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ABONG' MRGEORGEOOKO. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943. AbstractWebsite

There has been an increase in the number of potato crisps processors in Kenya in the last few decades. However, the characteristics of these firms are not clearly known. This study was designed to characterize the potato crisps processing industry in Kenya in terms of varieties used, pre-processing handling practices and constraints encountered. The potato crisps industry was surveyed between December 2009 and February 2010 using a structured questionnaire. Using labels of a total of 24 brands of potato crisps found selling in 80 supermarkets and kiosks in Nairobi, the processors were identified, contacted, visited and interviewed. Together 23 processors were identified and these had processing plants in Nairobi and Nakuru. The information collected included size of firm, range of products, constraints in processing crisps, marketing of the product and the variety of potatoes processed. The number of employees in the processing industries ranged from 2 to 250; 61 % of the processing firms had 5 or less employees, 22 % had 6-10 employees and only 4 % had 100 or more employees. In addition to potato crisps, 60 % of the firms also processed peanuts, 30 % processed chevda and potato sticks, 26 % processed pop-corns, 13 % processed banana crisps, 9 % processed cassava crisps and 4 % also processed arrow root crisps, spices, peas and herbs. About 4 % identified the main constraints as lack of proper equipment and market, 64 % complained of lack of potatoes and their poor quality while 43 % indicated lack of finances to increase volume of production. As pertains to produce sales, 83 % of the processors sell their products directly to supermarkets, 4 % through wholesalers and 13 % directly to individuals and shops. Dutch Robyjn was the potato cultivar of choice for many processors and other cultivars were used in processing during periods of scarcity of   cv. Dutch Robyjn. A large number of processors (70 %) stored their raw potatoes for relatively short periods of time ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. A few (30 %) processing firms, stored potatoes for a month or longer. The potato crisps processing industry in Kenya is largely dominated by small scale processors who process crisps only as one of a diversity of other products. The industry is faced with several constraints including raw potato price fluctuations, scarcity and poor quality of potatoes, lack of facilities, skills and information on raw potato storage. The industry relies heavily on one variety that is not always available for all the processors. This information is important for potato breeders and postharvest technologists to avail sufficient suitable potato cultivars for crisping

ABONG' MRGEORGEOOKO. "Evaluation of selected Kenyan potato cultivars for processing into French fries.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol. 2 (3): 141 . Biosciences; 2009.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A., "Management of Higher Distance Education: A Case Study of University of Nairobi, 1999", In Press, UNESCO, Dakar.". In: In Press, UNESCO, Dakar. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1999. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A., "Strengthening Primary and Secondary Education in Kenya: Implementation Capacity Assessment".World Bank and Government of Kenya, 2000.". In: World Bank and Government of Kenya, 2000. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A., Management of Change: The Role of Educational Managers in Changing Educational Organisations. The Kenya Adult Educator, Vol.4, No. 2, 1999. Also in press, Papers in Education and Development. Journal of the Faculty of Education, University o.". In: The Kenya Adult Educator, Vol.4, No. 2, 1999; Also in press, Papers in Education and Development. Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Dar-es-Salaam, 2000. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A. "Human Resource Development Indicators (HRDI) - The Kenyan Experience", paper presented during the Informal Meeting of Experts on Human Resources Development Indicators at the UNEP Headquaters, Nairobi, Kenya, December, 1992.". In: Paper presented during the Informal Meeting of Experts on Human Resources Development Indicators at the UNEP Headquaters, Nairobi, Kenya, December, 1992. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1992. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J. A., "Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Rewards: An Analysis of the Motivation Levels of Three Job Factors Among Graduate Teachers in Siaya and Kiambu Districts, Kenya".". In: World Bank/Government of Kenya Project. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1994. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe J.A., Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press.". In: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A., Language Policy and Practices in Education: Perceptions of Parents, Pupils and Teachers on the Use of Mother Tongue, Kiswahili and English in Kenyan Primary Schools. In press The Rockefeller Foundation, 2000.". In: In press The Rockefeller Foundation, 2000. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe,J.A. and Macharia, D. Managing the Learner Support System at the University of Nairobi. The Kenya Adult Educator, Vol. 5, NO.l, 2000.". In: The Kenya Adult Educator, Vol. 5, NO.l, 2000. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A. "Educational Management and Administration", Lecture Series presented during the Training of Trainers (TOT) for School Administrators inNasir, Sudan.". In: Lecture Series presented during the Training of Trainers (TOT) for School Administrators inNasir, Sudan. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1992. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A. and Abagi, O., Financing of Education in Kenya, UNDP/Govemment of Kenya Project.". In: UNDP/Govemment of Kenya Project. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A., Education and Development, University of Nairobi, External Studies Lecture Series, 1997.". In: External Studies Lecture Series, 1997. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1997. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A., Motivating Teachers and Students in Secondary Schools: A Conceptual Model. Huria , Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. Ill, No. 1, 2000.". In: Huria , Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. Ill, No. 1, 2000. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A., Course Design and Development for Distance Higher Education: A Case Study of University of Nairobi, 2000", in Press UNESCO, Dakar.". In: in Press UNESCO, Dakar. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A., Human Resources Management: An Educational Perspective. Nairobi: Educational Development and Research Bureau, 2001.". In: Educational Development and Research Bureau, 2001. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A. "Teaching Practice: Management and Supervision. Paper presented during the DSE/UoN Staff Development Workshop" in Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa, Kenya, .". In: Paper presented during the DSE/UoN Staff Development Workshop" in Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa, Kenya 1991. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, J.A. "Supervisory Management Course - Job Analysis and Description", Lecture Series presented to Supervising Managers with the Kenya Posts and Telecommunications, at the KCCT, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Lecture Series presented to Supervising Managers with the Kenya Posts and Telecommunications, at the KCCT, Nairobi, Kenya, 1993. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ABONG'O DROKUMBEJOSHUA. "Okumbe, et.al. Access, Quality and Equity Issues in Education: Costs and Financing of Secondary Education in Kenya, World Bank/Government of Kenya Project.". In: World Bank/Government of Kenya Project. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1995. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Consumption pattern and characteristics of potato crisps in Nairobi city, Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2010;32:1942-1955.abstract_for_survey_1_pdf.pdf
Abong' GO, Kabira J, Okoth MW, Ogolla JA, Ouma J. "Potential of processing potato flakes from popular Kenyan potato varieties.". In: CAB e Books.; 2015.
Abong' GO, Kabira JN, Okoth MW. "Enhancing b-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps using carrot powder as a flavoring agent .". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple foods crops in Kenya. Dresden: TUD Press; 2013.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Karuri EG, Kabira JN, Mathooko FM. "Evaluation of selected Kenyan potato cultivars for processing into French fries." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2009;2(3):141-147.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of agriculture to achieving MDGs. Nairobi: IeCAB2010-eBook; 2010.fresh_potato_traders_characteristics.pdf
ABONG' MRGEORGEOOKO. "Influence of potato cultivar and stage of maturity on oil content of French fries made from eight Kenyan potato cultivars.". In: African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development,Vol. 9 (8): 16667-1682. AJFAND; 2009.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Effect of packaging and storage temperature on the shelf life of crisps from four Kenyan potato cultivars." American Journal of Food Technology. 2011;6(10):882-892.2011_-_crisps_and_shelf_life.pdf
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, J.K I, J.N K. "Evaluation of selected Kenyan potato cultivars for processing into potato crisps." Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(5): 886-893. 2010;1(5):886-893.potato_for_crisps_abstract_pdf.pdfWebsite
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Consumption patterns, diversity and characteristics of potato crisps in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2010;32:1942-1955.2010_-_crisps_and_consuption_kenya.pdf
Abong' GO, Kabira JN. "The current status of the potato value chain in Kenya.". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple foods crops in Kenya. Dresden: TUD Press; 2013.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of Agricultural Sciences towards achieving the Millenium Development Goals. Nairobi: FaCT Publishing, Kenya.; 2010.2010_-_potato_traders_e-book_publication.pdf
Abong'o DA, Onyatta JO, Mbugua H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances on Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;6(3):1-10.
Abong'o DA, Wandiga SO, Jumba IO, den Brink PJV, Naziriwo BB, Madadi VO, WAFULA GA, Nkedi-Kizza P, Kylin H. "Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya." African journal of aquatic science. 2015;40(4):373-392. Abstract

Description
A baseline study was conducted of the occurrence of macroinvertebrates at 26 sites in the Nyando River catchment in 2005–2006. A total of 13 orders and 16 families of Arthropoda, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes and Annelida were collected, with the order Ephemeroptera being most abundant in the up- and mid-stream reaches, followed by Hemiptera and Plecoptera respectively. The downstream sections of the river were dominated by Hirudinea and tubificids, as the water quality deteriorated mainly due to local land use, raw sewage effluent discharge and annual floods. Insects and annelids were the main invertebrates found and the extent of pollution increased from mid-section (Site 15) downwards as the river flowed into the Winam Gulf. Stringent management measures are required to safeguard the environment and ecosystems of Lake Victoria.

Abong'o D, Wandiga SO. "Occurrence, distribution and environmental impact of organochlorine pesticide resedues in the Lake Victoria catchment: a case study of River Nyando drainage basin.". 2009. AbstractFull text link

The study was to investigate the impacts on the ecosystem health in relation to levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides that have either been banned or restricted for use in Kenya. The pesticides targeted were DDT, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin, endosuphan, and methoxychlor. Prior to their ban or restriction in use, they had found wide applications in public health and agriculture for control of disease vectors and crop pests respectively.

A study was conducted in which 880 samples of soil, water, sediments, aquatic weeds and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from 26 locations representative of the River Nyando drainage basin catchment area of 3450 km2 and a total length of 170 km of the Lake Victoria Catchment over a period of two years. Soils from six farms were sampled in areas where maize, tea, sugar cane, col fee, rice and vegetables have been grown over the years. The objective was to investigate the impacts on the ecosystem health in relation to levels and distribution of oraganochlorine pesticides that have either been banned or are restricted for use in Kenya. The pesticides targeted were DDT, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin, endosulfan and methoxychlor. Pior to their ban or restriction in use, they had found wide applications in public health and agriculture for control of disease vectors and crop pests respectively. Analysis of 48 soil samples revealed presence of all the targeted pesticides. Mean concentrations (pg/kg) recorded decreased in the order methoxychlor (138.97±1.517 pg/kg), total (X) endosulfan (30.267±2.098pg/kg), £DDT (17.513± 1.689 pg/kg), dieldrin (14.073±0.440 pg/kg), endrin (10.155±0.860 pg/kg), lindane (8.985±1.318 pg/kg) and ^Heptachlor (0.681±0.021 pg/kg), respectively. The distribution showed that dieldrin was in use in vegetable farms in Kedowa area, tea farms in Nandi District and in Ahero rice paddies; while p-endosulfan was commonly used on tea farms in Nandi. Water analysis from the 26 sampling sites showed the highest mean concentrations were detected for methoxychlor (8.817±0.020 pg/L), ^endosulfan (1.648± 0.04 pg/L), dieldrin (1.1561± 0.042 pg/L), endrin (0.281± 0.003 pg/L), £DDT (0.242±0.009 pg/L), £heptachlor (0.148±0.01 lpg/L) and lindane (0.144±0.006pg/L) respectively. The detected levels in sediments were considerably higher than those found in water in the order, methoxychlor (92.893±3.039 pg/kg ), lindane (33.917±2.360 pg/kg), aldrin (26.676±0.981 pg/kg ), dieldrin (23.62±4.810 pg/kg) and P-endosulfan, (10.502±0.800 pg/kg), respectively. The analysis of aquatic weeds recorded methoxychlor (39.641±3.045 pg/kg) as the highest residue concentrations, followed by aldrin (15.519±3.756 pg/kg). These higher levels may be as a result of continued use of the pesticide in the drainage basin. The levels of pesticides were higher in sediment, weeds and soil than in water. The pooled results show that the targeted pesticides are still in use in the basin and could be impacting negatively on the ecosystem health of the area. A study of the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrates showed presence of four invertebrate phyla in River Nyando. These were Arthropoda, Mollusca, Plathelminthes and Annelida. A diversity of 16 families and eleven orders was recorded, with the order Ephemeroptera being abundant upstream followed by Hemiptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera respectively. The downstream sections mainly the rice farming areas were dominated by Hirudinae (leaches) and Oligochaeta, suggesting that they are less sensitive to environmental pollution. Using Multivariate analytical techniques, Redundancy Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, correlation statistics showed that the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides strongly affects the distribution of the benthic macro invertebrates at all the sampling locations within the drainage basin. The high concentrations of pesticide residues were detected mostly in the soils and water from rice farms, these magnitudes were followed by those from tea farms. This implies that the rice farmers use most pesticides followed by tea farmers and there the proximity of the rice paddies to Lake Victoria could pose a greater impact to ecosystem health in the entire catchment than the upstream tea, sugar cane, maize and coffee farms owing to pesticide discharge; and this call for stringent management measures to be put in place to safeguard the environment.

den Abong'o, DA WSOJBPJVNBBMVOWAFULAGAN-KKIOP. "Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macro invertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2018.
Abong'o DA, Wandiga SO, Jumba IO, den Brink PJV, Naziriwo BB, Madadi VO, WAFULA GA, Nkedi-Kizza P, Kylin H. "Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macro invertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2015;40 (4)(1608-5914):373-392.
Abong’ GO, Kabira JN. "Diversity and Characteristics of Potato Flakes in Nairobi and Nakuru, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research (D). 2012;12(10):35-39.potato_flakes_survey_kenya.pdf
Abong’ GO, Shibairo SI, Lamuka PO, KATAMA CK, Ouma J. "QUALITY AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA CRISPS SOLD IN URBAN KENYA." African Crop Science Journal. 2016;24(S1):89-94.abong__2016aquality_and_safety_cassava_crisps.pdf
Abong’ GO, Kabira JN. The current status of potato value chain in Kenya. Hotel intercontinental, Nairobi: TUD press; 2013.potato_value_chain_abstract_for_staple_food_conf_april_2013.docx
ABONG’ GEORGEOOKO, NDANYI VICTORIACLAIREMAKUNGU, KAAYA ARCHILEO, Shibairo S, Okoth MW, OBIMBO PETER. "A Review of Production, Post-harvest Handling and Marketing of Sweetpotatoes in Kenya and Uganda." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(3):162-181.abong_2016b_a_review_sweetpotatoes_kenya__uganda.pdf
Abong’ GO, Kabira JN, Okoth MW. "Enhancing β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps using carrot powder as a flavoring agent.". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple food crops in Kenya-Conference. Hotel intercontinental, Nairobi; 2013.flavored_crisps_for_staple_foods_conference_abstract.doc
Abong’o DA, Wandiga SO, Jumba IO, den P PVBJ, Naziriwo BB, Madadi VO, Wafula GA, Kizza PN-, Henrik K. "Occurrence, abundance and Distribution of Benthic Macro-invertebrates in the Nyando River Catchment, Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;40(4): 373-392.
Abong’o DA, Wandiga SO, Jumba IO, Madadi VO, Kylin H. "Impacts of Pesticides on Human Health and Environment in the River Nyando Catchment, Kenya." Best: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences (BEST: IJHAMS) ISSN( E): 2348-0521. 2014;2(3):1-14. Abstract

River relies on rain fed agriculture. Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors’ of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government
KEYWORDS: Environment, Farming, Lake Victoria, Pesticides

Abonyo E. "THE ROLE OF PROFESSIONALS AND PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTES, IN SETTLEMENT UPGRADING.". In: ILI SHE TRUST HOUSING CONFERENCE. MOMBASA , Kenya; 2006.
Abonyo E. "SETTLEMENT INTEGRATION AN INNOVATIVE ROLE FOR PROFESSIONALS.". In: A world social forum. Nairobi; 2007.
Abou-Awad BA, El-Banhawy EM. "New mites of the family Eriophyidae from Kenya (Acari: Eriophidae). Acarologia, 32: 329.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1991. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Abou-Awad BA, El-Banhawy EM. "A new genus in the subfamily Nothopodinae with description of four new species from East Africa (Acari : Eriophyoidea : Eriophyidae). Acarologia, 33: 157.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1992. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Abou-Awad BA, El-Banhawy EM. "Biological studies of Amblyseius olivi, a new predator of eriophyid mite infesting olive trees in Egypt (Acari : Phytoseiidae). Entomophaga, 31: 99.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1986. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Abou-awad, B. A, El-Banhawy EM. "Toxicity of the organophosphate, methamidophos and pyridaphenthion, the synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, and the systemic fungicide fenarimol to the adult and egg stages of the datura mite, Eriophyes datura (Acari : Eriophyidae). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt,.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Absaloms HO, others. PCB CAD Training Manual.; 1994.
ABSALOMS HO. Status of iLabs in sub-Sahara Africa (iLabs-Africa). New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York; 2009.
Absaloms HO. Genetic Algorithm Application to Image Processing Optimization Problems. Atsugi, Japan: Kanagawa Institute of Technology; 1998.
Absaloms HO. The Yagi-Uda Array. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1988.
Abubakar LU, Mwangi CN, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2012;1(1): 19-23. Abstractabstract-ajpt.pdfWebsite

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Abubakar LU, Mutie AM, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. "Characterization of algae oil (oilgae) and its potential as biofuel in Kenya." Journal of Applied Phytotechnology in Environmental Sanitation . 2012;1 (4):147-153.abstract-apes.pdf
Abubakar LU, Bulimo WD, Masiga D, Mulaa FJ, Osir EO. Analysis of a serine protease gene expressed in midgut of African trypanosome vector, glossina fuscipes fuscipes.. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2004. Abstract

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Abubakar L, Osir EO, Imbuga MO. "Properties of a blood-meal-induced midgut lectin from the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.". 1995. Abstract

The properties of a blood-meal-induced lectin (agglutinin) from the midgut of Glossina morsitans capable of agglutinating Trypanosoma brucei were studied in vitro. The midgut homogenate from flies that had been fed twice had the highest agglutination activity, followed by that from the once-fed flies and that from the unfed insects. As compared with the bloodstream-form trypanosomes, a much lower concentration of the midgut homogenate was required for agglutination of the procyclic parasites. Furthermore, the agglutination process was specifically inhibited by D-glucosamine. Soybean trypsin inhibitor abrogated agglutination of the bloodstream-form parasites, whereas the procyclics were unaffected. The agglutination process was temperature-sensitive, with little activity being evident between 4 degrees and 15 degrees C. Similarly, heating the midguts to 60 degrees-100 degrees C led to loss of activity. When the midgut homogenate was separated by anion-exchange chromatography, the agglutination activity co-eluted with trypsin activity at approximately 50% NaCl. These results suggest a very close relationship between midgut trypsin-like enzyme and the agglutinin. Since successful agglutination of bloodstream-form trypanosomes requires protease activity, it may be that the enzyme cleaves off some surface molecules on the parasite surface, thus exposing the lectin-binding sites

Abubakar LU. "Impact of genetic research on women in Africa.". In: International Conference on Muslim Women Scholars in Science & Technology Development. Tehran, IRAN; 2012.abstract-african_women__genetics.pdf
U
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. Microalgae species biodiversity and abundance and their potential for biofuel in Kenya. Nairobi, KENYA; 2011. Abstractabstract-ncst.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts.
Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

A
Abubakar LU, Bulimo WD, Mulaa FJ, Osir EO. "Molecular characterization of a tsetse fly midgut proteolytic lectin that mediates differentiation of African trypanosomes." Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;36:344-52. AbstractWebsite

Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.

Abubakar Ali, V. K. Oduol PA. "Optimization of Handover in Mobile System by Using Dynamic Guard Channel Method ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(9):32-53.
Abubaker AS;, Abukanesha FF;, Anyango JJ;, Baruni A;, Bin-Taher AH;, Boinnet KJK;, Singh B;, Mutitu EW. "ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS."; 1988.
Abuga KO, Amugune BK, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, G.N.Thoithi, Ogeto JO, Okaru AO, Nguyo JM, King’ondu OK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Drug quality control in Kenya: observations in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the period 2006-2010." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(2):33-43.
Abuga K, Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Olulo M, Minnaard W, Kibwage I. "Sub-Standard Pharmaceutical Services in Private Healthcare Facilities Serving Low-Income Settlements in Nairobi County, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7(4):167. AbstractPharmacy

Background: Quality pharmaceutical services are an integral part of primary healthcare and a key determinant of patient outcomes. The study focuses on pharmaceutical service delivery among private healthcare facilities serving informal settlements within Nairobi County, Kenya and aims at understanding the drug procurement practices, task-shifting and ethical issues associated with drug brand preference, competition and disposal of expired drugs. Methods: Forty-five private facilities comprising of hospitals, nursing homes, health centres, medical centres, clinics and pharmacies were recruited through purposive sampling. Structured electronic questionnaires were administered to 45 respondents working within the study facilities over an 8-week period.
Results: About 50% of personnel carrying out drug procurement belonged to non-pharmaceutical cadres namely; doctors, clinical officers, nurses and pharmacy assistants. Drug brand preferences among healthcare facilities and patients were mainly pegged on perceived quality and price. Unethical business competition practices were recorded, including poor professional demeanour and waiver of consultation fees veiled to undercut colleagues. Government subsidized drugs were sold at 100% profit in fifty percent of the facilities stocking them. In 44% of the facilities, the disposal of expired drugs was not in conformity to existing government regulatory guidelines. Conclusions: There is extensive task-shifting and delegation of pharmaceutical services to non-pharmaceutical cadres and poor observance of ethical guidelines in private facilities. Strict enforcement of regulations is required for optimal practices.

Abuga KO, Amugune BK, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN, Ogeto JO, Okaru AO, Nguyo JM, Kingondu OK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) During the period 2006-2010." East And Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;16(2):33-43. Abstract

During the period 2006-2010, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit analyzed 583 samples. The samples comprised of 50.6% local and 49.4% imported products. Samples were subjected to compendial or in-house specifications. The failure rate was 12.2% for local products and 14.2% for imports. Antibacterial products recorded the highest failures (21.6%) while anticancers and drugs acting on the gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive systems all passed in the tests performed. The failure rate for antiprotozoals, antimalarials, antifungals, anthelminthics and analgesics were 14.3%, 12.5%, 11.8%, 8.9% and 11.5 % respectively.

Abuga KO, Mwagiru PM, Thoithi GN, Nguyo JM, Ngugi JK, Kingondu OK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Quality of antiretroviral drugs analyzed in the Drug Analysis Research Unit during 2000-2003." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2003;6:20-23.
Abuga KO, Amugune BK, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN, Ogeto JO, Okaru AO, Nguyo JM, King'ondu OK, Mugo HM, Kibwage IO. "Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the Period 2006-2010." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2013;16(2):33-43. Abstract

During the period 2006-2010, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit analyzed 583 samples. The samples comprised 50.6% local and 49.4% imported products. Samples were subjected to compendial or in-house specifications. The failure rate was 12.2% for local products and 14.2% for imports. Antibacterial products recorded the highest failure rate (21.6%) while anticancers and drugs acting on the gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive systems all passed in the tests performed. The failure rate for antiprotozoals, antimalarials, antifungals, anthelminthics and analgesics was 14.3%, 12.5%, 11.8%, 8.9% and 11.5%, respectively.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Hybrid Method Analysis of Electromagnetic Transmission through Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Scree.". In: World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS). World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS); 2004. Abstract

In this paper a hybrid numerical technique is presented, suitable for analyzing transmission properties of an arbitrarily shaped slot in a thick conducting plane. The slot is  excited by an electromagnetic source of arbitrary orientation. The analysis of the problem is based on the "generalized network formulation" for aperture problems. The problem is solved using the method of moments(MOM) and the finite element method(FEM) in a hybrid format. The finite element method is applicable to inhomogeneously filled slots of arbitrary shape while the method of moments is used for solving the electromagnetic fields in unbounded regions of the slot. The cavity region has been subdivided into tetrahedral elements resulting in triangular elements on the surfaces of the apertures.  Validation results for rectangular slots are presented. Close agreement between our data and published results is observed.  Thereafter, new data has been generated for cross-shaped, H-shaped and circular apertures.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Analysis of Waveguide-backed Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Screen.". In: 1st JKUAT Scientific, Technological and Industrialization Conference. The JKUAT Scientific, Technological and Industrialization Conference 2006; 2006. Abstract

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "A Hybrid Finite Element/Moment Method for Solving Electromagnetic Radiation Problem of Arbitrarily-Shaped Apertures in a Thick Conducting Screen.". In: The KSEEE (Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ) Conference. The Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (KSEEE); 2004. Abstract

In this paper a hybrid numerical technique is presented, suitable for analyzing transmission properties of an arbitrarily shaped slot in a thick conducting plane. The slot is  excited by an electromagnetic source of arbitrary orientation. The analysis of the problem is based on the "generalized network formulation" for aperture problems. The problem is solved using the method of moments(MOM) and the finite element method(FEM) in a hybrid format. The finite element method is applicable to inhomogeneously filled slots of arbitrary shape while the method of moments is used for solving the electromagnetic fields in unbounded regions of the slot. The cavity region has been subdivided into tetrahedral elements resulting in triangular elements on the surfaces of the apertures.  Validation results for rectangular slots are presented. Close agreement between our data and published results is observed.  Thereafter, new data has been generated for cross-shaped, H-shaped and circular apertures.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Analysis of Electromagnetic Transmission through dielectric filled Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Screen." World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS). 2005. AbstractWebsite

The paper deals with an extension of the previous work appearing in a past issue of this transaction by the authors on hybrid FEM/MOM technique for analyzing transmission properties of arbitrarily shaped apertures on a thick conducting screen. In the present work, the effect of placing different dielectric material slabs in the conducting screen cavity on the electromagnetic transmission parameters is first analyzed and, then, the effect of interchanging the positions of these dielectric slabs relative to the incident field. Validation results for rectangular and cross-shaped slots are presented. Close agreement between our data and published data is observed.  Further data has been generated for rectangular, circular, diamond-shaped and cross-shaped apertures.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Analysis of Waveguide-backed Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Screen." World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS). 2008. AbstractWebsite

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

Abungu NO, Munda JL, Akumu AO. "A Case for the Revision of Power Engineering Syllabi at Kenyan Universities.". In: The IASTED( International Association of Science and Technology for Development ) International Conference, ENERGY AND POWER SYSTEMS. International Association of Science and Technology for Development (IASTED; 2005. Abstract

This paper presents a summary of the current status of Electrical Power Engineering Education at Kenyan universities, followed by a summary of the situation on the same at universities world-wide. Against a backdrop of expected changes in the Kenyan power industry, the paper discusses the industry expectations of a power systems graduate currently and in the future, making a case for the revision of the current power engineering syllabi, concluding with recommendations and strategies for making the required changes.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Analysis of Waveguide-backed Inhomogeneously-filled Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Screen." World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS). 2007. AbstractWebsite

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

Abuom TO;, Mogoa EG;, Gitonga P;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi AN. "Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma In A Cow.".; 2006.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom T.O., Mande J.D., (2006) Transmissible Venereal Tumor with Subcutaneous and Bone Metastasis in a Dog.". In: KVA conference 2005 Nairobi. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Abuom TO;, Mogoa EG;, Gitonga P;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi AN. "Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma In A Cow.".; 2006.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom TO, Gitonga P, Kirui G, Kitaa JMA, Kyallo V, Mande JD, Ndurumo S and Tsigadi S. Radiographic findings of fractures and their outcomes at the Small Animal Clinic of University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: KVA conference 2005 Nairobi. ELSEVIER; 2005. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Ndurumo M. S., Mande J.D., Kihurani D., and Abuom T.O. Antidrool cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery of the Canine Lip. Poster presentation.". In: KVA conference 2006,Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Tsigadi S.A., Abuom T.O. and Mbugua S. (2006). Hypospadia in a dog.". In: KVA conference 2006.Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Abuom TO;, Mogoa EG;, Gitonga P;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi AN. "Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma In A Cow.".; 2006.
Abuom TO;, Mbuthia PG;, Sura AS;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM. "Subcutaneous liposarcoma in a cat and Wasike R.P.1.".; 2006.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom TO, Wabacha JK, Karanja DN and Kuria JN. (2004). Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy secondary to Klebsiella mastitis in a bovine.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference November 2004, Nairobi. ELSEVIER; 2004. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom T.O., Ngatia T.A., Mogoa E.G., Maina A.N., Ndurumo S.M. and Tsigadi S.A.. Trichoepithelioma in a cow.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference and exhibition. September 2006. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom T.O., Kirui G., Tsigadi S.A., Gitonga P.N., Ndurumo S.M., Sura A.,Kitaa J.M.A. (2006) A preliminary retrospective study on tumors affecting dogs in Kenya.". In: KVA conference 2006,Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Abuom TO;, Mogoa EG;, Gitonga P;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi AN. "Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma In A Cow.".; 2006.
Abuom TO, Gitonga PN, Kirui GK, Kitaa JMA, Kyallo V, Mande JD, Ndurumo SM, Tsigadi SA. "Radiographic findings of fractures and their outcomes at the small animal clinic of the University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. Nairobi, Kenya; 2005.
Abuom TO;, Mogoa EG;, Gitonga P;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi AN. "Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma In A Cow.".; 2006.
Abuom TO;, Mbuthia PG;, Sura AS;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM. "Subcutaneous liposarcoma in a cat and Wasike R.P.1.".; 2006.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom T.O, Mbuthia P.G., Sura A.S., Ndurumo S.M., Gitonga P.N.,Subcutaneous liposarcoma in a cat and Wasike R.P.1.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference and exhibition. September 2006. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Abuom TO, Kirui G, Tsigadi SA, Gitonga PN, Ndurumo SM, Sura A, Kitaa JMA. "A preliminary retrospective study on tumours affecting dogs in Kenya.". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2006.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Tsuma, V. T., Mbai, K., Gitonga, P. N., Abuom, T. O., Ndurumo, S. M.,Bwanga, C. O. (2006). Fertility of zero-grazed dairy cattle following hormone treatment and fixed-time artificial insemination.". In: KVA conference 2006,Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Abuya PE. "• The Pain of Love: Spousal Immigration and Domestic Violence in Australia—A Regime in Chaos?" Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal . 2003;3(12):673-707.
Abuya PE. "• Refugee Status Determination in Australia: Breaking the Rules? ." Liverpool Law Review . 2004;3(25):225-251.
Abuya PE. "• Refugee Status Imtaxaan in Kenya: An Empirical Survey ." Journal of African Law . 2004;2(48):187-206.
Abuya PE, Mukundi G. "• Assessing Asylum Claims in Africa: Missing or Meeting Standards? ." Netherlands International Law Review . 2006;2(53):171-204 .
Abuya PE, Nyaoro D. "• Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Victims of Persecution and Armed Conflict in South Africa." Hastings International & Comparative Law Review . 2009;1(32):1-54 .
Abuya JM, Wambugu MN. "An Analysis of the Pattern of Findings on the Mediastinum in the Computerised Tomography Chest in Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research (2013). 2013;1(3):11-19. Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to assess the pattern of findings in the Mediastinum in Computersied Tomography chest based on a study of major hospitals in Kenya. CT Scan chest was performed in patients suspected to have pathologies in the chest mediastinum. This was a one year prospective study done in four major radiological centres in Nairobi, namely Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the Nairobi Hospital, Medical Imaging and Therapeutic Centre (MITC) and the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. It was carried out on diverse dates from May 1st 1999 to April 30th 2000. There were a total of 101 patients studied out of 376 done CT chest in these four centres. Out of these, 28 were from KNH, Nairobi Hospital 27, MITC 40, and Aga Khan 6 patients. The overall male: female ratio was 2.48:1 with an age range of 2 months to 80 years. Most patients were over 60 years (35.64%) and the commonest clinical presentation was chest pain (21.19%). The major finding was lymph node enlargement. In all patients, a chest radiograph had been done and the commonest finding was a widened mediastinum (34.11%). Majority of the patients referred for CT Scan (23.76%), the clinicians did not give a specific clinical diagnosis. CT scan was able to delineate these masses and give a near exact diagnosis in the majority of these cases. CT scan showed most of the masses in the middle mediastinum (51.49%) and these were mainly lymph node enlargement. Most of the mediastinal masses (53.47%) were benign. The study recommends that CT Scan chest should be done routinely in suspected chest mediastinal pathologies. The study contributes important knowledge to studies of the pathologies in the Mediastinum.

Abuya PE, Ikobe C. "• Challenges Facing Internally Displaced Persons: Reflections on Kenya ." Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies . 2010;233(274).
Abuya PE. "• Asylum Law: Temporary and Permanent Protection Programs in Australia―Solutions or Created Problems? ." Tolley’s Journal of Immigration, Asylum & Nationality Law . 2004;2(18):115-137.
Abuya PE. "• Legislative Changes to the Temporary Refugee Regime in Australia: Three Steps Forward? ." Tottel’s Journal of Immigration, Asylum & Nationality Law . 2004;4(18):262-264.
Abuya PE. "• Revisiting Liberalism and Post-Colonial Theory in the Context of Refugee Applications ." Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights . 2006;2(24):193-227 .
Abuya PE. "• Reinforcing Refugee Protection in the Wake of the War on Terror ." Boston College International and Comparative Law Review. 2007;2(30):277-330 .
Abuya PE. "• Can African States Conduct Free and Fair Presidential Elections? ." Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights . 2010;8(2):122-164.
Abuya PE. "• The “Pacific Solution”: A Durable Answer or Political Stopgap Option? ." East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights. 2003;1(9):144-149.
Abuya PE. "• Refugees and Their Interpreters: Lessons from the Kenyan Experience." Australasian Review of African Studies . 2004;(66):66-76.
Abuya PE. "• “A Place to Call Home”: Temporary Asylum in Australia―Lessons for South Africa ." Stellenbosch Law Review . 2004;3(15):429-449.
Abuya PE. "• Past Reflections, Future Insights: African Asylum Law and Policy in Historical Perspective ." International Journal of Refugee Law . 2007;1(19):51-95.
Abuya PE. "• Consequences of a Flawed Presidential Election ." Legal Studies . 2009:127-148.
Abwova V.V., Mbeo P.N. TKLJKAM. "Formulation of Furosemide Dispersible Tablets for Use in Paediatrics." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;18:61-66.
AC Guzha, Rufino MC, Okoth S, S Jacobs, Nóbrega RLB. "Impacts of land use and land cover change on surface runoff, discharge and low flows: Evidence from East Africa." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2018;15:49-67.
Acevedo JL, Shah RK, Neville HL, Poole MD. "Cystic hygroma." Medscape Reference [actualizado 22 Jul 2011]. Disponível em: http://emedicine. medscape. com/article/994055-overview. 2009. Abstract
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and Achia, T.N.O; Manene OJAMMM. "The Restricted Dorfman- Sterrett Group-screening procedures without errors in decisions." ICASTORJournal of Mathematical Sciences. 2010;4(2):153-163. AbstractFull text link

This thesis is a study on the Dorfman-Sterrett group-screening designs assuming equal a-prior probabilities of items being defective. Based on a clear theoretical framework, we have studied both restricted and unrestricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure without and without errors in decision, deriving expressions for expected number of tests (and cost functions), which are used to compare the performance of this procedures with the Dorfman procedure. \lVehave give an alternative approach to determining the expected number of tests in an unrestricted Dorfman-Sterrett design. The restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure without errors in decision has also be examined, giving conditions under which the restricted procedure converges to the unrestricted procedure. vVe have shown that for most prevalence rates, the two-stage Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs just as well as the unrestricted procedure. We have in this thesis also examined the Restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure with error in decision. Expressions for the expected number of runs and cost functions have been derived. The results, based on the expected proportional red uct.ion in testing over individual testing, indicate that the single-step Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs better than the Dorfman procedure for all the prevalence rates less than 30%. The result.s also indicate the t.here is little. if any, difference in performance between the single-step and the two-step Dorfman-Sterrett procedures. For the multi-step Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures without errors in decision we have derived the expected number. of runs and compared this results with the expected number of runs for the Dorfman procedure and the multi-step DorfmanSterrett procedure. In. addition, cost functions and expected number of tests for the multi-step Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures with errors in decision have also been derived. The results indicate that the modified procedure perform slightly better than Dorfman procedure fer most prevalence rates but is less efficient than the Dorfman-Sterrett procedure. The expressions for expected number of runs and the expected number of incorrect decisions in screening with errors are derived using vVatsons testing of hypothesis approach. Under the testing of hypothesis approach group factors are tested using orthogonal fractional factorial designs of the type giveil in Plackett and Burman (1946). We have also derived expressions for expected number of runs for both the restricted and the unrestricted Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures. The results indicate that the Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs better than the Dorfman procedure for prevalence rates less than 30%. There is also a greater saving for larger prevalence rates. There is a saving of 3~2%in using the Modified procedure instead of the Dorfman procedure when p = 0.29 compared with a s~,ving of 0.18% for p = 0.001. The results however indicate that Sterrett's procedure is more efficient than t.he Modified procedures for prevalence rates less than 30%. These figures seem to disprove the a.ssertion by Huang et al (1089) that a modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedure is more efficient than Sterrett's procedure when the a-priori probability of an item being defective, P. is somewha.t higher (though still quite low) .

Achia TNO, Mwambi H, Weke P. "Statistical Properties of the Dorfman-Sterrett Group Screening Procedure with Errors in Decision." South African Statist. J.. 2014;48(2014):1-18. Abstract

Summary:
Methods that reduce the cost and time involved in detecting defective or nonconformal members of a large population have been explored extensively in the quality control literature.
These methods have also found extensive application in insect-vector, rodent-bacterium and blood screening. Group-screening designs are plans that identity defect factors in a large population by initially pooling factors together and then classifying each pool as nonconformal (NC) or conformal (C). Individual testing is then carried only amongst individual factors in pool that are found to be nonconformal. A modifications of this strategy, suggested by Sterrett (1957), proposes a reversion to a group test, in a group declared defective, upon detection of the first nonconformal factor and then carrying out individuals testing only if the new group is nonconformal. This procedure is referred to as the Dorfman-Sterrett procedure in the literature.
The statistical properties of the restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure, where the number of reversion to a group test is predetermined, has found little discussion in the literature. This study uses a testing of hypothesis approach to compare the performance of the Dorfman-Sterrett procedure with the Dorfman procedure assuming that factors or groups can be misclassified. Under the testing of hypothesis approach, using a 2g fractional factorial design, cost functions which are linear functions of expected total number of incorrect decisions and the expected.

ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Wango, E.O.; Oduor Okelo, D.; Makawiti, D.W. & Odongo, H.O. (1995). In-vivo and in-vitro effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on female sex steroid hormone production in rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.111C(2):191-196.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1995. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng J, Odenyo F. "Enhancing access to Information in the Gender Discourse: A case of University of Nairobi Library." Pathways to African Feminism and Development: Journal of African Women’s Studies . 2016.
Achieng, B.O; Rambo OCM & PA. "Influence of Physical Facilities as a component of Institutional Capacity on Academic Performance of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Usigu Division – Bondo District, Kenya." International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences. ISSN: 2249 – 5894 Volume 5, Issue 1, January, 2015 - USA. Http://www.ijmra.us . 2015;5(1).
ACHIENG MRSASEEYANNE. "How to write Assignment, Term papers and Projects in Higher Institutions of Learning, Exact Concept (2005).". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2005.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1987). Testosterone profiles, spermiogram and gonadal histology in the dog Proc.(Proc. Interna. Conf. Reprod. In Mammals and Man -Nairobi, Kenya 23-27 November, 1987.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1988). Epididymal membrane androgen binding protein: Purification and characterization (Abstract).". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1988. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. and Gombe, S. (1991). Plasma and testicular testosterone and related gonadol parameters on early pubertal and adult dogs. Discovery and Innovations 4 (3): 53-58.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1991. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng BO, Nzuve FM, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM. "Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10(6):85-94.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Wango, E.O.; Odongo, H.O.; Oduma, J.; Oduor Okelo, D. (1995).Effects of 6-Hydroxydopamine on testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in-vitro. Acta Biologica Hungarica. 46(1):75-85.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1995. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1987). Purification and characterization of cauda epididymal cellular androgen binding protein. (Proc. Internat. Conf. Reprod. In Mammals and Man.Nairobi, 23-27 November, 1987.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1990). A possible membrane bound androgen receptor protein in the dog cauda epididymis. Cell Biology International Reports, 1990.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1990. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.: Waindi, E.N.; Gombe, S. & Wango, E.O. (1994).Partial purification of a putative membrane bound androgen binding protein in the dog cauda epididymis. Int. J. Biochem.26(4): 583-588.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1994. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Wango, E.O.; Makawiti, D.W.; Oduor Okelo, D.;Schuler, G. & Hoffmann, B. (1997). In-vivo and in-vitro effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on the synthesis of progesterone and estradiol.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1997. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A. (1998). The effect of graded doses of heptachlor - a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide - on the reproductive performance of adult female (sprague dawley) rats. Ph.D Thesis.University of Nairobi.". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1998. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng J. "Beyond parliamentary representation What representation: counting the numbers!". In: Annual University of Nairobi Womens colloquim. Nairobi; 2015.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A. (1988). Isolation and characterization of cauda epididymis cellular androgen binding protein. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1988. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng AA, Gunga.O.Samson, Guantai.J.Mboroki. "East Africa Journal of Humanities and Science ." East Africa Journal of Humanities and Science . 2012.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Leke, R.J.I.; Oduma, J.A.; Bassol-Mayagoita, S.; Bacha, A.M. & Grigor, K.N. (1993). Regional and Geographical variations in infertility: Effects of environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. Environ. Health Persp. Suppls. 101 (Suppl 2): 73-80.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1993. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Achieng B. O; Rambo C.M. & Odundo P.A.(2015). "Assessment of the Influence of the Level of Human Resources as a component of Institutional Capacity on Academic Performance of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Usigu Division – Bondo District, Kenya." Published in International Journal of Marketing and Technology. ISSN: 2249 – 1058 . 2015;5(5).
ACHIENG’ L, M. D. JOSHI, OGOLA EN, KARARI E. "Adequacy of Blood Pressure Control, and Level of Adherence to Antihypertensive therapy at Kenyatta N Hospital." East Afri Med Journal. 2009;86(11):499-506.Website
Achilla R, Majanja J, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Schnabel D. "Sentinel surveillance of pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Kenya in the period August-November 2009." Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:E286. AbstractWebsite
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Achilla RA, Wurapa EK, Bulimo WD. "Respiratory adenovirus Species Circulating In Kenya, 2007-2010.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2011. Abstract

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Achilla. R, Bulimo. W, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. E. Characterization of Adenoviruses Circulating in Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Opot. BH, Wurapa. EK. "Respiratory Adenovirus Species Circulating in Kenya From 2007-2010. .". In: 2nd MEDICAL AND VETERINARY VIROLOGY RESEARCH-2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Opot. BH, Wurapa. EK. Influenza surveillance in Kenya2006-2013: experiences and lessons learned . Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya.; 2014. Abstract

Background: Influenza sentinel surveillance at the KEMRI-National Influenza Centre (NIC) was rolled out in 2006. A team of collaborators from Kenya Medical Research Unit (KEMRI), US Army Medical research unit –Kenya (USAMRU-K) and Centre for Disease Control-Kenya (CDC) came together to produce a document that was used to initiate Influenza surveillance in 8 civilian hospitals and 5 military hospitals across Kenya. Setting up the surveillance sites required a lot of input from the laboratory personnel, the principal investigator, field site coordinators and field staff including clinical/nursing officers and laboratory technologists.Methods: Prior to opening any of the sentinel sites, the field staff were brought to central Lab in Nairobi for a one week intensive training on Biosafety, Quality Assurance and all the Site Specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). These included sample transportation, sample collection, Inclusion and exclusion criteria and sample rejection SOPs among others.An influenza starter pack was then sent to the respective sites including transport media, cool boxes, Dry shippers, nasopharyngeal swabs, documentation, SOPs among other Laboratory supplies Patient samples were transported weekly to the NIC in dry shippers to maintain cold chain by courier. On reception in the central laboratory a robust inventory system was put in place and tests were conducted first by real time PCR.Results: Eight Sentinel sites were activated over a period of one year. A total of 17980 samples were collected during this time period. On analysis approximately 25% of the samples showed positive results on analysis. Upper respiratory viruses discovered recently like HMPV and HCoV were later introduced to the study through student programs. By real time PCR a total of 1067 influenza A and Influenza B 879 were detected. Virus Isolation yielded 2847 Isolates. Of these the most isolated virus was adenovirus at 21% and respiratory syncitial virus at 19%.Discussion and Conclusion: Over the past eight years a lot of information was acquired through this robust surveillance program. 75% of the samples still remain undiagnosed and could be a potential source for novel viruses. Next Gen sequencing would be instrumental in detected what made the patient ill enough to have fevers of >38 degrees centigrade. This program also played a significant role during the 2009 pandemic H1N1 outbreak and still has capacity to detect MERS CoV currently circulating in the Middle East and H7N9 circulating in China. Influenza and other Upper respiratory tract viruses’ surveillance remains critical in Kenya where tourism, is a major income earner. The capacity to not only detect but disseminate information in a timely manner can help contain potential outbreaks and arrest potentially dangerous situations.

Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Opot. BH, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Osuna. F, Nyambura. JM, Ocholla. SO, Mitei. KM, Wurapa. EK. "Drastic decline of pandemic (2009) H1N1 Influenza cases in sentinel surveillance sites in Kenya; May 2011-May 2012.". In: International Society for Influenza and other respiratory virus diseases conference. Munich Germany.; 2012. Abstract
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Achola EA, Basweti NO, Barasa D. "Ekegusii DP and its Sentential Symmetry: A Minimalist Inquiry." International Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2015;2(2):93-107.
Achola MA. "Nationalism and the Struggle for Independence in Kenya.". In: The Contribution of the Luo and Abaluyia. Naivasha; 2006.
Achola MA. "Maternal and Child Welfare in Nairobi to 1960.". In: Maternal and Child Welfare in Nairobi to 1960. Ruaraka,Nairobi; 2006.
Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Munenge RW. "Pharmacological activities of gardenia jovis-tonantis.". 1994. Abstract

A methanol extract derived from Gardenia jovis-tonantis showed bronchodilator activity isolated guinea pig trachea. The extract also showed cardiorelaxant activity isolated rabbit heart and caused a rapid fall ill diastolic pressure ill anaesthetised rats

Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. "Pharmacological activities of gutenburgia cordifolia." International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1997;35(1):60-62. Abstract

A methanol extract of Gutenburgia cordifolia showed a greater fall in diastolic than systolic blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. The plant extract produced cardiodepressant activity on isolated rabbit heart and caused contraction on isolated rabbit ileum. The contraction was re¬duced but not abolished with atropine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, the contraction was abolished by atropine, the presence of an acetylcholine-like compound in the plant extract is indicated.

Achola EA, Basweti NO, Barasa D. "EKEGUSII DP AND ITS SENTENTIAL SYMMETRY: A MINIMALIST INQUIRY." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. 2015;2(2):93-107.
Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. "Pharmacological activities of gutenburgia cordifolia.". 1997. Abstract

A methanol extract of Gutenburgia cordifolia showed a greater fall in diastolic than systolic blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. The plant extract produced cardiodepressant activity on isolated rabbit heart and caused contraction on isolated rabbit ileum. The contraction was re¬duced but not abolished with atropine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, the contraction was abolished by atropine, the presence of an acetylcholine-like compound in the plant extract is indicated.

Achola MA. "Youth, Poverty and Destitution in Nairobi: 1945-60.". In: Past and Past Perspective. IFRA and British Institute in Eastern Africa in Nyeri; 2006.
Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen TH, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, R M, Achia T, Katana A, Ng'ang'a L, Cock D. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC Public Health. . 2019; 3;): doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6716-2.(19(1):372.
Aciita PM, Wanjohi J. "Factors influencing augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya: A case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services, Meru County." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):82-103. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
Provision of water services is squarely a devolved function and counties have the bigger role of ensuring their residents have access to clean and safe water. In this regard many strategies have been put in place to ensure water available is adequate. These efforts have faced a myriad of challenges which has greatly affected service delivery. Water is one of the most important natural resource and the availability of safe water is critical not just for health reasons, but also for social and economic development. The purpose of the study was to establish the factors influencing implementation of augmentation of water treatment projects by county government in Kenya; a case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services. The specific objectives of this research project were to determine the influence of financial resources, leadership, staff competency and political factors on the augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design and the target population was 135 management and heads of sections which included county executive committee members (CECM), Chief officers, county directors, MEWASS management/technical staff and Members of County Assemblies (MCA’s). The study adopted a census which allowed all the 135 respondents to participate in the study, however only 109 respondents returned their questionnaires representing an approximate response rate 81%. Data was collected using a questionnaire. To test reliability of this questionnaire Split half method was applied in Isiolo water and Sewerage Company.
Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and …

Ackello-Ogutu, Chris; Okoruwa V; BGN. Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa.; 2012. Abstract

This briefing paper is one of the 10-part Global Development Network (GDN) Agriculture Policy Series for its project, ‘Supporting Policy Research to Inform Agricultural Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia’. It is based on a longer synthesis paper, Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, which draws on extensive published and unpublished research. It will be of value to policymakers, experts and civil society working to improve agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 180 million food-insecure people live in Sub-Saharan Africa, over 21 per cent of the African population. These are among the world’s most vulnerable people, poorly equipped to respond to the threat of climate change, demographic stresses, or spikes in global food prices. This briefing examines how improvements in agriculture might help to achieve g

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, P. F. Atkinson, S. M.Hall, R. A. C. Hughes, and W. A. Taylor: Chronic Experimental allergic neuritis in Lewis rats. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 15: 249-264, 1989.". In: Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1989 May-Jun;15(3):249-64. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989. Abstract
An experimental chronic relapsing demyelinating neuropathy was produced by immunizing adult Lewis rats with bovine myelin in low (2.5 mg) and high (5 mg) doses, with and without Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the adjuvant. Each regime produced a similar disease course: acute severe hind limb weakness was followed by apparent recovery and then reappearance of mild neurological deficit with occasional spontaneous exacerbations. The partially recovered animals were relatively resistant to reimmunization with myelin. Immunization of four-week-old rats with myelin in complete adjuvant produced disease with a similar course. Subsequent immunization of these juvenile rats with adjuvant alone precipitated exacerbations. In the late stages, the prominent changes in peripheral nerves and nerve roots were axon loss, axonal regeneration and remyelination while inflammatory cell infiltration was confined to occasional foci. Onion bulb formation was extremely common in the dorsal root ganglia and affected in particular the nerve fibres close to the dorsal root ganglion cells. The cells forming the onion bulbs resembled the satellite cells surrounding the axon hillocks. Onion bulb formation also occurred in the portion of the ventral roots adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion but was rare elsewhere. Immunocytochemistry revealed only occasional lymphocyte infiltration but there was increased Class I and Class II MHC antigen expression throughout the peripheral nervous system. The results are relevant to the interpretation of biopsies from patients with chronic demyelinating neuropathy of possible inflammatory or autoimmune origin.
Adam AM. "Structural, thermal, morphological and biological studies of proton-transfer complexes formed from 4-aminoantipyrine with quinol and picric acid.". 2013. Abstract

4-Aminoantipyrine (4AAP) is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, biochemical experiments and environmental monitoring. However, residual amounts of 4AAP in the environment may pose a threat to human health. To provide basic data that can be used to extract or eliminate 4AAP from the environment, the proton-transfer complexes of 4AAP with quinol (QL) and picric acid (PA) were synthesized and spectroscopically investigated. The interactions afforded two new proton-transfer salts named 1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-aminium-4-hydroxyphenolate and 1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-aminium-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate for QL and PA, respectively, via a 1:1 stoichiometry. Elemental analysis (CHN), electronic absorption, spectrophotometric titration, IR, Raman, (1)H NMR and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the new products. The thermal stability of the synthesized CT complexes was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analyses, and the morphology and particle size of these complexes were obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that PA and 4AAP immediately formed a yellow precipitate with a remarkable sponge-like morphology and good thermal stability up to 180°C. Finally, the biological activities of the newly synthesized CT complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results indicated that the [(4AAP)(QL)] complex exhibited strong antimicrobial activities against various bacterial and fungal strains compared with standard drugs.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM, Maritim MC.Pseudoxanthoma elasticum in a patient with sickle cell disease: case report. East Afr Med J. 2008 Feb;85(2):98-101.". In: The Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Anaesthesilogists. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2008. Abstract
An 18 year female sickler (HbSS) presented with repeated history of epistaxis and bleeding gums. Features consistent with pseudoxanthoma elasticum were observed, such as hyper-extensile redundant skin folds in the neck, axilla, inguinal areas and abdomen. The skin biopsy showed swollen, clumped and fragmented elastic fibres and calcium deposits in the deep and mid reticular dermis, consistent with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. This is a well recognised complication of sickle cell disease which has not been described in Kenya.

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