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1970
Muchai K, Gathuma J, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Magambo JK, Zeyhle E. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of 14 hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 1970.
1975
Zemek J, Bílik V, Zákutná L. "Effect of some aldoses on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibited with molybdenum." Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 1975;20(6):467-9. Abstract

The inhibitory effect of molybdenum ions on growth of yeasts at pH 5.5 was found to be decreased by aldoses in the following order: D-talose greater than L-mannose greater than L-ribose greater than D-lyxose greater than L-galactose greater than L-arabinose greater than L-glucose greater than L-xylose. Increased concentrations of molybdenum brought about morphological changes of yeast cells. Cells grown under these conditions were smaller, had thicker walls and formed clusters.

1976
Zegers PV, Harmet KH, Hanzely L. "Inhibition of IAA-induced elongation in Avena coleoptile segments by lead: a physiological and an electron microscopic study." Cytobios. 1976;15(57):23-35. Abstract

A high resolution growth measuring apparatus was used to demonstrate the inhibition of auxin-induced cell elongation in oat coleoptile segments (Avena sativa L. var Holden) by lead at concentrations ranging from 2 x 10-6 M to 2 x 10-3 M. The inhibition was immediate, having no measurable lag period. Electron micrographs of lead-treated and control segments revealed that in the treated material, lead became localized as electron-dense granules in the cell walls and in vesicles associated with dictyosomes. These granules were found to be lead hydroxide phosphate by electron diffraction techniques. The possible significance of this localization and identification with regard to phosphatase activity is discussed.

1977
Michieka RW, Ilnicki RD, Justin JR, Zublena J. "Response of kenaf to some preemergence herbicides.". 1977.
1978
Zuzarte JC;, Kasili EG. "Hepatitis B antigen--a review.". 1978.
1979
Zipf WB, Bacon GE, Spencer ML, Kelch RP, Hopwood NJ, Hawker CD. "Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and transient hypoparathyroidism during therapy with potassium phosphate in diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 1979;2:265-268. Abstract

The effects of intravenous administration of potassium phosphate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis were studied in nine children, ages 9 9/12 to 17 10/12 yr. During phosphate infusion (20–40 meq/L of fluid), all children maintained normal serum concentrations of phosphorus. Transient hypocalcemia occurred in six and transient hypomagnesemia in five patients. One child developed carpopedal spasms refractory to intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate but responsive to intramuscular injection of magnesium sulfate. In three patients, serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone were low at the time of hypocalcemia, an observation that suggests transient hypoparathyroidism. This study indicates that the use of potassium phosphate as the sole source of potassium replacement might potentiate ketoacidosis-induced hypocalcemia through multiple mechanisms.

1985
Zander K;, Mburu J. "Determining Right Priorities for Conserving Farm Animal Genetic Resources — The Case of Borana Cattle in East Africa."; 1985. Abstract

Borana cattle have their origin in Southern Ethiopia and Kenya where they are guarded by the Borana-Oromyfa clans in the harsh environment of the Borana plateau. Borana cattle are also the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is formed on the husbandry of these animals. Nowadays the existence of this breed and hence its cultural heritage is threatened due to intensifying crossbreeding among different breeds and eventually dwindling records of pure Borana animals. Conservation of the pure Borana genetic resources is important for future use and enhancement of biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation initiatives is scarce. This study addresses two crucial topics in conservation theory: the question of “which” Borana animals should be conserved and hence deserve priority in funding, and the question of “who” should conserve them. 370 livestock-keepers on the Borana plateau were selected for conducting semi-structured questionnaires and choice experiments. The models were then analysed using NLOGIT 3.0. The first question is driven by the fact that currently three different subtypes of the Borana breed are known and kept on the Borana plateau. Appropriate allocation of funds among them must take place according to their economic and genetic values. Economic values are determined by applying a discrete choice analysis estimating the livestock-keepers’ willingness to pay and relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Genetic values depend on two factors, namely the level of extinction probability and the level of marginal genetic diversity. Both factors are incorporated into the model and together with economic values form the total value of Borana cattle and its subtypes. The question of “who” should participate in conservation initiatives requires the consideration of individual livestock-keepers’ characteristics into the model revealing heterogeneity in livestock-keepers’ preferences and willingness to pay for different cattle attributes. A random parameter logit model is used seeking to establish different groups of livestock-keepers that can be targeted for conserving Borana. Results suggest that Borana cattle are particularly important because of their adaptability and performance attributes and that their values vary significantly among livestock keepers with different production systems and in different areas.

McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle, E; Romig T,; Mwangi, M.; Rees P,; McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle E;, Mwangi M;, Rees P;, McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Romig T;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
1986
Zaja JO. "Short Distance Runners .". 1986.Website
Zaja JO. "Translating The Language Of Development Communication Into Kiswahili: A Case Of Mediating Meaning, Difference And Ambiguity In Cross-cultural Communication .". 1986. AbstractWebsite

Communicating the concepts and practices of development by way of translation across languages and cultures is always intertwined with linguistic and conceptual tensions which blur meaning, distort communicative intention and nurture conceptual ambiguity in target paradigms. In order to create linguistically viable and functional cross-cultural communication, translation has to rely on myriad strategies entailing mediating meaning, that is, rendering cross-cultural communications in ways that make intended meaning accessible and usable. Meanings of concepts and their practices are subtly nuanced and understood in different languages and cultures. Meaning nuances as such denote tensions between incongruent linguistic and cultural interests and in situations of such tensions, translation provides a forte for mediating both linguistic and cultural differences of the interacting languages. This paper seeks to argue that translations of specialized terminologies in any field of human activity do not always result in explicit meaning equivalences, but rather in meanings that are contextually situated and culturally nuanced. Translating in such situations requires that we identify and account for how people and language communities make meaning of concepts on the basis of their own circumstances, worldviews and in their local languages. Thus, lack of linguistic equivalencies and the presence of meaning indeterminacy in translation is not a reflection of translational failure but rather, a calling to attention of the differences in the perceptions and interpretations of concepts across languages, which in subtle ways represent modes of thinking and communicating (Hoppers 2002). Successful and functional translation of specialized terminologies must be underpinned by the realization that conceptual meanings are always situated in cultural, contextual and temporal terms. Their transmission through translation into ‘new’ contexts can never be straightforward but rather mediated.

1987
Macaques R, Ott-Joslin JE, Lasiey BL, Zucker EL, Miller TJ, Bennett B, Stover J. "Zoo Zoology.". 1987.Website
1991
Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Friedrich A, Ziegert W, Brückner G, Schober W. "Development of the rabbit retina. {I}. {Size} of eye and retina, and postnatal cell proliferation." Anatomy and Embryology. 1991;183:287-297. Abstract

Measures of rabbit eyes and retinal wholemounts were used to evaluate the development of retinal area and shape. The retina is shown to have a horizontal axis about a third longer than the vertical axis just before birth, and to adopt an almost symmetrical shape during postnatal development to adulthood. In general, retinal thickness is shown to decrease after birth, but differently in particular retinal regions: the reduction is marked in the periphery, and less pronounced in the visual streak. As an exception, the myelinated region–after it becomes really myelinated, from 9 days p.p.–even increases in thickness. In all regions of the retina, the absolute and relative thickness of the nuclear layers decreases, whereas the relative thickness of plexiform and fibrous layers increases. Proliferation of cells within the rabbit retina was studied during the first three postnatal weeks. 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to demonstrate DNA synthesis autoradiographically in histological sections as well as in enzymatically isolated retinal cells. A first proliferation phase occurs in the neuroblastic cell layer and ceases shortly after birth in the retinal center, but lasts for about one week in the retinal periphery. We found, however, a few 3H-thymidine-labeled cells as late as in the third postnatal week. These late-labeled cells were found within the nerve fiber layer and in the inner plexiform layer. The latter cells were shown to express antigens detected by antibodies directed to the intermediate-sized filament protein vimentin, which are known to label Müller cells and neuroepithelial stem cells. This was confirmed in our preparation of enzymatically isolated cells; all cells with autoradiographically labeled nuclei revealed a characteristic elongated morphology typical for Müller radial glia (and also for early neuroepithelial stem cells). 3H-thymidine-labeled cells in the nerve fiber layer were most probably astrocytic. In analogy to the brain, we conclude that the mammalian retina undergoes a series of proliferation phases: first an early phase producing both neurons and glial cells, and then a late phase producing glial cells, e.g., in the nerve fiber layer. Most probably, the late phase within the inner nuclear layer is glial as well, i.e., consists of dividing Müller cells; it cannot be excluded, however, that there may remain some mitotically active stem cells.

ZAHIDA DRQURESHI, C S-K. "A Survey determine the knowledge attitude and practice of Family Planning among the Nursing Staff of Kenyatta National Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 9 (1): 49, 1991. 1991;9(1):41-45. AbstractWebsite

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

Maj M, Janssen R, Satz P, Zaudig M, Starace F, Boor D, Sughondhabirom B, Bing EB, Luabeya MK, Ndetei MD, et al. "The World Health Organization's cross-cultural study on neuropsychiatric aspects of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1).". 1991.
Zanchetti A, Mancia G. "Cardiovascular reflexes and hypertension." Hypertension. 1991;18:III13-21. Abstract

Both arterial baroreceptor reflexes and cardiopulmonary reflexes are modified in human hypertension. The arterial baroreceptor reflex regulation of heart rate, when tested by both vasoactive drug injection and the neck chamber technique, has been shown to be reset and blunted. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of blood pressure, studied by the neck chamber technique, has been found to be reset to more effectively buffer increases in blood pressure than blood pressure falls, but without any loss of overall reflex sensitivity. Cardiopulmonary reflexes, tested by passive leg raising and by application of lower body negative pressure, are also blunted, and their dysfunction involves not only control of peripheral vasoconstriction but also that of renin release. These readjustments of arterial and cardiopulmonary reflexes make buffering of blood pressure falls or of blood volume changes less effective in hypertension. These readjustments appear to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of hypertension. In particular, the blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes is induced more by left ventricular hypertrophy than by hypertension. It is very marked in hypertensive patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and very significantly improves when left ventricular hypertrophy is made to regress by prolonged antihypertensive therapy; significant blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes has also been found in young athletes with marked left ventricular hypertrophy but normal blood pressure. Whether structural changes in the carotid and aortic wall and possibly in the heart are equally important in the readjustment of arterial baroreceptor reflexes is incompletely clarified at the moment, although there are indications that functional and structural modifications may both be involved.

1993
1994
Maj M, Janssen R, Starace F, Zaudig M, Satz P, Sughondhabirom B, Luabeya MA, Riedel R, Ndetei DM, Calil HM, et al. WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase I.; 1994.
Maj M, Satz P, Janssen R, Zaudig M, Starace F, D'Elia L, Sughondhabirom B, Mussa M, Naber D, Ndetei MD, et al. "WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase II."; 1994.
1995
Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite

Investigations into the plasticity of eye growth and refractive error development have significantly expanded our knowledge of animal models of myopia in the last 15 yr. The applicability of this information is as yet undetermined, but hopefully this information will be useful in learning more about human myopia. This paper presents a critical review of the animal myopia literature as those data relate to the human condition. Differences between the chicken, tree shrew, and primate animal models of myopia are outlined, and the various experimental paradigms used to investigate refractive error development and ocular growth in the chicken are compared. Specific arguments against the application of animal models of myopia to the etiology of human juvenile onset myopia include the following: (1) there is no deprivation of form vision in the environment of the school-aged child as severe as that required to induce myopia in animals; (2) the sensitive period for deprivation myopia in animals appears to be too early to account for human juvenile onset myopia; and (3) studies in the chicken using spectacle lenses to create dioptric blur involve a choroidal thickness modulation that has no human analog. Ultimately, the results of investigations into the cellular and biochemical modulation of eye growth in animals may be the most relevant to human myopia.

Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite

Investigations into the plasticity of eye growth and refractive error development have significantly expanded our knowledge of animal models of myopia in the last 15 yr. The applicability of this information is as yet undetermined, but hopefully this information will be useful in learning more about human myopia. This paper presents a critical review of the animal myopia literature as those data relate to the human condition. Differences between the chicken, tree shrew, and primate animal models of myopia are outlined, and the various experimental paradigms used to investigate refractive error development and ocular growth in the chicken are compared. Specific arguments against the application of animal models of myopia to the etiology of human juvenile onset myopia include the following: (1) there is no deprivation of form vision in the environment of the school-aged child as severe as that required to induce myopia in animals; (2) the sensitive period for deprivation myopia in animals appears to be too early to account for human juvenile onset myopia; and (3) studies in the chicken using spectacle lenses to create dioptric blur involve a choroidal thickness modulation that has no human analog. Ultimately, the results of investigations into the cellular and biochemical modulation of eye growth in animals may be the most relevant to human myopia.

1996
Macpherson CNL, Wachira TM, Zeyhle E, Romig T, Machpherson C. "Hydatid disease-research and control in Turkana." Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1996;80:196-200.
1998
Zeyhle E, T. W, et al. "Hydatid disease in the East African countries." Parasitology International . 1998;47:410.
Z.M K, Narla RD, Waudo SW. Pyrethrum Wilt Caused by Fusarium Oxysporum in Kenya.; 1998.
GW DRJALDESA, ZP DRQURESHI, SMH DRWANJALA, C PROFSEKKADE-KIGONDU. "Factors Enhancing the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation among the Kenyan Somalis. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998. 1998;14(2):110-114. AbstractWebsite

This is a descriptive cross sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 300 respondents who had infibulation as a form of female genital circumcision.The interviews were conducted at Garissa General Hosptial Gynaecology out-patient clinic. The objective of this study was to establish the factors that enhance the practice of female circumcision.
Female circumcision was performed between 3 to 14 years of age with the peak age of 7 years. In 83% of the respondents the event was arranged by the mother of the respondents. The three leading reasons why the practice was carried out in the community were, religious demand(66.3%), prevention of enlargement of clitoris(51%), and protection of virginity (48.3%).
In conclusion FGM is a harmful traditional practice that is traditionally justified but has no medical support.

1999
J. S, Z. Q, C S-K, B. G, T N. "Checklist for ruling out pregnancy among family-planning clients in primary care." Lancet. 1999;354(9178):566. Abstract

Abstract

Where pregnancy tests are unavailable, health providers, fearing possible harm to fetuses, often deny contraception to nonmenstruating clients. In Kenya, a trial of a simple checklist to exclude pregnancy showed a good negative predictive value, which could improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae.

PIP:
This report presents Kenya's checklist (consisting of six simple questions) for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients; the questions are intended to improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae. The checklist includes questions on most recent birth, duration and frequency of breast-feeding, duration since last menstrual period, duration since last abortion or miscarriage, abstinence from sexual relations, and current contraceptive practices. The checklist was administered and followed by dipstick pregnancy tests at seven family planning clinics in order to test its validity. The checklist ruled out pregnancy for 88% of women. The checklist¿s high negative predictive value (99%) should be regarded as the relevant statistic. Widespread use of this checklist could lessen restriction to contraceptives in many countries.

Zeyhle E, T W. "Hepatic Hydatid Cyst in a Turkana Woman - Case Report." African Journal of Health Sciences . 1999;6(1):31-32.
J S, T N, J G, Z Q. "Menstruation Requirements as a Barrier to Contraceptive Access in Kenya E.A.M.J. 76 ( 3 ): 124, 1999." E.A.M.J. . 1999;76(3):124-126. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In many countries, non-menstruating women are routinely denied contraceptive services even when pregnancy can easily be ruled out.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether menstruation requirements in Kenya constitute a barrier to access for potential family planning clients.

DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective observational study.

SETTING: Nine family planning clinics in western Kenya.
SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at Ministry of Health family planning clinics.

INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking and retrospective record reviews to compare the menstrual status of women presenting for family planning services with that of women who received methods in family planning clinics.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dichotomous outcomes (menstruating versus non-menstruating women).
RESULTS:
During the eight-week period that tally sheets were used in the one hospital and eight health centres, 45% of the 760 women presenting for services as new clients were not menstruating (clinic range = 19%-70%). In contrast, information from clinic registers and client records in the same nine clinics showed that the (weighted) proportion of registered new clients who were menstruating was 85% (n = 102). We estimated that 78% of non-menstruating women (35% of all potential new clients) were sent away without services.

CONCLUSION: For most women turned away, it is likely that pregnancy could be ruled out easily with a history and an examination. Menstruation as a pre-condition for provision of contraception wastes valuable resources and denies women their right to contraception.

Njogu A, Owiti GO, Persson E, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.Website
Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.
Viallon A, Zeni F, Lafond P, Venet C, Tardy B, Page Y, Bertrand JC. "Does bicarbonate therapy improve the management of severe diabetic ketoacidosis?" Critical Care Medicine. 1999;27:2690-2693. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The use of bicarbonates in the treatment of severe diabetic ketoacidosis remains controversial, especially regarding the benefit/risk ratio. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of bicarbonate therapy during severe diabetic ketoacidosis (pH {\textless}7.10). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The emergency unit of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: The records of 39 patients consecutively admitted for severe diabetic ketoacidosis were analyzed (pH {\textless}7.10). The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 24; patients with bicarbonate treatment) and group 2 (n = 15; patients without bicarbonate treatment). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We compared two groups of patients presenting with severe diabetic ketoacidosis (pH values between 6.83 and 7.08) treated with or without bicarbonate. A group of 24 patients received 120+/-40 mmol sodium bicarbonate. The two groups were similar at admission with regard to clinical and biological parameters. No difference could be demonstrated between the two groups concerning the clinical parameters or the normalization time of biochemical parameters. If the number of patients with hypokalemia was comparable between the two groups, the potassium supply was significantly more important in group 1 compared with group 2 (366+/-74 mmol/L vs. 188+/-109 mmol/L, respectively; p {\textless} .001). CONCLUSIONS: Data from the literature and this study are not in favor of the use of bicarbonate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with pH values between 6.90 and 7.10.

Dinsmore CE, Daugherty S, Zeitz HJ. "Teaching and learning gross anatomy: {Dissection}, prosection, or “both of the above?”." Clinical Anatomy. 1999;12:110-114. AbstractWebsite
n/a
2000
Zheng JW, Qiu WL, Zhang ZY, Lin GC, Zhu HG. "[{Anatomical} and histologic study of the cervical vessels in goats]." Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology. 2000;9:39-41. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the normal anatomic relations and histologic features of the cervical arteries and veins of goat, with the aim of providing a basis for resection and reconstruction of the common carotid artery.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgical dissection was performed on 15 healthy adult goats under general anaesthesia. The external diameters of the common carotid artery (CCA) and external jugular vein(EJV) were measured at their midpoints. 1 cm of the CCA and EJV was subject to light microscopic examination. Direct carotid angiography was performed on 2 selected goats to observe the course and branches of the carotid artery and normal blood flow mapping of the CCA was recorded using Laser Doppler Flowmeter. RESULTS:The average external diameter of the EJV was 5.4 mm for the left side and 5.3 mm for the right side. The average external diameter of the CCA was 3.8 mm for the left side and 3.6 mm for the right side. Histologic examinations found that the media of the carotid artery had 10-15 layers of smooth muscles. The EJV had valvulae, its wall was thin, only 1-2 layers of smooth muscle were contained in its medium. CONCLUSION:The CCA and EJV of the goat had a longer course in the neck, and a larger diameter (3-5 mm). Their histologic structures were similar to that of the human being, which makes it advantageous to be more often used as an animal model in experimental surgery.

Magoha GAO, Z.W.Ngumi. "Cancer of the penis at Kenyatta National Hospital. ." East Afr Med J.. 2000;77(10):526-30. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine how common cancer of penis is in this locality compared to all other malignant tumours and urological malignancies, and to determine and comment on the various methods of treatment available at KNH.
DESIGN: A retrospective case study.
SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Nairobi.
SUBJECTS: All patients with histologically confirmed cancer of penis at the Kenyatta National hospital between January 1970 and December 1999.
RESULTS: There were 55 patients with penile cancer representing 0.1% of all malignancies during the study period. The mean age was 47.9 years with a peak incidence between 40-61 year age groups. Penile cancer was the most rare urological tumour representing 5.1%. The most common was prostate cancer (56.0%), followed by bladder cancer (25.0%), kidney cancer (7.9%), and testicular cancer (6.1%). Thirty eight patients (69.1%) presented with advanced disease, Jacksons stages III and IV. The majority (96.4%) of the patients had glandular and preputial involvement. Histologically, 56.4% had well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, (23.6%) had moderately differentiated and (20.0%) had undifferentiated carcinoma. Forty patients (72.7%) were circumcised, nine patients (16.4%) were circumcised as adolescents and three patients (5.5%) circumcised as adults. Twenty five patients had partial penectomy with radiotherapy and or chemotherapy. Eight patients had total penectomy and radiotherapy while four patients had local excision and radiotherapy. Eleven other patients had radiotherapy either alone or combined with chemotherapy. Two patients had circumcision only and inguinal lymphadenectomy was effected on five patients after penectomy and radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is rare and the least common urological malignancy in this locality. It occurs in younger men with a mean age of 47.9 years, and presents as advanced Jackson's stages III and IV disease. The majority of patients had penectomy and local excision followed by radiotherapy.

2001
Milatovic D, Montine TJ, Zaja-Milatovic S, Madison JL, Bowman AB, Aschner M. "Morphometric {Analysis} in {Neurodegenerative} {Disorders}.". In: Current {Protocols} in {Toxicology}. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2001. Abstract

The study of dendritic length and spine density has become standard in the analysis of neuronal abnormalities, since a considerable number of neurological diseases have their foundation in alterations in these structures. One of the best ways to study possible alterations in neuronal morphometry is the use of Golgi impregnation. Introduced more than a century ago, it is still the standard and state-of-the-art technique for visualization of neuronal architecture. We successfully applied the Golgi method to mouse, rat, monkey, and human brain tissues for studying both the normal and abnormal morphology of neurons. We were able to discover subtle morphological alterations in neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines in different brain areas. Although Golgi preparations can be examined by electronic microscopy, we used light microscopy and reconstruction using Neurolucida software to quantitatively explore the relationship between total dendritic length and spine density in different types of neurons. This unit summarizes the methodology used to quantify neuronal abnormalities and discusses the utility of these techniques in different models of neurodegeneration. Curr. Protoc. Toxicol. 43:12.16.1-12.16.14. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Juliani HR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of microglossa pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) agnew var. pyrrhopappa from Kenya composition of the essential oil of microglossa pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) Agnew var. pyrrhopappa from Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) Agnew (Compositae) from Kenya has been studied for the first time. Analysis of the oil by GC and GC/MS reveals that the major compounds were β-caryophyllene (20.3%), γ-gurjunene (11.5%), limonene (8.5%) and δ-cadinene (6.1%)

Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN,(Jr.) JHR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa." J. Essential Oil Research. 2001;13:228-330.
J.W. M, Thoithi, G.N.,(Jr.) JHR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa. ." J. Essent. Oil Res.. 2001;13:229-230.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Zygadlo JA, Lopez ML, Olivia MM, Demo MS, and TM, Chalchat J-C. "Constituents of the essential oil of Cymbopogon afronardus Stapf." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2001;4:43-47.
Zaloga GP, Marik PE, Bhatt B. "Critical illness and systemic inflammation.". 2001.Website
Pennise DM, Smith KR, Kithinji JP, Rezende ME, Raad TJ, Zhang J, Fan C. "Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil.". 2001.Website
Zhou Z, Ogot M, Schwartz L. "A finite element analysis of the effects of an increasing angle on the tower of Pisa." Finite elements in analysis and design. 2001;37:901-911. Abstract

The Leaning Tower of Pisa has aroused admiration and curiosity throughout the
world for its beauty and unusual lean. This study investigates the effects of increasing lean
on the structural integrity of the tower. Employing a three dimensional finite element model,
two failure modes are investigated and discussed.

McAvaney BJ, C. Covey, S. Joussaume, V. Kattsov, A. Kitoh, W. Ogana, A.J. Pitman, A.J. Weaver, R.A. Wood, Zhao Z-C. "Model evaluation.". In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Houghton, J.T., Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell and C.A. J. England: Cambridge University Press; 2001.
Njoroge EM;, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM;, Wachira TM;, Magambo JK;, Zeyhle E. "Use of ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in domestic intermediate hosts in Kenya."; 2001.
2002
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Zessin KH, N.M. K, Baumann MPO, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2002;1:1-9.
Z.P. Q. "Current management of hypertensive disease in pregnancy." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(4):169-71. Abstract

Hypertensive disorders occur in 6-8% of all pregnancies with the incidence varying with geographic location. Studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital have noted a prevalence of 5.4% of hypertensive disease and 0.56% for eclampsia. Pregnant mothers with hypertension are predisposed towards the development of potentially lethal complications, notably abruption placentae, disseminated vascular coagulation, cerebral haemorrhage, hepatic failure and acute renal failure. The baby many have intra-uterine growth retardation, suffer the consequences of being born to early, or die in utero. Causes of hypertensive disease especially pre-eclampia remain unknown.

Wabacha JK, Mulei CM, Kyule MN, Zessin KH, Weda EH, Maribei JM. "Prevalence of sarcoptic mange in pigs in smallholder herds in a peri-urban area in Central Kenyan highlands." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2002;50:9-14.
Wabacha JK, Maribei JM, Mulei CM, Kyule MN, Zessin KH, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Sow Reproductive Performance And The Associated Herd- Level Factors In Small Holder Herds In A Peri-urban Area In Kenya.". 2002.
2003
M. M. Oliva, Demo MS, Malele RS, Mutayabarwa CK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Faillaci SM, Scrivanti RL, Lopez AG, Zygadlo JA. "Essential Oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania: Composition and Antimicrobial Activity and composition." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2003;6:61-63.
Kuria KAM, Abuga KO, Masengo W, Govaerts C, Roets E, Busson R, de Witte P, Zupko I, Hoornaert G, Hoogmartens J, Laekeman G. "In vitro Antimalarial Activity of Ajuga remota Benth (Labiatae)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2003;6(2):26-30. Abstract

Ajuga remota Benth is the most frequently used plant to treat malaria by Kenyan herbalists. Both crude extracts and pure isolates of the plant were tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties. The activity was assessed by an enzyme assay method based on the measurement of the parasite lactate dehydrogenase activity. The IC50 of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 71 and 69 μg/ml against the chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum respectively. Ajugarin-1 was moderately active with IC50 of 23.0 ± 3.0 μM as compared to chloroquine (IC50 = 0.041 ± 0.003 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Ergosterol-5, 8-endoperoxide was about 4x as potent (IC50 = 5.4 ± 1.9 μM) while 8-0- acetylharpagide, a new isolate of A.remota and whose structure was established by spectroscopic evidence, was inactive.

Malele S, Mutayabarwa CK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Lopez AG, Lucini EI, Zygadlo JA. "Microbial activity and composition of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Essential oil from Tanzania." J. Essential Oil Research. 2003;5:438-440.
Malele S, Mutayabarwa CK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Lopez AG, Lucini EI, Zygadlo JA. "Microbial activity and composition of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Essential oil from Tanzania." J. Essential Oil Research. 2003;5:438-440.
Mburu J, Birner R, Zeller M. "Relative importance and determinants of landowners’ transaction costs in collaborative wildlife management in Kenya: an empirical analysis.". 2003. Abstract

Collaborative management of protected areas—which involves state agencies, local communities and other stakeholders—has been identified as a promising approach of organising nature conservation. However, as a complex governance structure, co-management can be expected to involve considerable transaction costs for the participating stakeholders. Empirical studies concerning the quantification of these costs are still scarce. Against this background, this paper empirically analyses the relative importance and the determinants of the landowners’ transaction costs arising from collaborative wildlife management, taking two wildlife sanctuaries in Kenya as examples. The empirical data presented in this paper was collected in the wildlife dispersal areas of Shimba Hills National Reserve and Amboseli National Park in Kenya. The results of this study show that—as compared to other cost categories—the landowners’ transaction costs incurred in wildlife co-management were relatively low. They also indicate that the magnitude of the transaction costs incurred by landowners is influenced by the attributes of transactions; bio-physical and ecological characteristics of the resource systems; landowners’ characteristics such as their human, social and financial forms of capital; losses resulting from human–wildlife conflicts; tenure security and benefits from conservation. Comparing the results of a two-stage least squares regression model of landowners’ characteristics of the two wildlife sanctuaries, it was found that the level of significance and the sign of most variables are not the same for both areas. This indicates that it is a specific combination of local factors that influences the transaction costs borne by the landowners.

Mwaura F, and Zech B. "Small man-made reservoirs and the future of integrated watershed management in Kenya." Hekima Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences . 2003;(2(1):67-79. AbstractWebsite

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

Nelson KE, Zinder SH, Hance I, Burr P, Odongo D, Wasawo D, Odenyo A, Bishop R. "Phylogenetic analysis of the microbial populations in the wild herbivore gastrointestinal tract: insights into an unexplored niche." Environ. Microbiol.. 2003;5(11):1212-20. Abstract

At present, there is little information on the phylogenetic diversity of microbial species that inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of wildlife. To increase understanding in this area, we initiated a characterization of the bacterial diversity in the digestive tracts of three wild African ruminant species namely eland (Taurotragus oryx), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella rufifrons) and Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), together with a domesticated ruminant species, zebu cattle (Bos indicus), and a non-ruminant species, zebra (Equus quagga). Bacterial diversity was analysed by PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. A total of 252 full-length 16S rDNA sequences averaging 1,500 base pairs (bp) in length, and an additional 27 partial sequences were obtained and subject to phylogenetic analysis. Using a 98% criterion for similarity, all except for one of the sequences were derived from distinct phylotypes. At least 24 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTU's) could be identified, with the majority of these sequences representing hitherto uncharacterized species and genera. The sequences were generally affiliated with four major bacterial phyla, the majority being members of the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram-positives) related to the genera Clostridium and Ruminococcus. By contrast, with earlier studies using 16S rDNA sequences to assess biodiversity in Bos taurus dairy cattle, Gram-negative bacteria in the Bacteroidales (Prevotella-Bacteroides group) were poorly represented. The lack of redundancy in the 16S rDNA dataset from the five African ungulate species, and the presence of novel sequences not previously described from the gastrointestinal tract of any animal species, highlights the level of diversity that exists in these ecosystems and raises the question as to the functional role of these species in the gastrointestinal tract.

Moulton KS, Vakili K, Zurakowski D, Soliman M, Butterfield C, Sylvin E, Lo K-M, Gillies S, Javaherian K, Folkman J. "Inhibition of plaque neovascularization reduces macrophage accumulation and progression of advanced atherosclerosis." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2003;100:4736-4741. Abstract

Plaque angiogenesis promotes the growth of atheromas, but the functions of plaque capillaries are not fully determined. Neovascularization may act as a conduit for the entry of leukocytes into sites of chronic inflammation. We observe vasa vasorum density correlates highly with the extent of inflammatory cells, not the size of atheromas in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. We show atherosclerotic aortas contain activities that promote angiogenesis. The angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin reduces plaque angiogenesis and inhibits atherosclerosis. Macrophages in the plaque and around vasa vasorum are reduced, but we detect no direct effect of angiostatin on monocytes. After angiogenesis blockade in vivo, the angiogenic potential of atherosclerotic tissue is suppressed. Activated macrophages stimulate angiogenesis that can further recruit inflammatory cells and more angiogenesis. Our findings demonstrate that late-stage inhibition of angiogenesis can interrupt this positive feedback cycle. Inhibition of plaque angiogenesis and the secondary reduction of macrophages may have beneficial effects on plaque stability.

2004
Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Guglielmino CR, Osir EO, Lux SA, Mulaa FJ, Gomulski LM, Zheng L, Quilici S, Gasperi G, Malacrida AR. "Population genetics of the potentially invasive African fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera: T."; 2004.
2005
Zimmermann MB, Ito Y, Hess SY, Fujieda K, Molinari L. "High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakes." The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005;81:840-844. AbstractWebsite
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Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL target genes and relationship to hypoxic response pathways." Oncogene. 2005;24:4549-4558. Abstract
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Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL target genes and relationship to hypoxic response pathways." Oncogene. 2005;24:4549-4558. Abstract
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Wanzala WS, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang'ethe EK, Kang'ethe EK, Zessin KH, Kyule MN, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts in carcases and implications for meat inspection.". 2005.Website
ZAHIDA DRQURESHI. "Editorial Safe motherhood in Africa: Achievable Goal or a Dream?" East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(1):1. AbstractWebsite

Safe motherhood refers to a woman's ability to have a safe and healthy pregnancy and delivery. The goal of safe motherhood is to ensure that every woman has access to a full range of high-quality affordable sexual and reproductive health services especially maternal care and treatment of obstetric emergencies to reduce deaths and disabilities

Muthoka, M. Rego A.B., Z.K R. "Environmental Education. Essential Knowledge for Sustainable Development." Environmental Education. Essential Knowledge for Sustainable Development. 2005.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Demo MS, Oliva MM, Zunino MP, Zygadlo JA. "Essential oil of Rhynchosia minima from Kenya: Composition and antibacterial properties." J. Essential Oil Research. 2005;17:230-231.
Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL target genes and relationship to hypoxic response pathways." Oncogene. 2005;24(28):4549-58. Abstract

Upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 is frequent in human cancers and may result from tissue hypoxia or genetic mechanisms, in particular the inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene (TSG). Tumours with VHL inactivation are highly vascular, but it is unclear to what extent HIF-dependent and HIF-independent mechanisms account for pVHL tumour suppressor activity. As the identification of novel pVHL targets might provide insights into pVHL tumour suppressor activity, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in VHL-wild-type and VHL-null renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. We identified 30 differentially regulated pVHL targets (26 of which were 'novel') and the results of microarray analysis were confirmed in all 11 novel targets further analysed by real-time RT-PCR or Western blotting. Furthermore, nine of 11 targets were dysregulated in the majority of a series of primary clear cell RCC with VHL inactivation. Three of the nine targets had been identified previously as candidate TSGs (DOC-2/DAB2, CDKN1C and SPARC) and all were upregulated by wild-type pVHL. The significance for pVHL function of two further genes upregulated by wild-type pVHL was initially unclear, but re-expression of GNG4 (G protein gamma-4 subunit/guanine nucleotide-binding protein-4) and MLC2 (myosin light chain) in a RCC cell line suppressed tumour cell growth. pVHL regulation of CDKN1C, SPARC and GNG4 was not mimicked by hypoxia, whereas for six of 11 novel targets analysed (including DOC-2/DAB2 and MLC2) the effects of pVHL inactivation and hypoxia were similar. For GPR56 there was evidence of a tissue-specific hypoxia response. Such a phenomenon might, in part, explain organ-specific tumorigenesis in VHL disease. These provide insights into mechanisms of pVHL tumour suppressor function and identify novel hypoxia-responsive targets that might be implicated in tumorigenesis in both VHL disease and in other cancers with HIF upregulation.

2006
Xia Y-J, Lin J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Gan F-X, Huang W. "High-efficiency blue-emitting organic light-emitting devices with 4, 4′, 4 ″-tris (N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine as the hole/exciton-blocking layer." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2006;39:4987. Abstract
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Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Maher ER. "Identification of Novel VHL Target Genes and Relationship to Hypoxic Response Pathways." The Journal of Urology. 2006;175:387. Abstract
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ZEKE MRWAWERU. "Jointly edited a book on"Africa communication and the future".". In: In Proceedings of the 45th Industrial Waste Conference May 8, 9, 10, 1990; Purdue University. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2006.
ZEKE MRWAWERU. "Paper on"the issue of mass media and the Africa debt crisis (UNPUBLISHED).". In: In Proceedings of the 45th Industrial Waste Conference May 8, 9, 10, 1990; Purdue University. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2006.
J. S, N. N, Z. Q, M. N. "Does assessment of signs and symptoms add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy?" J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2006;32(1):27-9. Abstract

BACKGROUND:
A World Health Organization-endorsed algorithm, widely published in international guidance documents and distributed in the form of a 'pregnancy checklist', has become a popular tool for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients in developing countries. The algorithm consists of six criteria excluding pregnancy, all conditional upon a seventh 'master criterion' relating to signs or symptoms of pregnancy. Few data exist on the specificity to pregnancy among family planning clients of long-accepted signs and symptoms of pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to assess whether reported signs and symptoms of pregnancy add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy.

METHODS:
Data from a previous observational study were used to assess the performance of the algorithm with and without the 'signs and symptoms' criterion. The study group comprised 1852 new, non-menstruating family planning clients from seven clinics in Kenya.

RESULTS:
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy were rare (1.5%) as was pregnancy (1%). Signs and symptoms were more common (18.2%) among the 22 clients who tested positive for pregnancy than among the 1830 clients (1.3%) who tested negative, but did not add significantly to the predictive value of the algorithm. Most women with signs or symptoms were not pregnant and would have been unnecessarily denied a contraceptive method using the current criteria.

CONCLUSIONS:
The 'signs and symptoms' criterion did not substantially improve the ability of the algorithm to exclude pregnant clients, but several reasons (including use of the algorithm for intrauterine device clients) render it unlikely that the algorithm will be changed.

Huong LQ, Reinhard F, Padungtod P, Hanh TT, Kyule MN, Baumann MPO, Zessin KH. "Prevalence of Salmonella in Retail Chicken Meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.". 2006. Abstract

Infection with Salmonella (S.) is the most frequently reported cause of bacterial food-borne illness worldwide. Poultry are a common source and, in recent years, much attention has been focused in determining the prevalence of Salmonella during the different stages in the poultry production chain. This article was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in retail chicken meat sold in Hanoi. A total of 262 samples were randomly collected from retail markets and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Of these samples, 48.9% were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. Predominant serotypes were S. Agona, S. Emek, S. London. The prevalence of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium was considered. These findings have highlighted the magnitude of Salmonella contamination in retail chicken meat in Hanoi. On the basis of these preliminary survey results, it is recommended that a cost-effective monitoring and surveillance system for Salmonella should be established in Hanoi. This system should be augmented by good agricultural and hygienic practices and well-designed longitudinal research activities on the whole poultry production chain.

2007
Bulsara KR, Zomorodi A, Provenzale JM. "Anatomic variant of the posterior cerebral artery." American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007;188:W395. AbstractWebsite
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Lin J, Xia Y-J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Hou X-Y, Gan F-X, Huang W. "The colour-tuning effect of 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline in blue–red organic light-emitting devices." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2007;40:4442. Abstract
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Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Latif F, others. "Identification of novel VHL targets that are associated with the development of renal cell carcinoma." Oncogene. 2007;26:1661-1672. Abstract
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Maher ER, Latif F, Johnson CM, Richards FM, Wiesener MS, Banks RE, Raval RR, Zatyka M, Morris MR, Maina EN, others. "Identification Of Novel VHL Targets That Are Associated With The Development Of Renal Cell Carcinoma.". 2007. Abstract
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Zarins CK, Xu C, Taylor CA, Glagov S. "Localization of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: MD RWA, MD LHH, eds. Vascular {Surgery}. Blackwell Publishing; 2007:. Abstract

This chapter contains sections titled: * Arterial structure and function * Physiologic adaptation of the arterial wall * Human atherosclerotic plaque morphology * Mechanical determinants of plaque localization * Susceptible regions of the arterial vasculature * Conclusion

and R. S. Malele, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, López ML, Zunino MP, López AG, Zygadlo JA, Oliva MM, Demo MS. "Essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and antimicrobial activity." J. Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2007;10:83-87.
Aboge GO, Jia H, Kuriki H, Zhou J, Nishikawa Y, Igarashi I, Fujisaki K, Suzuki H, Xuan X. "Molecular characterization of a novel 32-kDa merozoite antigen of Babesia gibsoni with a better diagnostic performance by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.". 2007. Abstract

We cloned and expressed 3 novel gene encoding a 32-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgP32). The length of nucleotide sequence of the cD;\' A \\'3. 1-1-6-1 bp with an open reading frame of 969 bp. The truncated recombinant BgP32 (rBgP32) without a signal peptide and Cvterrninal hydrophobic sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli as a oluble glutathione- -rran ferase (GST) fusion protein. We stern blotting demonstrated that the native protein was 32-kDa, consistent with molecular weight of thc predicted mature polypeptide. Enzyme-linked irnmunosorbent assay (ELISA) using rBgP32 detected specific antibodi s from 8 days to 541 days post-infection in the sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected wirh B. gibsoni. Moreover. the antigen did not cross-react with B. canis subspecies and closely related protozoan parasites, indicating that rBgP32 is a specific diagnostic antigen. Analysis of 47 era taken from dogs with anaemic signs re ealed that rBgP32 detected a higher proportion of B. gibson! seroposirive sample' (77%) than its previou Iy identified rBgPSO (68%) homologue. These results indicate that the BgP32 is a novel immunodominant antigen of B. gibsoni, and rBgP32 might be useful for diagno is of B. gibsoni infection

Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Latif F, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL targets that are associated with the development of renal cell carcinoma." Oncogene. 2007;26(11):1661-72. Abstract

von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a dominantly inherited family cancer syndrome characterized by the development of retinal and central nervous system haemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and phaeochromocytoma. Specific germline VHL mutations may predispose to haemangioblastomas, RCC and phaeochromocytoma to a varying extent. Although dysregulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-2 and JunB have been linked to the development of RCC and phaeochromocytoma, respectively, the precise basis for genotype-phenotype correlations in VHL disease have not been defined. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of RCC in VHL disease we compared gene expression microarray profiles in a RCC cell line expressing a Type 1 or Type 2B mutant pVHL (RCC-associated) to those of a Type 2A or 2C mutant (not associated with RCC). We identified 19 differentially expressed novel VHL target genes linked to RCC development. Eight targets were studied in detail by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (three downregulated and five upregulated by wild-type VHL) and for six genes the effect of VHL inactivation was mimicked by hypoxia (but hypoxic-induction of smooth muscle alpha-actin 2 was specific for a RCC cell line). The potential role of four RCC-associated VHL target genes was assessed in vitro. NB thymosin beta (TMSNB) and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) (both downregulated by wt pVHL) increased cell growth and motility in a RCC cell line, but aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)1 and ALDH7 had no effect. These findings implicate TMSNB and PAR2 candidate oncogenes in the pathogenesis of VHL-associated RCC.

2008
Peng B, Chen M, Zhou S, Wu L, Ma X. "Fabrication of hollow silica spheres using droplet templates derived from a miniemulsion technique." Journal of colloid and interface science. 2008;321:67-73. Abstract
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S.M M, Z. Q, J. K. "Birth preparedness among antenatal clients." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(6):275-83. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate birth preparedness and complication readiness among antenatal care clients.

DESIGN:
A descriptive cross- sectional study.

SETTING:
Antenatal care clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

SUBJECTS:
Three hundred and ninety four women attending antenatal care at Kenyatta National hospital were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire between May 2006 and August 2006. Clients who were above 32 weeks gestation and had attended the clinic more than twice were recruited. Systematic sampling was used to select the study participants with every third client being interviewed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Health education on birth preparedness, knowledge of danger signs, preparations for delivery and emergencies.

RESULTS:
Over 60% of the respondents were counselled by health workers on various elements of birth preparedness. Eighty seven point three per cent of the respondents were aware of their expected date of delivery, 84.3% had set aside funds for transport to hospital during labour while 62.9% had funds for emergencies. Sixty seven per cent of the respondents knew at least one danger sign in pregnancy while only 6.9% knew of three or more danger signs. One hundred and nine per cent of the respondents did not have a clear plan of what to do in case of an obstetric emergency. Level of education positively influenced birth preparedness.

CONCLUSIONS:
Education and counselling on different aspects of birth preparedness was not provided to all clients. Respondents knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy was low. Many respondents did not know about birth preparedness and had no plans for emergencies.

S.M M, J. K, Z. Q. "Contraceptive use among HIV infected women attending Comprehensive Care Centre." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(4):171-7. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To determine contraceptive use among HIV infected women attending Comprehensive Care Centre at Kenyatta National Hospital.

DESIGN:
Hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study.

SETTING:
Comprehensive Care Centre (CCC), Kenyatta National Hospital.

SUBJECTS:
The study group was non-pregnant HIV positive women on follow up at the CCC. A total of 94 HIV infected women were interviewed between May 2006 and August 2006 through a pretested interviewer administered questionnaire. Consecutive women willing to participate in the study were interviewed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Current contraceptive use, contraceptive methods, source of contraception, reproductive intention and unmet need of family planning.

RESULTS:
The mean age of the respondents was 34 years, 47.9% were married, all had formal education and 74.6% were employed. Eighty six percent of the respondents did not have reproduction intentions in the next two years; however, only 44.2% of the respondents were using contraception. Condoms were the most popular (81.5%) contraceptive method. Female condom was used by 10.5% of the respondents. Norplant was the only long-term contraceptive method and was used by only 2.6%. Dual method of contraception was practiced by 13.5% of the respondents. Majority of the respondents obtained contraceptives from private sector (42.9%) with less than 10% getting them from CCC. The unmet need for family planning among the study group was 30%. Marital status and regular sexual partner were significantly associated with contraceptive use.

CONCLUSION:
Although majority of respondents did not have reproduction intentions in the next two years, use of contraception was low with only 44% being on a method. Use of long-term contraceptive methods was low among respondents. Majority of the respondents obtained contraceptives away from CCC. The unmet need for family planning was high at 30%.

S.M. M, Z.P. Q, J. K. "Emergency preparedness among antenatal clients at Kenyatta National Hospital." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr.. 2008;20(1):4-12 . Abstract

Background
All women are at risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery. Most complications cannot be predicted and therefore all pregnant women should be prepared to respond appropriately when complications arise. Such advance preparations can help prevent life threatening delays in recognizing and responding to complications.
According to Kenya Demographic Health Survey (KDHS) 2003, majority of women (60%) still deliver at home where skilled care is not available and if a complication arise it may be disastrous.
Emphasis on emergency preparedness during antenatal care is a cost effective intervention, which can thus reduce maternal deaths and morbidity by avoiding delays at decision making and transport to health facilities in the event of obstetric emergencies.

Objective: To evaluate emergency preparedness among antenatal care clients at Kenyatta National Hospital.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study done at the antenatal care clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 394 women attending antenatal care at Kenyatta National hospital were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire between May 2006 and August 2006. Clients who were above 32 weeks gestation and had attended the clinic more than twice were recruited. Systematic sampling was used to select the study participants with every third client being interviewed.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 28.4 years with a range of 18-42 years. All the respondents had formal education, 91.7% were married and 41.1% were employed. Over 60% of the respondents were informed by health workers about danger signs in pregnancy. A third of the respondents knew at least one danger sign in pregnancy while only 6.9% knew of three or more danger signs. Only 62.9% of the respondents had funds set aside for emergency purposes. 10.9& of the respondents did not have a clear plan of what to do incase of an obstetric emergency. Level of education positively influenced knowledge of danger signs.

Conclusion
Education and counseling on danger signs was not provided to all clients. Respondents’ knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy was low. Most respondents did not have plans for emergencies.

Wall DH, Bradford MA, John MGST, Trofymows JA, Behan-Pelletier V, Bignell DE, Dangerfield JM, Parton WM, Rusek, J. FOI, Voight, W., Wolters V, Gardel HZ, Ayuke FO, Bashford R, Beljakova OI, Bohlen PJ, Brauman A, Flemming S, Henschel JR, Johnson DL, Jones TF, Kovarova, M., Kranabetter JM, Kutny L, Kuo-Chuan L, Maryati M, Masse D, Pokarzhevskii A, Rahman H, Sabara MG, Joerg-Alfred S, Swift MJ, Varela A, Vasconcelos HL, White D, Zou X. "Global decomposition experiment shows soil animal impacts on decomposition are climate- dependent." Global Change Biology. 2008;14:2661-2677. Abstract

Climate and litter quality are primary drivers of terrestrial decomposition and, based on evidence from multisite experiments at regional and global scales, are universally factored into global decomposition models. In contrast, soil animals are considered key regulators of decomposition at local scales but their role at larger scales is unresolved. Soil animals are consequently excluded from global models of organic
mineralization processes. Incomplete assessment of the roles of soil animals stems from the difficulties of manipulating invertebrate animals experimentally across large geographic gradients. This is compounded by deficient or inconsistent taxonomy. We report a global decomposition experiment to assess the importance of soil animals in C mineralization, in which a common grass litter substrate was exposed to natural decomposition in either control or reduced animal treatments across 30 sites distributed from 431S to 681N on six continents. Animals in the mesofaunal size range were recovered from the litter by Tullgren extraction and identified to common specifications, mostly at the ordinal level. The design of the trials enabled faunal contribution to be evaluated against abiotic parameters between sites. Soil animals increase decomposition rates in temperate and wet tropical climates, but have neutral effects where temperature or moisture constrain biological activity. Our findings highlight that faunal influences on
decomposition are dependent on prevailing climatic conditions. We conclude that (1) inclusion of soil animals will improve the predictive capabilities of region- or biomescale decomposition models, (2) soil animal influences on decomposition are important at the regional scale when attempting to predict global change scenarios, and (3) the statistical relationship between decomposition rates and climate, at the global scale, is robust against changes in soil faunal abundance and diversity.

Keywords: climate decomposition index, decomposition, litter, mesofauna, soil biodiversity, soil
carbon, soil fauna

Zavalaa, Diego E; Bokongo S; JSIM; MRMOWAIA; E. "Implementing a hospital based injury surveillance system in Africa: lessons learned.". 2008. Abstract

A multinational injury surveillance pilot project was carried out in five African countries in the first half of 2007 (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia). Hospitals were selected in each country and a uniform methodology was applied in all sites, including an injury surveillance questionnaire designed by a joint programme of the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 4207 injury cases were registered in all hospitals. More than half of all injury cases were due to road traffic accidents (58.3%) and 40% were due to interpersonal violence. Self-inflicted injuries were minimal (1.2% of all cases). This report provides an assessment of the implementation of the project and a preliminary comparison between the five African countries on the context in which inter-personal injury cases occurred. Strengths and weaknesses of the project as well as opportunities and threats identified by medical personnel are summarized and discussed. A call is made to transform this pilot project into a sustainable public health strategy.

Z. Q. "Obstetrical emergencies in relation to millennium development goals." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(2):53-5. Abstract

At the turn of this century, 189 countries endorsed the Millennium Declaration and signed up to meeting eight goals. "These eight commitments are simple but powerful objectives that every man and woman can easily understand and support. They are also different from other bold pledges that became broken promises over the past 50 years: first, because they have unprecedented political support; second, because they are measurable and time-bond, with most of this agenda meant to be attained by the year 2015; and third - and most important - because they are achievable." Koffi Annan.

Children are the future of society and their mothers the guardians of that future: Childbirth is a very special life changing event - a joyful experience when all goes well but it can also be a difficult period bringing with it new problems as well as the potential for suffering. When obstetric emergencies occur, if not dealt with immediately they can cause severe morbidity or mortality for the mother or baby or both.

Zaja JO. "Publicizing the Private: Femini st Locution in Taarab Songs and performance .". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Scholars have for long deliberated and debated what is truly public and private in the articulation of feminist agendas in the world of Kiswahili artistic compositions. This is true for the various written literary texts in all genres as well as the diverse strands of taarab music/poetry compositions. The issues that are central in animating feminist locution in these art forms and which contribute to the incessant making and re-making of the feminist public and private spaces are neither fixed nor immutable—hence the shifting of these factors from time to time dictate the nature and essence of the contestations of what ought to be public and private. In other words, given that women’s voice in both are forms—song and written literature—are ever changi ng, so too is the discussion of what is rightly perceive d as public or private. Thus, what constitutes public and pr ivate in the myriad interests of feminist discourses and therefore what animates locution in such discourses is dependent on concrete material interests as well as the relations those interests evoke. These interests are central in informing disputations with other contending interests, occasioning either expressions of dissatisfaction or affirmation. Consequently, strategic and pragmatic political positioning, control schisms and schemes, ge nder relations and mate rial contestations ar e always constant and continuous themes that get critically nuanc ed in these disputati ons—hence the gist of these compositions. There has been much animated critiquing of feminist image presentations and gender articulation in Kiswahili writing, but there has not been sim ilar and thorough going interest shown in the Swahili taarab song. Yet it is a sphere that is predominantly and conspicuously female in terms of its subject matter, compositi on and performance, a sphere in which there is a subtle politicization and public ization of supposedly private feminist concerns. However, the few studies on the Swahili taarab song and pe rformance have indeed pointed out that the whole taarab discourse is an intimately fema le sphere that foster s and advances women’s voices (Fair, L. 2001, Askew, K. M. 2002). Taarab songs have a long a nd rich history as a medium of social commentary among the inhabitants of the East African coast. This is a hi story that dates back to the last quarter of the 19 th century (1870 onwards) during the reign of Sultan Seyyid Bargash in the Zanzibar Sultanate. Taarab at that time was essentially an elite court music sang in Arabic within the courts of the ruling Arab elite, the merchant cl ass as well as the land owing aristocracy. It was as such inevitably performed on imported E gyptian and Arabic music instruments. Its transition to Kiswahili and therefore, its movement away from the sultan’s courts to the general public is credited to Siti binti Saad a woman of sl ave ancestry (Askew, ibid), who having observed and internalized th e intricacies of taarab music, its artistry and potential as a 2 terrain for social articulation, started com posing and singing taarab songs in Kiswahili. Taarab songs are as such sung Swahili oral poetry, primarily by women as singers and performers and less often as composers. (It should be noted, however, many taarab songs have multiple composers in the sense that one pe rson will be credited with the poem, another with music arrangement and a nother with singing. It is not uncommon for one person to combine all the credits). Taarab, as Askew (102- 3) explains, takes its name from the Arabic tarabun meaning joy, pleasure, delight, rapture, amus ement, entertainment, music, or ecstasy, a complete engagement with music. It is impe rative to add that this “complete engagement with music” spanning poetic composition, music arrangement and performance, is not essentially a private affair but rather a publicly accessible ar t form whose rendition spans both private and public interests, and in which wh at is sung is not only open to multiple interpretations, but also constitutes social action deployed to ne gotiate socioeconomic relations. Both Fair and Askew are agreed that, taarab songs are composed as social commentaries in which women as “composers” respond to and tr ansform local debates about class, gender and social relations into vers e and weave personal and communal experiences into songs, sung as personal statements on mo rals, relations and pr obity. The taarab song lyrics are embellished poetic compositions, rich in literary devices through which the songs ridicule socially unacceptable and deviant beha vior, praise and insult, warn and admonish perceived or imaginary personal or collectiv e enemies. The messages in the songs are sometimes products of true life experiences, po pular beliefs and discer nible lifestyles. They also reflect the nature of relations to social institutions, modes of inte rrelations or material circumstances. They may also be protests to or affirmations of social morals/behaviors such as greed, idleness, gossip, rumour and all manner of abhorrent sexual misconduct. Furthermore, they are also expressions of j oy, elation and personal or collective triumph. In essence, the songs are intricate yet generalized responses to soci al realities, beliefs, traditions, material conditions and institutional dynamics normally projected as personal or collective needs, desires, losses, miseries— in a word, various forms of social, economic and political struggles. They are in essence subtle strategies deployed to question, analyz e and reshape material and social relations. They are strata gems set out to publici ze and politicize private struggles—thus bringing into the public domai n subjects routinely muted, yet important at pointing out marginalized social act ors and competing alliances. By using extracts from three popular taarab s ongs, this paper examines how the taarab song lyrics in performance are viable sphe res for publicizing private pillow business. 3 Analyses of both the songs and their performances show clearly that they intricately articulate desires either denied or unful filled, with nuanced enunciations where the private and the public mutually interconnect a nd interrelate. Consequently the songs are an exposé, depiction and a rendition of underlying interactions tied to multiple and variable feminist locutions. Primarily, this paper, demonstrates how such locutions considered private are enabled— literally aired—through the public performance, recording and airplay of taarab songs

Mureithi MW, Finn A, Ota MO, Zhang Q, Davenport V, Mitchell TJ, Williams NA, Adegbola RA, Heyderman RS. "T Cell memory response to pneumococcal protein antigens in an area of high pneumococcal carriage and disease.". 2008. Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable disease worldwide. Pneumococcal protein antigens are currently under study as components of potential vaccines that offer protection against multiple serotypes. We have therefore characterized T cell pneumococcal immunity acquired through asymptomatic carriage. Methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 healthy Gambian adults were stimulated with supernatants derived from S. pneumoniae strain (D39), 2 isogenic mutant strains lacking either pneumolysin or choline binding protein A, and recombinant pneumolysin. Immune responses were measured by cellular proliferation and by interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-g (IFN-g) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot and bioplex cytokine assays. Nasopharyngeal swabs were cultured to determine carriage rates. Results. S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was detected in 60% of individuals. Both effector and resting (or central) CD4+ T cell memory were frequently present to a range of pneumococcal antigens. However, the level of the effector memory response did not relate to current nasopharyngeal carriage. Pneumolysin was not immunodominant in these T cell responses but induced a distinct proinflammatory profile (high IFN-g, IL-12[p40], and L-17 levels and low IL-10 and IL-13 levels). Conclusions. In this population, T cell–mediated immunological memory potentially capable of pathogen clearance and immune surveillance is common but is not associated with the absolute interruption of pneumococcal carriage. How this naturally acquired immune memory influences pneumococcal vaccine efficacy remains to be determined.

2009
Zimmermann MB. "Iodine deficiency." Endocrine reviews. 2009;30:376-408. AbstractWebsite
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Peng B, Zhang L, Yang J. "Iterated graph cuts for image segmentation.". In: Asian Conference on Computer Vision. Springer; 2009:. Abstract
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AM G, M W, M M, Z Q, G P. "Active management of the third stage of labour without controlled cord traction: a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial." Reprod Health. 2009;6(2). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60-70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care.

OBJECTIVE:
The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package.

METHODS:
A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM) injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM), controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome measure is blood loss of 1000 ml or more at one hour and up to two hours for women who continue to bleed after one hour. The secondary outcomes are blood transfusion, the use of additional uterotonics and measure of severe morbidity and maternal death.We aim to recruit 25,000 women delivering vaginally in health facilities in eight countries within a 12 month recruitment period.

MANAGEMENT:
Overall trial management will be from HRP/RHR in Geneva. There will be eight centres located in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uganda. There will be an online data entry system managed from HRP/RHR. The trial protocol was developed following a technical consultation with international organizations and leading researchers in the field. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The main objective of this trial is to investigate whether a simplified package of third stage management can be recommended without increasing the risk of PPH. By avoiding the need for a manual procedure that requires training, the third stage management can be implemented in a more widespread and cost-effective way around the world even at the most peripheral levels of the health care system. This trial forms part of the programme of work to reduce maternal deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage within the RHR department in collaboration with other research groups and organizations active in the field.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ACTRN12608000434392

J.R. N, A. A, Z.P. Q, C.S. K. "Gestational thyrotoxicosis associated with emesis in early pregnancy." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(2):55-8. Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
To determine the thyroid profile and the prevalence of gestational thyrotoxicosis among women with emesis during early pregnancy.

DESIGN:
A descriptive cross-sectional study.

SETTING:
Kenyatta National Hospital acute gynaecology ward and the ante-natal clinic.

SUBJECTS:
Seventy two women presenting with emesis up to 16 weeks gestation.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The levels of FT3, FT4, TSH and beta-hCG during the first 16 weeks of gestation. Correlation between the thyroid hormones and beta-hCG as well as the severity of vomiting was also done.

RESULTS:
The point prevalence of gestational thyrotoxicosis was 8.3%. There was a significant positive correlation between beta-hCG levels and FT3 and FT4 (P-values < 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between beta-hCG and TSH (P < 0.05). Correlation between the severity of vomiting and the thyroid hormones as well as beta-hCG was not statistically significant. Patients' age ranged from 14-38 years (median 26). Majority of the women studied were at a gestation of 8 to 11 weeks (38.9%). Most patients (84.7%) had one to five episodes of vomiting per day. Peak beta-hCG was at 12-15 weeks gestation.

CONCLUSIONS:
Thyrotoxicosis does occur among women with emesis in pregnancy in this set-up. Screening for it may be beneficial to such women and also those with high serum beta-hCG levels above the median for the gestational age.

J.R DRNDUNGU, A DRAMAYO, Z.P DRQURESHI, C PROFSEKKADE-KIGONDU. "Gestational thyrotoxicosis associated with emesis in early pregnancy." E.A.M.J. 2009;86(2):55-58. Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
To determine the thyroid profile and the prevalence of gestational thyrotoxicosis among women with emesis during early pregnancy.
DESIGN:
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Kenyatta National Hospital acute gynaecology ward and the ante-natal clinic.
SUBJECTS:
Seventy two women presenting with emesis up to 16 weeks gestation.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The levels of FT3, FT4, TSH and beta-hCG during the first 16 weeks of gestation. Correlation between the thyroid hormones and beta-hCG as well as the severity of vomiting was also done.
RESULTS:
The point prevalence of gestational thyrotoxicosis was 8.3%. There was a significant positive correlation between beta-hCG levels and FT3 and FT4 (P-values < 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between beta-hCG and TSH (P < 0.05). Correlation between the severity of vomiting and the thyroid hormones as well as beta-hCG was not statistically significant. Patients' age ranged from 14-38 years (median 26). Majority of the women studied were at a gestation of 8 to 11 weeks (38.9%). Most patients (84.7%) had one to five episodes of vomiting per day. Peak beta-hCG was at 12-15 weeks gestation.
CONCLUSIONS:
Thyrotoxicosis does occur among women with emesis in pregnancy in this set-up. Screening for it may be beneficial to such women and also those with high serum beta-hCG levels above the median for the gestational age.

Willems P, Ogira PN, Mutua F, Abdo G, Kabubi J, Fahmi AH, Sonbol M, Lotfy A, Kimaro TA, Mkhandi S, Opere A, Ibrahim YA, Kizza M, Tadesse L, Motaleb AM, Farid S, Zaki A, Al-Weshah R. "Regional Flood Frequency Analysis for the River Nile Basin." Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen. 2009;55(4):555-570. AbstractLirias

Regional differences have been investigated in the probabilities of high and low river flow extremes along the river Nile basin in eastern Africa. This has been done on the basis of statistical extreme value analysis applied to about one hundred flow gauging stations spread over the basin. The statistical analysis results have been combined with physical sub-basin characteristics such as topography and land use. The research has been conducted within the framework of the FRIEND/Nile project, which focuses on regional hydrology research cooperation between the main Nile countries (Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda) and the Flemish universities. The high- and low-flow statistics developed can be used in water engineering and civil engineering design applications. Of equal importance are the supratechnical research outputs, among which enhancement of water-related transboundary research cooperation in the Nile region. During the course of the project, trust among the researchers and water managers from the different Nile countries gradually increased, data sharing enhanced, and politically sensitive issues (on transboundary water sharing) became debatable.

Boman J, GATARI MJ, Gaita SM, Zhang X, Xue B, Wagner A. "Seasonal variation in trace elemental concentrations in PM2.5 particles in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2009.
Zhang H, Thekisoe OMM, Kyan H, Yamagishi J, Inoue N, Nishikawa Y, Zakimi S. "Toxoplasma gondii: Sensitive and rapid detection of infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method.". 2009. Abstract

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method amplifies DNA with high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity. In this study, we used a conserved sequence in the 200- to 300-fold repetitive 529 bp gene of Toxoplasma gondii to design primers for LAMP test. Detection limit of T. gondii LAMP assay with the primers is 1 pg/μL of T. gondii DNA, which was evaluated using 10-fold serially diluted DNA of cultured parasites. Furthermore, LAMP and conventional PCR methods were applied for amplification of the T. gondii DNA extracted from the lymph nodes taken from pigs which were suspected to be Toxoplasma infection. As a result, 76.9% (70/91) and 85.7% (78/91) of the samples were positive on PCR and LAMP analyzes, respectively. Therefore, the LAMP has a potential to be applied as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool for detection of T. gondii infection from veterinary samples. This is the first study, which applies the LAMP method to diagnose Toxoplasma from veterinary samples.

2010
Zablon O. Ochomo, Elisha Opiyo WO-O(E) KLNJMKR, J. A. "Agent Based Model For Localized Secure Payment Systems Integration.". 2010. Abstract
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Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Zanol G, Gemma H. "Effect of postharvest hot air treatments on ripening and soluble sugars in banana fruits, Musa spp.'Williams'.". In: XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 934.; 2010:. Abstract
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Milatovic D, Montine TJ, Zaja-Milatovic S, Madison JL, Bowman AB, Aschner M. "Morphometric analysis in neurodegenerative disorders." Current Protocols in Toxicology. 2010:12-16. AbstractWebsite
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Yu P-F, Hu Z-H, Wang X-B, Guo J-M, Cheng X-D, Zhang Y-L, Xu Q. "Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a review of 553 cases in {Chinese} literature." World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2010;16:1209. AbstractWebsite
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Mutua FM, Zaki AF. "Analyses of Annual Droughts in Kenya Using an Objective Annual Rainfall Drought Index." Journal of Met and Related Sciences. 2010;4:21-23.
Wagacha JM, Steiner U, Dehne H-W, Zuehlke S, Spiteller M, Muthomi J, Oerke E-C. "Diversity in Mycotoxins and fungal species infecting wheat in Nakuru District, Kenya." Journal of Phytopathology. 2010;157:527-535.Website
Maina J, Steiner U, H.DEHNE, Zuehlke S, M.SPITELLER, Muthomi J, OERKE E. "Diversity in mycotoxins and fungal spp infecting wheat in Nakuru." INSTITUTE OF SCINCE AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION. 2010;158(1439):527-537.diversity_in_mycotoxins_and_fungal_spp_infecting_wheat_in_nakuru.pdf
Z. Q. "Editorial Maternal Health." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr . 2010;22(2):i-iii. Abstract

As we approach 2015 the time for achieving the MDG’s let us take stock of the progress made towards MDG 5 whose targets and indicators are as listed:-
Goal 5: improve maternal health
• Target 5A: reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
o Indicator 5.1: maternal mortality ratio
o Indicator 5.2: proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
• Target 5B: achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
o Indicator 5.3: contraceptive prevalence rate
o Indicator 5.4: adolescent birth rate
o Indicator 5.5: antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits) one visit
o Indicator 5.6: unmet need for family planning.
Most of the statistics for the above indicators have not changed much between the KDHS of 2003 and 2008/9. The maternal mortality has increased from 414 in 203 to 488 in 2008 and the target of reduction three quarters from 1990 to 2015 seems more of a dream considering we need a figure of 170 by 2015.

Dambolena JS, Zunino MP, Lopez AG, Rubinstein HR, Zygadlo JA, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JM, Mwalukumbi JM, Kariuki ST. "Essential oils composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. From Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides." Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2010;11:410-414.
ZL T, CS K, DW M. "Prevalence of non thyroidal illness among HIV patients on HAART." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87(1):34-41.
Z.P. Q, C. S-K, S.M. M. "Rapid assessment of partograph utilization in selected maternity units in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2010;87(6):235-41. Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Prolonged labour causes maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Its sequela include obstructed labour, uterine rupture, maternal exhaustion, postpartum haemorrhage, puerperal sepsis, obstetric fistula, stillbirths, birth asphyxia and neonatal sepsis. These complications can be reduced by using the partograph to assess the progress of labour. The Ministry of Health, Kenya has adopted this tool for labour management in the country and the standardised partograph is recommended for use in all delivery units.

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the utilisation of the partograph in the management of labour in selected health facilities in Kenya.

DESIGN:
A descriptive cross sectional study.

SETTING:
Nine health facilities -ranging from a tertiary hospital to health centre, including public private and faith based facilities in four provinces in Kenya.

RESULTS:
All facilities apart from Pumwani Maternity Hospital and one health centre were using the partograph. The correct use was low, the knowledge on the use of the tool was average and there was minimal formal training being provided. Staff shortage was listed as the most common cause of not using the tool. Contractions were recorded 30-80%, foetal heart rate 53-90% and cervical dilatation 70-97%. Documentation of state of the liquor, moulding and descent as well as maternal parameters such as pulse, and blood pressure and urinalysis were minimally recorded. Supplies for monitoring labour such as fetoscopes and blood pressure machines were in short supply and sometimes not functional. Overall, the poor usage was contributed to staff shortages, lack of knowledge especially on interpretation of findings, negative attitudes, conflict between providers as to their roles in filling the partograph, and senior staff themselves not acting as role models with regards to the use, advocacy and implementation of the partograph.

CONCLUSION:
The partograph was available in most units. However, accurate recording of parameters to monitor the foetus, the mother and progress of labour as recommended was mostly not done. Shortage of staff, lack of knowledge, lack of team work, lack of supplies and negative attitude among healthcare providers were some of the obstacles noted to hamper partograph use.

Zavala DE, Bokongo S, Ime JA, Mpanga SI, Mtonga RE, Aminu ZM, Odhiambo W, Olupot-Olupot P. "Special section: a multinational injury surveillance system pilot project in Africa.". 2010.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Rahbar N, Obwoya SK, Zimba J, Yakub I, Soboyejo WO. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic." Experimewntal Mechanics. 2010;DOI 10(April 2010). AbstractWebsite

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Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. 
Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
 
The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively.
The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
 KEY WORDS
Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

Rahbar N, Aduda BO, Zimba J, Obwoya SK, Nyongesa FW, Yakub I, Soboyejo WO. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic." Experimental Mechanics. 2010. Abstract

Abstract This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of microstructure and thermal shock resistance of an aluminosilicate ceramic. Shock-induced crack growth is studied in sintered structures produced from powders with different particle size ranges. The underlying crack/microstructure interactions and toughening mechanisms are elucidated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting crack-tip shielding levels (due to viscoelastic crack bridging) are estimated using fracture mechanics concepts. The implications of the work are discussed for the design of high refractory ceramics against thermal shock.

Keywords Viscoelastic crack bridging . Crack-tip shielding . Thermal shock . Refractory ceramics

Bett RC, Johansson K, Zonabend E, Malmfors B, Ojango J, Okeyo M, Philipsson J. "Trajectories of Evolution and Extinction in the Swedish Cattle Breeds.". 2010. Abstract

An assessment of the current status and possible future dynamics of the domestic animal species is a critical step in the management of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR). Permanent extinction of livestock breeds is considered to be the main reason for the loss of genetic diversity (Scherf, 2000). So far, the pace of the extinction process of livestock breeds has outstripped the creation of new breeds leading to a remarkable loss of genetic diversity (Gandini et al., 2004). The FAO’s Global Databank for AnGR predicts the loss of breeds at one breed per month (DAD-IS web). In this paper, the terms evolution and extinction are defined and illustrated using examples from the Swedish cattle breeds. Thereafter, the dynamics of the Swedish cattle breeds mentioned in DAD-IS and the status given as regards their endangerment/extinction are described. In addition, an analysis on the actual situation was conducted, to verify whether the breed is really endangered, extinct or has just evolved in one way or another for sustainable use.

Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Omucheni DL, Wabwile R, Abramczyk H, Zoueu JT. "Disease diagnostics by chemometrics-assisted spectroanalytical and imaging techniques.". In: LAM9 International Workshop on Optics and Lasers in Science and Technology. Dakar, Senegal; 2010.
Stringer JSA, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Bolu O, Anekthananon T, Jariyasethpong T, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Borkowf CB, Mbori-Ngacha D, Muiruri P, Ong'ech JO, Zulu I, Njobvu L, Jetsawang B, Pathak S, Bulterys M, Shaffer N, Weidle PJ. "Effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in women previously exposed to a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine: a multi-country, prospective cohort study." PLoS Med.. 2010;7(2):e1000233. Abstract

Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP) reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. This drug resistance largely fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10% higher cumulative prevalence of failure of their NNRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the first 48 wk of therapy than would women without a prior exposure.

Blacher RJ, Muiruri P, Njobvu L, Mutsotso W, Potter D, Ong'ech J, Mwai P, Degroot A, Zulu I, Bolu O, Stringer J, Kiarie J, Weidle PJ. "How late is too late? Timeliness to scheduled visits as an antiretroviral therapy adherence measure in Nairobi, Kenya and Lusaka, Zambia." AIDS Care. 2010;22(11):1323-31. Abstract

Collecting self-reported data on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can be complicated by patients' reluctance to report poor adherence. The timeliness with which patients attend visits might be a useful alternative to estimate medication adherence. Among Kenyan and Zambian women receiving twice daily HAART, we examined the relationship between self-reported pill taking and timeliness attending scheduled visits. We analyzed data from 566 Kenyan and Zambian women enrolled in a prospective 48-week HAART-response study. At each scheduled clinic visit, women reported doses missed over the preceding week. Self-reported adherence was calculated by summing the total number of doses reported taken and dividing by the total number of doses asked about at the visit attended. A participant's adherence to scheduled study visits was defined as "on time" if she arrived early or within three days, "moderately late" if she was four-seven days late, and "extremely late/missed" if she was more than eight days late or missed the visit altogether. Self-reported adherence was <95% for 29 (10%) of 288 women who were late for at least one study visit vs. 3 (1%) of 278 who were never late for a study visit (odds ratios [OR] 10.3; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 2.9, 42.8). Fifty-one (18%) of 285 women who were ever late for a study visit experienced virologic failure vs. 32 (12%) of 278 women who were never late for a study visit (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.01, 2.8). A multivariate logistic regression model controlling for self-reported adherence found that being extremely late for a visit was associated with virologic failure (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2, 3.4). Timeliness to scheduled visits was associated with self-reported adherence to HAART and with risk for virologic failure. Timeliness to scheduled clinic visits can be used as an objective proxy for self-reported adherence and ultimately for risk of virologic failure.

Peters PJ, Stringer J, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Ratanasuwan W, Intalapaporn P, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Zulu I, Borkowf CB, Bolu O, Brooks JT, Weidle PJ. "Nevirapine-associated hepatotoxicity was not predicted by CD4 count ≥250 cells/μL among women in Zambia, Thailand and Kenya." HIV Med.. 2010;11(10):650-60. Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for developing severe hepatotoxicity (grade 3 or 4 hepatotoxicity) and rash-associated hepatotoxicity (rash with ≥ grade 2 hepatotoxicity) among women initiating nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Sanes JR, Zipursky LS. "Design principles of insect and vertebrate visual systems." Neuron. 2010;66:15-36. Abstract

A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal's view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers-retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus), and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates; and retina, lamina, and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance.

Sanes JR, Zipursky LS. "{DESIGN} {PRINCIPLES} {OF} {INSECT} {AND} {VERTEBRATE} {VISUAL} {SYSTEMS}." Neuron. 2010;66:15-36. AbstractWebsite

A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal’s view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers - retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus) and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates, and retina, lamina and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles, and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance.

Zhou X, An J, Wu X, Lu R, Huang Q, Xie R, Jiang L, Qu J. "Relative axial myopia induced by prolonged light exposure in {C}57BL/6 mice." Photochemistry and photobiology. 2010;86:131-137. Abstract

Ambient lighting is essential for ocular development in many species, however, disruption in diurnal lighting cycle can affect the development in refraction and axial growth of the eye. This study investigated the effects of prolonged daily lighting on refraction and various optical components of the eye by raising C57BL/6 mice under three different light/dark cycles (18/6, 12/12 and 6/18). Egr-1 mRNA expression, apoptosis and histology of the retina and size of the scleral fibrils were evaluated in these three lighting cycles. Results showed that there was a trend of myopic development, increasing vitreous chamber depth and thinning of the retina in eyes from 6/18 to 18/6 groups. Retinal Egr-1 mRNA expression and diameter of scleral fibrils were reduced with the prolongation of daily lighting from 6/18 to 18/6. However, retinal apoptosis was not detected in all the groups. These results suggest that prolonged lighting can induce axial myopia in inbred mice. This model, which uses mice with similar genetic backgrounds, provides an alternative to the currently available models and therefore is useful for evaluation of refractive errors caused by changes in environmental illumination.

Ahangar S, Zaz M, Shah M, Wani SN. "Perforated subhepatic appendix presenting as gas under diaphragm." Indian Journal of Surgery. 2010;72:273-274. AbstractWebsite
n/a
2011
Philipsson J, Rege JEO, Zonabend E. Animal improvement for increased productivity and food availability.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

This module discusses important factors to consider when designing sustainable genetic improvement programmes, especially under tropical conditions. Previous attempts to launch breeding programmes in developing countries have too often failed for several reasons, although there are success stories to learn from as well. Long-term and simple strategies are necessary as is the need to efficiently exploit the potential of indigenous breeds. Increased productivity per animal or area of land used also need to be considered. However, that must be achieved while also considering the variable socio-economic and cultural values of livestock in different societies or regions. Within the module there are links [blue] to web resources and [green] to case studies and other related components of this resource that help illustrate the issues presented.

K. W, S. M, J.W. M, Z. Q, J. B, P. V. "Depression among women with obstetric fistula in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;115(1):31-3. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To establish the prevalence of depression and describe associated factors among fistula patients attending an obstetric fistula surgical camp in Kenya.

METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted focusing on obstetric fistula patients attending a national fistula camp held in August 2008 at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data and medical histories for all consenting patients before surgery. Depression measures were obtained using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

RESULTS:
Of the 70 women interviewed, 2 (2.9%) and 12 (17.1%) reported a history of psychiatric illness and suicidal ideations, respectively. Depression was present in 51 (72.9%) patients, with 18 (25.7%) meeting criteria for severe depression. Depression was significantly associated with women older than 20 years of age (P=0.01), unemployment (P=0.03), lack of social support following fistula (P=0.04), and living with fistula for over 3 months (P=0.01).

CONCLUSION:
Women with obstetric fistula are predisposed to high levels of depression. A holistic management approach, including mental health care and family support, is recommended

P.K. T, Z. Q, G. N. "Estimation of blood loss after vaginal delivery." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr.. 2011;23(2):55-60. Abstract

Background: Thirty to thirty nine percent of maternal mortality is attributed to excess bleeding after childbirth. Amount of blood loss after childbirth is generally estimated visually though it is known that such estimates are grossly inaccurate. Locally, no studies had been done to assess the performance of visual estimation and direct measurement methods of estimating blood loss after delivery. This study aimed at estimating the amount of blood loss after childbirth using three different quantitative methods (visual estimation, direct measurement and laboratory determination). The study also aimed at establishing the incidence of Postpartum Hemorrhage (PPH) in a setting where Active Management of Third Stage of Labor (AMSTL) is practiced.

Objectives: To determine the amount of blood loss and the prevalence of PPH after vaginal delivery.

Design: Analytic cross-sectional study.

Setting: Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects and methods: One hundred thirty four pregnant women delivering vaginally at PMH were recruited and studied. Sampled pregnant women were interviewed using a structured data collection form, pre- and post delivery venous blood samples were taken for determination of hematocrit and blood loss after delivery estimated visually by the primary clinician conducting the delivery and directly measured by the researchers.

Main outcome measures: Visually estimated blood loss, directly measured blood loss and pre-and post-delivery hematocrit values.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 24.7 ± 4.8 years. The mean visually estimated, directly measured and laboratory determined blood loss was 121.1 ml, 300.2 ml and 257.0 ml respectively. Prevalence of PPH (blood loss ≥ 500 ml) by visual estimation was zero percent and 13.4% (95% Cl 5.3 - 21.5) and 11.2% (95% Cl 4.0 - 18.8) by direct measurement and laboratory determination respectively. Visual estimation consistently underreported the most significant risk factor for PPH was performance of an episiotomy.

Conclusion: Visual estimation is not sensitive and grossly underestimates the amount of blood loss after delivery, magnitude of underestimation increases with increasing amount of blood loss. Direct measurement of blood loss is both highly sensitive and specific in the detection of PPH.

mugerwa S, Nyangito M, Nderitu J, and Chris Bkuneta DME, Mpaire D, Zziwa E. "Farmers ethno- ecological knowledge of the termite problem in semi-arid Nakasongola." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2011;6(13):3183-3191.farmers-_ethno-ecological_knowledge_of_the_termite.pdf
Mugerwa S, Nyangito M, Nderitu J, Bakuneta C, Mpairwe D, Zziwa E. "Farmers’ ethno-ecological knowledge of the termite problem in semi-arid Nakasongola." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2011;6 (13):3183-3191. Abstract

nfestation and destruction of rangeland vegetation by subterranean termites is a major constraint to livestock production in the rangelands of Uganda, particularly, in semi-arid Nakasongola. Ethno-ecological studies on termite dynamics are central to formulation of sustainable termite management strategies in such ecosystems. This study was thus conducted to investigate farmers’ traditional ecological knowledge of the termite problem with the intent to build more coherent principles required in the development of appropriate termite management strategies. Focus group discussions and individual interviews were conducted to capture information on farmers’ ethno-ecological knowledge of the factors enhancing termite damage on vegetation, temporal and spatial variability of damage and diversity of termite species in the Nakasongola ecosystem. Kruskal–Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference (X2=451.5, P>0.0001) among farmers’ ranking of factors responsible for the destructive behavior of termites on rangeland vegetation. Overgrazing and deforestation ware ranked significantly higher (X2=156, P>0.0001) than other factors. Eight species were identified and the species belonged to one family (Termitidae) and two sub-families (Macrotermitinae and Termitinae). The study provided basic information about farmers’ knowledge of the biology and ecology that could aid the development of sustainable and socially acceptable termite control strategies.

Key words: Grazing-lands, diversity, termite-damage.

Thomas TK, Masaba R, Borkowf CB, Ndivo R, Zeh C, Misore A, Otieno J, Jamieson D, Thigpen MC, Bulterys M, Slutsker L, De Cock KM, Amornkul PN, Greenberg AE, Fowler MG, Team KBSS, Mbori-Ngacha DA, et al. "http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/123456789/30836.". 2011. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected pregnant women took zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir from 34-36 weeks' gestation to 6 mo post partum. Infants received single-dose nevirapine at birth. Women were advised to breastfeed exclusively and wean rapidly just before 6 mo. Using Kaplan-Meier methods we estimated HIV-transmission and death rates from delivery to 24 mo. We compared HIV-transmission rates among subgroups defined by maternal risk factors, including baseline CD4 cell count and viral load. Among 487 live-born, singleton, or first-born infants, cumulative HIV-transmission rates at birth, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, and 24 mo were 2.5%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 5.7%, and 7.0%, respectively. The 24-mo HIV-transmission rates stratified by baseline maternal CD4 cell count <500 and ≥500 cells/mm(3) were 8.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8%-12.0%) and 4.1% (1.8%-8.8%), respectively (p = 0.06); the corresponding rates stratified by baseline maternal viral load <10,000 and ≥10,000 copies/ml were 3.0% (1.1%-7.8%) and 8.7% (6.1%-12.3%), respectively (p = 0.01). None of the 12 maternal and 51 infant deaths (including two second-born infants) were attributed to antiretrovirals. The cumulative HIV-transmission or death rate at 24 mo was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%-19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This trial shows that a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen from late pregnancy through 6 months of breastfeeding for PMTCT is safe and feasible in a resource-limited setting. These findings are consistent with those from other trials using maternal triple-antiretroviral regimens during breastfeeding in comparable settings.

Dambolenaa JS;, Zuninoa MP;, Lópezb AG;, Rubinsteinc HR;, Zygadloa JA;, Mwangi JW;, Thoithi GN;, Kibwage IO;, Mwalukumbi JM;, Kariuki ST. "Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies.". 2011. Abstract

This work investigated the constituents and the efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin production of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from different locations in Kenya.The oil of leaves and flowering tops of O. basilicum from Sagana contained mainly linalool (95%). The flowering tops and leaves from Yatta contained mainly camphor (32.6 and 31.0%, respectively) and linalool (28.2 and 29.3, respectively). Eugenol was the main constituent in the oil of O. gratissimum leaves from both Sagana (95.5%) and Yatta (70.1%). The oil of the flowering tops had significantly less eugenol. The main component of the oil of flowering tops from Yatta was Z-β-ocimene (34.1%). Oil from both species had some antifungal activity. The oils of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum from different locations showed chemical variation, antifungal activity, free radical scavenging capacity and antimycotoxicogenic property. These properties are attributed to the phenolic compound eugenol.Industrial relevanceThis manuscript gives the chemical composition and some biological effects of essential oil of two Ocimum species in Kenya namely Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. The work reveals that there are chemovarieties of these plants in different locations in the country. Of significance is the presence of very high amounts of linalool in one chemovariety of O. basilicum while geranial and neral are major in another. The third variety contains almost equal amounts of camphor and linalool. The first two containing high quantities of linalool, geranial and neral could be cultivated after agronomic studies to provide essential oils useful in perfumery, soap or food industry while that containing camphor and linalool may find use in medicine.Proper seed selection and good agricultural practice for O. gratissimum containing high amount of eugenol could serve as good substitute for cloves which grows best only in a few islands in East Africa. Clove oil due to its high eugenol content has many biological activities including those demonstrated in the present work, and many applications in medicine and commercial world.There is need for more research on these plants especially on cultivation and commercial exploitation of the herbs.

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Soboyejo WO, Obwoya SK, Rahbar N, Zimba J. "An Investigation of Thermal Shock in Porous Clay Ceramics." ISRN Mechanical Engineering. 2011;DOI 10.5402/2011/816853(816853).thermal_shock_in_porous_clay_ceramics_2011.pdf
F.W. Nyongesa, Rahbar N, Obwoya SK, Zimba J, Aduda BO, Soboyejo WO. "An Investigation of Thermal Shock in Porous Clay Ceramics." International Scholarly Research Network. 2011:9. Abstract

The thermal shock resistance of porous ceramic materials is often characterized by the Hasselman parameters. However, in other
scenarios, the room-temperature residual strengths after thermal shock are also used to quantify the damage due to thermal shock.
This paper attempts to link the measured residual strengths to the dominant crack features that are introduced due to thermalshock in porous clay ceramics produced by the sintering of clay powders with well-controlled size ranges. Residual strength estimates from bend tests are compared with fracture mechanics predictions. The implications of the residual strength results are then discussed for the characterization of damage due to thermal shock.

Zeh C, Oyaro B, Vandenhoudt H, Amornkul P, Kasembeli A, Bondo P, Mwaengo D, Thomas TK, Hart C, Laserson KF, Ondoa P, Nkengasong JN. "Performance of six commercial enzyme immunoassays and two alternative HIV-testing algorithms for the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in Kisumu, Western Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Performances of serological parallel and serial testing algorithms were analyzed using a combination of three ELISA and three rapid tests for the confirmation of HIV infection. Each was assessed individually for their sensitivity and specificity on a blinded panel of 769 retrospective sera of known HIV status. Western blot was used as a confirmatory assay for discordant results. Subsequently, one parallel and one serial testing algorithm were assessed on a new panel of 912 HIV-positive and negative samples. Individual evaluation of the ELISAs and rapid tests indicated a sensitivity of 100% for all assays except Uni-Gold with 99.7%. The specificities ranged from 99.1% to 99.4% for rapid assays and from 97.5% to 99.1% for ELISAs. A parallel and serial testing algorithms using Enzygnost and Vironostika, and Determine followed by Uni-Gold respectively, showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The cost for testing 912 samples was US$4.74 and US$ 1.9 per sample in parallel and serial testing respectively. Parallel or serial testing algorithm yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. This alternative algorithm is reliable and reduces the occurrence of both false negatives and positives. The serial testing algorithm was more cost effective for diagnosing HIV infections in this population.

Zeh C, Amornkul PN, Inzaule S, Ondoa P, Oyaro B, Mwaengo DM, Vandenhoudt H, Gichangi A, Williamson J, Thomas T, De Cock KM, Hart C, Nkengasong J, Laserson. K. "Population-based biochemistry, immunologic and hematological reference values for adolescents and young adults in a rural population in Western Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

There is need for locally-derived age-specific clinical laboratory reference ranges of healthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference values from North American and European populations are being used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences. Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for African adolescents and young adults that can be used in clinical trials and for patient management. A panel of 298, HIV-seronegative individuals aged 13-34 years was randomly selected from participants in two population-based cross-sectional surveys assessing HIV prevalence and other sexually transmitted infections in western Kenya. The adolescent (<18 years)-to-adults (≥ 18 years) ratio and the male-to-female ratio was 1∶1. Median and 95% reference ranges were calculated for immunohematological and biochemistry values. Compared with U.S-derived reference ranges, we detected lower hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), neutrophil, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen values but elevated eosinophil and total bilirubin values. Significant gender variation was observed in hematological parameters in addition to T-bilirubin and creatinine indices in all age groups, AST in the younger and neutrophil, platelet and CD4 indices among the older age group. Age variation was also observed, mainly in hematological parameters among males. Applying U.S. NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS) toxicity grading to our results, 40% of otherwise healthy study participants were classified as having an abnormal laboratory parameter (grade 1-4) which would exclude them from participating in clinical trials. Hematological and biochemistry reference values from African population differ from those derived from a North American population, showing the need to develop region-specific reference values. Our data also show variations in hematological indices between adolescent and adult males which should be considered when developing reference ranges. This study provides the first locally-derived clinical laboratory reference ranges for adolescents and young adults in western Kenya.

N. W, H. T, Z. Q. "Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among women attending antenatal clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr.. 2011;23(2):37-41. Abstract

Background: Cancer of the cervix is among the leading causes of cancer related deaths among women in Kenya. Cervical cytology screening programs have been shown to significantly reduce mortality and morbidity associated with cancer of the cervix. Since 90% of pregnant women attend antenatal clinic at least once, the antenatal period offers an opportunity for cervical cytology screening. The local prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology has not been documented.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among women attending antenatal clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study, carried out among pregnant women on their first antenatal visit between February and August 2008. A papanicolaou smear was taken for each consenting participant. Obstetric and gynaecology profiles of the participants were obtained with a structured questionnaire.

Results: A total of 171 participants were recruited. Only 10.5% had had previous screening for abnormal cervical cytology. One hundred and sixty pap smears were satisfactory for evaluation while five (2.9%) were unsatisfactory. The prevalence of squamous intra-epithelial lesions was 5.8% (3.5% LSIL, 2.3% HSIL). Thirty one percent were inflammatory, 1.2% had trichomonas vaginalis, 7% had bacterial vaginosis (diagnosed by the presence of clue cells) and 10.5% had Candid spp. Forty nine percent of the pap smears were reported normal. HIV positive status and abnormal vaginal discharge were significantly associated with the presence of any pap smear abnormality (p value <0.05).

Conclusion and recommendations: The rate of previous screening for abnormal cervical cytology was low at 10.5%, while the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology was high at 5.8%. Positive HIV sero-status and presence of abnormal vaginal discharge were noted to increase the risk of cervical smear abnormalities. This emphasizes the need for antenatal cervical cytology screening programs especially among HIV seropositive women and women with abnormal vaginal discharge.

Lewis BA, Walia RR, Terribilini M, Ferguson J, Zheng C, Honavar V, Dobbs D. "PRIDB: a protein–RNA interface database.". 2011. AbstractPRIDB: a protein–RNA interface database

The Protein–RNA Interface Database (PRIDB) is a comprehensive database of protein–RNA interfaces extracted from complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). It is designed to facilitate detailed analyses of individual protein–RNA complexes and their interfaces, in addition to automated generation of user-defined data sets of protein–RNA interfaces for statistical analyses and machine learning applications. For any chosen PDB complex or list of complexes, PRIDB rapidly displays interfacial amino acids and ribonucleotides within the primary sequences of the interacting protein and RNA chains. PRIDB also identifies ProSite motifs in protein chains and FR3D motifs in RNA chains and provides links to these external databases, as well as to structure files in the PDB. An integrated JMol applet is provided for visualization of interacting atoms and residues in the context of the 3D complex structures. The current version of PRIDB contains structural information regarding 926 protein–RNA complexes available in the PDB (as of 10 October 2010). Atomic- and residue-level contact information for the entire data set can be downloaded in a simple machine-readable format. Also, several non-redundant benchmark data sets of protein–RNA complexes are provided.

Zziwa E, Kironchi G;, Gachene CK, Mugerwa S;, Mpairwe D. "Production systems, land cover change and soil factors affecting pastur e production in semi1arid Nakasongola.". 2011. Abstract

The current pace of rangeland degradation imparted by appalling land use and management systems is greatly limiting the potential of the soil resource to support pasture production in semi - arid rangeland s of Uganda. Our objectives were to determine the effects of land cover change and production systems on pasture biomass yield and to identify the critical soil factors affecting pasture production in Nakasongola. The area was stratified into three product ion systems and three land cover types from which six pasture and soil samples were collected following a Modified - Whittaker sampling method. Pasture biomass was significantly high (p < 0.0001) under herbaceous cover (2019 kg/ha) compared to woody (1302 kg /ha) and bare which had no pasture biomass. The settled production system had a significantly (p = 0.013) high pasture biomass (1266 kg/ha) compared to non settled (1102 kg/ha) and semi settled systems (953 kg/ha). Biomass yield was more associated with hi gh levels of organic matter (r = 0.91), calcium (r = 0.91), magnesium (0.83), nitrogen (r = 0.77) and base saturation (r = 0.88). It can be concluded that maintaining native vegetation cover of the rangelands and increasing levels of limiting nutrients are the major strategies for increasing pasture production in semi - arid rangelands of Nakasongola

Zipora O, Okello J, Nyikal R, Mwang’ombe A, Clavel D. "The role of varietal traits in the adoption of improved dryland crop varieties: The case of pigeon pea in Kenya." AfJARE. 2011;6(2):176-193 . AbstractWebsite

This study uses a multivariate probit model and the Poisson regression to examine the role of varietal attributes in farmers’ adoption of improved pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) varieties in Taita District, Kenya. It is based on data collected from 200 households stratified by adoption of improved pigeon pea varieties between April and May 2009. The study finds correlation in the decisions made by farmers to adopt different varieties, implying that using simple probit analysis could yield biased and inefficient results. The results further indicate that the major pigeon pea varietal traits driving rapid adoption are drought tolerance, pest tolerance, yield, ease of cooking, taste and price. Early maturity, a major focus of recent research, has no effect on farmers’ adoption decisions. These findings imply that developers of improved crop varieties should pay attention to consumption and market characteristics in addition to production traits to increase technology uptake and satisfy farmers’ multiple needs.

Zaja OJ. "Siting text, culture, context and pedagogy in literary translation: a theorization of translation in cultural transfer with examples from selected texts in Kiswahili .". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The study of literary translation in Kiswahili has over a long period of time tended to gravitate towards systematic comparisons based on minimalist classical linguistic formalism. This is a scholarly fact that is attested to by a copious presence of academic dissertations, seminar papers as well as critical essays that have engaged literary translation in various ways and from several perspectives. However, most such studies are characterized by normative generalizations and a lack of clear theoretical rigor, which means that scholars have hardly asked; "in what ways has translation been used as a way of figuring out the relations between cultures, particularly in terms of its encounter with changed contexts, cultures, temporality and the pedagogy engendered in such changed circumstances?" This study has sought to move out of such restrictive stances so as to embrace and foreground what may be considered the muted reality of literary translation, a recognition that besides being essentially linguistic, literary translation is also an engagement that explores culture interaction, about which theorists and practitioners cannot afford to offer explications that are self-effacing. It argues that there is a prudent need to view literary translation as process of mediation between cultures, a means of perceiving words both in their abstract senses and in contexts of use, of treating linguistic forms and textual meanings as cues to the perception of cultural nuances, always amenable to inversions, revisions and reshuffling in the contexts of target cultures. In its broadest sense, this study is a critical theoretical rethinking of literary translation that points out the critical and crucial lapses and inadequacies that have characterized its research in Kiswahili. It points out the critical labyrinth in which such research has been entrapped as well as the puerile generalizations that have been generally emblematic of the studies overall. It outlines and critiques the theoretical lacunae that have punctuated literary translation studies in which it argues that such omissions have been nurtured by the use of single variable theories largely based on the minimalist theories of linguistics and language. It is also an engagement and interrogation of such theories which at the same time proposes a composite theoretical paradigm founded on culture, context, temporality and pedagogy and the interplay between them in informing both the theorizing and explications of literary translation. Instead of making arguments in favour of the fidelity of translation to the anterior text, it has argues in favour of the 'relevance' of any given translation to its specific time and domestic audience, to its environment and historical space. This is an emergent paradigm that is informed by contemporary theoretical advances in text linguistics, reader responses theories, text interaction and meaning retrieval, deconstructionism and postcolonialism. The overriding argument and, therefore, the thrust of this study, is that there is an urgent need for theoretical reorientation in which literary translation theorists and practitioners increasingly understand literary translation as cultural interaction, conceptualize it not merely as a form of linguistic exchange but also a process of interlingual exchange that participates in both text production and discursive formations.

Mugerwa S, Nyangito M, Mpairwe D, Bakuneeta C, Nderitul J, Zziwal E. "Termite assemblage structure on Grazing lands in Semi-arid Nakasongola." Agriculture and biology journal of North America. . 2011;2((5): ):848-859. Abstract

Termites are regarded as the primary cause of vegetation denudation in semi-arid
Nakasongola, Uganda. Despite their damage to ecosystem functioning, there have been
little efforts devoted to the description of the termite assemblage structure in the area.
The study therefore intended to describe the termite assem5lage structure with the
intension to develop sustainable termite management strategies. ihe survey yielded 16
termite spectes from eight genera, three sub-families and one family. Speciei from the
sub-family Macrotermitinae constituted 69% of the total number of species sampled.
Members from the genus Macrotermes were the dominant species and constituted 38%
of the total number of species sampled. The assemblage comprised of two feeding
groups namely Group ll and Group lV, with most of the species belonging to Group li
Most of the species were noted to nest in epigeal and hypogeal nests *itf, a few species
nesting in wood. Vegetation cover categories were noted to influence species richness.
Highest species richness (14 species) occurred in sparse vegetation category followed by
dense category (1'1) and the least (B species) occurring on bare ground. The termite
assemblage of Nakasongola was dominated by Macrotermes species which largely
forage on litter and nest in epigeal mounds.

Keywords: Composition, Diversity, Feeding_group, Nesting-sites

Thomas TK, Masaba R, Borkowf CB, Ndivo R, Zeh C, Misore A, Otieno J, Jamieson D, Thigpen MC, Bulterys M, Slutsker L, De Cock KM, Amornkul PN, Greenberg AE, Fowler MG. "Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeeding--the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: a clinical trial." PLoS Med.. 2011;8(3):e1001015. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention.

J.P. S, A.M. G, G. C, P. L, Z. Q. "The World Health Organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol." BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:286-303. Abstract

Background: Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a
worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health.

Methods/Design: This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that
ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries.

Discussion: Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal nearmiss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with governments, professionals and civil societies, health systems or facilities for promoting best practices, improving quality of care and achieving better health for mothers and children.

Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Celum C, Wong KG, Raugi DN, Sorensen S, Stoddard JN, Zhao H, Deng W, Kahle E, Panteleeff D, Baeten JM, McCutchan FE, Albert J, Leitner T, Wald A, Corey L, Lingappa JR. "Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3):e16986. Abstract

Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.

Dao CN, Peters PJ, Kiarie JN, Zulu I, Muiruri P, Ong'ech J, Mutsotso W, Potter D, Njobvu L, Stringer JSA, Borkowf CB, Bolu O, Weidle PJ. "Hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypoalbuminemia predict an increased risk of mortality during the first year of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected Zambian and Kenyan women." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2011;27(11):1149-55. Abstract

Early mortality rates after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) are high in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined whether serum chemistries at ART initiation predicted mortality among HIV-infected women. From May 2005 to January 2007, we enrolled women initiating ART in a prospective cohort study in Zambia and Kenya. We used Cox proportional hazards models to identify risk factors associated with mortality. Among 661 HIV-infected women, 53 (8%) died during the first year of ART, and tuberculosis was the most common cause of death (32%). Women were more likely to die if they were both hyponatremic (sodium <135 mmol/liter) and hypochloremic (chloride <95 mmol/liter) (37% vs. 6%) or hypoalbuminemic (albumin <34 g/liter, 13% vs. 4%) when initiating ART. A body mass index <18 kg/m(2) [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-10.6] and hyponatremia with hypochloremia (aHR 4.5, 95% CI 2.2-9.4) were associated with 1-year mortality after adjusting for country, CD4 cell count, WHO clinical stage, hemoglobin, and albumin. Among women with a CD4 cell count >50 cells/μl, hypoalbuminemia was also a significant predictor of mortality (aHR=3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.8). Baseline hyponatremia with hypochloremia and hypoalbuminemia predicted mortality in the first year of initiating ART, and these abnormalities might reflect opportunistic infections (e.g., tuberculosis) or advanced HIV disease. Assessment of serum sodium, chloride, and albumin can identify HIV-infected patients at highest risk for mortality who may benefit from more intensive medical management during the first year of ART.

Khasakhala A, Agwanda A, Odwe G, Z L, Imbwaga A. "Reassessing Mortality decline in Kenya.". In: The 6th African Population Conference . Ougadougou , Burkina Faso ; 2011.
2012
Pan J, Utama MIB, Zhang Q, Liu X, Peng B, Wong LM, Sum TC, Wang S, Xiong Q. "Composition-Tunable Vertically Aligned CdSxSe1-x Nanowire Arrays via van der Waals Epitaxy: Investigation of Optical Properties and Photocatalytic Behavior." Advanced Materials. 2012;24:4151-4156. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang Q, Liu X, Ji Y, Demir HV, Huan CHA, Sum TC, Xiong Q. "Fluorophore-doped core–multishell spherical plasmonic nanocavities: resonant energy transfer toward a loss compensation." ACS nano. 2012;6:6250-6259. Abstract
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Peng B, Ozdemir SK, Zhu J, Yang L. "Hybrid photonic molecules.". In: CLEO: Science and Innovations. Optical Society of America; 2012:. Abstract
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Peng B, Özdemir ŞK, Zhu J, Yang L. "Photonic molecules formed by coupled hybrid resonators." Optics letters. 2012;37:3435-3437. Abstract
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Zin AAM, Shakir KAR, Aminuddin AR, Mahedzan MR, Irnawati WAR, Andee DZ, Hassan SA, Ezane MA, Hasnan MN. "Solid-pseudopapillary carcinoma: a case study and literature review." BMJ case reports. 2012;2012:bcr2012006495. AbstractWebsite
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Zaja JO. 2012 Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Meya, Longhorn Publishing Ltd, Nairobi Kenya. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers Kenya Ltd; 2012.
A.M G, P. L, S. L, M. W, H. A-A, M. F, G. C, Z. Q, JP. S. "Active management of the third stage of labour with and without controlled cord traction: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial." Lancet. 2012;379(9827):1721-7. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Active management of the third stage of labour reduces the risk of post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether controlled cord traction can be omitted from active management of this stage without increasing the risk of severe haemorrhage.

METHODS:

We did a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in 16 hospitals and two primary health-care centres in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda. Women expecting to deliver singleton babies vaginally (ie, not planned caesarean section) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) with a centrally generated allocation sequence, stratified by country, to placental delivery with gravity and maternal effort (simplified package) or controlled cord traction applied immediately after uterine contraction and cord clamping (full package). After randomisation, allocation could not be concealed from investigators, participants, or assessors. Oxytocin 10 IU was administered immediately after birth with cord clamping after 1-3 min. Uterine massage was done after placental delivery according to local policy. The primary (non-inferiority) outcome was blood loss of 1000 mL or more (severe haemorrhage). The non-inferiority margin for the risk ratio was 1·3. Analysis was by modified intention-to-treat, excluding women who had emergency caesarean sections. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12608000434392.

FINDINGS:

Between June 1, 2009, and Oct 30, 2010, 12,227 women were randomly assigned to the simplified package group and 12,163 to the full package group. After exclusion of women who had emergency caesarean sections, 11,861 were in the simplified package group and 11,820 were in the full package group. The primary outcome of blood loss of 1000 mL or more had a risk ratio of 1·09 (95% CI 0·91-1·31) and the upper 95% CI limit crossed the pre-stated non-inferiority margin. One case of uterine inversion occurred in the full package group. Other adverse events were haemorrhage-related.

INTERPRETATION:

Although the hypothesis of non-inferiority was not met, omission of controlled cord traction has very little effect on the risk of severe haemorrhage. Scaling up of haemorrhage prevention programmes for non-hospital settings can safely focus on use of oxytocin.

FUNDING:
United States Agency for International Development and UN Development Programme/UN Population Fund/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research

Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madadi VO, Zeranyika M, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,4,5,6-Tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (Chlorothalonil) by Nairobi River Sediments: Adsorption characteristics and Related Thermodynamic Data." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madandi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,5,6-tetra chloroisophthalonitrile by Nairobi river sediments: Adsorption characteristics and related thermodynamic data." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Zuriel D, Fink-Puches R, Cerroni L. "A case of primary cutaneous extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with a 22-year indolent clinical course.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare type of cytotoxic lymphoma involving mainly the upper aerodigestive tract and associated with Epstein-Barr virus. The disease has usually a poor prognosis related to several factors. The skin is the second most common affected organ, and cases may be localized to the skin only without any other extracutaneous manifestations. Although primary cutaneous cases may have a better prognosis, survival usually is still poor. We report a case of primary cutaneous extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in a 77-year-old woman with an indolent course for more than 22 years and still limited to the skin.

Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Zoueu JT. A joint Kenya-Ivory coast malaria measurement campaign. ICIPE, Nairobi: AFSIN; 2012.
Macharia-Mutie CW, Moretti D, den Briel VN, Omusundi AM, Mwangi AM, Kok FJ, Zimmerman MB, Brouwer ID. "Maize porridge enriched with a micronutrient powder containing low-dose iron as NaFeEDTA but not amaranth grain flour reduces anemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan pre-school children." Journal of Nutrition . 2012;142:1756-1763.
Purushotham K, Kamamia EK, Maitho T, Zakaullah S, Arshlya SA, Ashok KC, Anand C. "Medicated Lollipops of Paracetamol for Pediatric Patients." World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012;1(3)(ISSN):2278-4357.
Lowther K, Victoria Simms, Selman L, Lorraine Sherr, Liz Gwyther, Hellen Kariuki, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Rachel Jenkins, Irene J Higginson RH. "Treatment outcomes in palliative care: the TOPCare study. A mixed methods phase III randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led palliative care intervention for HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy." BMC Infect Dis.. 2012;6(12):288.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Multispectral Imaging Microscopy for Malaria Diagnosis.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "A joint Kenya – Ivory Coast Malaria Measurement Campaign.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Irimu GW, Gathara D, Zurovac D, Kihara H, Maina C, Mwangi J, Mbori-Ngacha D, Todd J, Greene A, English M. "Performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital: before and after a training intervention." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e39964. Abstract

Implementation of WHO case management guidelines for serious common childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. The impact of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on the quality-of-care of patients in tertiary hospitals has rarely been evaluated.

Tian J, Hou J, Xing L, Jia H, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "{SIGNIFICANCE} {OF} {INTRAPLAQUE} {NEOVASCULARIZATION} {FOR} {VULNERABILITY}: {OPTICAL} {COHERENCE} {TOMOGRAPHY} {STUDY}." Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012;59:E1439. AbstractWebsite
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2013
Deng Z, Zhu H, Peng B, Chen H, Sun Y, Gang X, Jin P, Wang J. "Correction to synthesis of PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres with catalytic and antibacterial activities." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2013;5:6774. Abstract
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Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, DeMita J, Golden D, Halliday J, Kimani S, Muchira J, Zhang L. "Global Risk Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease in Resource Constrained Settings: Kenya.". In: Nursing research. Vol. 62. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA; 2013:. Abstract
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Kandas I, Zhang B, Daengngam C, Ashry I, Jao C-Y, Peng B, Ozdemir SK, Robinson HD, Heflin JR, Yang L, others. "High quality factor silica microspheres functionalized with self-assembled nanomaterials." Optics express. 2013;21:20601-20610. Abstract
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Popescu MR, Zugun FE, Cojocaru E, Tocan L, Folescu R, Zamfir CL. "Morphometric study of aortic wall parameters evolution in newborn and child." Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie. 2013;54:399-404. Abstract

The largest artery in the human body, intimately connected to the heart, aorta is usually regarded as the major source of oxygenated blood for the circulatory system. The three concentric layers, which surround the aortic lumen-the tunics intima, media and adventitia, transform the aorta in a large elastic duct, which is irregular calibrated according to its segments. The special aortic distensibility is facilitated by its elastic circumferential lamellar complex. Any disturbance of its structural components is able to interfere with its normal and vital activity. Our study intends to reveal that the development of elastic lamellae should be regarded not only as an indispensable step for the aortic wall configuration, but also like a process in a firm connection with the rest of aortic wall components. The transition from intrauterine life to a new stage of life, childhood, has to determine an adequate adaptation of almost all the components of aortic wall, in order to sustain a consistent pulsatile blood flow. Stereological quantitative analysis of thoracic aortic fragments prelevated from newborns and children was performed in order to estimate the dynamic of vascular wall increase. We first estimated the general configuration of the thoracic aortic wall, quantifying the principal constituents; the connective tissue profile, investigated through its main elements, collagen and elastic fibers, supports the idea that each type of fiber has a distinct evolution in different groups of ages and has to be correlated with their involvement in maintaining of the aortic wall mechanical properties. Elastic fibers percentage volume was increased in both examined groups, with a small difference reported in children aorta, while collagen fibers exhibit a slow increase in children aorta. Our morphometric quantitative assessment suggests that further studies have to draw of in a precisely manner the outline of the secretory well defined function of vascular smooth muscle cells; the elucidation of the manner in which the secretory pathway for each type of fiber becomes fully adapted to every stage of aortic development will allow a new perspective in aortic pathology.

Xu X, Kyaw AKK, Peng B, Zhao D, Wong TKS, Xiong Q, Sun X, Heeger AJ. "A plasmonically enhanced polymer solar cell with gold–silica core–shell nanorods." Organic electronics. 2013;14:2360-2368. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Zanol GC, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Gemma H. "Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in hot air preconditioning mediated alleviation of chilling injury in banana fruits." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5:319. Abstract
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Zhu Y, Zhou Y, Utama MIB, de la Mata M, Zhao Y, Zhang Q, Peng B, Magen C, Arbiol J, Xiong Q. "Solution phase van der Waals epitaxy of ZnO wire arrays." Nanoscale. 2013;5:7242-7249. Abstract
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Deng Z, Zhu H, Peng B, Chen H, Sun Y, Gang X, Jin P, Wang J. "Synthesis of PS/Ag Nanocomposite Spheres with Catalytic and Antibacterial Activities (vol 4, pg 5625, 2012)." ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES. 2013;5:6774. Abstract
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Mbugua JK, Kemboi A, Michira I, Madadi V, Zaranyika M, Kamau G. "Adsorption of Atrazine Pesticide by sediments and soil samples: Apparent thermodynamic properties." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2013;07(10).
G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;1(25):15-21. Abstractantenatal_corticosteroid_use_in_preterm_birth_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background:Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;25(1):15-21. Abstractfull_article.pdf

AbstractBackground: Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

Mercy BJ, Zakayo T. "Assessment of Nutritional Status and Biomarkers among Chronic Haemodialysis Patients." International Journal of Professional Practice. 2013;4(2):132-138.
Zander, Kerstin; Mburu J. Compensating Pastoralists for Conserving Animal Genetic Resources: The Case of Borana Cattle in Ethiopia.; 2013. Abstract

The Borana cattle in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia have unique traits that make them suitable for the harsh environment in the lowlands and have ever been part of the pastoralists’ identity. Almost all the traditional and cultural rites of the pastoralists in these areas revolve around the Borana cattle, which are also the main source of their income. However, genetic erosion of this cattle breed has been occurring at unabated rate due to lack of incentives for conservation and driving factors such as population pressure, ecological changes, natural catastrophes and adverse economic conditions. This depletion contributes immense threats to the livelihoods of the local pastoral communities. Thus conservation efforts of these important animal genetic resources (AnGRs) by governments and other stakeholders would ensure not only the well-being of the pastoralists but also prevent losses in genetic materials for future use. At the moment, there are no compensatory mechanisms targeting pastoralists although exports of Borana cattle genetic materials to developed countries such as USA and Australia has been growing. There is also no documentary evidence that pastoralists do share benefits from such exports. Thus, this paper addresses the following questions: what kinds of pastoralists, due to their involvement in conservation, deserve compensation and how much should be the level of compensation? The empirical data analysed in this paper was collected from Borana pastoralists in Ethiopia. The magnitude of compensation payments is derived from the costs that pastoralists incur for maintaining only Borana cattle in their herds. These costs include costs for not keeping other breeds which are probably more economically attractive (opportunity costs), as well as transaction costs. Finally, several policy implications for community-based conservation of Borana cattle are derived.

Zaccara S, Mavuti KM, Crosa G, Vanetti I, Binelli G, Harper DM, Balarin JD, Britton RJ. "Genetic and morphological analyses indicate high population mixing in the endangered cichlid Alcolapia flock of East Africa." Conservation Genetics. 2013. Abstract

Alcolapia is a minor genus of small-bodied, polymorphic cichlids inhabiting the lagoons and hot
springs surrounding the soda lakes Natron (largely in Tanzania) and Magadi (Kenya). Three
Alcolapia species are present at Natron (Alcolapia alcalicus, Alcolapia ndalalani and Alcolapia
latilabris) and one at Magadi (Alcolapia grahami). All are IUCN Red Listed as either vulnerable
or endangered. We performed analyses of morphometric and genetic structure on 13 populations
of the Natron Alcolapia flock, and one A. grahami population of Lake Magadi as an out-group.
Morphometric analyses revealed significant differentiation in the head and mouth shape of the
species at Natron. From a genetic perspective, among 70 mtDNA control region sequences 17
haplotypes were found, showing in the minimum spanning network a star-like pattern around the
widespread haplotype 2lat. At Natron, there was limited genetic differentiation between the
different populations of A. alcalicus and A. latilabris, despite apparent ecological barriers of
extreme alkalinity that suggested their populations were isolated. Instead, there appeared to be
some population connectivity, with a rate of 0.5–2.3 migrants per generation suggesting that
natural factors, such as intense rains or transmission by large piscivorous birds, facilitate
population connectivity and maintain genetic similarity. The outputs of high population
connectivity and one genetic unit at the basin level (despite morphological divergence) suggest
that any human activities that disrupt the connectivity of the freshwater resources of the Natron
catchment could further threaten the integrity and current status of these already threatened fish
populations.

Yangyuoru PM, Zhang AYQ, Shi Z, Koirala D, Balasubramanian S, Mao H. "Mechanochemical Properties of Individual Human Telomeric RNA (TERRA) G‐Quadruplexes." ChemBioChem. 2013;14(15):1931-1935.

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