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2019
Johnson MA, Garland CR, Jagoe K, Edwards R, Ndemere J, Weyant C, Patel A, Kithinji J, Wasirwa E, Nguyen T, Khoi DD, Kay E, Scott P, Nguyen R, Yagnaraman M, Mitchell J, Derby E, Chiang RA, Pennise D. "In-Home Emissions Performance of Cookstoves in Asia and Africa." Atmosphere. 2019;10(5):290. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper presents results from eight field studies in Asia and Africa on the emissions performance of 16 stove/fuel combinations measured during normal cooking events in homes. Characterizing real-world emissions performance is important for understanding the climate and health implications of technologies being promoted as alternatives to displace baseline cooking stoves and fuels. Almost all of the stove interventions were measured to have substantial reductions in PM2.5 and CO emissions compared to their respective baseline technologies (reductions of 24–87% and 25–80%, for PM2.5 and CO emission rates, respectively), though comparison with performance guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) suggests that further improvement for biomass stoves would help realize more health benefits. The emissions of LPG stoves were generally below the WHO interim PM2.5 emissions target (1.75 mg/min) though it was not clear how close they were to the most aspirational ISO (0.2 mg/min) or WHO (0.23 mg/min) targets as our limit of detection was 1.1 mg/min. Elemental and organic carbon emission factors and elemental-to-total carbon ratios (medians ranging from 0.11 to 0.42) were in line with previously reported field-based estimates for similar stove/fuel combinations. Two of the better performing forced draft stoves used with pellets—the Oorja (median ET/TC = 0.12) and Eco-Chula (median ET/TC = 0.42)—were at opposite ends of the range, indicating that important differences in combustion conditions can arise even between similar stove/fuel combinations. Field-based tests of stove performance also provide important feedback for laboratory test protocols. Comparison of these results to previously published water boiling test data from the laboratory reinforce the trend that stove performance is generally better during controlled laboratory conditions, with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) being consistently lower in the field for respective stove/fuel categories. New testing approaches, which operate stoves through a broader range of conditions, indicate potential for better MCE agreement than previous versions of water boiling tests. This improved agreement suggests that stove performance estimates from a new ISO laboratory testing protocol, including testing stoves across low, medium, and high firepower, may provide more representative estimates of real-world performance than previously used tests. More representative results from standardized laboratory testing should help push stove designs toward better real-world performance as well as provide a better indication of how the tested technologies will perform for the user. View Full-Text
Keywords: household energy; solid fuel; biomass; stove performance; emission factors; black carbon

Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J. "Influence of Coating Application Methods on the Postharvest Quality of Cassava." International Journal of Food Science. 2019;2019:1-16.abstract.pdf
Mang’eni, B. K., Migosi J. "Influence of Communication Systems on Performance of Contractors in Building Public Projects in Pokot Central Sub County, West Pokot County, Kenya." The International Journal of Business & Management. 2019;7(8):50-53.
Chepkonga DS, Kinanu T. "Influence of Financial Corporate Governance Practices on School Development in Primary Schools in Igembe South Sub County." International Journal of Research Publications. 2019;29(2):16.
Kipyesang E, Migosi J. "Influence of Human Resources on Hotel Performance in Kitale Municipality Trans Nzoia County." International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research. 2019;3(12):81-87.
Njiraine D. "The Influence of Internal Promotion and Training Incentives on Employee Performance at University of Nairobi. ." European Journal of Business and Management. 2019;11(14):63-79.
OKOTH A A, OLUOCH M F. "Influence of Performance Appraisal on Motivation of Public Secondary School Teachers in Gem-Sub County, Kenya." American International Journal of Contemporary Research. 2019;9(4):doi:10.30845/aijcr.v9n4p5.
Mutende RA;, Akala WJ, Imonje RK. "Influence of Preservice Teacher Learning on the Application of Laboratory Experiment Teaching Method ." Journal of Education and Practice . 2019;10(18).
Mulwa, J.K. AKWJ & JM. "Influence of Principals’ use of Collaborative Decision Making on Students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2019;7(1):220-240.
m O. "Influence of Secondary School Rugby Playing Experience on Talent Identification for Players in Rugby Clubs in Kenya." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) . 2019.
Tallam D, Migosi J. "Influence of Seismic Survey Activities on the Environment in Soy North Ward, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya." The International Journal of Business & Management. 2019;7(8):70-74.
Njeru NK, Midega CAO, Muthomi JW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Khan ZR, Khan ZR. "Influence of socio‐economic and agronomic factors on aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in western Kenya." Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;00:1-11.
Lolly Patrick Osendo, Wanjala UAOG &. "Influence of teacher performance appraisal on job performance in public primary schools in Mumias East sub county, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2019;6(5).
Osendo, L.P., Wanjala, G., Okoth UA. "Influence of Teacher Performance Appraisal on Job Performance in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2019;6(5):29-43.abstract1.pdf
Omare, E., Nyagah G, Imonje RK. "Influence of Teacher Self-Efficacy on Transfer of Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) Pedagogical Skills in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (IJHSS); . 2019;8(4).
S.; WN, Imonje RK, Akala WJ. "Influence of teaching experience on pupils’ performance at Kenya Certificate of Primary Examination in English subject in Kenya." Journal of Research & Method in Education. 2019;9(3):24-30.
Waweru JN, Odenyo F. "Innovative content Delivery for library patron 2.0.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
Mary Mwangi, Nathan Gichuki RCPN. "Insights into the diet and feeding behaviour of Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea (Aves: Passeriformes: Alaudidae)." Journal of Threatened Taxa. 2019;11(6):13727-13733.
Kovacic Z, Musango JK, Ambole LA, Buyana K, Smit S, Anditi C, Mwau B, Ogot M, Lwasa S, Brent AC, others. "Interrogating differences: A comparative analysis of Africa’s informal settlements." World Development. 2019;122:614-627. Abstract

Urban development in Africa is a very diverse and ambivalent phenomenon with aspects that do not fall neatly into global standards. Informal settlements therefore challenge governance by standards. We argue that quantifying and interrogating differences offers a better basis for governance. By drawing on a comparative analysis of three different informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa, this paper explores what differences reveal about the governance of informal settlements. The paper uses an urban societal metabolism approach, focussed on gender, energy and health, based on questionnaires and focus group discussions in Enkanini (Stellenbosch, South Africa), Mathare (Nairobi, Kenya), and Kasubi-Kawaala (Kampala, Uganda). The contribution of the paper is both empirical and theoretical. Empirically, we provide new evidence about the metabolism of urban informality at multiple levels of analysis: the individual, the household and the settlement. Findings show the gender asymmetries in urban poverty and the intricate links between energy choices, health and economic status. Theoretically, we argue that different levels of analysis produce different understandings of urban informality, and that analyzing informal settlements only by population aggregates means missing information. We conclude by arguing that understanding differences leads to the formulation of modest and localised goals, which are better able to take into account the complexity of urban informality.

LUMUMBA W, OLUOCH M F. "Intrinsic Reward and Organization Performance at Vihiga County Government, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS). 2019;3(11):ISSN 2454-6186.
Joseph SK. An Investigation on Sustainability Compliance in the Kenyan Construction Industry (A Perspective of Key Interior Design Professionals in Nairobi City County). Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

This study investigated sustainability compliance in the Kenyan construction industry focusing on the interior design market segment. This focus was informed by the need to have all market segments involved in sustainable construction endeavours. From past literature, independent variables were identified as sustainability literacy, uptake and assessment with the moderating and dependent variables as market segment peculiarities and sustainable construction compliance respectively. The study had hypothesized, in the alternative, the impact of independent variables individually and jointly on dependent variable in the Kenyan construction industry was above average. The phrase above average was based on threshold which for this study was set at a mean of three [Average]. Additionally, the study sought to assess the extent of independent variables, individually and jointly, as key contributors to sustainable construction compliance in Nairobi City County. The targeted population were key practitioners in the Kenyan construction industry. These were identified as architects/interior designers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, quantity surveyors and contractors being the typical core team required for a professionally executed interior design project in Kenya. They have the potential to influence project lifecycle towards improved sustainable construction compliance. Sampling frame was defined as actively practicing key professionals as above identified in Nairobi City County. The Yamane (1967) formula was used to compute sample size which was adjusted for non-response resulting in 60 respondents. For the research instruments, structured questionnaires, appropriate measures were taken to ensure their validity and reliability. Lastly, appropriate research ethics considerations were observed. The unit of analysis and observation was the individual key professional. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were mainly through computation of means and standard deviations and inferential statistics through t-statistic p-value score calculations. Resulting data was presented in form of charts, tables and graphs. Out of the 60 targeted respondents, valid responses were 46 representing a 77% response rate. On hypotheses testing, individually and jointly, sustainable construction literacy, transition/uptake and assessment/evaluation had an above average impact on sustainable construction compliance in the Kenyan construction industry. The findings also established the impact of independent variables on dependent variable in the Kenyan construction industry individually and jointly as above average in Nairobi City County. Additionally, the study highlighted improvement measures for the three independent variables as a means of achieving improved sustainability compliance in the Kenyan construction industry both at policy and practice levels. Recommendations for future research based on the findings of this study were also outlined.

Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C., Aseta, A. "Is the type of agricultural extension services a determinant of farm diversity? Evidence from Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2019;6(1):40-46.
Umar M, IRIBEMWANGI PI. Kamau Mũtitũ-inĩ . London: Salaam Publishing; 2019.
Umar M, IRIBEMWANGI PI. Kamau Werũ-inĩ wa Mũthanga . London: Salaam Publishing; 2019.
John Habwe & J. Omboga Zaja. Kamusi ya Isimu na Fasihi. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2019.
M M, LZ M, J F, GM E, E R, R N, J T, DH M, Nyagol J, F W, AK B, M B, JG O. "Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein H Is Indispensable for Infection of Epithelial, Endothelial, and Fibroblast Cell Types." J Virol.. 2019;93(16).
Simonich CA, Doepker L, Ralph D, Williams JA, Dhar A, Yaffe Z, Gentles L, Small CT, Oliver B, Vigdorovich V, Mangala Prasad V, NNduati R. "Kappa chain maturation helps drive rapid development of an infant HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody lineage.". 2019.
Nic Cheeseman, Karuti Kanyinga GLMRJW&. "Kenya’s 2017 elections: winner-takes-all politics as usual.". 2019.
A.W N, J.A O, D.O O, S C. "Khat (Catha edulis) Addiction, effects on general body health and interventional remedial measures.". In: Drug Abuse: Addiction and Recovery Volume 1 Chapter 4. Open access e-books; 2019.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Kiswahili kama Lugha Changizi: Uchambuzi wa kifonolojia wa Maneno Yaliyokopeshwa Lugha ya Kikikuyu." Mwanga wa Lugha, Kiswahili Journal of Moi University. . 2019;4( 1):45-59.
Kiti Mikaye. . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau ; 2019.
Lockwood NM, Lypen K, Shalabi F, Kumar M, Ngugi E, Diener L, GW. H. "'Know that You are not Alone.' Influences of Social Support on Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV in Kibera, Kenya: A Qualitative Study Informing Intervention Development." Int J Environ Res Public Health.. 2019; 4;(16(5):. pii: E775. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050775.
“Bahemuka MJ”, “Kivuva J”, “Michuki G”. Knowledge for Wealth Creation: A Kenyan Perspective. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2019.
J.A. OMEGA, L.M. MUSALIA, J.K. KURIA. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Paratuberculosis in Cattle and Sheep in Kericho County and Konoin Sub-County, Kenya." African Journal of Education, Science and Technology. 2019;5:76-86 .
Osaliya. R., O. V. Wasonga., J. G. M. Mwanjalolo., Kironchi G, Adipala E. "Land conversion is changing the landscape in the semi-arid Kapir catchment, northeastern Uganda.". 2019;3(3).
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Gabiri G, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, JGMM. "Land Cover and Soil Properties Influence on Forage Quantity in a Semiarid Region in East Africa." Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution . 2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution. 2019;9(22):12779-12788.
JM Schoorl, A Veldkamp, L Claessens, JR Wijbrans, Olago DO, Lievens C. "Late Quaternary lahars and lava dams: Fluvial responses of the Upper Tana River (Kenya)." Geomorphology. 2019;341:28-45. Abstractlate_quaternery.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Geomorphological and sedimentary records near the confluences of the Tana River and major tributaries draining the eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya and the Nyambeni Range, indicate impacts of Late Quaternary volcanic activity in their fluvial records. The main reconstructed event was triggered by a 366.9 ka basalt flow (40Ar/39Ar dated) which flowed along Kazita River from the Nyambeni Range blocking both Kazita River and Tana River near Kibuka Grand Falls, causing a temporary lake. Consequently, Tana River and Kazita River started to build volcanoclastic Gilbert type deltas. The preserved pro-delta sediments rich in trachytic pumice fragments display a mineralogical and age match with known Ithanguni trachytic tuffs, indicating delta build up right after a contemporary Ithanguni eruption. This trachytic eruption caused the deposition of lahars and fluvial volcaniclastic sediments in all river records draining the Eastern side of Mt. Kenya. The multiple lahars seem to be triggered by eruptions under glacial conditions (basalt age indicates MIS 10). The lava dammed lake was only short lived (estimated to have lasted only a few years to decades) and breached before a complete lake infill could occur. The current Kibuka Grand Falls can be viewed as the delayed incisional response of this lava dam breach, indicating that after >366.9 ka, Tana River is still responding and adjusting to this short-lived disruptive phase. The current Kazita River has re-incised adjacent to a MIS 4 basalt flow down into the crystalline Basement System rocks. The MIS 10 pre-volcanic sedimentary record indicates that more sediments were in the fluvial system during glacial conditions than during the interglacial conditions. An implication of our reconstruction is that the Late Quaternary fluvial record of Tana River is of only limited use to reconstruct uplift rates because reconstructed Quaternary incision rates are reflecting both volcanic disruptions as climate change trends of aridification and decreasing glaciation extents.

SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Literature as Medium for Moral Instruction: A Swahili/ Islamic Analysis of Ahmad Nassir's Utenzi wa Mtu ni Utu." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2019;Volume 4(1):17-30.
Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "The Little Foxes‘that Upset Students‘Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology Journal . 2019;128.
PARK JEONGKYUNG. "Love and War in Alex La Guma’s “Thang’s Bicycle." Korean Association of African Studies. 2019;57:161-182.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Makanji N. "Lugha-Kati kama Mchakato wenye Manufaa: Kifani cha Matumizi ya Kiswahili na Wazungumzaji wa Kikisa kama Lugha ya Kwanza." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):114-128.
Njeru GW, Maina SM, Munene M. "Mainstreaming “Adaptive Standards for Multi-Purpose Interior Design In Low-Cost Housing Projects: A Case Study of the Kibera Soweto East Housing Project in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal Of Innovative Research & Development . 2019;8(DOI No.: 10.24940/ijird/2019/v8/i10/OCT19076).
Makhanu N, Simiyu NB, Luna KDG, Alcorta PP. "Management of a Combined Endodontic-Periodontal Lesion: A Case Report." Endodontic Society of the Philippines journal . 2019;12(1):11-16.
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, ABINYA N, Khainga S. "Management of Maxillofacial Osteosarcomas: A Kenyan experience (case series)." Annuals of African Surgery Journal. 2019.
"Masculine and Feminine Constructions of Migration in Swahili Literature: Mbali na Nyumbani and Mhanga Nafsi Yangu." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2019;Juzuu 4, (Na.1, September 2019, ):Pages 235-258, .
M W, G P, GJ H, G C, A C, I G, S G, AM G, S LL, P L, K M. "Maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology.. 2019;127(5):628-634. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage (PPH).

Design: Secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data.

Setting: Twenty-three hospitals in ten countries.

Population: Women from the CHAMPION trial who received uterotonics as first-line treatment of PPH.

Methods: We assessed the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy and childbirth factors and refractory PPH, and compared the causes of PPH between women with refractory PPH and women responsive to first-line PPH treatment.

Main outcome measures: Maternal characteristics; causes of PPH.

Results: Women with labour induced or augmented with uterotonics (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.72), with episiotomy or tears requiring suturing (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.34-2.48) and who had babies with birthweights ≥3500 g (aOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69) showed significantly higher odds of refractory PPH compared with the reference categories in the multivariate analysis adjusted by centre and trial arm. While atony was the sole PPH cause in 53.2% (116/218) of the women in the responsive PPH group, it accounted for only 31.5% (45/143) of the causes in the refractory PPH group. Conversely, tears were the sole cause in 12.8% (28/218) and 28% (40/143) of the responsive PPH and refractory PPH groups, respectively. Placental problems were the sole cause in 11 and 5.6% in the responsive and refractory PPH groups, respectively.

Conclusion: Women with refractory PPH showed a different pattern of maternal characteristics and PPH causes compared with those with first-line treatment responsive PPH.

Guthua SW, Kamau MW, NGANGA P. "Maxillary Alveolar cleft grafting in cleft lip and palate: Options of bone graft and soft tissue coverage." Kenya Dental Association Journal. 2019.
wa Mutiso K. "Mchango wa Wanawake wa Kiswahili katika Uongozi, Dini na Ushairi ." Mwanga wa Lugha . 2019;3(1):1-26.
Ambole A, Musango JK, Buyana K, Ogot M, Anditi C, Mwau B, Kovacic Z, Smit S, Lwasa S, Nsangi G, others. "Mediating household energy transitions through co-design in urban Kenya, Uganda and South Africa." Energy Research & Social Science. 2019;55:208-217. Abstract

Approaches to providing sustainable energy in cities have generated considerable interest in academic and policy circles. The development of this body of work, however, has not shed much light on the modes of intermediation that are needed to reconfigure urban energy systems towards sustainability in energy-poor countries. This paper focuses on the role of academics as knowledge intermediaries who can trigger cross-sector collaborations around innovations for a sustainable energy transition in African cities. The research presented here was generated by an interdisciplinary research team made up of partners in Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. The research partners set out to better understand how sustainable energy transitions can be achieved through collaborative efforts between community members, experts and policy actors in the three countries. This paper provides evidence-based reflections on how the research partners used participatory methods to facilitate solution co-design and knowledge co-production over a period of two years under the Leading Integrated Research for Agenda 2030 in Africa (LIRA 2030) program. A key knowledge outcome of the research partnership is an improved understanding of how transdisciplinary research across the sub-region can be used to unearth the socio-spatial, cultural and political dimensions of energy in relation to other urban services such as health and housing. Based on this understanding, the paper proposes transdisciplinary co-design as a promising approach to providing sustainable energy in urban informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Minnaard W, Abuga K, Okungu V, Kibwage I. "Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in private health facilities in low-income settlements in Nairobi county, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7(2):40. Abstract

Medicine prices are a major determinant of access to healthcare. Owing to low availability of medicines in the public health facilities and poor accessibility to these facilities, most low-income residents pay out-of-pocket for health services and transport to the private health facilities. In low-income settlements, high retail prices are likely to push the population further into poverty and ill health. This study assessed the retail pricing, availability, and affordability of medicines in private health facilities in low-income settlements within Nairobi County. Medicine prices and availability data were collected between September and December 2016 at 45 private healthcare facilities in 14 of Nairobi’s low-income settlements using electronic questionnaires. The International Medical Products Price Guide provided international medicine reference prices for comparison. Affordability and availability proxies were calculated according to existing methods. Innovator brands were 13.8 times more expensive than generic brands. The lowest priced generics and innovator brands were, on average, sold at 2.9 and 32.6 times the median international reference prices of corresponding medicines. Assuming a 100% disposable income, it would take 0.03 to 1.33 days’ wages for the lowest paid government employee to pay for treatment courses of selected single generic medicines. Medicine availability in the facilities ranged between 2% and 76% (mean 43%) for indicator medicines. Prices of selected medicines varied within the 14 study regions. Retail medicine prices in the low-income settlements studied were generally higher than corresponding international reference prices. Price variations were observed across different regions although the regions comprise similar socioeconomic populations. These factors are likely to impact negatively on healthcare access.

Muthoni KC. "Mental Health and Education in Kenya.Addressing Mental Health Problems through Schools." Journal in Humanities and Social Science. 2019;24(3).
Ndungu MN, Marete GR. "Metaphorical Construction and Mappings at the Kiswahili Word Level." Jakiiki (Jarida La Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu. 2019;Toleo Maalum (1):18-36 .
Ndungu MN, Habwe JH. "Metaphorical Construction of Kiswahili Compound and Complex Clauses." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2019;4(1):105-128.
Ndungu MN, IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Metonymical Interpretation of Conceptual Mappings in Kiswahili Metonymy." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2019;Special Edition(1):25-38.
Munialo S, Hall O, Francisca ABM, Boke-Olén N, Onyango MC, Oluoch-Kosura W, Marstorp H, D. G. "Micro-Spatial Analysis of Maize Yield Gap Variability and Production Factors on Smallholder Farms." Agriculture. 2019;9:219.
KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. Abstractjwarp_2019042514420797.pdfWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Opiyo, P., Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya. ." Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2019;11:404-418.
I.M M, D.M K, J. W, S. M. "Microbial Quality and Safety of Traditional Fermented Camel Milk Product Suusac Sampled from Different Regions in North Eastern, Kenya." Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;v8i229986(DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v8i229986).
Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo RM, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Microbial source tracking using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing identifies evidence of widespread contamination from young children’s feces in an urban slum of Nairobi, Kenya." Environmental science & technology. 2019;53(14):8271-8281. AbstractEnvironmental science & technology

Description
Child exposure to fecal contamination remains common in low- and middle-income countries after sanitation interventions. Unsafe disposal of children’s feces may contribute to this continued exposure, but its relative importance to domestic fecal contamination is not well understood. To address this gap, we interviewed and collected environmental samples (drinking water, caregiver hands, child hands, surfaces, soil, open drainage ditches, standing water, streams) from 40 households in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya. To track young children’s feces (<3 years old) separately from other human-associated fecal sources, we validated distance-based and Bayesian (SourceTracker) microbial source tracking methods using amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Contamination by young children’s feces could be identified and distinguished separately from older child/adult feces with high …

Serem EK, Abuom TO, Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Kirui GK, Mbuthia PG. "Microcardia Associated with Traumatic Reticulo Pericarditis (TRP) In an Adult Female Ayrshire Cow A Case Report." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8(2):73-78.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "The Minamata Convention on Mercury and its implications for management of dental caries in low‐and middle‐income countries." International Dental Journal. 2019:doi: 10.1111/idj.12461.
Thanh BY, P L, Pattanittum P, Laopaiboon M, JP V, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Mori R, Jayaratne K, Z Q, J S. "Mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in preterm birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global and Multi-country Surveys." Scientific reports. 2019;9(15556):1-8. AbstractWebsite

Many studies have been conducted to examine whether Caesarean Section (CS) or vaginal birth (VB) was optimal for better maternal and neonatal outcomes in preterm births. However, findings remain unclear. Therefore, this secondary analysis of World Health Organization Global Survey (GS) and Multi-country Survey (MCS) databases was conducted to investigate outcomes of preterm birth by mode of delivery. Our sample were women with singleton neonates (15,471 of 237 facilities from 21 countries in GS; and 15,053 of 239 facilities from 21 countries in MCS) delivered between 22 and <37 weeks of gestation. We assessed association between mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in singleton preterm births by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for hierarchical data. The prevalences of women with preterm birth delivered by CS were 31.0% and 36.7% in GS and MCS, respectively. Compared with VB, CS was associated with significantly increased odds of maternal intensive care unit admission, maternal near miss, and neonatal intensive care unit admission but significantly decreased odds of fresh stillbirth, and perinatal death. However, since the information on justification for mode of delivery (MOD) were not available, our results of the potential benefits and harms of CS should be carefully considered when deciding MOD in preterm births.

Subject terms: Epidemiology, Outcomes research

IJMwaniki. "Modeling heteroscedastic, skewed and leptokurtic returns in discrete time." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2019;9(5):1-14. AbstractWebsite

Popular models of finance, fall short of accounting for most empirically found stylized features of financial time series data, such as volatility clustering, skewness and leptokurtic nature of log returns. In this study, we propose a general framework for modeling asset returns which account for serial dependencies in higher moments and leptokurtic nature of scaled GARCH filtered residuals. Such residuals are calibrated to normal inverse Gaussian and hyperbolic distribution. Dynamics of risky assets assumed in Black Scholes model, Duans GARCH model and other benchmark models for contract valuation, are shown to be nested in the the proposed framework

Isinta, H, Aduda J, Magutu P. "The Moderating Effect of Sales Channels on the Relationship between Bancassurance and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2019;8(2):41-54 .
Lydia MS, Bulimo WD, Verani JR, Victor O, Ouma A, Kiplangat S, Opanda S, Imbuga M, Juma B, Godfrey B, Hunsperger E. "Molecular Characterization of Human Enteroviruses Detected in Children Under Five Years Old in Kenya 2009 - 2015." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2019;32(2):15-33. Abstract195711-article_text-494299-1-10-20200512.pdf195711-article_text-494299-1-10-20200512.pdf

INTRODUCTION
Human enterovirus (HEVs) infection is common, with an extensive array of clinical
displays ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Presentation include nonspecific febrile
illness often accompanied by muscle pain, sore throat, abdominal discomfort, rash, headache,
encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis [2].
OBJECTIVES
The study objective was to investigate the natural selection and genetic variability of HEVs
and to identify HEV serotypes in circulation among children below 5 years old with diarrhea in
an informal settlement(Kibera) in Kenya.
METHODOLOGY
Specimens (n=628) from a prospective cohort study assessing the incidence and etiology of
diarrhea from 2009-2015 were analyzed. Enteric Taqman array cards (TAC) were used for initial
screening where two hundred and nine (78%) tested positive for HEVs.
Of these specimens, 72 (42%) had a cycle threshold (Ct) ≤30 and were tested by conventional
PCR targeting the 3’ regions of the viral protein 1 (VP1) gene. A total of 48 (67%) underwent
sequencing; 11 (23%) of which yielded nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analyses clustered
the Kenyan serotypes to HEVs groups C, B and A. Evaluation of the VP1 amino acid sequences
revealed numerous amino acid substitutions in relation to reference strains, which were confirmed
to be due to natural selection by negative or positive selection.
CONCLUSION
The Heterogeneous nature of stool samples is known to influence disparities in viral nucleic
acid yields. TAC detected 209 of which 171 (82%) were confirmed positive for HEVs by realtime
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), targeting the 5’ NTR regions.
Therefore, the results may not be a representative of all circulating HEVs in the study area. Since
this was a retrospective study of previously collected samples, it is possible that some HEVs strains
may have failed to amplify.

E Mulinge, SM Njenga OD, Magambo J. "Molecular identification of zoonotic hookworms in dogs from four counties of Kenya." Journal of helminthology. 2019:1-8.
L M, MR A, F R, L DP, R G, V M, M G, B JR, C L, S B, Onyango N, Nyagol J, N A, M N, I N, K P, P PP, R B, de MM S, RB R, S L, R S, H S, Leoncini L. "Molecular switch from MYC to MYCN expression in MYC protein negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Blood Cancer J.. 2019;9(12).
Adeka R, Lukhoba C, Odhiambo J, Maundu P. "Morphological Traits as Indicators of Bitterness in Traditional Vegetables: The Case of Spider Plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) in Kenya." Asian Journal of Research in Botany. 2019;2(3):1-15.
"Motifu ya safari katika kazi za M.S. Mohammed.". In: Mwanga wa Lugha. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
OKOTH V A, OLUOCH M F. "Motivation and Employee Performance at Avenue Hospital Kisumu County- Kenya." Business Management Dynamics. 2019;9(5):20-36.
T. Aghová, K. Palupčíková, R. Šumbera, D. Frynta, L. A. Lavrenchenko, Y. Meheretu, Sádlová, J. VMMJJS, J. Sádlová, J. Votýpka, J. S. Mbau MD, Modrý D, Bryja J. "Multiple radiations of spiny mice (Rodentia: Acomys) in dry open habitats of Afro-Arabia: evidence from a multi-locus phylogeny." BMC evolutionary biology. 2019;19(1):61.
Gichuyia LN. "NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE.". In: NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press ; 2019.
Jerono P. "Names and Naming System of Tugen ." International Journal of Linguistics & Communication . 2019;7(1):10-16.
Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Mwaniki, S.W, Muthama, J.M. "A New Frontier in Collaborative Approaches in Sustainable Open Spaces Delivery."; 2019.
Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen TH, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, R M, Achia T, Katana A, Ng'ang'a L, Cock D. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC Public Health. . 2019; 3;): doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6716-2.(19(1):372.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "A note on isomorphy and unitary isomorphy of Hilbert space frames." International Journal of Mathematics Trends and Technology(IJMTT). 2019;65(1):15-30.
Gichuyia LN, Madette E. "OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS.". In: OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS. Rotterdam, Netherlands: OMA/AMO Press; 2019.
M E, N L. "OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS.". In: Countryside; A Report. Rotterdam: OMA/AMO; 2019.
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Frank T. Wiggers IM. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia Africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):91-95.rahab_et_al_2019_pharmacognosy.pdf
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Wiggers FT, Muhammad I. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(6):91-95. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Treatment of microbial infections has become complicated
due to increased resistance of microbes to the current drugs. The current
study investigates crude extracts and seven compounds from root and
stem bark of Cordia africana Lam. for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.
Methods: Extraction was done using 50% methanol in dichloromethane,
followed by chromatographic separation of compounds, whose structures
were established by interpretation of spectroscopic data. The in vitro
susceptibility of selected microbes to the crude extracts and pure compounds was determined. Cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 was determined against
the drug sensitive, CCRF-CEM and resistant CEM/ADR-5000 cells, with
doxorubicin used as the standard. Results: The root bark extract of
C. africana yielded six known compounds: oleanolic acid (1), 3-β-lup-20(29)-
en-3-ol (2) stigmast-5,22-dien-3β-ol (3), 2-(2Z) -(3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta2,6-dienyl)-1,4-benzenediol (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- benzaldehyde (5)
and 7-hydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone (6). The stem bark extract resulted to
1 and 2 alongside, ubiquinone-8 (7) and 1-octacosanol (8). Compound 1
showed moderate activity against Enterococcus faecium (IC50 of 14.44 µg/
mL), with vancomycin being inactive. Compounds 1, 6 and 7 showed cell
viability >50% against CEM/ADR5000 and CCRF-CEM cells at 10 µM and
therefore were considered inactive. Surprisingly, 1 was relatively more active compared to the standard, with cell viability of 57.93% against CEM/
ADR5000, versus 78.97% for doxorubicin. Conclusion: To the best of our
knowledge, this is the first report of the eight compounds from C. africana.
The cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 are reported here for the first time. Traditional
use of the plant extract in management of various infections may be attributed to presence of 1, which displayed moderate antimicrobial activity.
Key words: Cordia africana, Ubiquinone-8, Oleanolic acid acid, 7-hydroxy4′-methoxyisoflavone, VRE.
Correspondence:
Rahab W. Kamau
Department of Chemistry, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100-Kakamega, KENYA.

Ongaro J. "On a Zeuthen-type problem." arXiv preprint arXiv. 2019. Abstract1903.11135.pdfWebsite

We show that every degree d meromorphic function on a smooth connected projective curve C⊂P2 of degree d>4 is isomorphic to a linear projection from a point p∈P2∖C to P1. We then pose a Zeuthen-type problem for calculating the plane Hurwitz numbers.

IJMwaniki. "On Heteroscedastic, Skewed and Leptokurtic Log Returns and Spectral Density of Standardized Residuals." Journal of Advances in Economics and Finance. 2019;4 (May 2019):79-90. AbstractWebsite

A search for a distribution which adequately describes the dynamics of log returns has been a subject of study for many years. Empirical evidence has resulted in stylized facts of returns. Arguably, in this study, the three components of returns, mean equation part, the changing variance. part and the resulting residuals are determined and their corresponding parameters estimated within the proposed framework. Spectral density analysis is used to trace the seasonality component.
inherent in the standardized residuals. Empirical data sets from eight different indexes and common
stock are applied to the model, and results tabulated in support of the resulting framework.

IJMwaniki. "On long-term-memory volatility and asymmetry in TOP40 and NSE20 index log returns." ECONOMICS AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCE. 2019. AbstractWebsite

This article investigates the presence of long term memory of returns in south African and Kenyan financial markets over a period 1995-2010. Empirical results indicate significant presence of linear autocorrelation of order three for NSE20 index and autocorrelation of order one for TOP40 index. There is strong evidence of changing variance for both indices in addition to more autocorrelation between absolute returns for both markets. Theoretical autocorrelation function is fitted and parameters estimated. Different ARCH type models are conditioned on normal distribution and A-PGARCH model based on absolute daily returns seems to significantly outperform four other models (TGARCH, GARCH, GARCH-M and GJR-GARCH) in modeling the changing variance and volatility asymmetry in the two emerging markets.

Omondi F, Mostarda L, Shah P, Ever E, Gemikonakli O. "On the performance, availability and energy consumption modelling of clustered IoT systems." Springer Link Computing. 2019;101(12):1935-1970. Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form a large part of the ecosystem of the Internet of Things (IoT), hence they have numerous application domains with varying performance and availability requirements. Limited resources that include processing capability, queue capacity, and available energy in addition to frequent node and link failures degrade the performance and availability of these networks. In an attempt to efficiently utilise the limited resources and to maintain the reliable network with efficient data transmission; it is common to select a clustering approach, where a cluster head is selected among the diverse IoT devices. This study presents the stochastic performance as well as the energy evaluation model for WSNs that have both node and link failures. The model developed considers an integrated performance and availability approach. Various duty cycling schemes within the medium-access control of the WSNs are also considered to incorporate the impact of sleeping/idle states that are presented using analytical modeling. The results presented using the proposed analytical models show the effects of factors such as failures, various queue capacities and system scalability. The analytical results presented are in very good agreement with simulation results and also present an important fact that the proposed models are very useful for identification of thresholds between WSN system characteristics.

Mutembei. "One-health concerns over Antimicrobial Resistance." One-health Conference, Kampala, Uganda; 2019.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). Abstract144205-350530-1-sm.pdfWebsite

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

NDUNG’U GM, Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Onyango JF. "Paediatric Craniomaxillofacial Trauma at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A 6-months study of Occurrence Pattern." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2019;2 (6):14-20.
and Kyule LNM. "Parenting dilemma: Kenyan experience." Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2019;6(6):59-61.
Daniel Nthiwa, Silvia Alonso DO, Eucharia Kenya BB. "A participatory epidemiological study of major cattle diseases amongst Maasai pastoralists living in wildlife-livestock interfaces in Maasai Mara, Kenya." Tropical animal health and production. 2019:1-7.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, P.N N, Mutinda WU, Njagi LW. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolates in Indigenous Chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;18(11):523-529.abstract.pdf
Mutinda WU, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious bursal disease virus isolates in indigenous chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;2019.
Mutinda WU, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolates in Indigenous Chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;18(11):523-529.
Alexander O’o J, Shitandi OB, Kerubuo MM, Ngure KB. "Pattern of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital." Malawi Medical Journal . 2019;31(1):50-55. Abstractpattern_of_stroke_in_a_rural_kenyan_hospital.pdfCC BY-NC-ND

Background
The pattern of stroke in rural population differs from that in urban ones. Although there are many studies on this condition in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies about stroke pattern in a Kenyan rural area exist.. This study therefore aims at describing the characteristics of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital.
Patients and Methods
The study was conducted on 227 consecutive patients admitted with a World Health Organization (WHO) diagnosis of stroke in Kangundo Hospital, a level IV facility in Machakos, Eastern Kenya, between April 2015 and September 2016. The sub-type and anatomical distribution of stroke as well as the age, gender of the patients were recorded prospectively. Diagnosis was made through physical neurological examination and confirmed by Computerized Tomography (CT) scan imaging. Only those with complete bio-data, past medical and social history, clinical and physical findings of the patients and imaging results were included. The data were entered into a pre-formatted questionnaire, analysed for means, standard deviations and frequencies, and are presented in tables and bar charts.
Results
Out of 3200 medical admissions, 227 (7.09%) had a confirmed diagnosis of stroke. Ischaemic stroke was more common (67.4%) than haemorrhagic stroke (32.6%). It affected mainly the anterior circulation, especially the middle cerebral artery (39%). The mean age of patients was 68.8 years, (Range 32 – 96). It was more common in females (62%) than in males (38%). Hypertension was the most common (74%) risk factor followed by alcohol abuse (63%), tobacco smoking (48%) and diabetes mellitus (42%).
Conclusion
Ischaemic stroke was the more common major cause of morbidity in the rural hospital studied in Kenya. It occurred most commonly among elderly females, with the most frequent comorbidities being hypertension. In addition, modifiable lifestyle factors like alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking contributed to the prevalence; hence we recommend the control of blood pressure and glucose as well as lifestyle modification to reduce the scourge in our studied population.

Karanja DN, Wahome RG, Kunyanga CN, Onyango CM. "Perceptions and Attitudes of Academic Staff Towards Agricultural Training in Kenyan Universities." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2019;7(4):375-386.
1. Davis NK. "Perceptions and Attitudes of Academic Staff Towards Agricultural Training in Universities." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2019;7(4):375-386.
Ngotho-Esilaba, Onono J.O, Ombui J.N., J.F L, H.O W. "Perceptions of Challenges Facing Pastoral Small Ruminant Production in a Changing Climate in Kenya.". In: Springer, Cham.; 2019.
OGOLLA CAROL, OLUOCH M F. "Performance Management Practices and Employee Productivity at State Department of Labour, Kenya." International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology. 2019;9(4):doi:10.30845/ijbht.v9n4p3.
Omani R, Gitao C, Gachohi J, Gathumbi P, Bwihangane A, Khalif A, Chemweno V. "Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Dromedary Camels and Small Ruminants in Mandera and Wajir Counties of Kenya." Advances in Virology . 2019;(doi.org/10.1155/2019/4028720).
Omani RN, Gitao CG, Gachohi J, Gathumbi PK, Bwihane BA, Abbey K, Chemwono VJ. "Peste des petits ruminants in dromedary camels and small ruminants in Mandera and Wajir Counties of Kenya." Advances Virology. 2019;Volume 2019 Article ID 4028720 6 pages(https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4028720).
Mbindyo SN. "Pet ownership as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis- a review." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2019;34(1):18-23.
Oredo J. "The Pivotal Role of ICT in Green Buildings." MANAGEMENT July (2019).
Ogeng’o JA, Obimbo MM, Zhou Y, McMaster MT, Cohen CR, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Ong’ech J, Fisher SJ. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2019;80(1):94-102. Abstractplacental_structure_in_preterm_birth_among_hiv-positive.pdfWolters Kluwer Health, Inc

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant
morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest
that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection,
use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the
mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to
determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental
changes that could contribute to PTB.
Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIVpositive
women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had
preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at
gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational
age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal
HIV serostatus.
Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly
associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032),
anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane
infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010).
Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with
immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of
HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant
fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast
delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction
in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.
Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART
are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that
contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests
that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia.
Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate
the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for
decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.
Key Words: preterm birth, term birth, placenta, HIV, ART

Obimbo MM, Y Z, MT MM, CR C, Z Q, J O’ech, JA O’o, SJ F. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2019;80(1):94-102. AbstractWebsite

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental changes that could contribute to PTB.

Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIV-positive women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal HIV serostatus.

Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032), anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010). Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.

Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia. Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.

D P, ZP Q, K L, MK K, GN G, Odawa FX, A O, O K, PK K, Kosgei RJ, AB K, PM N, O O. "Policy Brief - Increasing Caesarean Section rates among low risk women after introduction of free maternity services in a Kenyan National Referral Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):52-53.Website
Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Policy Options for Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Hydropower Development in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development-. 2019;2(1):127-140.
M.W. G, Mwaura F, Wamalwa J. "Pollution along the Altitudinal Gradient of the Likii River, Laikipia County, ." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, . 2019;7(1) :39-52.
Kairu-Wanyoike S, Nyamwaya D, Wainaina M, Johanna Lindahl, Ontiri E, Bukachi S, Njeru I, Johanna Lindahl, Bett B. "Positive association between Brucella spp seroprevalences in livestock and humans from a cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya. cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya." PLoS Negl Trop Dis . 2019;13(10):e0007506.
Mnyika GM, Olago DO. "The Potential for CO2 Geosequestration in Kenya: A Suitability Assessment of the Lamu Basin." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2019;3:28-38. Abstract1798-6305-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a consensus that current trends in climate change may be due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (predominantly methane and carbon dioxide) from anthropogenic emissions. Among measures proposed for curbing this increase is Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in geological media. CCS incorporates three technologies comprising; (a) carbon capture, (b) compression and transportation, and (c) injection into geological media. This paper focuses on CO2 injection into geological media and its applicability to the Lamu basin. Sedimentary basins, which host the geological formations suitable for subsurface CO2 storage, are ideal to varied extents determined by such factors as their tectonic settings. A (coarse) basin scale suitability assessment of the Lamu basin was undertaken using the following parameters; size and depth, tectonic and structural settings, seismicity, geothermal-hydrodynamic regimes, basin maturity (based on hydrocarbon well density) and economic resources. The assessed attributes are used to constrain GIS data, delineating possible CCS trap areas with the production of a preliminary map of potential trap areas. Also, a suitability matrix table is generated in comparison with analogous basins such as the Alberta basin in Canada. Following this assessment, the Lamu basin can be considered geologically suitable for geosequestration given its stable tectonic settings, good depth and size. However, the western flanks of the basin and the coastal strip are unsuitable due to shallowness, population and protected zones respectively.

Chemweno V, Gitao C, Gachohi J, Soi R, Ndungu E, Khalif A. "PPR in Camels: Sero-Prevalence and Socio-Economics." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8(2):84-88.vivian_paper.pdf
Justus O. Inyega DBM. "Pre-service graduate teachers' perceptions on instructional supervision in relation to preparation and planning for teaching and learning in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2019;4(1):26-31.
Inyega JO, Bulinda DM. "Pre-service graduate teachers' perceptions on instructional supervision in relation to preparation and planning for teaching and learning in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2019;4(1):26-31.
Bulinda DM, Inyega JO. "Pre-service graduate teachers' perceptions on instructional supervision in relation to students' classroom involvement and assessment in Kenya." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies. 2019;3(1):9-14.
XuEmail Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Preface: Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. Abstractxu2019_article_prefacegroundwaterinsub-sahara1.pdfWebsite

Introduction
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

Mutende RA, Imonje RK. "Preservice teacher preparation for application of Discussion teaching method in secondary school science Lessons." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2019;6(5).
Vekaria-Hirani 1. V, R K, R.N M, E.M W, N CI. "Prevalence and Management of Septic Shock among Children Admitted at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Logitudinal Survey." It J Pediatri. 2019:2019:1502963. 2019:1-27.
K; M, Beniamino T, Cenci-Goga, Prosperi A, Eric Etter, El-Ashram S, McCrindle C, N OJ, Karake A. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter spp. occurrence in healthy dogs visiting four rural community veterinary clinics in South Africa." Ondersport Journal of Veterinary Research, . 2019.
Caroline T, Elijah O, Nicholas A, Emma K, Benard G, Andrew O. "Prevalence of Anthracycline Induced Cardiomyopathy amongstCancer Patients Treated at Tertiary Teaching and Refferal Hospital in Nairobi Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM) . 2019;7(12):2321-3418.
J.A. OMEGA, J.K.N KURIA, L.M MUSALIA. "Prevalence of bovine and ovine paratuberculosis in Kericho County and Konoin Sub-County, Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2019;67:181-189.
Aguttu, J.M KNJM & LM. "Principals’ Support of Peer Education and Prevalence of Drug and Substance Abuse in Public Secondary Schools in Busia County, Kenya. ." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies . 2019;2(11):79-95.
Judith Aguttu JKLN&. "Principals’ support of peer education and prevalence of Drugs and Substance abuse in public secondary schools in Busia County, Kenya." The International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2019;8(11):64-72.
Jeremiah Kalai LNJA&. "Principals’ use of mentoring programmes on prevalence of Drugs and Substance abuse in public secondary schools in Busia County, Kenya." The International Journal of Innovative Research and Development . 2019;8(10):180-188.
Olaka LA, Joseph O Ogutu, Said MY, Oludhe C. "Projected climatic and hydrologic changes to lake victoria basin rivers under three rcp emission scenarios for 2015–2100 and impacts on the water sector." Water. 2019;11(7):1449. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Rivers in the Lake Victoria Basin support a multitude of ecosystem services, and the economies of the riparian countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi) rely on their discharge, but projections of their future discharges under various climate change scenarios are not available. Here, we apply Vector Autoregressive Moving Average models with eXogenous variables (VARMAX) statistical models to project hydrological discharge for 23 river catchments for the 2015–2100 period, under three representative concentration pathways (RCPs), namely RCPs 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5. We show an intensification of future annual rainfall by 25% in the eastern and 5–10% in the western part of the basin. At higher emission scenarios, the October to December season receives more rainfall than the March to May season. Temperature projections show a substantial increase in the mean annual minimum temperature by 1.3–4.5 °C and warming in the colder season (June to September) by 1.7–2.9 °C under RCP 4.5 and 4.9 °C under RCP 8.5 by 2085. Variability in future river discharge ranges from 5–267%, increases with emission intensity, and is the highest in rivers in the southern and south eastern parts of the basin. The flow trajectories reveal no systematic trends but suggest marked inter-annual variation, primarily in the timing and magnitude of discharge peaks and lows. The projections imply the need for coordinated transboundary river management in the future.

Machasio RM, Nyabanda R MTM. "Proportion of Variant Anatomy of the Circle of Willis and Association with Vascular Anomalies on Cerebral CT Angiography." Radiology Research and Practice. 2019;2019(1):Article ID 6380801, 7 pages.
Irene M, swaleh. Pure non-gestational ovarian carcinoma.; 2019.
Ntampaka P, Nyaga PN, Gathumbi JK, Tukei M. "Rabies serosurvey of domestic dogs in Kigali City, Rwanda." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2019;11:64-72.
Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)." AIP Conference Proceedings 2109. 2019;2019(1). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

undefined. "Reforming the Duties of Directors under the Kenyan Company Law: A Critique." European Business Law Review. 2019;30(4):617.
Cyr JL, Gawriluk TR, Kimani JM, Rada B, Watford WT, Kiama SG, Seifert AW, Ezen VO. "Regeneration-Competent and -Incompetent Murids Differ in Neutrophil Quantity and Function.". 2019.
Cyr JL, Gawriluk TR, Kimani JM, Rada B, Watford WT, Kiama SG, Seifert AW, Ezenwa VO. "Regeneration-competent and-incompetent murids differ in neutrophil quantity and function.". 2019.
Siriba DN. "The Relationship between the Mining and Property Cadastre in Kenya." African Journal of Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences. 2019;2(2):1-9.
Ogeng’o J, Obimbo M, Munguti J, Cheruiyot I, Olabu B, Kariuki BN. "Remembering Prof. Hassan Saidi: The Pillar for Young Anatomists and Trainee Doctors." Ann Afr Surg. 2019;16(1):38-39. Abstractremembering_prof._hassan_saidi_the_pillar_for_young_anatomists.pdfThe ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY

The late Prof. Hassan Saidi (rest in peace) was a father, husband, an administrator and a surgeon. To many in the medical fraternity, he was a teacher and a mentor. As a mentor, many know of the impact he had on resident surgeons in training, but his contribution to shaping the minds of young anatomists and trainee doctors is often underestimated (1). Prof. Saidi taught in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, for 28 years (7 of which he was the chairman). He had also served previously as the coordinator for the Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBChB) and Intercalated Bachelor of Science, Human Anatomy programs (BSc Anat) (2).

Ondicho TG. "Rethinking the New world order and its Implications for Africa.". In: Contemporary Africa and the Foreseeable World Order. London: Lexington Books; 2019.
Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J. "Returns to investment in postharvest loss reduction technologies among mango farmers in Embu County, Kenya." Food and Energy Security . 2019;10.1002/fes3.195.abstract.pdf
Gikunju M, Nyamato-Kwenda R, Kwanya T. "A review of citizen librarianship in academic libraries in Kenya.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
Owade JO, Abong’ G, Okoth M, Mwang’ombe AW. "A review of the contribution of cowpea leaves to food and nutrition security in East Africa." Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. 2019;(DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.1337).a_review_of_the_contribution_of_cowpea_leaves_to_food_and.pdf
Yohannis M, Agnes Wausi, Waema T, Hutchinson M. "The Role of ICT Tools in the Access of Climate Information by Rural Communities." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):32-38. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
This paper, seeks to explore how rural communities especially women in Kitui county use
ICT tools to access localized climate information and how Digital Capital facilitates or
impedes the process. Our view is that the continued access to, and use of, ICT tools like
the mobile phone and radios offer diverse opportunities for rural communities to use
timely and relevant climate information to enhance their livelihood strategy. We
hypothesize that rural communities’ use ICT tools such as mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts
and agro-advisories). A household survey of 419 respondents was adopted for data
collection and analysis, guided by the sustainable livelihood framework. The research
findings disclosed that the radios combined with the mobile phone are commonly
available, accessible and cost-effective ICT tools that have played a role in improving
rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information
reducing information asymmetry in rural settings. The study is motivated by the
increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change that are global. Kitui
County has had its share of climate variability and climate change related problems such
as drought which create problems such as food insecurity.

Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM’mogi, Maobe MA. "Role of maize residues in transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus and effect on yield." International Journal of Biosciences. 2019;14(4):338-349.
Karema FM, Irandu EM, Mbatia P. "Role of Walking and Cycling in Promotion of Mobility in Kenya: A Case Study of Laikipia County, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science,. 2019;Vol. IV(Issue VIII):49-61.
Karema FM, Irandu EM, Mbatia P. "Role played by Bicycles in Rural Employment diversification in Laikipia County. Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 2019;Vol. 4 (7):770-772.
Benignus Valentine Ngowi, Henri Edouardo-Zefack Tonnang, Fathiya Khamis, Evans Mungai Mwangi, Brigitte Nyambo PNN, Subramanian S. "Seasonal abundance of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and diversity of its parasitoids along altitudinal gradients of the eastern Afromontane." Phytoparasitica. 2019:1-17.

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