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Kithung'a P. Nzuki Consumer Behaviour,. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2004. AbstractWebsite
We are interested in pricing rainfall options written on precipitation at specific locations. We assume the existence of a tradeable financial instrument in the market whose price process is affected by the quantity of rainfall. We then construct a suitable
Hamu PJH, Karanja P. Misingi ya Sarufi ya Kiswahili. Phoenix Publishers; 2004.
Wamitila KW. Musaleo!.; 2004.Website
Machera M, ed) SA(. Opening a Can of Worms: A Debate on Female Sexuality in the Lecture Theatre. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute; 2004.
Yusuf A. Organic Chemistry 2 (SCH 202). Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2004.scan0023.pdf
Kamenju J, Mwathi L, Kiganjo G. Physical Education Form Three Teacher's Guide.; 2004.
Mbithi PMF;, Mwangi JAN. Principles of Veterinary Surgery . Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2004.University of Nairobi Press
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mary N. Getui. Religions in Eastern Africa Under Globalization . Nairobi: Acton; 2004.
Otieno SP. Ripples of Guilt. Trafford: Trafford; 2004.
Gatumu HN. STC/GCD 517: Psychological Assessment. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Jumba A. Students’ Constructions of Citizenship in the United States: A Study of the 11th Grade students. Urbana-Champaign: . Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press. (314 pages); 2004.
Okombo O, Githinji WC, Maina J, Gachoya E. Success English STD 7.; 2004.Website
MBATIAH PMWENDA. Wimbo Mpya. NAIROBI: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2004.
Williams N, Bulstrode C, O'Connell RP. Bailey 's {Short} {Practice} of {Surgery}. London; 2004. Abstract
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Skandalakis JE, Colborn GL. Skandalakis' {Surgical} anatomy: the embryologic and anatomic basis of modern surgery. Vol. 2. Athens, Greece: PMP; 2004. Abstract
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Disaster Management : HighLights  . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.
D.N. Kariuk i, J.Kithinji PMCAMN. . Explore Chemistry, Form 1.; 2003.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. C.M. Mulei and P.M.F. Mbithi (2003). Metabolic and Nutritional Diseases of Food Animals. Published by, University of Nairobi Press.. AWC and FES; 2003. AbstractWebsite

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. Christian Theology and Social Reconstruction. Nairobi: Acton; 2003.
Mulwa JK. Earth Processes Lecture series for Bachelor of Science (Geology) and Bachelor of Science (ODL). Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2003. Abstract

The Earth Processes course unit is one of the three core courses in Geology. The other two core courses are SGL 101 – Materials of the Earth and SGL 103 - Introduction to Paleontology. Geology is a science of the study of the earth with reference to its evolution, composition and processes that have prevailed from the time of its evolution to the present time.

The earth is a dynamic body that has undergone various changes. These changes are both of internal and external origin. The internal processes are referred to as diastrophism and they tend to elevate the earth’s surface. They are counterbalanced by the external processes that wear down the land surface. The constant interaction between these two processes determines the configuration of the earth’s surface. The external processes are as a result of solar energy and gravitational forces whereas the internal processes are as a result of the earth’s internal heat.

Weather pattern, for example, is to a large extent due to the solar energy on the one hand. Along the equator there is a substantial amount of heating because the sun is always overhead and therefore this results in the rising up of hot air. The rising hot air is replaced by cold air from the colder regions. This cyclic process is closely related to ocean waves and currents generated by solar heating. Waves are effective forces for determining the shape of the landscape along shorelines of oceans and seas.

The force of gravity on the other hand is due to mutual attraction between bodies. The greater the attracting bodies the greater the gravitational force. Because the mass of the earth is greater than any other body on its surface, materials are attracted towards the earth’s center. Rain and snow precipitate due to gravitational attraction of the earth. Water moves towards the oceans because of gravitational force. Glaciers on higher mountains are normally pulled down by the force of gravity.

Internal earth processes are due to heat energy which keeps rocks in the mantle below the earth’s crust in a molten state. This break forth as a volcanic flow during volcanic eruptions. Heat energy is also responsible for large-scale processes such as earthquakes and mountain building, and small scale processes such as geysers, hot springs, steaming ground and hydrothermal processes.

We can therefore conclude that all earth processes are manifestations of energy and these processes are responsible for sculpturing the land surface.

The Earth Processes course unit begins with an overview of the types of energy which contribute to earth processes. These are discussed in Lecture 1. The unit is thereafter subdivided into two parts. Lectures in Part I of the course unit discusses the External Earth processes where else lectures in Part II of the unit discusses the Internal Earth Processes.

The general objective of the Earth processes course unit is to introduce you to the basic concepts of geosciences. More specifically, at the end of this course unit you should be able to:

 describe the internal and external processes which shape the earth;
 explain the present configuration of the earth and attempt to reconstruct its original form;
 explain the natural processes of the earth;
 categorize hazardous and non-hazardous processes of the earth;
 outline the contribution of the earths natural fields in exploration of natural resources;
• propose measures of minimizing hazards due to earth processes.

You are required to have writing materials e.g. books or foolscaps, pens, lead pencils, coloured pencils or crayons, a scientific calculator, a ruler and a mathematical set. Although every effort has been made to provide you with an up-to-date lecture notes, you are expected to do further reading for a better understanding of Geology, Geological concepts and Processes.

Practicals are compulsory in this course unit and a separate practical manual will be availed to you.

and D.N. Kariuki PMCAMN. Explore Chemistry, Form 2.; 2003.
Kioko UM, Njeru ENH. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education in Kenya ISBN 9666-948-16-3. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) . ISBN 9666-948-16-3. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR); 2003.
Wamitila KW. Kamusi ya Fasihi: Misingi na Vipengele Vyake. . Nairobi: Focus Publications Ltd; 2003.
Wamitila KW. Kamusi ya misemo na nahau.; 2003.Website
Wamitila KW. Kichocheo cha Fasihi: Simulizi na Andishi. . Nairobi: Focus Publications Ltd.; 2003.
Ndegwa PN. Lecture Notes on Invertebrate Zoology. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.Website
Nyandemo S, Singh. Managerial Economics, theory and Applications. Bishen Singh Publishers; 2003.
evans Mbuthia DM, K.W. PW. Mwongozo wa Kitumbua Kimeingia Mchanga” . Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers ; 2003.
Wamitila KW. Mwongozo wa Walenisi. A detailed study Guide on Katama Mkangi's novel Walenisi. . Nairobi: Sasasema Publications Ltd; 2003.
New Partnership for Africa’s Development: NEPAD a New Path?. Journal Discovery and Innovation ; 2003.
Nursing Trends in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.
Wamitila KW. Pango.; 2003.Website
L. M, Njoroge K, Bett C, Mwangi W, Verkuijl H, Groote DH. The Seed Industry for Dryland Crops in Eastern Kenya.; 2003.
Wandibba S, Thuranira J, Baya D. Social Studies STD 6.; 2003.Website
Dequan S. “Get Top Results on Your IELTS and Get into the College of Your Choice”. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press ; 2003.
Moore K, Persaud T. The {Developing} {Human}: {Clinically} {Oriented} {Embryology}. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003. Abstract
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with Kanji N, Braga C. Promoting Rights in Africa: How do NGOs make a difference? . London: iied.; 2002.
Wamitila KW. Bin-Adamu.; 2002.Website
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. Christianity and African Culture. Nairobi: Acton; 2002.
Collaborative management of wildlife in Kenya: an empirical analysis of stakeholders' participation, costs and incentives.; 2002. AbstractWebsite

Selected wildlife co-management arrangements in Kenya are analysed using descriptive methods, benefit-cost analysis and econometric models. In 2000, household and community-level data were collected from Kimana and Golini-Mwaluganje (GM) community sanctuaries in the wildlife dispersal areas of Amboseli National Park and Shimba Hills National Reserve, respectively. It is shown that transaction costs arising from landowners' participation in the information acquisition, negotiations and operation activities are not a major factor influencing co-management efficiency. Although the lack of profitability may be a disincentive for landowners' participation, co-management can also create other stronger incentives such as protection of landowners' property rights and economic interests. The importance of structuring the co-management process in such a way that all categories of landowners participate effectively in the information gaining and negotiation phase is emphasized. There is also a need to look into ways of compensating categories or groups of landowners who incur wildlife conservation costs without access to direct benefits.

E.N. PN, Hirschfeld M, Lindsey E, Kimani V, Mwanthi M, Olenja J, Pigott W, Messervy P, Mudongo K, Ncube E, Rantona K, Bale S, Limtragool P, Nunthachaipun P. COMMUNITY HOME-BASED CARE IN RESOURCE-LIMITED SETTINGS. Geneva: THE CROSS CLUSTER INITIATIVE ON HOME-BASED LONG-TERM CARE, NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND MENTAL HEALTH AND THE DEPARTMENT OF HIV/AIDS, FAMILY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION; 2002. AbstractWebsite

COMMUNITY HOME-BASED CARE IN RESOURCE-LIMITED SETIINGS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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his document provides a systematic framework for establishing and maintaining community home-based care (CRBC) in resource-limited
settings for people with RIV / AIDS and those with other chronic or disabling conditions. Most CRBC services so far have been established through unsystematic, needs-based efforts. As the RIV / AIDS epidemic continues to grow, many organizations and communities are now considering expanding in a more programmatic approach, and countries are looking for scaled-up responses and national strategies for CRBe. This document therefore provides an important framework to guide governments, national and international donor agencies and community-based organizations (including nongovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations and community groups) in developing or expanding CRBC programmes. The need for such a document has been clearly identified.
CRBC is defined as any form of care given to ill people in their homes. Such care includes physical, psychosocial, palliative and spiritual activities. The goal of CRBC is to provide hope through high-quality and appropriate care that helps ill people and families to maintain their independence and achieve the best possible quality of life.
This document targets three important audiences: policy-makers and senior administrators, middle managers and those who develop and run CRBC programmes. Although the roles and responsibilities of these target audiences differ somewhat, developing effective partnerships among the three is essential. Policy-makers and senior administrators must be involved in developing and monitoring CRBC programmes, and the people who manage and run the programmes must share information and feedback with senior administrators. In this sense, policy and action are interrelated as each partner learns from and guides the other. To this end, this document is divided into four interrelated sections: a policy framework for CRBC; the roles and responsibilities for CRBC at the national, district and local levels of administration; the essential elements of CRBC; and the strategies for action in establishing and maintaining CRBC in resource-limited settings.

eds EOO, eds DOO. THE EAST AFICAN GREAT LAKES: LIMNOLOGY, PALAEOLIMNOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY. Moscow: KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS; 2002. Abstractspringer

The Second International Symposium on the East African Lakes was held from 10-15 January 2000 at Club Makokola on the southern shore of Lake Malawi. The symposium was organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL), a research consortium of African, European and North American scientists interested in promoting the investigations of African Great Lakes as archives of environmental and climatic dynamics. Over one hundred African, European and North American scientists with special expertise in the tropical lakes participated in the symposium which featured compelling presentations on the limnology, climatology, palaeoclimatology and biodiversity of the East African Lakes. It is their papers that comprise this book.

The large lakes of East Africa are important natural resources that are heavily utilized by their bordering countries for transportation, water supply, fisheries, waste disposal, recreation and tourism. The lakes are unique in many ways: they are sensitive to climatic change and their circulation dynamics, water-column chemistry and biological complexity differ significantly from large lakes at higher latitudes; they have long, continuous, high resolution records of past climatic change; and they have rich and diverse populations of endemic organisms. These unique properties and the significance of the palaeolimnological records demand and attract research interest from around the world. IDEAL research is contributing to our understanding of basic limnological processes in the African Great Lakes and how physical dynamics drive their biogeochemistry and thus rendering them sensitive, compared to temperate great lakes, to climatic and anthropogenic change. Recent studies indicate that Lake Victoria has undergone dramatic shifts in the lake ecosystem caused by the introduction of the Nile Perch in 1950s and of the water hyacinth during the past five years.

The lake also dried up completely prior to 12,400 years BP. Thus, the hundreds of species of fish in modern Lake Victoria may have evolved within the last 12,400 years; this is the fastest rate of vertebrate species evolution ever recorded. Elsewhere in East Africa, high resolution studies of past climate change in Lake Naivasha, Kenya and in Lake Malawi have shown a distinct Little Ice Age in tropical Africa. Evidence for the Younger Dryas even in tropical Africa has also been documented in the sediment record of Lake Albert. More recent studies havedemonstrated that Lake Malawi was at a low stand during the LGM like all the African lakes in the Northern Hemisphere. This lake was previously known to havex been low in the early Holocene and around 35ka but was believed to have been at a high stand during the LGM. Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika are aquatic island systems of elevated endemic biodiversity providing extraordinary conditions to study evolutionary biology. In these lakes we have the unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of evolutionary and ecological change.

Patterns of speciation, the origin of major morphological evolution, and the origin of major reorganizations in community structures can all be investigated in a comparative setting in these two lakes. The sedimentary record of these lakes offers us an opportunity to resolve both evolutionary and ecological changes in their biota at time scales of decades, centuries, millennia, to millions of years. Despite their long histories and geological similarities, the patterns of diversity and genetic differentiation of the biota differ dramatically between Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. Both lakes were colonized by cichlid fishes, thiarid gastropods and ostracode crustaceans, but these exemplar taxal currently have contrasting aspects in the two lakes. Approximately 1000 fish species are estimated to have evolved within the cradle of Lake Malawi, which is approximately 10 per cent of all freshwater fish species in the world. Despite their astonishing multitude, these species encompass a rather modest degree of molecular genetic and morphological change. The fishes in Lake Tanganyika are genetically and morphologically much more diverse than those in Lake Malawi, yet total only 300 species. In Lake Tanganyika about 240 out of 250 species of prosobranch gastropods and ostracode crustaceans are unique to that lake, and like the cichlid fish, form numerous distinct, divergent lineages. The living prosobranch gastropod fauna of Lake Malawi has undergone only limited differentiation and few if any endemic ostracodes are reported from this lake.

The papers presented in this book provide a comprehensive coverage of the large lakes of East African Rift Valley, touching on climate, limnology, palaeoclimatology, sedimentation processes, biodiversity and management issues of these lakes. The papers show that high quality, globally relevant research can be, and is being done in Africa. The call from African researchers is for their international colleagues and the science funding agencies to move from a position where they see their interactions in Africa essentially as “capacity building” to one of partnership and “capacity recognition” with capacitating where necessary and effective. African and developed world science administrators must work together to sustain the scientific capacity which has been built in Africa, instead of tacitly allowing it to migrate to Europe and North America. The world needs it to stay home.

Wanjala G. Educational Planning : Lecture Series. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press-CEES; 2002. Abstract

The module as a whole is designed to provide both the student and the lecturer/professor with a descriptive account of the content of planning and its application to education and national development. it is divided into four sections. Section One comprises of the first six lectures of the unit and is intended to introduce the learner to the study of educational planning. Lecture 1 deals with the general concept of planning ; its characteristics and scope. The concept of planning as applied to education is described in Lecture 2 and Lecture 3 deals with the concept of modelling in educational planning. Lecture 4 discusses the historical background and rationale for educational planning while the social and psychological factors affecting educational planning are dealt with in Lecture 5 and the final lecture in this section discusses the process of educational planning.
Section Two covers three lectures which , taken together intend to introduce the learner to methodologies of educational planning with particular reference to developing countries , that is the Social Demand Approach covered in in Lecture 7 ; the Labour Requirements Approach covered in Lecture 8 and the Cost/benefit Analysis Approach covered in Lecture 9.
Section Three has three broad lectures , which give some highlights on the need to plan for changes in the educational system. They focus on the issues of efficiency and equity as a measure of the success of an educational system.
Section Four has three lectures dealing with population , education and national development. Apart from considering demographic factors and how they affect educational planning , we also examine matters dealing with the location of schools.

Gatumu HN. GCD-015: Research Methods in Guidance counseling. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2002.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Gender and Constitution: Academicians’ Perspectives. Nairobi: CCGD; 2002.
Subbo W. Gender training in and resource manual.; 2002. AbstractWebsite

Why a Christian Gender Manual The Church plays a pivotal role in contributing to a world where justice, peace, truth, freedom and solidarity prevail, a world where God reigns. Thus the Church is committed to protecting the dignity of women like any other human being. These include elimination of gender-based discrimination, exclusion and violence among others. Addressing gender is translating the Christian message of love of neighbor into action. This manual will guide users to address gender imbalances in the light of Christian virtues-the Social Teaching of the Church and to plan for active peace-building that will bridge the Gender Gaps and harmonise relations between women and men of God. It will assist development workers of the Kenya Episcopal Conference – Catholic Secretariat in particular and Church Organisations in general, to plan for interventions that will correct gender imbalances and lead to more equitable and sustainable human development. This manual is primarily meant for Catholic Development Workers and Trainers. It is envisaged that this manual: • Provide a comprehensive training for gender trainers that also takes into account vital African and theological perspectives. • Help promote gender awareness thus increasing he empowerment of the Family of God – both women and men.

Nyasani PJ. A General Guide to English Pronounciation for Learners and Teachers in African Schools. Nairobi: The Nairobi Academic Book Publishers; 2002.
Yoon DH, Ochieng JW, Lee HK, Oh SJ, Cho BW, Cheong IC, Hanotte O. Genetic diversity and relationships of three Eastern Asian cattle breeds.; 2002. AbstractBook

Ten cattle populations, 3 Asian (Hanwoo, Yanbian, Wagyu), 2 African, and 2 European Bos taurus as well as 2 Asian B. indicus and one Bali cattle, B. banteng, were characterized with 13 microsatellite markers. A total of 364 animals from the different cattle populations were used in the study. Allele frequencies were used to estimate expected heterozygosities (He), genetic distances (Ds), and to perform principal component analysis. 165 alleles were observed across all loci. The data supported a common origin for the Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (Ds=0.013). No evidence for a major West European taurine introgression into the Wagyu was observed. The Eastern Asian cattle were found to be genetically distinct from the European and African taurine and from the Asian zebu. It is recommended that the genetic uniqueness of these cattle breeds be maintained in conservation and improvement programmes

E.O O, Tyson P, Virji, H. Global-Regional Linkages in the Earth System. Berlin: Springer; 2002. Abstract

This book synthesizes current knowledge of regional-global linkages in four regions to demonstrate that study of environmental change on a regional scale can enhance understanding of global-scale environmental changes. The atmospheric circulation over Southern Africa links regional nutrient and pollutant sources to distant sinks affecting both regional and global ecosystem functioning. Extended human modification of land cover in East Asia has altered the complex surface-atmosphere exchanges impacting the Asian monsoon system. Biogenic and anthropogenic emissions over South Asia are implicated in changes in global tropospheric ozone and oceanic biogeochemical balances. Economic globalisation has negatively impacted regional environments of Southeast Asia.

Keywords » biogeochemical cycling - climate change - environmental change - global change - land use

Kamau MM. Law and Ethics of Media: English Adaptation. Nairobi: Pauline Publications; 2002.
L. Owiti, W. Musyoni JB. Rise Up and Act: A Resource Material on iolence Against Women. Nairobi: All Africa Conference of Churches; 2002.
Wamitila KW. Uhakiki wa Fasihi.; 2002.Website
Oucho JO. Undercurrents of Ethnic Conflict in Kenya. Leiden: The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers; 2002.
Wangu wa Makeri: A Biography . Nairobi.: East African Education Publishers, ; 2002.
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Mitullah WV, Alila PO, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Wamitila KW. Zimwi la leo.; 2002.Website
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
Likimani T. Chemistry and its applications.; 2001. Abstract

PREFACE To reap the full benefit of any product available in the market, consumers should know the types of raw materials in the products, the way in which the products perform their job, and the precautions that need to be taken when using the products. With some basic knowledge of chemistry, the small print on the label becomes important to the consumer and may lead to a better selection and use of the product purchased. The first chapter of this book deals primarily with the chemical nature of both living and non-living things. Chapter Two places emphasis on the innate curiosity of man and his use of experimentation in the evolution of important chemical transformation processes that bring about changes in matter. These reaction processes are employed in the chemical industries discussed in the subsequent chapters; their inclusion therefore seeks to bring the study of chemistry into focus in the student's life. The rest of the text material, which can be built on a very thoughtful analysis of chemical theory or a simple notion of atoms, molecules and a few molecular geometries and interactions, enlightens the student on the many ways in which chemical knowledge has been applied to solve practical problems. An innovative approach to the problem of teaching students something about the chemical processes which touch upon their daily lives is discussed under various chemical aspects including: isolation of metals from their ores and salts and their uses, nuclear processes and their applications, the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres and surface-coating products, beauty aids, perfumes and flavouring agents, foods, agrochemical and animal health products, fermentation reaction products and medicines, environmental chemical pollution, chemical poisons and their basis of toxicity, the role of chemistry in industrial and economic development (with a discussion on some critical industries) and, finally, safety precautions against chemical hazards. Although some of the exercises provided at the end of each chapter are meant to test the reader's understanding of concepts, a few open-ended questions have been added to stimulate the bright student and to involve him or her in some of the inevitable controversies of chemical science. A few references have been provided to encourage the enthusiastic student to develop a taste for studying in depth a particular point of interest.

Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Handbook for Civic Education: Nairobi. CEDMAC, CRE-CO, ECEP, and the Gender Consortium.; 2001.
Njeru G. Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. . Nairobi: Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. ; 2001.
Bahemuka J,(Eds) JB. East Africa in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change. Nairobi: Acton Publishers; 2001.
Ogara WO;, Nyariki DM;, Kironchi G. Food Security In Rural Development.; 2001.Website
Nyariki DM;, Kironchi G, Ogara WO;. Food Security In Rural Development.; 2001.Website
Kironchi G, Nyariki DM;, Ogara WO;. Food Security In Rural Development.; 2001.Website
K. M, Owiti O, Winnie Mitullah, Kiai W, Karuru N, Mbugua J, Sihanya B, P.K. M. Gender Dimensions of Politics, Law and Violenc e.; 2001.
2001 K., M OWMKKMSOWN. Gender Dimensions of Politics, Law and Violence. . Nairobi: Women and Law in East Africa-(WLEA)Kenya; 2001.
Okumbe JA. Human Resources Management: An Educational Perspective. Nairobi: Educational Development and Research Bureau; 2001.
Ikiara GK, Aura - Samanta ZO, Sen RK, C P. Industrialisation and Development: The Kenyan Experience.; 2001.Website
Mburu J, Abu-Saʻad Iʻil;. The influence of settlement on substance use and abuse among nomadic population in Israel and Kenya.; 2001. AbstractWebsite

This book provides an overview of how settlement processes among nomadic and semi-nomadic populations can result in social and cultural disruption of traditional life. Based on a study among the Negev Bedouin Arab tribes in Israel and the Maasai tribes in Kenya, it focuses, in particular, on the influence of settlement processes on substance use and abuse. The study is the first to provide numbers of users, types of substances, volumes, and frequencies of substance use. Substance use, particularly of alcohol and drugs, represents a new phenomenon in the Bedouin society. New social environments and conflicting sets of values and behavioral norms, which are far from traditional, are persuading factors behind the new trend of substance use. Among the Maasai, the settlement status is a predominating factor in shaping their lifestyle. It greatly influences the availability of substance, the pattern of substance use and their attitude towards it. Although there was no evidence of any hard drug type use among the Maasai, the use of substance is an increasing trend among them. The results may be useful for the formulation of policies and practices related to improving the settlement and living conditions of nomads and semi-nomads, keeping particular attention to the substance use and abuse policies and programs.

Wamitila KW. Kamusi ya methali.; 2001.Website
Wasamba P, Kanyi W. Making Gender Count in Policy Development. . Nairobi: CCGD; 2001.
Otanga H,(Ed.) IMLM. Melodies of the motherland: An anthology of poems from Kenya. Nairobi. Nairobi: Claripress; 2001.
Wamitila KW. Mwongozo wa Kiu.; 2001.Website
S MRWANYAMAJOSEPH. THE MYSTERIOUS KILLER. Nairobi: Africawide Network; 2001.Website
Ocholla-Ayayo, ABC NIKIA’L & T. Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives. Nairobi: Impress Communications; 2001.
Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, Nyamongo I, Ikamari LDE, Ateng T. Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives. Population Studies and Research Institute; 2001.
Wanyande P, Odhiambo-Mbai C. Public Service Ethics in Kenya.; 2001.Website
Wamitila KW. Radical feminism.; 2001.Website
Wasamba P, Rayya T. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 2. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2001.
Ondeiki EO, Wood R. Inventory of building resources, techniques and designs for Maasai Integrated Shelter Project (MISP). Nairobi: Intermediate Technology Development Group ITDG (EA); 2000.
C.O.N K, perspective R(E) ARC. Aids: ignorance or overwhelming drive. Nairobi: USIU; 2000.
Gichuki FN, Gachene CKK. Biological and water-harvesting measures for gully control.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The Arpolo gullying control project in the West Pokot Region of Kenya is described. This is an example of conservation work done to protect the Arpolo dispensary which cost >KES350,000 to put up and serves about 3,000 people and is threatened by a fast-growing gully. The initial proposal for a concrete wall in the first phase of implementation was not feasible since it would be undermined during the rains. The alternative was to plan, design and apply water-harvesting methods and implement biological measures that would reduce the erosive energy of the surface runoff. The design of the water-harvesting structures is shown. The success of the project shows that land and water management requires skillful planning and design, especially where soils are vulnerable to erosion. The physical and chemical properties of the soils in the area are described. Given proper hydraulic designs, water-harvesting measures are still a reliable means of soil conservation.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Biological and water-harvesting measures for gully control.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The Arpolo gullying control project in the West Pokot Region of Kenya is described. This is an example of conservation work done to protect the Arpolo dispensary which cost >KES350,000 to put up and serves about 3,000 people and is threatened by a fast-growing gully. The initial proposal for a concrete wall in the first phase of implementation was not feasible since it would be undermined during the rains. The alternative was to plan, design and apply water-harvesting methods and implement biological measures that would reduce the erosive energy of the surface runoff. The design of the water-harvesting structures is shown. The success of the project shows that land and water management requires skillful planning and design, especially where soils are vulnerable to erosion. The physical and chemical properties of the soils in the area are described. Given proper hydraulic designs, water-harvesting measures are still a reliable means of soil conservation.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Development of a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the management of soil fertility by smallholder farmers: experience of the TSBF programme..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper outlines the development of a new methodology to modify and improve the indigenous practices of soil fertility management in Eastern and Southern Africa and suggests requirements for involvement by collaborating institutions. It provides a brief history of the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TBSF) Programme in Africa, ongoing resource integration work in Zimbabwe, proposed work in Kenya and team development in Zimbabwe.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Development of a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the management of soil fertility by smallholder farmers: experience of the TSBF programme..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper outlines the development of a new methodology to modify and improve the indigenous practices of soil fertility management in Eastern and Southern Africa and suggests requirements for involvement by collaborating institutions. It provides a brief history of the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TBSF) Programme in Africa, ongoing resource integration work in Zimbabwe, proposed work in Kenya and team development in Zimbabwe.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effect of micro-catchment size on survival and growth of two semiarid tree species..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of three different micro-catchment sizes on survival and growth of plant species was assessed and success in establishment and growth of Croton megalocarpus and Cassia spectabilis was compared in a semi-arid region of Kitui District, Kenya. Both species were planted in 25 x 25 cm, 45 x 45 cm, and 65 x 65 cm spherical micro-catchments. Height and diameter were measured and a survival count was taken. Results show that then micro-catchment size influenced (P>0.05) lateral growth of both species. Lateral growth of C. spectabilis in the smaller two micro-catchments (3.66 and 4.60 cm, resp.) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but was less than in the largest micro-catchment(5,31 cm). These results indicate that the two species are suitable for afforestation in these areas and that their survival is not limited by provision of a catchment in the area.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Effect of micro-catchment size on survival and growth of two semiarid tree species..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of three different micro-catchment sizes on survival and growth of plant species was assessed and success in establishment and growth of Croton megalocarpus and Cassia spectabilis was compared in a semi-arid region of Kitui District, Kenya. Both species were planted in 25 x 25 cm, 45 x 45 cm, and 65 x 65 cm spherical micro-catchments. Height and diameter were measured and a survival count was taken. Results show that then micro-catchment size influenced (P>0.05) lateral growth of both species. Lateral growth of C. spectabilis in the smaller two micro-catchments (3.66 and 4.60 cm, resp.) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but was less than in the largest micro-catchment(5,31 cm). These results indicate that the two species are suitable for afforestation in these areas and that their survival is not limited by provision of a catchment in the area.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. The effect of variations in maize stover placement on maize growth and nitrogen uptake in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions of Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Stover placement (surface mulch, incorporated or a mixture of mulch and incorporation) was compared with stover removal in the presence and absence of 50kg N fertilizer/ha in trials over two successive seasons in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions in Kenya. Stover applied at 4 tonnes DM/ha was found to have highly variable effects on maize growth and yield according to site., method of stover placement, N application and season. Relative to controls without stover, stover incorporation reduced yield by 39% in the first season, followed by yield increases of 15% in the second season. In the first season there was little or no response to N in the presence of stover. Low N uptake and N use efficiency suggested N immobilization in the incorporation treatment. Yield responses and large N uptake in the following season suggested mineralization of N immobilized in the previous season. Surface mulching at the Kabete site increased grain yields in the first season by 39% and 6% compared to stover removal without and with fertilizer, resp. In the second season, surface mulching markedly reduced yields possibly due to a combination of reduced phytotoxicity and N immobilization. At the Katumani site, stover amendments increased yields compared to removal in both seasons with incorporation results being superior to surface mulch. At this site, in both seasons, application of N reduced the effect of stover mulching and incorporation. You must log in to CAB Direct in order to view search results. If you have forgotten your log

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. The effect of variations in maize stover placement on maize growth and nitrogen uptake in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions of Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Stover placement (surface mulch, incorporated or a mixture of mulch and incorporation) was compared with stover removal in the presence and absence of 50kg N fertilizer/ha in trials over two successive seasons in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions in Kenya. Stover applied at 4 tonnes DM/ha was found to have highly variable effects on maize growth and yield according to site., method of stover placement, N application and season. Relative to controls without stover, stover incorporation reduced yield by 39% in the first season, followed by yield increases of 15% in the second season. In the first season there was little or no response to N in the presence of stover. Low N uptake and N use efficiency suggested N immobilization in the incorporation treatment. Yield responses and large N uptake in the following season suggested mineralization of N immobilized in the previous season. Surface mulching at the Kabete site increased grain yields in the first season by 39% and 6% compared to stover removal without and with fertilizer, resp. In the second season, surface mulching markedly reduced yields possibly due to a combination of reduced phytotoxicity and N immobilization. At the Katumani site, stover amendments increased yields compared to removal in both seasons with incorporation results being superior to surface mulch. At this site, in both seasons, application of N reduced the effect of stover mulching and incorporation. You must log in to CAB Direct in order to view search results. If you have forgotten your log

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. The effect of varying rates of compost and diammonium phosphate on soil physical properties and crop performance..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Long-term use of compost (4, 8, 12 or 125 kg/ha for maize and 10, 20, 30 or 200 kg/ha for beans) on improving crop yields and soil physical characteristics was studied at the steep-land research site, Kabete campus, Kenya. Preliminary results showed that maize yields under compost were lower than under diammonium phosphate (DAP). Compost increased the maize yield by 15% compared to an increase of 50% caused by DAP. Bean yield did not show any response to any rates of compost or DAP. The use of compost improved soil physical conditions, mainly bulk density and infiltration rates.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. The effect of varying rates of compost and diammonium phosphate on soil physical properties and crop performance..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Long-term use of compost (4, 8, 12 or 125 kg/ha for maize and 10, 20, 30 or 200 kg/ha for beans) on improving crop yields and soil physical characteristics was studied at the steep-land research site, Kabete campus, Kenya. Preliminary results showed that maize yields under compost were lower than under diammonium phosphate (DAP). Compost increased the maize yield by 15% compared to an increase of 50% caused by DAP. Bean yield did not show any response to any rates of compost or DAP. The use of compost improved soil physical conditions, mainly bulk density and infiltration rates

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effectiveness of three grass species as filter strips for soil conservation on cropland..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effectiveness of different grass spp. in reducing runoff and soil loss was studied at Kabete campus, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Half metre wide strips of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), Nandi setaria (Setaria anceps) and tall Signal grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) were established on 11m x 2m runoff plots, and runoff and soil loss were monitored for each rainfall event during the long and short rains of 1990. In terms of runoff control, there was no significant difference between treatments during early establishment; however, runoff form plot with filter strips was always lower than controls. B. ruziziensis was most effective at runoff and soil loss reduction and this was attributed to growth habit and slow rate of establishment. The capability of the strips to impede runoff improved with time.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Effectiveness of three grass species as filter strips for soil conservation on cropland..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effectiveness of different grass spp. in reducing runoff and soil loss was studied at Kabete campus, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Half metre wide strips of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), Nandi setaria (Setaria anceps) and tall Signal grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) were established on 11m x 2m runoff plots, and runoff and soil loss were monitored for each rainfall event during the long and short rains of 1990. In terms of runoff control, there was no significant difference between treatments during early establishment; however, runoff form plot with filter strips was always lower than controls. B. ruziziensis was most effective at runoff and soil loss reduction and this was attributed to growth habit and slow rate of establishment. The capability of the strips to impede runoff improved with time.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effects of phosphorus supply on the growth and nodulation of cowpeas..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of P supply (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha) on growth and nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) cv. Vita 4 and Ife Brown grown in a podzolic soil (Haplustult) was studied in a greenhouse trial. The seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhyzobium CB 756. Plants were harvested at the beginning of flowering. The number of trifoliate leaves and DM yield in both cv. increased with increasing P application. The yield of the tops of Vita 4 was maximum at 160 kg P/ha and that of Ife Brown at 320 kg P/Ha. Extractable P related linearly to the rate of applied P, and DM yield increased with increase in extractable P. Plants grown without P had fewer and smaller nodules. An increase in P from 1 to 160 kg/ha increased the number of nodules/plant from 16 to 113 in Vita 4 and from 14 to 70 in Ife Brown. Similarly, increasing P increased nodule dry weight. The P conc. of the youngest fully expanded leaf (YFEL) and in the whole plant top increased with increasing P supply in both cv. and was generally higher in the YFEL than in the whole top. A critical P conc. of 0.3 and 0.25% was found in the YFEL and the whole top, resp., for cv. Vita 4.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Effects of phosphorus supply on the growth and nodulation of cowpeas..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of P supply (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha) on growth and nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) cv. Vita 4 and Ife Brown grown in a podzolic soil (Haplustult) was studied in a greenhouse trial. The seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhyzobium CB 756. Plants were harvested at the beginning of flowering. The number of trifoliate leaves and DM yield in both cv. increased with increasing P application. The yield of the tops of Vita 4 was maximum at 160 kg P/ha and that of Ife Brown at 320 kg P/Ha. Extractable P related linearly to the rate of applied P, and DM yield increased with increase in extractable P. Plants grown without P had fewer and smaller nodules. An increase in P from 1 to 160 kg/ha increased the number of nodules/plant from 16 to 113 in Vita 4 and from 14 to 70 in Ife Brown. Similarly, increasing P increased nodule dry weight. The P conc. of the youngest fully expanded leaf (YFEL) and in the whole plant top increased with increasing P supply in both cv. and was generally higher in the YFEL than in the whole top. A critical P conc. of 0.3 and 0.25% was found in the YFEL and the whole top, resp., for cv. Vita 4.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Environmental and land-use consequences of sand harvesting in Masinga division..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the impact of sand harvesting from rivers on the environment, land use and social life in the Masinga Division, Machakos District, Kenya. Sand acts as a safe aquifer for water flowing below and through it. Removal of sand results in destruction of underground aquifers and loss of safe water. sand scooping adversely affects surface water quality and quantity and damages the aquatic ecosystem. Haulage of sand by heavy trucks causes environmental degradation by accelerating soil erosion and affecting soil stability. Storage of sand causes destruction of surface areas through clearing of vegetation and uses land that could be used for agriculture. Related social and health problems include prostitution and high school drop-out rate leading to serious social and health problems. The beneficial effects of sand harvesting include local employment; however, the share of monetary benefits to locals is minimal. The results show that the local community gains the least from sand harvesting, but stands to suffer the most if the degradation of the river system continues. Suggestions are made for safe and sustainable methods of managing sand harvesting, in which greater local involvement and stricter enforcement of regulations to protect the environment are vital.

Mungai, DN; Thomas DB, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK;, Gachene CKK;. Environmental and land-use consequences of sand harvesting in Masinga division..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the impact of sand harvesting from rivers on the environment, land use and social life in the Masinga Division, Machakos District, Kenya. Sand acts as a safe aquifer for water flowing below and through it. Removal of sand results in destruction of underground aquifers and loss of safe water. sand scooping adversely affects surface water quality and quantity and damages the aquatic ecosystem. Haulage of sand by heavy trucks causes environmental degradation by accelerating soil erosion and affecting soil stability. Storage of sand causes destruction of surface areas through clearing of vegetation and uses land that could be used for agriculture. Related social and health problems include prostitution and high school drop-out rate leading to serious social and health problems. The beneficial effects of sand harvesting include local employment; however, the share of monetary benefits to locals is minimal. The results show that the local community gains the least from sand harvesting, but stands to suffer the most if the degradation of the river system continues. Suggestions are made for safe and sustainable methods of managing sand harvesting, in which greater local involvement and stricter enforcement of regulations to protect the environment are vital.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Environmental impact assessment for water development and conservation..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The possible environmental impacts of water development projects and land use practices such as deforestation and over grazing on water supply in Kenya are reviewed. Measures that can be taken in conjunction with properly conducted environmental impact assessments to mitigate adverse impacts are suggested

Mungai, DN; Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Gichuki FN;. Environmental impact assessment for water development and conservation..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The possible environmental impacts of water development projects and land use practices such as deforestation and over grazing on water supply in Kenya are reviewed. Measures that can be taken in conjunction with properly conducted environmental impact assessments to mitigate adverse impacts are suggested

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Erosion scars caused by earthflows: a case study of Ol Joro Orok division, Nyandarua district.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes earthflow features in Nyairoko sub-location of Ol Joro Orok Division, Kenya. In 1989 more than 900 earthflows were counted in Nyandarua District, most of them in Ol Joro Orok and Ol Kalou Divisions. Individual flows affected areas between a few square metres and two hectares. More than 50% of the farms in the area were affected by earthflows. Such earthflows occurred only on grazing land and on convex slopes and were usually the result of extremely slow processes. Soils in the area are mainly moderately well drained, dark reddish brown Luvisols and well-drained, red to reddish-brown Nitisols. The first visible signs were usually shallow scars along the contour, breaking up the grass vegetation. Subsequent soil movement was very gradual. According to old residents of the area some of the earthflow features had been observed as long as 60 years ago and could not be attributed to land use change. One earthflow studied in detail revealed that soil stratification impeded drainage, leading to oversaturation of the topsoil layers and that seasonal subsurface flow generally seemed to be responsible for the soil movement. No obvious triggering could be identified.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Erosion scars caused by earthflows: a case study of Ol Joro Orok division, Nyandarua district.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes earthflow features in Nyairoko sub-location of Ol Joro Orok Division, Kenya. In 1989 more than 900 earthflows were counted in Nyandarua District, most of them in Ol Joro Orok and Ol Kalou Divisions. Individual flows affected areas between a few square metres and two hectares. More than 50% of the farms in the area were affected by earthflows. Such earthflows occurred only on grazing land and on convex slopes and were usually the result of extremely slow processes. Soils in the area are mainly moderately well drained, dark reddish brown Luvisols and well-drained, red to reddish-brown Nitisols. The first visible signs were usually shallow scars along the contour, breaking up the grass vegetation. Subsequent soil movement was very gradual. According to old residents of the area some of the earthflow features had been observed as long as 60 years ago and could not be attributed to land use change. One earthflow studied in detail revealed that soil stratification impeded drainage, leading to oversaturation of the topsoil layers and that seasonal subsurface flow generally seemed to be responsible for the soil movement. No obvious triggering could be identified.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. An evaluation of gully control measures in Central Province, Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Forty controlled gullies distributed in Kiambu, Murang'a and Nyeri Districts of Central Province, Kenya, were randomly selected to evaluate their control measures. A recording schedule was developed to assist in collecting pertinent information. Results indicate that the failure of gully control in Central Province can be attributed to lack of technically skilled personnel and poor maintenance of gully control structures. It is concluded that there is a great need to impart technical knowledge to technical staff, and that it is essential to intensify research on gully control techniques and that there is regular and proper maintenance of all gully control structures after rainstorms.

Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;. An evaluation of gully control measures in Central Province, Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Forty controlled gullies distributed in Kiambu, Murang'a and Nyeri Districts of Central Province, Kenya, were randomly selected to evaluate their control measures. A recording schedule was developed to assist in collecting pertinent information. Results indicate that the failure of gully control in Central Province can be attributed to lack of technically skilled personnel and poor maintenance of gully control structures. It is concluded that there is a great need to impart technical knowledge to technical staff, and that it is essential to intensify research on gully control techniques and that there is regular and proper maintenance of all gully control structures after rainstorms.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Factors affecting land use and crop production in Botswana..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper looks at factors which influence land allocation and crop production patterns in Botswana, across traditional and commercial farmers. It found that, among smallholder traditional farmers, less land is used (on average 5.6 ha) and is subdivided into the growing of three major crops: sorghum, maize and beans, with more land allocated to sorghum, the main staple and more adaptable to the climate. The small amount of cultivated land is attributed to lack of capital, transport and labour. Although large areas of land are owned by commercial farmers a high percentage is left idle due to constraints such as poor marketing systems, poor storage facilities and shortage of labour.

Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;. Factors affecting land use and crop production in Botswana..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper looks at factors which influence land allocation and crop production patterns in Botswana, across traditional and commercial farmers. It found that, among smallholder traditional farmers, less land is used (on average 5.6 ha) and is subdivided into the growing of three major crops: sorghum, maize and beans, with more land allocated to sorghum, the main staple and more adaptable to the climate. The small amount of cultivated land is attributed to lack of capital, transport and labour. Although large areas of land are owned by commercial farmers a high percentage is left idle due to constraints such as poor marketing systems, poor storage facilities and shortage of labour

Nzomo M, MacLean SJ, Shaw T. Going Beyond "States & Markets" to Civil Societies.; 2000.Website
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Hedgerows for control of soil erosion in Kabale, southwest Uganda..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Runoff and soil loss was studied on steep terraced slopes containing various combinations of lines of Grevillea robusta, hedgerows of Calliandra calothyrsus and strips of Pennisetum purpureum in Kabale, southwest Uganda. A factorial design, replicated three times, included three levels of intra-row spacing (0, 3 and 5m) of Grevillea spp. and three understorey types (none, Pennisetum and Calliandra spp). The understorey and Grevillea were interplanted along a contour in the middle of the terrace parallel to the two adjacent risers. Results indicate that when contour lines of trees are on fallow ground there is little or possibly a negative effect in controlling soil and water loss. When contour lines are on steep cultivated terraces they have a significant effect in reducing losses. The understoreys appear to filter out much of the sediment from the runoff, holding it in or above the contour line of the vegetation. The potential for using contour lines of Pennisetum and Calliandra for controlling soil and water loss is discussed.

Mungai, DN; Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Gichuki FN;. Hedgerows for control of soil erosion in Kabale, southwest Uganda..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Runoff and soil loss was studied on steep terraced slopes containing various combinations of lines of Grevillea robusta, hedgerows of Calliandra calothyrsus and strips of Pennisetum purpureum in Kabale, southwest Uganda. A factorial design, replicated three times, included three levels of intra-row spacing (0, 3 and 5m) of Grevillea spp. and three understorey types (none, Pennisetum and Calliandra spp). The understorey and Grevillea were interplanted along a contour in the middle of the terrace parallel to the two adjacent risers. Results indicate that when contour lines of trees are on fallow ground there is little or possibly a negative effect in controlling soil and water loss. When contour lines are on steep cultivated terraces they have a significant effect in reducing losses. The understoreys appear to filter out much of the sediment from the runoff, holding it in or above the contour line of the vegetation. The potential for using contour lines of Pennisetum and Calliandra for controlling soil and water loss is discussed.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. The impact of climatic changes on land and water resource management in Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The implications of global climatic change on water resource development and management in Kenya was examined. The extent to which the water resources of the various regions of Kenya will be affected and the effects on streamflow regimes, rainfall amount, frequency and distribution patterns and the overall effects of these on socio-economic development are discussed. It is suggested that increased drought could occur in low-potential regions of Eastern, Rift valley and North Eastern Provinces, whilst regions that already receive a favourable amount of rainfall could have even higher amounts. Changes in rainfall patterns and stream discharge may require translocation of current water development projects with possible high costs and dire consequences for those dependent upon such projects. The increases aridity in the arid and semi-arid lands may lead to increased salinity of groundwater, limiting it's use. Recommendations include water conservation strategies, groundwater basin recharge, inter-basin water transfer from high to low potential zones, cloud seeding above arid and semi-arid areas, better soil and water conservation strategies, and controlling the use of products contributing to global warming.

Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;. The impact of climatic changes on land and water resource management in Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The implications of global climatic change on water resource development and management in Kenya was examined. The extent to which the water resources of the various regions of Kenya will be affected and the effects on streamflow regimes, rainfall amount, frequency and distribution patterns and the overall effects of these on socio-economic development are discussed. It is suggested that increased drought could occur in low-potential regions of Eastern, Rift valley and North Eastern Provinces, whilst regions that already receive a favourable amount of rainfall could have even higher amounts. Changes in rainfall patterns and stream discharge may require translocation of current water development projects with possible high costs and dire consequences for those dependent upon such projects. The increases aridity in the arid and semi-arid lands may lead to increased salinity of groundwater, limiting it's use. Recommendations include water conservation strategies, groundwater basin recharge, inter-basin water transfer from high to low potential zones, cloud seeding above arid and semi-arid areas, better soil and water conservation strategies, and controlling the use of products contributing to global warming.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Impacts of land-use practices on natural forests and watersheds in the lake Nakuru catchment basin..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Trends in land use practices in the Lake Nakuru catchment area and, in particular, the causes and impacts of deforestation, which threaten the lake's unique ecology. It addresses the importance of natural forests for the successful management of the lake's watershed area. Findings are all discussed in the broader, national context and some suggestions for programmes of action to alleviate problems caused by deforestation are presented.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Impacts of land-use practices on natural forests and watersheds in the lake Nakuru catchment basin..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Trends in land use practices in the Lake Nakuru catchment area and, in particular, the causes and impacts of deforestation, which threaten the lake's unique ecology. It addresses the importance of natural forests for the successful management of the lake's watershed area. Findings are all discussed in the broader, national context and some suggestions for programmes of action to alleviate problems caused by deforestation are presented.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Influence of dwarf shrubland vegetation communities on soil loss, organic matter and soil texture: a northern Kenya experience..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effect of wind erosion in areas subjected to continuous pastoral use compared with the effects of rangeland rehabilitation in areas subjected to natural recovery were studied at four sites in eco-climate zone VI in the Marsabit District of Kenya. The study was conducted using erosion pins and comparing organic and soil texture changes within the first 10cm of the soil. The soils ranged from loamy sand in the rehabilitation enclosure to sandy soils in the area with continual use. In all cases the soils had poor aggregate stability. An average annual soil loss of 95t/ha was observed in the areas under continuous use where vegetation was minimal, whilst soil was deposited at a rate of 446t/ha annually in the rehabilitation enclosure in which there was plentiful Indigofera dwarf shrubland vegetation

Mungai, DN; Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Intake sedimentation: a case study of JKUAT intake.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

A model of the Ndarugu riverbank intake, Kenya, was used to test various possibilities of weir construction. It was found that by narrowing the river near the intake to increase velocity, sedimentation was drastically reduced. This solution was found to be economically feasible and easy to implement.

Mungai DN;, Suguna DO, Gachene CKK;, Gichuki FN;. Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production..; 2000.Website
Gachene CKK;, Suguna DO, Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;. Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production..; 2000.Website
Mungai, DN; Gachene CKK;, Suguna DO, Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;. Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The constraints on land use and water resources for sustainable agricultural production in Kenya were assessed during May to September 1992 using questionnaires and personal interviews along with existing secondary data using districts representative of the country as a whole. It is concluded that land use planning in Kenya is disastrous. A large proportion of good land is under commercial crops that are less important than food crops, from social and political standpoints. Soil degradative processes, other than accelerated erosion, should be given due attention. Erosion control measures should be evaluated for technical feasibility, economic benefit, social acceptability and environmental suitability. Soil erosion classification is required. Drainage and irrigation potentials are under-exploited, whilst fertilizer use on food crops is minimal. Due to maldistribution and mismanagement of land and water resources, low crop production per unit of land is common. It is recommended that techniques be developed to ensure sustained high productivity of land to satisfy changing needs without unnecessary opening up of new land

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Land-use planning, development and policy for rural Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper is concerned with policy and development issues relating to the planning of rural land use in Kenya. The central theme of the analysis is the critical and urgent need for sustainable land use. Based on a study of land considerations in past development policies and of current land use issues, the paper discusses current development strategies and issues. Pitfalls likely to be encountered in future land use planning in rural Kenya are discussed.

Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, IKAMARI L, Nyamongo I, Otieno AAT. Maternal mortality situation in Kenya, Population, Health and Development.; 2000.Website
IKAMARI L, Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, Nyamongo I, Otieno AAT. Maternal mortality situation in Kenya, Population, Health and Development.; 2000.Website
Nyamongo I, Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, IKAMARI L, Otieno AAT. Maternal mortality situation in Kenya, Population, Health and Development.; 2000.Website
Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK, Mungai DN;. Minimizing hydrological impacts of smallholder drainage development.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

A review of available literature on the hydrologic impacts of drainage is presented and management practices that reduce such impacts are identified. Factors that influence the impact of drainage include land use, soil type, drainage density, type and condition of the drains, size and duration of the storm, and extent and location of the drainage. Suggested options for minimising impacts include: appropriate land use (fish ponds, duck farming, harvesting natural products, dry season grazing or cultivation); controlled drainage through use of shallow drains, drainage for growing water-loving plants, land preparation (hilling, cambered beds), and blocking drains at the end of the rains; and water storage (dams along the river or farm ponds).

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