used for data analysis. The results were summarized in tables and figures.
Results: Of the 83 LCUs studied, 43(51.8%) were LED and 39(47.0%) were OTH and 1
(1.2%) was PAC light.
LCU type and light intensity output, DOC and hardness: Mean light intensity for OTH
and LED lights was 526.59mW/cm2 and 493.67mW/cm2 respectively (p=0.574), while
the mean DOC for OTH lights was 1.71mm and LED was 1.67mm (p=0.690). Mean
VHN for LED was 57.44 and for OTH was 44.14 (p=0.713). Light curing unit type had no
statistically significant effect on DOC, surface hardness and the intensity of the light.
Effect of age of LCU on light intensity output, hardness and DOC: Mean light intensity
for LCUs ::;5years was 596.03mW/cm2 and 363.17mW/cm2 for units> 5years old. Age
showed a significant effect on light intensity (p=O.024). The mean DOC for the two age
groups was 1.74mm and 1.57mm respectively (p=O.073). For surface micro-hardness,
the ::; 5years and > 5years age groups gave a mean VHN of 58.81 and 51.46
respectively (p=O.1)
XVI
Efficiency of the LCUs: when intensity was used to measure efficiency, 48 (57.8%)
LCUs were efficient and 35 (42.2%) were inefficient. Only the LCU age significantly
affected efficiency by light intensity output (p=O.008). Only 24 (28.9%) LCUs gave
sufficient DOC as opposed to 59 (71.1%), which gave insufficient DOC. Of the units
tested for surface micro-hardness, 15 (25.9%) had adequate surface micro-hardness
while the rest (43 or 74.1%) had inadequate surface micro-hardness. The type of LCU
and its age did not significantly influence efficiency as measured using depth of cure
and surface micro-hardness of the resin restoration.
On the whole, 11 (19%) of the LCUs which had all the three tests of efficiency done
were satisfactory in all the 3 aspects.
Conclusions: Eleven (19%) of the light curing units used in Nairobi dental clinics were
efficient when subjected to a combined light intensity, and composite resin depth of cure
and surface hardness evaluation, and that the type and maintenance history of a LCU
had no significant influence on its efficiency. Age had a significant influence on the light
intensity of the curing units - there was a decrease in light intensity output with increase
in age of the units. There was a non-linear relationship between the light intensity output
of a LCU and the depth of cure and surface micro-hardness of the cured composite.

Albert O. Mala, Lucy W. Irungu, Josephat I.Shililu, Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles C. Mbogo, Joseph K. Njagi, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Githure JI. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:121.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Alekseenko SV, Shkorbatova YP, Toporova SN. "Effects of {Strabismus} and {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Sizes} of {Callosal} {Cells} in {Cortical} {Fields} 17 and 18 in the {Cat} {Brain}." Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2014;44:101-106. AbstractWebsite

Structural changes in the visual cortex were studied in conditions of deranged binocular experience by assessing the sizes (body areas) of callosal cells in fields 17 and 18 in monocularly deprived cats and in cats with convergent strabismus. These cells were detected by injection of horseradish peroxidase into columns in cortical fields 17 and 18 and the fields 17/18 transitional zone. In both groups, the mean size of callosal cells in field 17 was greater than normal, though this difference in field 18 was seen only in monocularly deprived cats. Differences in the mean sizes of field 17 and 18 cells in cats of the study groups were found to be due to the number of large cells. In cats with strabismus, callosal cells of size greater than 200 μm2 accounted for 58% of cells in field 17 and 8% in field 18. In monocularly deprived cats, there was no difference in the proportions of large callosal cells in these fields (28% and 26%, respectively). These data provide evidence that cytoarchitectonic changes occurred in layers of the visual cortex, serving as sources of interhemisphere connections, in conditions of early derangement of binocular experience.

Alekseenko SV, Shkorbatova YP, Toporova SN. "Effects of {Strabismus} and {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Sizes} of {Callosal} {Cells} in {Cortical} {Fields} 17 and 18 in the {Cat} {Brain}." Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2014;44:101-106. AbstractWebsite

Structural changes in the visual cortex were studied in conditions of deranged binocular experience by assessing the sizes (body areas) of callosal cells in fields 17 and 18 in monocularly deprived cats and in cats with convergent strabismus. These cells were detected by injection of horseradish peroxidase into columns in cortical fields 17 and 18 and the fields 17/18 transitional zone. In both groups, the mean size of callosal cells in field 17 was greater than normal, though this difference in field 18 was seen only in monocularly deprived cats. Differences in the mean sizes of field 17 and 18 cells in cats of the study groups were found to be due to the number of large cells. In cats with strabismus, callosal cells of size greater than 200 μm2 accounted for 58% of cells in field 17 and 8% in field 18. In monocularly deprived cats, there was no difference in the proportions of large callosal cells in these fields (28% and 26%, respectively). These data provide evidence that cytoarchitectonic changes occurred in layers of the visual cortex, serving as sources of interhemisphere connections, in conditions of early derangement of binocular experience.

Alekseeva IG, Lapina GP, Tulovskaia ZD, Izmaĭlova VN. "[Structure formation in interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid boundaries]." Biofizika. 1975;20(4):566-9. Abstract

In connection with the modelling of biomembranes regularities of the formation and development of interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid borders under different conditions and depending on the nature of carbohydrate phase were investigated by the determination of mechanical characteristics of such layers. The investigations carried out showed that the most solid layers appeared under the conditions which assured the formation of the maximum number of intermolecular bonds (which in a common case is performed with maximum disorderlinesss of the macromolecules which get at the interphase).

Alekseeva IG, Lapina GP, Tulovskaia ZD, Izmaĭlova VN. "[Structure formation in interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid boundaries]." Biofizika. 1975;20(4):566-9. Abstract

In connection with the modelling of biomembranes regularities of the formation and development of interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid borders under different conditions and depending on the nature of carbohydrate phase were investigated by the determination of mechanical characteristics of such layers. The investigations carried out showed that the most solid layers appeared under the conditions which assured the formation of the maximum number of intermolecular bonds (which in a common case is performed with maximum disorderlinesss of the macromolecules which get at the interphase).

Alemayehu F, Richard O, James KM, Wasonga OV. "Assessment of mangrove covers change and biomass in mida creek, Kenya." Open Journal of Forestry. 2014;2014. Abstract
n/a
Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs (2012). J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi, E M Mogoa and C M Mulei.". In: Livestock research for rural development 24 (9) 2012. Livestock research for rural development 24 (9) 2012; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mogoa, E.G.M., Mulei, C.M. and Mande, J.D.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Garissa 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia in 3 Canines, a Challenge to Management (2010). Kipyegon, A.N., Abuom, T.O., Aleri, J.W. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Rabies and Population Control of Stray Dogs and Cats in Nairobi Slums. WVS-CSD Initiative (2011). Muraya, J., Aleri, J.W. Mutembei, H.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: Rabies Workshop 26th September,2011 held in Machokas. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Kipyegon AN, Mande JD, Mulei CM, Karanja DN. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due to Babesiosis in a Dog: Case Report.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Promoting Animal and Human Welfare in Disasters: The Role of Veterinary Professionals (2011). Aleri, J.W and Mogoa, E.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Actinobacillosis due to Actinobacillus lignieresi, has been reported in domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, horses and dogs (Carmalt et al., 1999; Kennerman et al., 2006; Muhammad et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2007). The causative agent is a gram-negative aerobic rod and a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants (Radostits et al., 2007; Smith, 2009). The most frequent clinical presentation is granulomatous or pyogranulomatous lesion of the tongue or subcutaneous tissues in the head and neck region. A typical manifestation of the disease have been reported affecting other body tissues / organs usually associated from lacerations, dehorning, nose-rings, intravenous injections and lymphadenitis (Aslani, et al., 1995; Holzhauer and Roumen, 2002). Outbreaks of the disease have also been reported (Campbell et al., 1975; Nakazawa and Azuma 1977). This paper outlines an atypical case of actinobacillosis of soft tissue swelling of the head in a cow without any exudation from the lesion, which is a challenge to confirming the etiological agent and treatment.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Welfare of Dairy Cattle in the Smallholder (Zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs (2011). Aleri, J.W.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . University of Nairobi Thesis; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Situational Analysis of Canine Infertility in Nairobi and its Environs. Departmental Seminar 2008.". In: Departmental Seminar . Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Mogoa EM, Mulei CM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "A Typical Actinobacillosis in an Adult Friesian Cow (2012). AG Thaiyah, JW Aleri, TO Abuom, CM Mulei.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012). Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012); 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective Study on Canine Infertility in Nairobi and its Environs (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., Mulei, C.M., Mbugua, S.M. and Gakombe, J.W.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Entrenching Animal welfare in Policy and Legislations Frameworks: Is Africa ready? (2010). Mogoa, E.M. and Aleri, J.W.". In: Africa Animal Welfare Action (AAWA) Conference 2010 . AAWA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective study on Reproductive conditions in Bitches in Nairobi (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., C.M. Mulei., Gakombe, J.W. and Mbugua, S.M.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian 34: 29-31. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/kenvet/article/view/68400. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Mogoa EM, Mulei CM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Risk factors for body injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). Aleri, J.W., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mogoa, E.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Thaiyah AG, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Housing-design as a predisposing factor for injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi and E M Mogoa.". In: Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011. Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "The Status of Animal welfare in Kenya. Departmental Seminar .". In: Department of Clinical Studies University of Nairobi 2008. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Mogoa EGM, Mulei CM, Mande JD. "Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations.". 2009. Abstract

A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, legislations’, knowledge and sources of general information on animal welfare. The percentage responses to the questions before and after the customized lecture series were determined and differences compared using a paired t test. The level of awareness of animal welfare issues among students before and after the customized lectures was 33.11% and 68.03% respectively. Significant differences at p ≤ 0.05 on all the attributes assessed was observed. p=0.0056 on the understanding of animal welfare, p=0.0232 on what constitutes poor animal welfare and p=0.025 on conditions necessary to ensure a state of good animal welfare. A 50% increase in awareness of legislations on animal welfare was recorded after the lecture series. The major source of information on animal welfare was from the lecture series offered. This study confirms that inclusion of the customized lectures on animal welfare in training veterinary students was effective in promoting awareness on animal welfare. The contents of these lectures should be included in relevant subjects taught to students at the Faculties of Veterinary Medicine.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog (2012). Aleri, J. W., Kipyegon, A.N., Mande, J.D., Mulei, C.M. and Karanja, D.N.". In: Departmental seminar. Departmental seminar; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "An Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog (2010). Aleri, J. W., Kipyegon, A.N., Mande, J.D., Mulei, C.M. and Karanja, D.N.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi (2012). Aleri J W, Abuom T O, Kitaa J M, Kipyegon A N and Mulei C M.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Major Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Kenya. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM, Karanja DN. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due to Babesiosis in a Dog: Case Report.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Journal of Tropical Animal Health and Production. 42: 1643 . KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "An overview of rabbit conditions presented to the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi (2011). Aleri, J.W., Abuom, T.O., Kitaa, J.M., Kipyegon, A.N and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Tick-borne diseases a threat in the kennels (2011). Aleri, J.W. and Muiruri, M.N.". In: Kennel club Annual Newsletter March 2011. Kennel club; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.

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