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Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;. Minimizing hydrological impacts of smallholder drainage development.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

A review of available literature on the hydrologic impacts of drainage is presented and management practices that reduce such impacts are identified. Factors that influence the impact of drainage include land use, soil type, drainage density, type and condition of the drains, size and duration of the storm, and extent and location of the drainage. Suggested options for minimising impacts include: appropriate land use (fish ponds, duck farming, harvesting natural products, dry season grazing or cultivation); controlled drainage through use of shallow drains, drainage for growing water-loving plants, land preparation (hilling, cambered beds), and blocking drains at the end of the rains; and water storage (dams along the river or farm ponds).

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle.

Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle

Gichuki, FN; Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;. A participatory route towards conservation farming for better land husbandry..; 2000.Website
Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK, Mungai DN;. Peoples' participation in agroforestry: the case of the Pokot..; 2000.Website
Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK, Mungai DN;. Peoples' participation in agroforestry: the case of the Pokot..; 2000.Website
and Oucho, J.O. Ocholla-Ayayo AOABCE. Population and Development in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi School of Journalism Press; 2000.
Ocholla-Ayayo, Oucho, J.O. and Crush J, Elias H, Ayiemba, Odhiambo J. Population and Development in Kenya..; 2000.Website
Ogallo LA. Predicting drought in Kenya: prospects and challenges.; 2000. AbstractPredicting drought in Kenya: prospects and challenges

The following aspects of drought prediction in Kenya are reviewed: (1) dynamics and causes; (2) socio-economic impacts, including the recent integrated global efforts to address such problems; (3) prospects for improved predictability; and (4) challenges to drought prediction in Kenya. The main systems that control rainfall variability in Kenya are: the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); east African monsoon winds; cyclones and anticyclones; jetstreams; extratropical weather systems; thermally induced mesoscale systems; and teleconnections with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), quasi-biennial oscillation, and intraseasonal wave. The vulnerability of Kenya to interannual rainfall variability highlights the need for timely and effective drought monitoring, diagnosis, long-range prediction, and early warning. The devastating impacts of drought, together with post-disaster relief and rehabilitation efforts, are illustrated, using the 1996-1997 drought, one of the worst in recent years. Predicting droughts in Kenya is difficult because of problems associated with: data availability; real-time monitoring systems; efficient communication; research, training, and equipment; mismanagement and abuse of drought information; financial resources; and, timely availability of drought products and services from global climate centres

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. The range management handbook of Kenya: a database for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper briefly presents a methodology for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas. It highlights the issues of problem identification and assessment of the natural and socio-economic environment, and describes the database contained in the Range Management Handbook. The handbook makes available baseline data for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas following a successful Farm Management Handbook that covers the high- and medium-potential areas of Kenya. In three parts, the Range Management Handbook covers: the status, principles and applications in Kenya; texts and maps relating to climate, landforms and soils, vegetation types, water sources, range unit inventory, livestock marketing and human ecology; special reports (guide to tolerant plants, pictorial key for goat stocking rates, large scale remote monitoring of vegetation, and a survey method for classification of range conditions) relevant to land planning and use in arid and semi-arid areas

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. The range management handbook of Kenya: a database for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper briefly presents a methodology for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas. It highlights the issues of problem identification and assessment of the natural and socio-economic environment, and describes the database contained in the Range Management Handbook. The handbook makes available baseline data for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas following a successful Farm Management Handbook that covers the high- and medium-potential areas of Kenya. In three parts, the Range Management Handbook covers: the status, principles and applications in Kenya; texts and maps relating to climate, landforms and soils, vegetation types, water sources, range unit inventory, livestock marketing and human ecology; special reports (guide to tolerant plants, pictorial key for goat stocking rates, large scale remote monitoring of vegetation, and a survey method for classification of range conditions) relevant to land planning and use in arid and semi-arid areas

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Residual effect of lucerne on wheat yield: report of a farm trial at Njoro, Nakuru district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results from a trial in Swara Farm, Njoro, Kenya, in which a field was sown with Sorghum almum on a volcanic ash soil. Immediately after sowing, 14 strips measuring 156 m x 9 m were marked out and alternate strips were oversown with inoculated seed of lucerne cv. Hairy Peruvian. During the first year of the trial no differences were noticed in the growth of S. almum, but during the second year it grew better when associated with lucerne. After two years the field was ploughed and sown with wheat. The strips were harvested separately with a combine harvester. Mean yields after S. almum were 2,708 kg/ha and after the S.almum/lucerne mixture were 3,244 kg/ha

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Residual effect of lucerne on wheat yield: report of a farm trial at Njoro, Nakuru district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results from a trial in Swara Farm, Njoro, Kenya, in which a field was sown with Sorghum almum on a volcanic ash soil. Immediately after sowing, 14 strips measuring 156 m x 9 m were marked out and alternate strips were oversown with inoculated seed of lucerne cv. Hairy Peruvian. During the first year of the trial no differences were noticed in the growth of S. almum, but during the second year it grew better when associated with lucerne. After two years the field was ploughed and sown with wheat. The strips were harvested separately with a combine harvester. Mean yields after S. almum were 2,708 kg/ha and after the S.almum/lucerne mixture were 3,244 kg/ha.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Riverbank protection and food security..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper reflects on the role of root crops (cocoyam, Colocasia esculenta or C. antiquorum) as a case study in riverbank protection and food security in Kenya. Field performance, water erosion control, ecologically friendly production and food value were studied. It is concluded that the national relevance of cocoyam cultivation lies in its role in its conservation through erosion control and soil fertility maintenance; its low energy input; its potential to supplement per capita calories through high yield per unit area; its perpetuity; its multiple nutritive value, ease of preparation and digestibility; and its industrial potential and competitive market opportunity for various end-products.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Riverbank protection and food security..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper reflects on the role of root crops (cocoyam, Colocasia esculenta or C. antiquorum) as a case study in riverbank protection and food security in Kenya. Field performance, water erosion control, ecologically friendly production and food value were studied. It is concluded that the national relevance of cocoyam cultivation lies in its role in its conservation through erosion control and soil fertility maintenance; its low energy input; its potential to supplement per capita calories through high yield per unit area; its perpetuity; its multiple nutritive value, ease of preparation and digestibility; and its industrial potential and competitive market opportunity for various end-products.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya: an overview..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results of a study aimed at quantifying soil and water management practices and identifying major constraints and implications for future adoption of appropriate technologies. The study was conducted in the Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya. Approximately 83% of the farmers interviewed were using manure, while only 4% use fertilizer. 60% had fanya juu terraces on their land, while only 13% were using grass strips. The study concluded that finance is a major constraint limiting farmers' adoption of practices enhancing soil fertility and that lack of conservation practices on grazing land is of great concern. The lack of knowledge of possible benefits of soil and water management practices is noted.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya: an overview..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results of a study aimed at quantifying soil and water management practices and identifying major constraints and implications for future adoption of appropriate technologies. The study was conducted in the Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya. Approximately 83% of the farmers interviewed were using manure, while only 4% use fertilizer. 60% had fanya juu terraces on their land, while only 13% were using grass strips. The study concluded that finance is a major constraint limiting farmers' adoption of practices enhancing soil fertility and that lack of conservation practices on grazing land is of great concern. The lack of knowledge of possible benefits of soil and water management practices is noted.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil erosion and conservation activities on land affected by road drainage: a case study of Nyeri District..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The existing soil erosion damage caused by water drained from minor roads in the Nyeri District of Kenya was assessed and the soil conservation works needed to stabilize the waterways and gullies along the roads are specified. The study evaluated the land affected by road drains/culverts on 25 minor roads with a total length of 149 km. Of the total of 321 culverts identified, 171 (53%) were found to require channel rehabilitation. 68% of the culverts discharged onto steep slopes (>10%). Erosion was found to be more severe in the coffee-growing zones than in tea-growing areas. In the plateau areas, soil erosion from the culvert outlets was minimal. Due to gentle slopes and more perennial vegetation. 20,346 m of channel excavation was needed to provide artificial waterways for the discharge of water drained from the roads. Channel stabilization with grass cover or installation of scour checks was necessary on very gentle slopes. Steep slopes required stone check-dams and single-row post/stone check-dams. Very steep slopes also required lock-and-spill drains and post/stone/wire check-dams. Gabions (57 crossings) were needed mainly for rehabilitation of large gullies along with double-row post/stone check-dams and post/stone/wire check dams. Cut-off drains were necessary in some cases to divert water from the culvert outlets. In areas where vegetation was easily accessible, brushwood check-dams could be used.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil erosion and conservation activities on land affected by road drainage: a case study of Nyeri District..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The existing soil erosion damage caused by water drained from minor roads in the Nyeri District of Kenya was assessed and the soil conservation works needed to stabilize the waterways and gullies along the roads are specified. The study evaluated the land affected by road drains/culverts on 25 minor roads with a total length of 149 km. Of the total of 321 culverts identified, 171 (53%) were found to require channel rehabilitation. 68% of the culverts discharged onto steep slopes (>10%). Erosion was found to be more severe in the coffee-growing zones than in tea-growing areas. In the plateau areas, soil erosion from the culvert outlets was minimal. Due to gentle slopes and more perennial vegetation. 20,346 m of channel excavation was needed to provide artificial waterways for the discharge of water drained from the roads. Channel stabilization with grass cover or installation of scour checks was necessary on very gentle slopes. Steep slopes required stone check-dams and single-row post/stone check-dams. Very steep slopes also required lock-and-spill drains and post/stone/wire check-dams. Gabions (57 crossings) were needed mainly for rehabilitation of large gullies along with double-row post/stone check-dams and post/stone/wire check dams. Cut-off drains were necessary in some cases to divert water from the culvert outlets. In areas where vegetation was easily accessible, brushwood check-dams could be used.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Some" near-farmer" research on land and water management for crop production in semi-arid Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a "near-farmer" applied research project working on 10 field stations scattered through the arid and semi-arid lands of Embu, Meru and Isiolo Districts of Esatern Province, Kenya. The objective of the research was to define better extension messages for resource-poor farmers to enable them to improve their land and water management techniques for improved and sustained yields. Most of the trials related to soil fertility and soil moisture, as well as trials on the use of Vetiver grass for soil conservation, control of the legume root parasite Alectra vogelii, and new introductions such as groundnuts, simsim (sesame), tubers, fodder crops and fruits.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Some" near-farmer" research on land and water management for crop production in semi-arid Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a "near-farmer" applied research project working on 10 field stations scattered through the arid and semi-arid lands of Embu, Meru and Isiolo Districts of Esatern Province, Kenya. The objective of the research was to define better extension messages for resource-poor farmers to enable them to improve their land and water management techniques for improved and sustained yields. Most of the trials related to soil fertility and soil moisture, as well as trials on the use of Vetiver grass for soil conservation, control of the legume root parasite Alectra vogelii, and new introductions such as groundnuts, simsim (sesame), tubers, fodder crops and fruits.

Wamitila KW. Staging Masculinity.; 2000.Website
and Philip Kilbride, Collette Suda EN. Street Children in Kenya - Voices ofChildren in Search ofa Childhood. London: bergin & Garvey; 2000. Abstract

This book results from a cross-national and interdisciplinary research effort.
Although Collette Suda (C. S.), a rural sociologist, and Enos Njeru (E. N.), and
Philip Kilbride (P. K.), both anthropologists, were all academically trained in
the United States, we have benefited from an "insider" -" outsider" dialogue in
writing this book. C. S. and E. N., as Kenyans, kept our work closely grounded
in local language, cultural interpretations, and applied recommendations. P. K.
focused on ethnography as an "outsider," as non-Kenyans must do, and also
sought to coordinate our findings with comparative, cultural, and theoretical
concerns beyond the Kenyan scene. We operated, however, on some occasions
as insiders or outsiders given P. K.' s research on children and family in East
Africa since 1967 and E. N.'s and C. S.'s international travel, education, and
living experiences abroad. More details about our collaboration in research and
writing together are provided in the text.
Street children are often portrayed by the public and sometimes in
publications as a separate, socially distinct category of person. We have tried to
emphasize here social complexities that problemtize this simplistic view.
Following a holistic perspective, we have emphasized throughout the book how
street children in Kenya, in fact, live like other Kenyans, embedded, for
example, in similar institutions, informal work routines, cultural beliefs, and
family relations. Such involvements are not dissimilar in many respects from
others who make up the working poor in Nairobi. Still, street children do stand
apart as a distinct social category both in their own minds and that of the public
as well. We will consider reasons for this and which social characteristics seem
widely shared among street children. Throughout, however, while recognizing
commonalities, we attempt to emphasize the rich variation among children that
we discovered in our research.
In our book we seek to systematically provide information about street girls.
An awareness of difference and variation as our work progressed compelled us
to emphasize gender differences at every tum. We also wanted to highlight gender inasmuch as compared to boys, very little is published about street girls.
This is strikingly true in Kenya but, to a great degree, elsewhere in the world-as
well. We decided to incorporate a gendered analysis throughout the book rather
than providing separate chapters on girls. This decision was taken so as to
better put across the idea that there are commonalities among all street children
irrespective of gender differences. When all is said and done, boys and girls in
Kenya share a common label and many similar problems.
As part of our holistic perspective, we have taken special note of how the
current problem of street children in Kenya stands in sharp contrast to
indigenous derived practices and experiences associated with childhood in
Kenya. The street child is but a recent event in the culture history of Kenya.
Specifically, we have emphasized Kenyan family cultural beliefs and indigenous
practices as an interpretive framework not only because we believe this to be
relevant, but also inasmuch as family and gender issues themselves, apart from
street children, have occupied us prior to and throughout our work with street
children. For better or worse, we have tried here to relate social topics we know
the most about to the situation of street children. Only the reader can judge if
we have overstated our family-friendly interpretation and related practical
recommendations with which we conclude this book. We trust that most readers
will agree that family analysis is certainly relevant to a full understanding of
street children in Kenya. Whatever interpretive conclusions arise on this point,
we all hope that our descriptive materials about street children stand alone and
are informative in their own right.
Throughout our research and writing, we have followed research methods
that attempt to involve the voices of street children concerning events, beliefs,
experiences, and aspirations that they privilege in their own discourse about
themselves. Ethnography, focus group, and social survey converge around our
experience near research methodology. Overall, previous published materials in
Kenya have not systematically privileged children's voices in the multirnethod
sense that we have attempted here. Nevertheless, we have also set out
theoretical objectives and conceptual categories derived from our own
disciplinary, theoretical concerns and comparative understandings about street
children globally. Therefore, we will consider interplay between children's
voices and our theoretical framework as part of our discussion of methodology.
However, inclusion of street children's voices here is more than simply a
matter of epistemology. Our ultimate intention of being able to better suggest
some applied, practical recommendations to policy makers also compels us to
consider children's perspectives wherever possible. It is unlikely that many
policy recommendations concerning street children will get very far before
people first learn directly from the children about themselves. How best to
assist them is also something street children have thought about and about which
they have strong opinions. We end our book with policy recommendations that
take into account, but which are not limited to, the voices of those children
represented in our research. Weare hopeful that our recommendations, about social policy and applications of our research in Kenya will be of interest to all
of those thinking about applied solutions to what is, in fact, a global problem
concerning street children in many nations.
We use pseudonyms in this book for most individuals whom we encountered
in fieldwork. In particular, we have used real or invented nicknames for all
street children on the advice of street children who, themselves, use nicknames
to conceal their identities from the police. An exception is "Mama Ford," a
buyer of waste products from street boys who, after reading what we had written
about her with approval, requested that we give her real name, Josephine
Karanja, in publication.
We have also not published photographs so as to conceal the identities of
street children, most of whom are regularly under harassment from the police.
Moreover, most street children may want their past lives on the streets kept
private in the future. There is a rapid turnover on the streets such that as far as
the street children described here are concerned, all have left the streets or now
live in different locations in Nairobi. The wheel of field research and
publication grinds slowly; in our case, that has served our desire to protect the
identities of our informants as well as to become familiar with changes in their
lives over time.

Gachene CKK, GichukiDN; Gachene CKK, FN; Mungai. Systematic gully evaluation as a precondition for control..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines some of the reasons for the low success rate in gully control and argues that a more careful examination of each situation and a greater understanding of the processes at work could lead to more successful interventions. It outlines a systematic evaluation of a gully erosion problem and analysis of the options for control or reclamation. Evaluation should involve assessment of the causes of gully formation, gully morphology, gully erosion/sedimentation processes, soil characteristics, land use in the vicinity, and catchment characteristics.

Gachene CKK;, Klingspor P;, Oduor AR. Use of cover crops to improve soil productivity: preliminary studies using tropical velvet bean.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Initial observations of a two-phase trial on the use of Mucuna deeringianum [M. deeringiana] to improve soil productivity are presented. In phase one, 42 seeds were sown at Kabete, Kenya, in October 1990 with 89% germination rate. By September 1991, 4 kg of beans had been harvested. The second phase studied the effects of M. deeringiana on improving crop cover and reducing soil loss at Mbooni and Kabete, resp. Initial observations show that the crop preformed fairly well, providing a cover of up to 25cm uncompressed thickness. Treatments on the runoff plots at Kabete include: bare ground (control), M. deeringiana; maize; the two crops intercropped and sown at the same time; intercropping with M. deeringiana sown one week after the maize; or intercropped with M. deeringiana sown two weeks after the maize. The highest soil loss was found on the bare plot (65 t/ha), followed by the intercropped plot with two weeks between sowing (50 t/ha). Soil loss was lowest in runoff plots with a pure stand of M. deeringiana (11 t/ha). Intercropping and sown at the same time provided highest percentage cover.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Hamilton SR, Aaltonen LA, for on Cancer IAR, Organization WH, others. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the digestive system. Vol. 48. IARC press Lyon:; 2000. AbstractWebsite
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P. OCHILO. 15. Professional Ethics: Fair Play Impartiality in Covering Elections. . Nairobi, Kenya.: United States International University (USIU) ; 1999.
P. OCHILO. 16. The Growing Gap between Training and Employment in Communications in Anglophone Africa: Diagnostic and Strategies for Intervention in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. . Nairobi, Kenya.: UNESCO and ORBICOM INTERNATIONAL Network of UNESCO Chairs and Associates in Communications ; 1999.
Mbindyo JM. Benefits of Registering Births and Deaths, Planning and Provision of Improved Health Services - The Roles of health Personnel in Civil Registration. 30. Mbindyo, J.M. “Benefits of Registering Births and Deaths, Planning and Provision of Improved Health Services - The Roles of health Personnel in Civil Registration” a Consultancy booklet for UNESCO - Kenya Country Office,; 1999.
O. KG. Changing patterns in water resource tenure in Kenya and mechanisms for resolving emerging conflicts. East African Regional Seminar for Journalists, African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), March; 1999. Abstract

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S MRWANYAMAJOSEPH. Mpuonzi's Dream, a Novel.. Nairobi: Africawide Network; 1999.Website
Wamitila KW. Nguvu ya Sala. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 1999.
Wasamba P, Timamy R. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 1. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 1999.
Wamitila KW. Spectrum Media.; 1999.Website
Dequan S. “An Analysis on Exams of English Intensive and Extensive Reading”, . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press ; 1999.
Oni EA, Ayoade JO, Owolabi IE. Advances in Geodesy and Geophysics Research in Africa.; 1998.Website
Air Breathing: the Elite Respiration.; 1998. AbstractWebsite

Water forms an important structural and functional constituent of the intercellular and intracelular lung tissue (e.g., Bastacky et al. 1987). Furthermore, a hydrated layer lines the air spaces of the lung (e.g., Fishman et al. 1957; Cantin et al. 1987; Chinard 1992). In the larger air spaces, the aqueous layer is comprised mostly of mucus, a glycoprotein-containing phase which is about 98% water (e.g., Sturgess 1979). The mucus forms an important source of moisture which humidifies the inhaled air, traps solid particles, and protects the ciliated epithelium. At the alveolar level, the hydrated layer occurs in form of an aqueous subphase in which proteins, carbohydrates, ions, and surfactant are dissolved. In the vertebrate lungs, where detailed investigations have been carried out, gas exchange occurs across an extracellular alveolar fluid film which lines the surface. The lining has been lucidly demonstrated by Finley et al. (1968), Weibel and Gil (1968), Kikkawa (1970), Bastacky et al. (1987, 1993), and Hook et al. (1987). In the airways, the thickness of the surface liquid lining is 20 to 150 µm (Widdicombe 1997) while on the alveolar surface, the thickness ranges from 0.1 to 0.241Im (Weibel and Gil 1968; Bastacky et al. 1993, 1995; Stephens et al. 1996). In the human lung, it has been estimated physiologically (e.g., Rennard et al. 1986) that the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) makes up 20 to 40 ml while through morphometric techniques (e.g., Untersee et al. 1971; Gorin and Steward 1979), the ELF was estimated to range from 15 to 70 ml. The alveolar fluid layer contributes significantly to the gas exchange function of the lung

Boon TRE;, Nathan I;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I, Lund DH;. Analysis along procedural elements.; 1998.Website
Wang'ombe JK. Capacity of Non.; 1998. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

J.A O. Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 1998.University of Nairobi Press
Wasamba P, Mwangi E. Notes on Margaret Ogolla’s The River and the Source.. Nairobi: Stantex; 1998.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Reclaiming Women's Space in Politics. Nairobi: CCGD; 1998.
Kabira WM, Wasamba P. Reclaiming women's space in politics.; 1998.Website
HM M. REproductive Parameters of German Shepherd Bitches in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 1998.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Tilda: A Collection of Poems on Girls and Women. Nairobi: CCGD; 1998.
Dequan S. “A Guide to Top Results on English Grammar” . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press; 1998.
Dequan S. “A Guide to Top Results on English Reading” . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press; 1998.
Dequan S. “Grammar of College English” . Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press; 1998.
Nduati R&WK. Communicating with adolescents about HIV/AIDS: Experience from Eastern and Southern Africa. . Ottowa, Onterio: International Development Research Centre, 1997.; 1997.
11. Perspectives for Editorial Independence published in: Strengthening Democratic Voices. . Nairobi, Kenya.: . UNESCO – Paris Series on Public Service Broadcasting and Editorial Independence ; 1997.
Abagi O, Odipo G. Access, Quality and Efficiency in Education in Kenya. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR).; 1997.
Nyasani PJ. The African Psyche. Nairobi: Theological Printing Press; 1997.
Kabira WM. The oral artist.; 1997.Website
Dequan S. “Listening Courses of English Broadcasts”. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press; 1997.
Gatumu HN. Essentials of Educational Statistics. Nairobi: East African Education Publishers Ltd; 1996.
Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Njiro M;, Kanyari PWN;, Ngotho J. gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Njiro M;, Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Njiro M;, Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J, Njiro M;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. How to nature our children properly.; 1996.
Odada EO, Johnson TC. The Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African lakes. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers,; 1996.
Nyasani PJ. The Metaphysics of the Cosmos and Related Recurrent Issues of Metaphysics. Nairobi: School of Journalism; 1996.
SWALEH AMIRI. Mwongozo wa Kifo Kisimani , Nairobi, Longhorn Publishers. Nairobi: ISBN – 9966 – 49 – 778 – 1.; 1996.
Oluoch Kosura, W; Michieka RW;, Muchiri G;, Dibbits HJ. Ox-drawn equipment development in Kenya..; 1996. AbstractWebsite

Recent efforts to develop ox-drawn equipment in Kenya arise out of the dilemma caused by unsuccessful efforts to promote tractors. The country has a number of about 10 000 tractors cultivating about 600 000 ha in the large-farm sector and 42 000 ha in the small-farm sector. The tractor market has slowed down to less than 1000 a year. The failure of tractor mechanization in small-scale farming coupled with the lack of ox-drawn equipment means that about 84% of smallholdings is using hand tools. In 1975, a workshop concluded that expanded ox-cultivation has a major part to play in increased agricultural production. After 4 years, the first 3 stages of development of ox-drawn equipment were accomplished. Aspects of local manufacture, training, extension and marketing are discussed.

Muchiri, G; W; Michieka RW;, Dibbits HJ, Dibbits HJ, Oluoch Kosura. Ox-drawn equipment development in Kenya..; 1996. AbstractWebsite

Recent efforts to develop ox-drawn equipment in Kenya arise out of the dilemma caused by unsuccessful efforts to promote tractors. The country has a number of about 10 000 tractors cultivating about 600 000 ha in the large-farm sector and 42 000 ha in the small-farm sector. The tractor market has slowed down to less than 1000 a year. The failure of tractor mechanization in small-scale farming coupled with the lack of ox-drawn equipment means that about 84% of smallholdings is using hand tools. In 1975, a workshop concluded that expanded ox-cultivation has a major part to play in increased agricultural production. After 4 years, the first 3 stages of development of ox-drawn equipment were accomplished. Aspects of local manufacture, training, extension and marketing are discussed.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. Transitivity in Swahili. Coiogne: Rudiger Koppe Verlag; 1996.
J.O O. Urban migrants and rural development in Kenya. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 1996.
Odada EO, Braatz BB, Brown, S., Isichel AO. African Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories and Mitigation Options: Forestry, Land-use Change and Agriculture. Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group; 1995.
Control System Analysis and Design.; 1995. AbstractWebsite

This book emphasizes undergraduate topics and the use of CAD programs,while still providing a rigorous treatment of advanced topics and derivation techniques. It instills the basic principles of feedback control essential to all specialty areas of engineering. The first part offers a comprehensive analysis of the fundamentals necessary for feedback control systems analysis. The second part provides thorough coverage of root locus,frequency response and state feedback techniques. The last part includes a number of modern techniques that are useful to the systems design engineer. CAD technology is enhanced by the use of MATLAB problems throughout the text.

Hamu HJ. Maumbile si huja.; 1995.Website
Awuondo CO. Syracuse memos.; 1995.Website
Dequan S. “Modern Chinese Dictionary of International Trade”. Tianjin: China Railway Press ; 1995.
Kolb, Helga H, Fernandez, Eduardo E, Nelson, Ralph R (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. Abstract

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Nyong’o NA;, Mulimba AO;. A 15 – Year Retrospective Analysis Of Osteogenic Sarcoma In Kenya.; 1994. AbstractWebsite

Cases of osteogenic sarcoma were studied as reported in the Kenya Cancer Registry covering a period of 15 years between January 1976 and December 1990. There were 271 cases with 113 (41.5%) coming from the Kikuyu community. The male to female ratio was 1.3 to 1 and the median age was 17 years. The tribal bias suggests either a genetic aetiology or a common environmental factor.

Brief Guidelines for the Institutional Screening of Local Governments. http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/42720 ; 1994.
KIBISU MC. Faculty of Commerce Business Studies Book. Nairobi: E.A. Literature Bureau; 1994.
Namai HW, Odegi-Awuondo C. Human needs and environmental over-exploitation.; 1994.Website
M. B, Wamukowa N, Odegi-Awuondo C. Masters of Survival. Nairobi: Basic Books (K) LTD; 1994.
Namai HW, Odegi-Awuondo C. Mutomo: a market in the periphery.; 1994.Website

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